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Encyclopedia > Chondrichthyes
Cartilaginous fishes
Fossil range: Early Silurian - Recent
Great white shark, Carcharodon carcharias
Great white shark, Carcharodon carcharias
Scientific classification
Kingdom: you want
Phylum: my wiener
Subphylum: in yo mouf foo
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Class: Chondrichthyes
Huxley, 1880
Subclasses and Orders

See text. For other uses, see Silurian (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 557 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 835 pixel, file size: 655 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Update is higher resolution and removed some artifacts, original at en:image:Whiteshark-TGoss5b_hf. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Range (in blue) For other uses, see Great White (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... Classes Placodermi Chondrichthyes Acanthodii Osteichthyes Gnathostomata is the group of vertebrates with jaws. ... Thomas Henry Huxley PC, FRS (4 May 1825 Ealing – 29 June 1895 Eastbourne, Sussex) was an English biologist, known as Darwins Bulldog for his advocacy of Charles Darwins theory of evolution. ... In object-oriented programming, subclass is a class that is derived from another class or classes. ... Scientific classification or biological classification refers to how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ...

The Chondrichthyes or cartilaginous fishes are JEW fish with paired fins, paired nostrils, scales, two-chambered hearts, and skeletons made of wiener rather than boner. They are divided into two subclasses: Elasmobranchii (sharks, rays and skates) and Holocephali (chimaera, sometimes called ghost sharks). For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... Wiener (sometimes pronounced viener) can mean: Adjectival form of Vienna (Ger. ... Look up boner in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Superorders Batoidea (rays and skates) Selachimorpha (sharks) Elasmobranchii is the subclass of cartilaginous fish that includes skates, rays (batoidea) and sharks (selachii). ... Families See text for families, genera and species. ...


Characteristics

Animals from this group have a brain weight relative to body size that comes close to that of mammals, and is about ten times that of bony fishes. There are exceptions: the mormyrid bony fish have a relative brain size comparable to humans, while the primitive megamouth shark has a brain of only 0.002 percent of its body weight. One of the explanations for their relatively large brains is that the density of nerve cells is much lower than in the brains of bony fishes, making the brain less energy demanding and allowing it to be bigger. Classes Actinopterygii Sarcopterygii Osteichthyes are a taxonomic superclass of fish, also called bony fish that includes the ray-finned fish (Actinopterygii) and lobe finned fish (Sarcopterygii). ... Subfamilies Mormyrinae Petrocephalinae The familly Mormyridae, sometimes called Elephantfish, are freshwater fishes native to Africa. ... Binomial name Megachasma pelagios Taylor, Compagno and Struhsaker, 1983 The megamouth shark, Megachasma pelagios, is an extremely rare and unusual species of shark, discovered in 1976, with 37 specimens known to be caught or sighted as of 2006. ...


Their digestive systems have spiral valves, and with the exception of Holocephali, they also have a cloaca. In zoological anatomy, a cloaca is the posterior opening that serves as the only such opening for the intestinal, urinary, and genital tracts of certain animal species. ...


As they do not have bone marrow, red blood cells are produced in the spleen and special tissue around the gonads. They are also produced in an organ called Leydig's Organ which is only found in cartilaginous fishes, although some have lost it. Another unique organ is the epigonal organ which probably has a role in the immune system. The subclass Holocephali, which is a very specialized group, lacks both of these organs. Originally the pectoral and pelvic girdles, which do not contain any dermal elements, did not connect. In later forms, each pair of fins became ventrally connected in the middle when scapulocoracoid and pubioischiadic bars evolved. In rays, the pectoral fins have connected to the head and are very flexible. “Red cell” redirects here. ... The spleen is an organ located in the abdomen, where it functions in the destruction of old red blood cells and holding a reservoir of blood. ... The gonad is the organ that makes gametes. ... Orders Rajiformes - common rays and skates Pristiformes - sawfishes Torpediniformes - electric rays See text for families. ...


A spiracle is found behind each eye on most species. Spiracles are small openings on the surface of animals that usually lead to respiratory systems. ...


