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Encyclopedia > Chopin
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Frédéric François Chopin as portrayed by Eugène Delacroix in 1838. Originally this painting was part of a larger double portrait showing both Chopin and George Sand.

Frédéric François Chopin (IPA: [fʁedeʁik fʁɑ̃swa ʃɔpɛ̃]), (March 1, 1810 – October 17, 1849) is one of the most famous, influential and admired composers for the piano, and Poland's most significant composer. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2536x3391, 757 KB) Description: Title: de: Porträt des Frédéric Chopin Technique: de: Leinwand Dimensions: de: 46 × 38 cm Country of origin: de: Frankreich Current location (city): de: Paris Current location (gallery): de: Musée du Louvre Other notes... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2536x3391, 757 KB) Description: Title: de: Porträt des Frédéric Chopin Technique: de: Leinwand Dimensions: de: 46 × 38 cm Country of origin: de: Frankreich Current location (city): de: Paris Current location (gallery): de: Musée du Louvre Other notes... Eugène Delacroix (portrait by Nadar) Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix (April 26, 1798 — August 13, 1863) was the most important of the French Romantic painters. ... | Jöns Jakob Berzelius, discoverer of protein 1838 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... George Sand in 1864 (picture by Nadar). ... This is a concise version of the International Phonetic Alphabet for English sounds. ... March 1 is the 60th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (61st in leap years). ... 1810 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... October 17 is the 290th (in leap years the 291st) day of the year according to the Gregorian calendar. ... 1849 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... A composer is a person who writes music. ... A baby grand piano, with the lid up. ...


He was born Fryderyk Franciszek Chopin, of French and Polish parentage in the village of Żelazowa Wola, Poland. Hailed as a child prodigy at his homeland, Chopin left for Paris at the age of 20. In Paris, he made a career as a performer and teacher as well as a composer, and adopted the French variant of his name, "Frédéric-François". Always in fragile health, he had a turbulent 10-year love relationship with French writer George Sand before succumbing to pulmonary tuberculosis at the age of 39. Å»elazowa Wola is a village on the Utrata River in the Masovian Voivodship, 60 km from Warsaw, Poland. ... The Eiffel Tower, the international symbol of the city For other uses, see Paris (disambiguation). ... The Eiffel Tower, the international symbol of the city For other uses, see Paris (disambiguation). ... George Sand in 1864 (picture by Nadar). ... Tuberculous lungs show up on an X-ray image Tuberculosis is an infection with the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which most commonly affects the lungs (pulmonary TB) but can also affect the central nervous system (meningitis), lymphatic system, circulatory system (miliary TB), genitourinary system, bones and joints. ...


Chopin's compositions, which are almost exclusively for the piano, include his Funeral March (part of his second piano sonata but composed long before the other parts) and the twenty-four études and are widely considered to be among the pinnacles of the piano repertoire. Although some of his music is among the most technically demanding for the instrument, Chopin's style emphasizes poetry, nuance, and expressive depth rather than mere technical display. His works are often cited as one of the mainstays of Romanticism in nineteenth-century classical music. A baby grand piano, with the lid up. ... Frédéric Chopin composed his Piano Sonata No. ... An etude (from the French word étude meaning study) is a short musical composition designed to provide practice in a particular technical skill in the performance of a solo instrument. ... Romanticism was a secular and intellectual movement in the history of ideas that originated in late 18th century Western Europe. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) The 19th century lasted from 1801 to 1900 in the Gregorian calendar (using the Common Era system of year numbering). ... Classical music is a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of, European art, ecclesiastical and concert music, encompassing a broad period from roughly 1000 to the present day. ...

Contents


Biography

Chopin was born in Żelazowa Wola in central Poland near Sochaczew, in the region of Masovia, which was part of the Duchy of Warsaw. He was born to Mikołaj (Nicolas) Chopin, a Frenchman of distant Polish ancestry who adopted Poland as his homeland when he moved there in 1787, and married Tekla Justyna Krzyzanowska, a Pole. Å»elazowa Wola is a village on the Utrata River in the Masovian Voivodship, 60 km from Warsaw, Poland. ... Sochaczew - a town in central Poland (52. ... Historical division of Masovia Masovia (Polish: Mazowsze) is a geographical and historical region situated in central Poland with its capital at Warsaw. ... Location Official languages Polish Established church Roman Catholic Capital Warsaw Largest City Warsaw Head of state Duke of Warsaw Area about 155,000 km² Population about 4,3 million Existed 1806–1814 The Duchy of Warsaw (Polish: KsiÄ™stwo Warszawskie, Latin: Ducatus Varsoviae, French: Duche de Varsovie) was a Polish... Motto: Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité (English: Liberty, Equality, Fraternity) Anthem: La Marseillaise Capital Paris 48°51′ N 2°20′ E Largest city Paris Official language French1 Government  â€¢ President  â€¢ Prime Minister Unitary republic Jacques Chirac Dominique de Villepin Formation 843 (Treaty of Verdun) (5th Republic: 1958) Accession to the EU March 25...


According to the composer's family, Chopin was born on March 1, 1810, and he always celebrated his birthday on this day. His baptismal certificate lists his date of birth as February 22, but this was most likely an error on the part of the priest (the certificate was written on 23 April, almost eight weeks after the birth). March 1 is the 60th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (61st in leap years). ... 1810 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... February 22 is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ...


