Chondrocytes (< Greekchondros cartilage + kytos cell) are the only cells found in cartilage. They produce and maintain the cartilagenous matrix. Cartilage is a type of dense connective tissue. ...
From least- to terminally-differentiated, the chondrocytic lineage is:
Colony-forming unit-fibroblast (CFU-F)
Mesenchymal stem cell / marrow stromal cell (MSC)
When referring to bone or cartilage, mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are commonly known as osteochondrogenic (or osteogenic, chondrogenic, osteoprogenitor, etc.) cells since a single MSC has shown the ability to differentiate into chondrocytes or osteoblasts, depending on the medium. In vivo, differentiation of a MSC in a vascularized area (such as bone) yields an osteoblasts, whereas differentiation of a MSC in a non-vascularized area (such as cartilage) yields a chondrocyte. Chondrocytes undergo terminal differentiation when they become hypertrophic during endochondral ossification. This last stage is characterized by major phenotypic changes in the cell. Mesenchymal cells also known as mesenchymal stem cells or marrow stromal cells (MSC) are stem cells that can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, myocytes, adipocytes neuronal cells and - as decribed lately, into beta-pancreatic islets cells. ... An osteoblast (from the Greek words for bone and to build) is a mononucleate cell which produces a protein that produces osteoid. ... An osteoblast (from the Greek words for bone and to build) is a mononucleate cell which produces a protein that produces osteoid. ... Ossify (< Latin os bone + Latin fy < facere make) to change (as cartilage) or be transformed into bone, for example, osteoblasts ossify the tissue ... The phenotype of an individual organism is either its total physical appearance and constitution, or a specific manifestation of a trait, such as size or eye color, that varies between individuals. ...
Although Chondroblast is still commonly used to describe an immature chondrocyte, use of the term is discouraged, for it is technically inaccurate, since the progenitor of chondrocytes (which are mesenchymal stem cells) can also differentiate into osteoblasts. An osteoblast (from the Greek words for bone and to build) is a mononucleate cell which produces a protein that produces osteoid. ...
Bone marrow mesenchymal cells: biological properties and clinical applications. PMID: 11388742
Bone marrow stromal stem cells: nature, biology, and potential applications. PMID: 11359943
Ideally, candidates for autologous chondrocyte implant should be between 15 and 45 years of age, have full thickness localized defects of the femoral condyles, have intact menisci, have no generalized chondromalacia, have no limb misalignment and are willing and able to undergo vigorous rehabilitation.
The TEC assessment noted that three of the four components of autologous chondrocyte implantation -- use of a periosteal flap, debridement and rehabilitation – are not unique to autologous chondrocyte implantation, and these components of the procedure may account for some or all of the clinical improvements noted in uncontrolled studies of this procedure.
The assessment noted that most of the available evidence for autologous chondrocyte implant is from uncontrolled case series, and that this literature is subject to bias because of the inherent weakness of case series.
Meniscal cartilage is on the tibia and serves mostly as a shock absorber.
Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation is used to repair defects to the articular cartilage.
However, when the cartilage is damaged, the chondrocytes' distance from a blood supply means that they lack the ability to regenerate themselves, a process that requires an increased amount of nutrients and access through the blood stream to other cells and proteins that stimulate the regeneration.
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