Their tough skin is covered with dermal teeth (again with Holocephali as an exception as the teeth are lost in adults, only kept on the clasping organ seen on the front of the male's head), also called placoid scales or dermal denticles, making it feel like sandpaper. It is assumed that their oral teeth evolved from dermal denticles which migrated into the mouth. But it could be the other way around as the teleost bony fish Denticeps clupeoides has most of its head covered by dermal teeth (as do probably Atherion elymus, another bony fish). This is most probably a secondary evolved characteristic which means there is not necessarily a connection between the teeth and the original dermal scales. The old placoderms did not have teeth at all, but had sharp bony plates in their mouth. Thus, it is unknown which of the dermal or oral teeth evolved first. Neither is it sure how many times it has happened if it turns out to be the case. It has even been suggested that the original bony plates of all the vertebrates are gone and that the present scales are just modified teeth, even if both teeth and the body armour have a common origin a long time ago. But for the moment there is no evidence of this. Denticles or placoid scales are small outgrowths which cover the skin of many cartilaginous fish including sharks. ... Denticles or placoid scales are small outgrowths which cover the skin of many cartilaginous fish including sharks. ... Orders See text The Actinopterygii are the ray-finned fish. ... Binomial name Denticeps clupeoides Clausen, 1959 The denticle herring (Denticeps clupeoides) is a small (15 cm) species of ray-finned fish found only in the rivers of Benin, Nigeria and Cameroon, related to the herrings, but notable for its large anal fin and its array of denticle like scales under... Orders Antiarchi † Arthrodira † Petalichthyda † Phyllolepida † Ptyctodontida † Rhenanida † The Placodermi are fish known from fossils dating to the Devonian period. ...


Taxonomy

  • Class Chondrichthyes
    • Subclass Elasmobranchii (sharks, rays and skates)
      • Superorder Batoidea (rays and skates), containing the orders:
        1. Rajiformes (common rays and skates)
        2. Pristiformes (Sawfishes)
        3. Torpediniformes (electric rays)
      • Superorder Selachimorpha (sharks), containing the orders:
        1. Hexanchiformes Two families are found within this order. Species of this order are distinguished from other sharks by having additional gill slits (either six or seven). Examples from this group include the cow sharks, frilled shark and even a shark that looks on first inspection to be a marine snake.
        2. Squaliformes Three families and more than 80 species are found within this order. These sharks have two dorsal fins, often with spines, and no anal fin. They have teeth designed for cutting in both the upper and lower jaws. Examples from this group include the bramble sharks, dogfish and roughsharks.
        3. Pristiophoriformes One family is found within this order. These are the sawsharks, with an elongate, toothed snout that they use for slashing the fishes that they then eat.
        4. Squatiniformes One family is found within this order. These are flattened sharks that can be distinguished from the similar appearing skates and rays by the fact that they have the gill slits along the side of the head like all other sharks. They have a caudal fin (tail) with the lower lobe being much longer in length than the upper, and are commonly referred to as angel sharks.
        5. Heterodontiformes One family is found within this order. They are commonly referred to as the bullhead, or horn sharks. They have a variety of teeth allowing them to grasp and then crush shellfishes.
        6. Orectolobiformes Seven families are found within this order. They are commonly referred to as the carpet sharks, including zebra sharks, nurse sharks, wobbegongs and the largest of all fishes, the whale sharks. They are distinguished by having barbels at the edge of the nostrils. Most, but not all are nocturnal.
        7. Carcharhiniformes Eight families are found within this order. It is the largest order, containing almost 200 species. They are commonly referred to as the groundsharks, and some of the species include the blue, tiger, bull, reef and oceanic whitetip sharks (collectively called the requiem sharks) along with the houndsharks, catsharks and hammerhead sharks. They are distinguished by an elongated snout and a nictitating membrane which protects the eyes during an attack.
        8. Lamniformes Seven families are found within this order. They are commonly referred to as the mackerel sharks. They include the goblin shark, basking shark, megamouth, the thresher, mako shark and great white shark. They are distinguished by their large jaws and ovoviviparous reproduction. The Lamniformes contains the extinct Megalodon (Carcharodon megalodon), which like most extinct sharks is only known by the teeth (the only bone found in these cartilaginous fishes, and therefore are often the only fossils produced). A reproduction of the jaw was based on some of the largest teeth (up to almost 7 inches in length) and suggested a fish that could grow 120 feet in length. The jaw was realized to be inaccurate, and estimates revised downwards to around 50 feet.
    • Subclass Holocephali (chimaera)