Formative years

Frédéric François Chopin, by Ary Scheffer
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Frédéric François Chopin, by Ary Scheffer

The family moved to Warsaw in October 1810. The young Chopin's musical talent was apparent early on in his life, and in Warsaw he gained a reputation as a "second Mozart". At the age of 7 he was already the author of two polonaises (in G minor and B-flat major), the first being published in the engraving workshop of Father Cybulski, director of the School of Organists and one of the few music publishers in Poland. The prodigy was featured in the Warsaw newspapers, and "little Chopin" became the attraction at receptions given in the aristocratic salons of the capital. He also began giving public charity concerts. At one concert, he is said to have been asked what he thought the audience liked best. 7-year-old Chopin replied, "My shirt collar." He performed his first piano concert at age 8. His first professional piano lessons, given to him by the violinist Wojciech Zywny (born 1756 in Bohemia), lasted from 1816 to 1822. Chopin later spoke highly of Zywny, although Chopin's skills soon surpassed those of his teacher. Image File history File links Chopin-scheffer. ... Image File history File links Chopin-scheffer. ... Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (baptised as Joannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart; January 27, 1756 – December 5, 1791) is among the most significant and enduringly popular composers of European classical music. ... Typical rhythm of a Polonaise The polonaise (Polish: polonez, chodzony; Italian: polacca) is a rather slow dance of Polish origin, in 3/4 time. ... A child prodigy, or simply prodigy, is someone who is a master of one or more skill or art at an early age. ... Warsaw (Polish: , (?), in full The Capital City of Warsaw, Polish: Miasto StoÅ‚eczne Warszawa) is the capital of Poland and its largest city. ... Wojciech Adalbert Żywny (1756 - 1840), Polish pianist and violinist. ... 1756 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Bohemia. ... 1816 was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1822 (MDCCCXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...

Warsaw flat once occupied by Chopin.
Warsaw flat once occupied by Chopin.

The further development of Chopin's talent was supervised by Wilhelm Würfel (born 1791 in Bohemia). This renowned pianist, a professor at the Warsaw Conservatory, gave Chopin valuable (although irregular) lessons in playing organ, and possibly piano. From 1823 to 1826, Chopin attended the Warsaw Lyceum, where his father was a professor. In the autumn of 1826, Chopin began studying music theory, figured bass, and composition with the composer Józef Elsner (born 1769 in Silesia) at the Warsaw Conservatory. Chopin's contact with Elsner may date to as early as 1822, and it is certain that Elsner was giving Chopin informal guidance by 1823. Image File history File links Norwidchopin. ... Image File history File links Norwidchopin. ... Wilhelm Würfel was a performer and professor at the Warsaw Conservatory in the 19th century. ... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Bohemia. ... Warsaw (Polish: , (?), in full The Capital City of Warsaw, Polish: Miasto StoÅ‚eczne Warszawa) is the capital of Poland and its largest city. ... The Casavant pipe organ at Notre-Dame de Montréal Basilica, Montreal The organ is a keyboard instrument with one or more manuals, and usually a pedalboard. ... Music theory is a field of study that describes the elements of music and includes the development and application of methods for analyzing and composing music, and the interrelationship between the notation of music and performance practice, theory. ... Figured bass, or thoroughbass, is a kind of integer musical notation used to indicate intervals, chords, and nonchord tones, in relation to a bass note. ... Musical composition is: an original piece of music the structure of a musical piece the process of creating a new piece of music // A musical composition A piece of music exists in the form of a written composition in musical notation or as a single acoustic event (a live performance... Józef Elsner (1769 - 1854) was a Polish composer and professor of music remembered today primarily as the teacher of composer Frédéric Chopin. ... 1769 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Prussian Silesia, 1871, outlined in yellow; Silesia at the close of the Seven Years War in 1763, outlined in cyan (areas now in the Czech Republic were Austrian-ruled at that time) Silesia (Czech: ; German: ; Polish: ) is a historical region in central Europe. ...


In 1829 in Warsaw, Chopin heard Niccolò Paganini play, and he also met the German pianist and composer Johann Nepomuk Hummel. It was also back in 1829 that Chopin met his first love, a singing student named Constantia Gladkowska. This inspired Chopin to put the melody of the human voice into his works. Chopin also paid his first visit to Vienna in that year, where he gave two piano performances and received mixed notices, including many very favourable reviews and others that criticised the small tone he produced from the piano. Niccolò Paganini Niccolò (or Nicolò) Paganini, (October 27, 1782 – May 27, 1840) was an Italian violinist, violist, guitarist and composer. ... Johann Nepomuk Hummel Johann Nepomuk Hummel or Jan Nepomuk Hummel (14 November 1778 – 17 October 1837) was a composer and virtuoso pianist of Austrian origin who was born in today Slovakia. ... Vienna (German: Wien ; Bosnian, Croatian, and Serbian: Beč, Czech: Vídeň, Hungarian: Bécs, Romanian: Viena, Romani: Bech or Vidnya, Russian: Вена, Slovak: Viedeň, Slovenian: Dunaj) is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ...


In Warsaw in December he performed the premiere of his Piano Concerto in F minor at the Merchants' Club. He gave the first performance of his other piano concerto, in E minor at the National Theatre on 17 March 1830. He visited Vienna again in 1830, playing his two piano concertos. Frédéric Chopins Piano Concerto No. ... The Piano Concerto No. ... March 17 is the 76th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (77th in Leap years). ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


In Vienna, he learned about the November Uprising and decided not to return to Poland, thus becoming one of the émigrés of the Great Polish Emigration. He stayed in Vienna for a few more months before visiting Munich and Stuttgart (where he learned of Poland's occupation by the Russian army), and arrived in Paris early in October. He had already composed a body of important compositions, including his two piano concertos and some of his Études Op. 10. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Émigré is a French term that shows how Martin B. loves stephanie. ... Great Emigration (Polish: Wielka Emigracja), Polish political (1831–1870). ... The Eiffel Tower, the international symbol of the city For other uses, see Paris (disambiguation). ... The Études of Frederic Chopin are a set of technical studies for piano. ...


