FACTOID # 8: Bookworms: Vermont has the highest number of high school teachers per capita and third highest number of librarians per capita.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Choline" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Choline
Choline
Identifiers
CAS number [62-49-7]
PubChem 305
MeSH Choline
Properties
Molecular formula C5H14NO+
Molar mass 104.171
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)

Infobox disclaimer and references

Choline is an organic compound, classified as an essential nutrient and usually grouped within the Vitamin B complex. This natural amine is found in the lipids that make up cell membranes and in the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Adequate intakes (AI) for this micronutrient of between 425 to 550 milligrams daily, for adults, have been established by the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences. [1] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x554, 10 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Functional group Choline User:Benjah-bmm27/Old gallery ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... PubChem is a database of chemical molecules. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Molar mass is the mass of one mole of a chemical element or chemical compound. ... In chemistry, the standard state of a material is its state at 1 bar (100 kilopascals) and 25 degrees Celsius (298. ... Organic may refer to: Look up organic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An essential nutrient is a nutrient required for normal body functioning that cannot be synthesized by the body. ... Vitamin B is a complex of several vitamins. ... The general structure of an amine Amines are organic compounds and a type of functional group that contain nitrogen as the key atom. ... Chemical structure of D-Aspartic Acid, a common Amino Acid neurotransmitter. ... The chemical compound acetylcholine, often abbreviated as ACh, was the first neurotransmitter to be identified. ... Micronutrients for plants: There are about eight nutrients essential to plant growth and health that are only present in very small quantities. ...

Contents

History

Choline was discovered by Andreas Strecker in 1862 and chemically synthesized in 1866. In 1998 choline was classified as an essential nutrient by the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine (U.S.A.). 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... In chemistry, chemical synthesis is purposeful execution of chemical reactions in order to get a product, or several products. ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean [1]. // Coated in ice, power and telephone lines sag and often break, resulting in power outages. ... An essential nutrient is a nutrient required for normal body functioning that cannot be synthesized by the body. ... The Institute of Medicine, a part of the National Academy of Sciences, is an American organization whose purpose is to provide national advice on issues relating to biomedical science, medicine, and health (National Academy of Sciences, n. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from...


Chemistry

Choline is a quaternary saturated amine with the chemical formula: (CH3)3N+CH2CH2OHX. where X is a counterion such as chloride (see choline chloride), hydroxide or tartrate. Categories: Chemistry stubs ... In chemistry, saturation has four different meanings: In physical chemistry, saturation is the point at which a solution of a substance can dissolve no more of that substance and additional amounts of that substance will appear as a precipitate. ... The general structure of an amine Amines are organic compounds and a type of functional group that contain nitrogen as the key atom. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... In chemistry a methyl-group is a hydrophobic Alkyl functional group which is derived from methane (CH4). ... General Name, Symbol, Number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... In chemistry, methylene is a divalent functional group CH2 derived formally from methane. ... In chemistry, methylene is a divalent functional group CH2 derived formally from methane. ... // Hydroxyl group The term hydroxyl group is used to describe the functional group -OH when it is a substituent in an organic compound. ... A counterion is the ion that accompanies an ionic species in order to maintain electric neutrality. ... The chloride ion is formed when the element chlorine picks up one electron to form an anion (negatively-charged ion) Cl−. The salts of hydrochloric acid HCl contain chloride ions and can also be called chlorides. ... Choline chloride or N-(2-Hydroxyethyl)trimethylammonium chloride is an organic compound and a quaternary ammonium salt. ... // Hydroxyl group The term hydroxyl group is used to describe the functional group -OH when it is a substituent in an organic compound. ... Tartaric acid or H2C4H4O6 is a white crystalline organic acid. ...


Physiology

Choline metabolism. (Choline is green box at left, second from the bottom.)

Choline and its metabolites are needed for three main physiological purposes: structural integrity and signaling roles for cell membranes, cholinergic neurotransmission (acetylcholine synthesis), and as a major source for methyl groups via its metabolite, trimethylglycine (betaine) that participates in the S-adenosylmethionine synthesis pathways. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 732 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (803 × 658 pixel, file size: 34 KB, MIME type: image/png) Mihai Niculescu I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 732 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (803 × 658 pixel, file size: 34 KB, MIME type: image/png) Mihai Niculescu I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Metabolites are the intermediates and products of metabolism. ... Leonardo da Vincis Vitruvian Man, an important early achievement in the study of physiology. ... Cell signaling is part of a complex system of communication that governs basic cellular activities and coordinates cell actions. ... Neurotransmitters are chemicals that are used to relay, amplify and modulate electrical signals between a neuron and another cell. ... The chemical compound acetylcholine, often abbreviated as ACh, was the first neurotransmitter to be identified. ... An overview of protein synthesis. ... In chemistry a methyl-group is a hydrophobic Alkyl functional group which is derived from methane (CH4). ... Betaine Trimethylglycine (also known as Betaine) is more specifically N,N,N-trimethylglycine and is an organic compound with a structure similar to choline. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into S-Adenosyl methionine. ... In biochemistry, a metabolic pathway is a series of chemical reactions occurring within a cell, catalyzed by enzymes, resulting in either the formation of a metabolic product to be used or stored by the cell, or the initiation of another metabolic pathway (then called a flux generating step). ...