Superorders Batoidea (rays and skates) Selachimorpha (sharks) Elasmobranchii is the subclass of cartilaginous fish that includes skates, rays (batoidea) and sharks (selachii). ... Orders Rajiformes - common rays and skates Pristiformes - sawfishes Torpediniformes - electric rays See text for families. ... Families Anacanthobatidae Dasyatidae Gymnuridae Hexatrygonidae Myliobatidae Plesiobatidae Potamotrygonidae Rajidae Rhinobatidae Urolophidae Rajiformes is the order of true rays and skates, flat-bodied cartilaginous fishes related to sharks. ... Species Anoxypristis cuspidata Pristis clavata Pristis microdon Pristis pectinata Pristis perotteti Pristis zijsron Sawfish are related to sharks and rays. ... Species Anoxypristis cuspidata Pristis clavata Pristis microdon Pristis pectinata Pristis perotteti Pristis zijsron Pristis pristis Sawfish are related to sharks and rays. ... Families Narcinidae Torpedinidae If you came here looking for information about a fictional energy weapon, see raygun. ... Families Narcinidae Torpedinidae hi Electric rays (order Torpediniformes) are fish that have a rounded body and a pair of organs capable of producing an electric discharge, which is used to stun or kill prey. ... Orders see text Sharks are a group (superorder Selachimorpha) of fish, with a full cartilaginous skeleton, a streamlined body plan with between 5 and 7 gill slits along the sides (most often) or side of the head (the first modified slit is behind the eye and called a spiracle), dermal... For other uses, see Shark (disambiguation). ... Families Chlamydoselachidae (frilled shark) Hexanchidae (cow sharks) Hexanchiformes is the order consisting of the most primitive types of sharks, and numbering just a handful of species. ... Species Heptranchias perlo Hexanchus griseus Hexanchus vitulus Notorynchus cepedianus Cow sharks are a family (Hexanchidae) of sharks charatcterized by extra pairs of gill slits. ... Binomial name Chlamydoselachus anguineus Garman, 1884 The frilled shark, Chlamydoselachus anguineus, is a primitive shark species, of the family Chlamydoselachidae in the order Hexanchiformes. ... Families Squalidae (dogfish sharks) Centrophoridae (gulper sharks) Dalatiidae (sleeper sharks) Echinorhinidae (bramble sharks) Squaliformes is an order of sharks that includes the smooth dogfish and spiny dogfish and others, about 80 species in four families. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Species Pliotrema warreni Pristiophorus cirratus Pristiophorus japonicus Pristiophorus nudipinnis Pristiophorus schroederi The sawsharks or saw sharks are an order (Pristiophoriformes) of sharks bearing long blade-like snouts edged with teeth, which they use to slash and disable their prey. ... Species (16 species, see text) The angel sharks are an unusual group of sharks, with their flattened bodies and broad pectoral fins that give them a strong resemblance to skates and rays. ... Family Heterodontidae (bullhead sharks) The Heterodontiformes are a small order of very basal (primitive) modern sharks (Neoselachii) known colloquially as the bullhead sharks. ... Cooked mussels Shellfish is a term used to describe shelled molluscs and crustaceans used as food. ... Families Parascyllidae (collared carpet sharks) Brachaeluridae (blind sharks) Orectolobidae (wobbegongs) Hemiscylliidae (bamboo sharks) Ginglymostomatidae (nurse sharks) Stegostomatidae (zebra shark) Rhincodontidae (whale shark) The order Orectolobiformes, also collectively known as the carpet sharks or wobbegongs (in Australia) because most have carpet-like patterned markings, includes a number of familiar types of... This species is sometimes called the leopard shark, a name otherwise used for Triakis semifasciata. ... Binomial names Ginglymostoma cirratum (Bonnaterre, 1788) Nebrius ferrugineus (Lesson, 1831) Pseudoginglymostoma brevicaudatum (Günther, 1867) Nurse sharks are cosmopolitan carpet sharks belonging to the family Ginglymostomatidae. ... Genera Eucrossorhinus Orectolobus Sutorectus Wotwentwong is the common name given to the six species of carpet sharks in the family Orectolobidae. ... Binomial name (Smith, 1828) Range of whale shark The whale shark, Rhincodon typus, is a slow filter feeding shark that is the largest living fish species. ... This article is about fish. ... Families See text. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Range of blue shark The blue shark, Prionace glauca, is a carcharhinid shark which is found in the deep waters of the worlds temperate and tropical oceans. ... For other uses, see Tiger shark (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (Müller and Henle, 1839) Range of bull shark The bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas, also known as the bull whaler, Zambezi shark or informally Zambi in Africa and Nicaragua shark in Nicaragua, is common worldwide in warm, shallow waters along coasts and in rivers. ... Several species of reef-associated sharks are known as reef sharks: Grey reef shark, Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos. ... Binomial name (Poey, 1861) Range of oceanic whitetip shark Synonyms Squalus maou, Lesson 1822-1825 Squalus longimanus, Poey 1861 Pterolamiops longimanus Carcharhinus obtusus, Garman 1881 Carcharhinus insularum, Snyder 1904 Pterolamiops magnipinnis, Smith 1958 Pterolamiops budkeri, Fourmanoir 1961 The oceanic whitetip shark, Carcharhinus longimanus, is a large pelagic shark of tropical... Genera Carcharhinus Galeocerdo Glyphis Isogomphodon Lamiopsis Loxodon Nasolamia Negaprion Prionace Rhizoprionodon Scoliodon Sphyrna Triaenodon The requiem sharks are a family (Carcharhinidae) that includes some of the best-known and most common types of sharks, such as the tiger shark, blue shark, bull shark, and milk shark. ... ... Genera Apristurus Asymbolus Atelomycterus Aulohalaelurus Cephaloscyllium Cephalurus Galeus Halaelurus Haplolepharus Holohalaelurus Parmaturus Pentanchus Poroderma Schroederichthys Scyliorhinus The cat sharks or catsharks are a large family (Scyliorhinidae) of sharks, with over 110 species recorded. ... Species See text. ... Families Odontaspididae (sand tigers) Mitsukurinidae (goblin shark) Pseudocarchariidae (crocodile shark) Megachasmidae (megamouth shark) Alopiidae (thresher sharks) Cetorhinidae (basking shark) Lamnidae (mackerel sharks) Great Lamniformes is an order of sharks commonly known as the mackerel sharks. ... Binomial name Jordan, 1898 Range of the goblin shark (in blue) The goblin shark, Mitsukurina owstoni, is a deep-sea shark, the sole living species in the family Mitsukurinidae. ... Binomial name (Gunnerus, 1765) Range (in blue) The basking shark, Cetorhinus maximus, is the second largest fish, after the whale shark. ... Binomial name Megachasma pelagios Taylor, Compagno and Struhsaker, 1983 The Megamouth Shark (Megachasma pelagios) is an extremely rare and unusual species of shark, first seen in 1976, with 21 specimens having been found as of 2004. ... Species For species see text. ... Binomial name Isurus oxyrinchus Rafinesque, 1810 The Shortfin Mako Shark (Isurus oxyrinchus), commonly called Mako Shark, is a large shark of the Lamnidae family with a full-grown size of 2. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Range (in blue) For other uses, see Great White (disambiguation). ... Ovoviviparous animals develop within eggs that remain within the mothers body up until they hatch or are about to hatch. ... For the film, see Shark Attack 3: Megalodon. ... For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ... Families Callorhynchidae Rhinochimaeridae Chimaeridae Other meanings, based on a fantastic animal, are at Chimera Chimaera is the common name of the species in the families Callorhynchidae, Rhinochimaeridae and Chimaeridae which all are closely related to sharks; they are also called ghost sharks. ... Families See text for families, genera and species. ...