Career in Paris

In Paris Chopin was introduced to some of the foremost pianists of the day, including Friedrich Kalkbrenner, Ferdinand Hiller and Franz Liszt, and he formed personal friendships with the composers Hector Berlioz, Felix Mendelssohn, Charles-Valentin Alkan, and Vincenzo Bellini (beside whom he is buried in the Père Lachaise). His music was already admired by many of his composer contemporaries, among them Robert Schumann who penned the now famous review of the Variations Op. 2: "Hats off, gentlemen! A genius." Friedrich Kalkbrenner Friedrich Wilhelm Kalkbrenner (7 November 1784–10 June 1849) was a German pianist and composer. ... Ferdinand Hiller (October 24, 1811 - May 12, 1885), German composer, was born at Frankfort-on-Main. ... Franz Liszt (Hungarian: Liszt Ferenc) (October 22, 1811 – July 31, 1886) was a Hungarian virtuoso pianist and composer. ... Portrait of Berlioz by Signol, 1832 Louis Hector Berlioz (December 11, 1803 – March 8, 1869) was a French Romantic composer best known for the Symphonie fantastique, first performed in 1830, and for his Grande Messe des morts Requiem of 1837, with its tremendous resources that include four antiphonal brass choirs. ... Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy at the age of thirty Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, known generally as Felix Mendelssohn (February 3, 1809 – November 4, 1847) was a German composer of Jewish parentage of the early Romantic period. ... Charles-Valentin Alkan (November 30, 1813–March 29, 1888) was a French composer and one of the greatest virtuoso pianists of his day. ... Vincenzo Bellini Vincenzo Salvatore Carmelo Francesco Bellini (November 3, 1801 – September 23, 1835) was an Italian opera composer. ... Looking down the hill at the Père-Lachaise cemetery The cimetière du Père-Lachaise (pronounced ) is the largest cemetery in the city of Paris (there are larger cemeteries in Paris suburbs). ... Robert Schumann (June 8, 1810 – July 29, 1856) was a German composer and pianist. ...


From Paris Chopin made various visits and tours. In 1834, with Hiller, he visited a Rhenish Music Festival at Aachen organised by Ferdinand Ries. Here Chopin and Hiller met up with Mendelssohn and the three went on to visit Düsseldorf, Koblenz and Cologne, enjoying each other's company and learning and playing music together. Ferdinand Ries (1784–1838) was a Bonn-born pupil of Beethoven who published a collection of reminiscences of his teacher. ... Düsseldorf is the capital city of the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and (together with Cologne and the Ruhr Area) the economic center of Western Germany. ... Koblenz (also Coblenz in pre-1926 German spellings; French Coblence; from ) is situated on the left bank of the Rhine at its confluence with the Moselle, where the Deutsches Eck (German Corner) and its monument are situated. ... Cologne (German: ; Kölsch: Kölle) is Germanys fourth-largest city after Berlin, Hamburg and Munich and is the largest city both in the German Federal District of North Rhine-Westphalia and within the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Area, one of the largest European metropolitan areas with over 12 million...


Chopin participated in several concerts during his years in Paris. The programs of these concerts provide some idea of the richness of Parisian artistic life during this period, such as the concert on March 23 1833 in which Chopin, Liszt and Hiller played the solo parts in a performance of Johann Sebastian Bach's concerto for three harpsichords, or the concert on March 3 1838 when Chopin, Charles-Valentin Alkan, Alkan's teacher Pierre Joseph Zimmerman and Chopin's pupil Adolphe Gutman played Alkan's 8-hand arrangement of Beethoven's seventh symphony. March 23 is the 82nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (83rd in Leap years). ... Bach redirects here. ... March 3 is the 62nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (63rd in leap years). ... Charles-Valentin Alkan (November 30, 1813–March 29, 1888) was a French composer and one of the greatest virtuoso pianists of his day. ... Ludwig van Beethoven by Carl Jäger (date unknown). ...


In 1835 Chopin visited his family in Karlsbad, whence he accompanied his parents to Děčín where they lived, and then to Warsaw. He returned to Paris via Dresden, where he stayed for some weeks, and then Leipzig where he met up with Mendelssohn, Robert Schumann and Clara Wieck. However on the return journey he had a severe bronchial attack - so bad that he was reported dead in some Polish newspapers. Děčín (in German Tetschen) is one of the larger cities in the Ústí nad Labem Region of the Czech Republic. ... From left to right: Brühls Terrace; the Hofkirche and the castle; the Semper Opera House. ... [] (Sorbian/Lusatian: Lipsk) is the largest city in the Federal State (Bundesland) of Saxony in Germany. ... Robert Schumann (June 8, 1810 – July 29, 1856) was a German composer and pianist. ... Clara Schumann Clara Josephine Wieck Schumann (September 13, 1819 – May 20, 1896), wife of composer Robert Schumann, was one of the leading pianists of the Romantic era as well as a composer. ...


In 1836 Chopin was engaged to a seventeen-year-old Polish girl named Maria Wodzinska, whose mother insisted that the engagement be kept secret. The engagement was called off in the following year by her family. Charles Darwin 1836 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


Chopin and George Sand

The only known photograph of Frédéric Chopin, taken by Louis-Auguste Bisson in 1849.
The only known photograph of Frédéric Chopin, taken by Louis-Auguste Bisson in 1849.