When choline is metabolized by the body, it may form trimethylamine, a compound with a fishy odor. Hence, when large amounts of choline are taken the person may suffer from a fishy body odor. A few of the metabolic pathways in a cell. ... With regard to living things, a body is the integral physical material of an individual. ... Trimethylamine, also known as NMe3, N(CH3)3, and TMA, is a colorless, hygroscopic, and flammable simple amine with a typical fishy odor in low concentrations and an ammonia-like odor in higher concentrations. ... Bromhidrosis or body odor (also called bromidrosis, osmidrosis and ozochrotia) is the smell of bacteria growing on the body. ...


Choline as a supplement

It is well established that supplements of methyl group transfer vitamins B6, B12, folic acid reduce the blood titer of homocysteine and prevent heart disease. Choline is a necessary source of methyl groups for methyl group transfer. Supplements of lecithin/choline by Central Soya scientists reduced heart disease in laboratory studies. The reduction in heart disease with lecithin supplements may however relate more to the cholesterol carrying capacity of lecithin than to the methyl group transfer role of choline.[specify] Pyridoxine Vitamin B6 pyridoxine is a water-soluble vitamin. ... Cobalamin or vitamin B12 is a chemical compound that is also known as cyanocobalamine. ... Folic acid and folate (the anion form) are forms of the water-soluble Vitamin B9. ... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ... A titer (BE: titre) is the unit in which the analytical detection of many substances is expressed. ... Homocysteine is a chemical compound with the formula HSCH2CH2CH(NH2)CO2H. It is a homologue of the naturally-occurring amino acid cysteine, differing in that its side-chain contains an additional methylene (-CH2-) group before the thiol (-SH) group. ... Cardiovascular disease refers to the class of diseases that involve the heart cardivascular is verrry bad do not contract this disease and/or blood vessels (arteries and veins). ... Phosphatidylcholine, a phospholipid in lecithin. ... In medicine, a clinical trial (synonyms: clinical studies, research protocols, medical research) is the application of the scientific method to human health. ... Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol) and a lipid found in the cell membranes of all body tissues, and transported in the blood plasma of all animals. ...


Choline supplements are often taken as a form of 'smart drug' or nootropic, due to the the role that the neurotransmitter acetylcholine plays in various cognition systems within the brain. Choline is a chemical precursor or "building block" needed to produce the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, and research suggests that memory and intelligence are mediated at least in part by acetylcholine metabolism in the brain. The efficacy of these supplements in enhancing cognitive abilities is a topic of continuing debate. Nootropics, popularly referred to as smart drugs and smart nutrients, are substances which boost human cognitive abilities (the functions and capacities of the brain). ... The chemical compound acetylcholine, often abbreviated as ACh, was the first neurotransmitter to be identified. ... Look up Cognition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requires that infant formula be made from cow's milk containing choline.[1] FDA logo The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services and is responsible for regulating food, dietary supplements, drugs, biological medical products, blood products, medical devices, radiation-emitting devices, veterinary products, and cosmetics in the United States. ... An infant being fed by bottle. ... A glass of cows milk. ...


Due to its role in lipid metabolism, Choline has also found its way into nutritional supplements which claim to reduce body fat; but there is little or no evidence to prove that it has any effect on reducing excess body fat or that taking high amounts of Choline will increase the rate at which fat is metabolised. Fatty acids are an important source of energy for many organisms. ... It has been suggested that Subcutaneous fat be merged into this article or section. ... The scientific method or process is fundamental to the scientific investigation and acquisition of new knowledge based upon physical evidence. ...


Sources

The foods richest in phosphatidylcholine — the major delivery form of choline — are egg yolks, soy and cooked beef, chicken, veal and turkey livers. Many foods contain trace amounts of free choline, even iceberg lettuce. To what extent these trace forms are usable by human digestion is still debated. In 2004, the USDA released its first database of the choline content in common foods.[2] Lecithin, also known as Phosphatidylcholine Lecithin is usually used as synonym for phosphatidylcholine, a phospholipid which is the major component of a phosphatide fraction which may be isolated from either egg yolk (in Greek lekithos - λεκιθος), or soy beans. ... The egg yolk is the yellow inside an egg. ... Binomial name Glycine max (L.) Merr. ... For other uses, see Beef (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Veal is a culinary term for meat produced from calves. ... Binomial name Lactuca sativa L. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States Department of Agriculture (also called the Agriculture Department, or USDA) is a United States Federal Executive Department (or Cabinet Department). ...


The most often available choline dietary supplement is lecithin, derived from soy or egg yolks, often used as a food additive. A dietary supplement is intended to supply nutrients, (vitamins, minerals, fatty acids or amino acids) that are missing or not consumed in sufficient quantity in a persons diet. ... Phosphatidylcholine, a phospholipid in lecithin. ... Food additives are substances added to food to preserve flavor or improve its taste and appearance. ...


Additional images

References

  1. ^ http://www.fda.gov/fdac/features/596_baby.html
  2. ^ http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp/Data/Choline/Choline.html

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Choline (0 words)
Choline is a precursor for phosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin, acetylcholine and the methyl donor betaine.
Trimethylamine, a choline metabolite, is oxidized to trimethylamine oxide in the liver.
Choline deficiency-induced apoptosis in PC 12 cells is associated with diminished membrane phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin, accumulation of ceramide and ciccylglycerol, and activation of a caspace.
Choline (722 words)
Choline is important for nerve structure and function; and this change may contribute to the type of dementia in which cholinergic nerves are lost.
Choline is actively transported from mother to fetus across the placenta and from mother to infant across the mammary gland.
Choline supplements have been used to treat the symptoms of brain diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Huntington's chorea, in which acetylcholine levels are low due to the reduced activity of the enzyme which synthesizes it.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m