References

Wikispecies has information related to:
Chondrichthyes
Wikibooks
Wikibooks' Dichotomous Key has more about this subject:
Chondrichthyes

  Results from FactBites:
 
Introduction to the Chondrichthyes (220 words)
Sharks, skates, rays, and even stranger fish make up the Chondrichthyes, or "cartilaginous fish." First appearing on Earth almost 450 million years ago, cartilaginous fish today include both fearsome predators and harmless mollusc-eaters (harmless, that is, unless you are a mollusc).
Members of the Chondrichthyes all lack true bone and have a skeleton made of cartilage (the flexible material you can feel in your nose and ears).
Only their teeth, and sometimes their vertebrae, are calcified; this calcified cartilage has a different structure from that of true bone.
Palaeos Vertebrates 70.100 Chondrichthyes: Eugnathostomata (914 words)
Phylogeny: Eugnathostomata : Teleostomi + * : Squatinactida + Orodontida + (Eugeneodontida + Petalodontiformes) + Chondrichthyes (Crown).
Phylogeny: Chondrichthyes : Orodontida + (Eugeneodontida + Petalodontiformes) + Chondrichthyes (Crown) + *.
Phylogeny: Chondrichthyes : Squatinactida + (Eugeneodontida + Petalodontiformes) + Chondrichthyes (Crown) + *.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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