In 1836, at a party hosted by Countess Marie d'Agoult, mistress of fellow composer Franz Liszt, Chopin met Amandine-Aurore-Lucile Dupin, Baroness Dudevant, better known by her pseudonym George Sand. She was a French Romantic writer, noted for her numerous love affairs with such prominent figures as Prosper Merimée, Alfred de Musset (1833–34), Alexandre Manceau (1849–65), and others. Download high resolution version (1144x1443, 501 KB)The only known photograph of Frédéric Chopin -- source: http://www. ... Download high resolution version (1144x1443, 501 KB)The only known photograph of Frédéric Chopin -- source: http://www. ... Louis-Auguste Bisson (1814-1876) was a 19th century French photographer. ... 1849 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Marie Catherine Sophie de Flavigny, Vicomtesse de Flavigny (December 31, 1805 - March 5, 1876), known also by her married name and title, Marie, Comtesse dAgoult, and by her pen name, Daniel Stern, was an author and a paramour of Franz Liszt. ... George Sand in 1864 (picture by Nadar). ... Prosper Mérimée Prosper Mérimée (September 28, 1803–September 23, 1870) was a French dramatist, historian, archaeologist, and short story writer. ... Tomb of Alfred de Musset in Le Père Lachaise cemetery. ...


The composer initially did not consider her attractive. "Something about her repels me," he said to his family. However, in an extraordinary letter from Sand to her friend Count Wojciech Grzymala in June 1837, she debated whether to let Chopin go with Maria Wodzinska or whether to abandon another affair in order to start a relationship with Chopin. Sand had strong feelings and was attracted to Chopin, and pursued him until a relationship began.


A notable episode in their time together was a turbulent and miserable winter on Mallorca (18381839), where they had problems finding habitable accommodation and ended up lodging in the scenic, but stark and cold Valldemossa monastery. Chopin also had problems having his Pleyel piano sent to him. It arrived from Paris after a great delay, to be stuck at the Spanish customs who demanded a large import duty. He could only use it for a little more than three weeks; the rest of the time he had to compose on a rickety rented piano to complete his Preludes (Op. 28). Mallorca (in Catalan, Spanish, and English; also called Majorca in English) is one of the Balearic Islands (Catalan: Illes Balears, Spanish: Las Islas Baleares), which are located in the Mediterranean Sea and are part of Spain. ... | Jöns Jakob Berzelius, discoverer of protein 1838 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1839 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Valldemossa Valldemossa is a village and municipality on the island of Majorca, part of the Spanish autonomous community of the Balearic Islands. ... Ignaz Pleyel (June 18, 1757–November 14, 1831) was an Austrian composer of the Classical music era. ... A customs duty is a tariff or tax on the import or export of goods. ... Frédéric Chopins Preludes Op. ...


During the winter, the bad weather had such a serious impact on Chopin's health and his chronic lung disease that, to save his life, he and George Sand were compelled to return first to the Spanish mainland where they reached Barcelona, and then to Marseille where they stayed for a few months to recover. Although his health improved, he never completely recovered from this bout. He complained about the incompetence of the doctors in Mallorca: "The first said I was going to die; the second said I had breathed my last; and the third said I was already dead." Barcelona is the capital city of Catalonia, an autonomous community in Spain. ... City motto: Actibus immensis urbs fulget Massiliensis. ...


Chopin spent the summers of 1839 until 1843 at Sand's estate in Nohant. These were quiet but productive days, during which Chopin composed many works. On his return to Paris in 1839, he met the pianist and composer Ignaz Moscheles. Nohant-Vic is a village in the Indre département of central France. ... Ignaz Moscheles, from a portrait by his son Felix. ...


In 1845 a serious problem emerged in Chopin's relationship with Sand at the same time as a further deterioration in Chopin's health. Their relationship was further soured in 1846 by family problems; this was the year in which Sand published Lucrezia Floriani, which is quite unfavourable to Chopin. The story is about a rich actress and a prince with weak health, and it is possible to interpret the main characters as Sand and Chopin. The family problems finally brought an end to their relationship in 1847.


Death and funeral

Chopin's grave on the Père Lachaise cemetery in Paris.
Chopin's grave on the Père Lachaise cemetery in Paris.

In 1848 Chopin gave his last concert in Paris, and visited England and Scotland with his student and admirer Jane Stirling. They reached London in November, and although Chopin managed to give some concerts and salon performances, he was severely ill. He returned to Paris where in 1849 he became unable to teach or perform. His sister Ludwika nursed him at his home in the Place Vendôme; he died there in the small hours of October 17. Later that morning a death mask and a cast of Chopin's hands were made. Download high resolution version (500x679, 88 KB)The grave of Chopin in Père Lachaise Cemetery. ... Download high resolution version (500x679, 88 KB)The grave of Chopin in Père Lachaise Cemetery. ... Looking down the hill at the Père-Lachaise cemetery The cimetière du Père-Lachaise (pronounced ) is the largest cemetery in the city of Paris (there are larger cemeteries in Paris suburbs). ... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location (dark green) within the United Kingdom (light green), with the Republic of Ireland (blue) to its west Languages None official English de facto Capital None official London de facto Largest city London Area – Total Ranked... Motto: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) Scotlands location within Europe Scotlands location within the United Kingdom Languages English, Gaelic, Scots Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow First Minister Jack McConnell Area - Total - % water Ranked 2nd UK 78,782 km² 1. ... London is the capital city of the United Kingdom and of England and is the most populous city in the European Union. ... October 17 is the 290th (in leap years the 291st) day of the year according to the Gregorian calendar. ... The death mask of Australian bushranger Ned Kelly A death mask is a plaster or wax cast made of a persons face following death. ...


He had requested that Mozart's Requiem be sung at his funeral, which was held at the Church of the Madeleine and was attended by nearly three thousand people. The Requiem has major parts for female singers but the Madeleine had never permitted female singers in its choir. The funeral was delayed for almost 2 weeks, until the church finally relented and granted Chopin's final wish provided the female singers remained behind a black velvet curtain. Also performing was the bass Luigi Lablache, who had also sung the same work at the funerals of Beethoven and Bellini. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart wrote the Requiem mass in D minor (K. 626) in 1791. ... Église de la Madeleine, Paris Léglise de la Madeleine, or Léglise Sainte-Marie-Madeleine (or simply La Madeleine), is a church in the 8th arrondissement of Paris that was designed as a temple to the glory of Napoleons army. ... Luigi Lablache (6 December 1794 - 23 January 1858) was an Italian bass of French and Irish heritage, born in Naples. ... Ludwig van Beethoven Ludwig van Beethoven (baptized December 17, 1770 – March 26, 1827) was a German composer of Classical music, the predominant musical figure in the transitional period between the Classical and Romantic eras. ... Bellini can mean: A family of Italian painters, the most famous of which is Giovanni Bellini (c. ...

Church of the Holy Cross in Warsaw. Chopin's bust is visible on the left-most pillar, and is also the location of his heart.
Church of the Holy Cross in Warsaw. Chopin's bust is visible on the left-most pillar, and is also the location of his heart.

Although Chopin is buried in the Père Lachaise cemetery in Paris, at his own request his heart was removed and dispatched in an urn to Warsaw, where it is sealed in a pillar in the Church of the Holy Cross. The Père Lachaise site attracts numerous visitors and is invariably festooned with flowers, even in the dead of winter. Image File history File links Holycrosswarsaw. ... Image File history File links Holycrosswarsaw. ... Looking down the hill at the Père-Lachaise cemetery The cimetière du Père-Lachaise (pronounced ) is the largest cemetery in the city of Paris (there are larger cemeteries in Paris suburbs). ... Warsaw (Polish: , (?), in full The Capital City of Warsaw, Polish: Miasto StoÅ‚eczne Warszawa) is the capital of Poland and its largest city. ...


Music

Chopin's music for the piano combined a unique rhythmic sense (particularly his use of rubato, chromatic inflections, and counterpoint). This mixture produces a particularly fragile sound in the melody and the harmony, which are nonetheless underpinned by solid and interesting harmonic techniques. He took the new salon genre of the nocturne, invented by Irish composer John Field, to a deeper level of sophistication, and endowed popular dance forms, such as the Polish mazurka and the Viennese waltz, with a greater range of melody and expression. Chopin was the first to write Ballades (a genre he invented) and Scherzi as individual pieces. Chopin also took the example of Bach's preludes and fugues, transforming the genre in his own preludes. This article will be merged with Italian musical terms at some point in the near future. ... Counterpoint is a musical technique involving the simultaneous sounding of separate musical lines. ... A nocturne (from the French for nocturnal) is usually a musical composition that is inspired by, or evocative of, the night. ... John Field (July 26, 1782 – January 23, 1837) was an Irish composer and pianist. ... The mazurka (Polish: mazurek, probably named after Polands Mazury district) is a Polish folk dance in triple time with a lively tempo, containing a heavy accent on the third or second beat. ... Vienna (German: Wien ; Bosnian, Croatian, and Serbian: Beč, Czech: Vídeň, Hungarian: Bécs, Romanian: Viena, Romani: Bech or Vidnya, Russian: Вена, Slovak: Viedeň, Slovenian: Dunaj) is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ... The waltz is a ballroom and folk dance in 3/4 time, done primarily in closed position. ...


Several of Chopin's melodies have become very well known - for instance the Revolutionary Étude (Op. 10, No. 12), the Minute Waltz (Op. 64, No. 1), and the third movement of his Funeral March sonata (Op. 35), which is often used as an iconic representation of grief. The Revolutionary Étude was not written with the failed Polish uprising against Russia in mind, it merely appeared at that time. The Funeral March was written as a funereal piece, but it was not inspired by any recent personal bereavement. Other melodies have been used as the basis of popular songs, such as the slow section of the Fantaisie-Impromptu (Op. 66) and the first section of the etude Op. 10 No. 3. These pieces often rely on an intense and personalized chromaticism, as well as a melodic curve that resembles the operas of Chopin's day - the operas of Gioacchino Rossini, Gaetano Donizetti, and especially Bellini. Chopin used the piano to re-create the gracefulness of the singing voice, and talked and wrote constantly about singers. Étude in C minor, Op. ... The Waltz in D flat major, opus 64, No. ... A funeral march is a march composed, usually in a minor key, in in a slow simple duple metre imitating the solemn pace of a funeral procession. ... The piano composition Fantaisie-Impromptu, opus 66, by Frederic Chopin, is arguably one of his most well-known pieces and one of the most famous works on classical piano. ... Portrait Gioacchino Antonio Rossini (February 29, 1792 – November 13, 1868) was an Italian musical composer who wrote more than 30 operas as well as sacred music and chamber music. ... Gaetano Donizetti Domenico Gaetano Maria Donizetti (29 November 1797 – 8 April 1848) was a famous Italian opera composer. ...


Chopin's style and gifts became increasingly influential: Schumann was a huge admirer of Chopin's music — although the feeling was not mutual — and he took melodies from Chopin and even named a piece from his suite Carnaval after Chopin. Franz Liszt, another great admirer and personal friend of the composer, transcribed six of Chopin's songs for piano. Liszt later dedicated a movement of his Harmonies Poétiques et Religieuses to Chopin, titling it Funérailles and subtitling it "October 1849." The mid-section recalls powerfully the famous octave trio section of Chopin's Polonaise, op. 53. Despite this, Liszt denied it had been inspired by Chopin's death but by the deaths of three of Liszt's Hungarian compatriots in the same month. Robert Schumanns Carnaval, op. ... Franz Liszt (Hungarian: Liszt Ferenc) (October 22, 1811 – July 31, 1886) was a Hungarian virtuoso pianist and composer. ... Most of the piano pieces known by the generic title Harmonies poétiques et religieuses (Poetic and Religious Harmonies) were composed at Woronince (Voronyntsi, Ukrainian country estate of Liszt’s mistress Princess Jeanne Elisabeth Carolyne von Sayn-Wittgenstein, née Iwanowska) in 1847. ... The elegy Funérailles, written in the later part of 1849, is the 7th piece in the collection of piano pieces by Franz Liszt entitled Harmonies Poétiques et Religieuses (Poetic and Religious Harmonies). ... Polonaise in A-flat major, op. ...


Chopin performed his own works in concert halls but most often in his salon for friends. Only later in life, as his disease progressed, did Chopin give up public performance altogether.


Chopin's technical innovations also became influential. His préludes (Op. 28) and études (Op. 10 and 25) rapidly became standard works, and inspired both Liszt's Transcendental Études and Schumann's Symphonic Études. The early Alexander Scriabin was also influenced by Chopin, his 24 Preludes op.11 are inspired by Chopin's Op.28. The Transcendental Etudes (sometimes Études dexécution transcendante or Transcendental Studies) is a series of twelve compositions written for solo piano by Hungarian composer Franz Liszt, begun in 1826 and finalized in 1851. ... The Symphonic Etudes, Op. ... Alexander Nikolayevich Scriabin (Russian: Алекса́ндр Никола́евич Скря́бин, Aleksandr Nikolaevič Skrjabin; sometimes transliterated as Skryabin or Skrjabin) (6 January 1872–27 April 1915) was a Russian composer and pianist. ...


Jeremy Siepmann, in his biography of the composer, named a list of pianists he believed to have made recordings of works by Chopin generally acknowledged to be among the greatest Chopin performances ever preserved: Vladimir de Pachmann, Raoul Pugno, Ignacy Jan Paderewski, Moriz Rosenthal, Sergei Rachmaninoff, Alfred Cortot, Ignaz Friedman, Raul Koczalski, Arthur Rubinstein, Mieczysław Horszowski, Claudio Arrau, Vlado Perlemuter, Vladimir Horowitz, Dinu Lipatti, Vladimir Ashkenazy, Martha Argerich, Maurizio Pollini, Murray Perahia, Krystian Zimerman, Evgeny Kissin. Vladimir von Pachmann, sometimes seen as von Pachmann or Pachman (27 July 1848 - 6 January 1933) was a virtuoso pianist especially noted for performing the works of Chopin, and also for his unusual on-stage style. ... Ignacy Jan Paderewski Ignacy Jan Paderewski (November 6, 1860 – June 29, 1941) was a Polish pianist, composer, diplomat and politician, the third Prime Minister of Poland. ... Moriz Rosenthal was (born December 18, 1862) was a Ukrainian pianist. ... Sergei Vasilievich Rachmaninoff (Russian: , Sergej Vasilevič Rahmaninov, April 1, 1873 (N.S.) or March 20, 1873 (O.S.) – March 28, 1943) was a Russian composer, pianist, and conductor. ... Alfred Denis Cortot (September 26, 1877 – June 15, 1962) was a French pianist and conductor. ... Ignaz Friedman (also spelled Ignace or Ignacy) (February 14, 1882 – January 26, 1948) was a Polish pianist and composer famous for his Chopin interpretations. ... Raul Koczalski, a Polish pianist who is relatively obscure today, was arguably the greatest interpreter of Chopin, and one of the greatest pianists of his time. ... Arthur Rubinstein photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1937 Arthur Rubinstein (January 28, 1887 – December 20, 1982) is widely considered as one of the greatest pianists of the 20th Century. ... MieczysÅ‚aw Horszowski (b. ... Claudio Arrau Claudio Arrau (February 6, 1903–June 9, 1991) was a Chilean-American pianist, of world fame for his interpretations of a huge repertory spanning from the baroque to 20th-century composers. ... Vlado Perlemuter (May 26, 1904-2002) was a pianist born in Kowno, Poland. ... Vladimir Samoylovych Horowitz (Russian: Владимир Самойлович Горовиц, Ukrainian: Володимир Самійлович Горовиць) (OS 18 September, NS October 1, 1903 – November 5, 1989) was a Jewish Ukrainian-born classical pianist who became a American citizen. ... Dinu Lipatti Dinu Lipatti (March 19, 1917 – December 2, 1950) was a Romanian pianist whose career was tragically cut short by his death from Hodgkins disease at age 33. ... Vladimir Ashkenazy Vladimir Davidovich Ashkenazy (sometimes transliterated Ashkenazi) (Russian: Влади́мир Дави́дович А́шкенази) (born July 6, 1937) is a conductor and, more notably, a pianist. ... Martha Argerich Martha Argerich (born June 5, 1941) is a pianist of Argentine origin. ... Maurizio Pollini Maurizio Pollini (born January 5, 1942) is an Italian classical pianist. ... Murray Perahia (born April 19, 1947) is a distinguished American concert pianist of Sephardic origin. ... Image:Krystian Zimerman. ... Evgeny Kissin Evgeny Igorevich Kissin (Евге́ний Ки́син) (born October 10, 1971) is a well-known Russian pianist. ...


Rubinstein said the following about Chopin's music and its universality:

Chopin was a genius of universal appeal. His music conquers the most diverse audiences. When the first notes of Chopin sound through the concert hall there is a happy sigh of recognition. All over the world men and women know his music. They love it. They are moved by it. Yet it is not "Romantic music" in the Byronic sense. It does not tell stories or paint pictures. It is expressive and personal, but still a pure art. Even in this abstract atomic age, where emotion is not fashionable, Chopin endures. His music is the universal language of human communication. When I play Chopin I know I speak directly to the hearts of people!

Lord Byron, Anglo-Scottish poet George Gordon Byron (later George Gordon Noel) 6th Baron Byron of Rochdale (January 22, 1788–April 19, 1824) was an Anglo-Scottish poet and a leading figure in Romanticism. ...

Style

Although Chopin lived in the 1800s, he was educated in the tradition of Beethoven, Haydn, Mozart and Clementi; he even used Clementi's piano method with his own students. He was also influenced by Hummel's development of virtuoso, yet Mozartian, piano technique. One of his students, Friederike Muller, wrote the following in her diary about Chopin's playing style: It has been suggested that Papa Haydn be merged into this article or section. ... Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (baptised as Joannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart; January 27, 1756 – December 5, 1791) is among the most significant and enduringly popular composers of European classical music. ... Muzio Clementi (January 24, 1752 – March 10, 1832) was a classical composer, and acknowledged as the first to write specifically for the piano. ...

His playing was always noble and beautiful; his tones sang, whether in full forte or softest piano. He took infinite pains to teach his pupils this legato, cantabile style of playing. His most severe criticism was "He—or she—does not know how to join two notes together." He also demanded the strictest adherence to rhythm. He hated all lingering and dragging, misplaced rubatos, as well as exaggerated ritardandos ... and it is precisely in this respect that people make such terrible errors in playing his works.

Chopin and Romanticism

Chopin regarded the Romantic movement with indifference, and rarely associated himself with it directly. Even so, today Chopin's music is considered to be the paragon of the Romantic style. Romanticism was a secular and intellectual movement in the history of ideas that originated in late 18th century Western Europe. ...


However, his music has less of the expected trappings of Romanticism: There is a classical purity and discretion in his music, with little Romantic exhibitionism, personified by his reverence of Bach and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (Chopin based the structure of his preludes on the Well-tempered Clavier of Bach). Chopin also never indulged in 'scene painting' in his music or affixing to his works fanciful or descriptive titles, unlike his contemporary Robert Schumann. Also, unlike his flamboyant contemporary Franz Liszt, Chopin was withdrawn from public life. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (baptised as Joannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart; January 27, 1756 – December 5, 1791) is among the most significant and enduringly popular composers of European classical music. ... Title-page of Das wohtemperierte Clavier A flat major (As-dur) fugue from the second part of Das wohtemperierte Clavier (manuscript) The Well-Tempered Clavier (Das wohltemperierte Clavier, Clavier meaning keyboard instrument) is a collection of solo keyboard music composed by Johann Sebastian Bach. ... Robert Schumann (June 8, 1810 – July 29, 1856) was a German composer and pianist. ... Franz Liszt (Hungarian: Liszt Ferenc) (October 22, 1811 – July 31, 1886) was a Hungarian virtuoso pianist and composer. ...


Works

See also list of compositions by Frédéric Chopin and category compositions by Frédéric Chopin

All of Chopin's works involve the piano, whether solo or accompanied. They are predominantly for solo piano but include a small number of piano ensembles with instruments including a second piano, violin, cello, voice, and orchestra. List of compositions by Frédéric Chopin. ...


His larger scale works such as the four ballades, the four scherzos, the barcarolle op. 60, the fantaisie op. 49, and sonatas have cemented a solid place within the repertoire, as well as shorter works like his impromptus, mazurkas, nocturnes, waltzes and polonaises. Two important collections are the 24 Preludes Op. 28, based loosely on Bach's Well-Tempered Clavier, and the études Op. 10 and Op. 25, which are a staple of that genre for pianists. The ballade was a verse form consisting of three (sometimes five) stanzas, each with the same metre, rhyme scheme and last line, with a shorter concluding stanza (an envoi). ... A scherzo (plural scherzi) is a name given to a piece of music or a movement from a larger piece such as a symphony. ... A piano sonata is a sonata written for unaccompanied piano. ... For information about impromptu speaking in public debate, see individual events. ... The mazurka (Polish: mazurek, probably named after Polands Mazury district) is a Polish folk dance in triple time with a lively tempo, containing a heavy accent on the third or second beat. ... A nocturne (from the French for nocturnal) is usually a musical composition that is inspired by, or evocative of, the night. ... The waltz is a ballroom and folk dance in 3/4 time, done primarily in closed position. ... Typical rhythm of a Polonaise The polonaise (Polish: polonez, chodzony; Italian: polacca) is a rather slow dance of Polish origin, in 3/4 time. ... Frédéric Chopins Preludes Op. ... Bach redirects here. ... Title-page of Das wohtemperierte Clavier A flat major (As-dur) fugue from the second part of Das wohtemperierte Clavier (manuscript) The Well-Tempered Clavier (Das wohltemperierte Clavier, Clavier meaning keyboard instrument) is a collection of solo keyboard music composed by Johann Sebastian Bach. ... The etudes are famous ...


Chopin composed two of the romantic piano concerto repertoire's most often-performed examples, his Opp. 11 and 21. In addition, he wrote several song settings of Polish texts, and chamber pieces including a piano trio and a sonata for cello and piano. A piano concerto is a concerto for solo piano and orchestra. ... The Piano Concerto No. ... Frédéric Chopins Piano Concerto No. ... A song is a relatively short musical composition for the human voice (possibly accompanied by other musical instruments), which features words (lyrics). ... A piano trio is a group of piano and two other instruments, almost always a violin and a cello, or a piece of music written for such a group. ... Sonata (From Latin and Italian sonare, to sound), in music, literally means a piece played as opposed to cantata (Latin cantare, to sing), a piece sung. ... A cello The violoncello, almost always abbreviated to cello (the c is pronounced /tʃ/ as the ch in church), is a stringed instrument and a member of the violin family. ... A baby grand piano, with the lid up. ...


Media

  • Nocturne Op 15 No 2 ( file info)
    • In F sharp major, performed by Paul Cantrell
  • Fantaisie-Impromptu in C-sharp minor Op. 66 ( file info)
  • "Zyczenie" ("The Maiden's Wish") Op. 74, No. 1 from Polish Songs ( file info)
    • Chopin originally wrote this piece for piano and voice, arranged for solo piano by Franz Liszt
  • Waltz Op 69 No 1 "L'Adieu" ( file info)
    • Posthumous
  • Berceuse ( file info)
    • Opus 57, Performed by Veronica van der Knaap
  • Problems playing the files? See media help.

Image File history File links Chopin_Nocturne. ... Fantasie-Impromptu -- Frederic Chopin. ... Polyrhythm is the simultaneous sounding of two or more independent rhythms. ... Image File history File links Chopin_Liszt_Zyczenie_(The_Maidens_Wish)_Brian_E_Young. ... Franz Liszt (Hungarian: Liszt Ferenc) (October 22, 1811 – July 31, 1886) was a Hungarian virtuoso pianist and composer. ... Image File history File links Chopin_Waltz_Op_69_No_1_Brian_E_Young. ... Image File history File links Chopin-Berceuse. ...

Other

In commemoration of the genius of Frédéric Chopin, the International Frederick Chopin Piano Competition is held in Warsaw, Poland every five years. Also, the "Grand prix du disque de F.Chopin" is also held periodically to award notable Chopin recordings, both remastered and newly recorded work. The International Frederick Chopin Piano Competition is one of the oldest and the most prestigious piano competition in the world, organized in Warsaw since 1927 and held every 5 years since 1955. ... Warsaw (Polish: , (?), in full The Capital City of Warsaw, Polish: Miasto StoÅ‚eczne Warszawa) is the capital of Poland and its largest city. ...


Eponyms

The following have been named after the composer:

3784 Chopin is a small main belt asteroid with a diameter of 14. ... Warsaw Frederic Chopin Airport () is an airport located in the Okęcie borough of Warsaw, Poland. ...

Chopin in fiction

Chopin and Sand's illustrious relationship is embroidered in the 1991 film Impromptu which stars Hugh Grant as Chopin and Judy Davis as George Sand. A possibly more historically accurate depiction of their relationship can be found in the 2002 movie Chopin: Desire for Love by Academy Award nominee director Jerzy Antczak, featuring Piotr Adamczyk as Chopin and Danuta Stenka as George Sand. A Song to Remember released in 1945 is another biographical movie. Impromptu is a 1991 movie starring Hugh Grant as Chopin and Judy Davis as George Sand. ... Piotr Adamczyk (b. ... A Song to Remember is a 1945 biographical film which tells the life story of pianist and composer Frederic Chopin. ...


See also

Frédéric-François Chopin, portrayed by Eugène Delacroix Several piano competitions are named after Frédéric Chopin, one of the most famous piano composers and pianists ever. ... Chopins Polonaise - a Ball in Hôtel Lambert in Paris, water colour and gouache, 1849-1860, painted by Teofil Kwiatkowski, National Museum in Poznań. Hôtel Lambert is a palace on Île Saint-Louis in Paris and the name-sake of a Polish 19th century political faction. ...

References

  • Samson, Jim (1996). Chopin. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-816495-5.
  • Siepmann, Jeremy (1995). Chopin: The Reluctant Romantic. London: Victor Gollancz. ISBN 0-575-05692-4
  • Bastet, Frédéric L. (1997). Helse liefde: Biografisch essay over Marie d'Agoult, Frédéric Chopin, Franz Liszt, George Sand [in Dutch]. Amsterdam: Querido. ISBN 90-214-5157-3.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Warsaw (Polish: , (?), in full The Capital City of Warsaw, Polish: Miasto Stołeczne Warszawa) is the capital of Poland and its largest city. ... Project Gutenberg (often abbreviated as PG) is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive, and distribute cultural works. ... The Mutopia project is an effort to create a library of public domain sheet music, in a way similar to Project Gutenbergs library of public domain books. ... The Werner Icking Music Archive, often abbreviated WIMA, is a web archive of public domain sheet music. ... MusicBrainz (MusicBrainz. ...

Recordings

  • Free video of Dimitris Sgouros performing Chopin Piano Concerto No 1 with the Prague Soloists
  • Free recordings of Chopin's music performed by Donald Betts (3 ballades, 3 études, 2 nocturnes, 1 mazurka).
  • PianoParadise — Chopin — Free mp3 files of pieces composed by Chopin.
  • Free recordings of Chopin's music performed by Paul Cantrell.
  • The Chopin MIDI Archive — Chopin's works in MIDI format.
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  Results from FactBites:
 
CLASSICAL MUSIC ARCHIVES: Chopin Biography (1290 words)
Chopin was born in 1810 in Poland to a French father and Polish mother.
Chopin is one of the few greatest composers to be known primarily for his work for a solo instrument.
Chopin's discovery of the piano's potential to inhabit a complete and poetic world of song and color set the standard for all piano writing of the latter part of the century.
Frederic Chopin - an overview of the classical composer (744 words)
Frederic Chopin was born in Poland of a Polish mother, and his country of origin clearly influenced Chopin to the extent that he wrote many Mazurkas and Polonaises based on Polish dances.
Chopin was not particularly healthy and developed tuberculosis, which he endured for several years before his death at the age of 39.
Chopin was a skilled pianist, and a large proportion of his works are for solo piano.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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