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Encyclopedia > Cholera
Cholera
Classification and external resources
TEM image of Vibrio cholerae
ICD-10 A00.,
Distribution of cholera

Cholera, sometimes known as Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera, is an infectious gastroenteritis caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.[1][2] Transmission to humans occurs through the process of ingesting contaminated water or food. The major reservoir for cholera was long assumed to be humans themselves, but considerable evidence exists that aquatic environments can serve as reservoirs of the bacteria. Vibrio cholerae. ... Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is an imaging technique whereby a beam of electrons is focused onto a specimen causing an enlarged version to appear on a fluorescent screen or layer of photographic film (see electron microscope), or can be detected by a CCD camera. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... // A00-A79 - Bacterial infections, and other intestinal infectious diseases, and STDs (A00-A09) Intestinal infectious diseases (A00) Cholera (A01) Typhoid and paratyphoid fevers (A010) Typhoid fever (A02) Other Salmonella infections (A03) Shigellosis (A04) Other bacterial intestinal infections (A040) Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infection (A045) Campylobacter enteritis (A046) Enteritis due to Yersinia... Download high resolution version (1357x628, 46 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Cholera ... Download high resolution version (1357x628, 46 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Cholera ... See also Bacterial gastroenteritis and Diarrhea Gastroenteritis is a general term referring to inflammation or infection of the gastrointestinal tract, primarily the stomach and intestines. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Binomial name Vibrio cholerae Pacini 1854 Vibrio cholerae is a gram negative bacterium with a curved-rod shape that causes cholera in humans. ...


Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative bacterium that produces cholera toxin, an enterotoxin, whose action on the mucosal epithelium lining of the small intestine is responsible for the characteristic massive diarrhea of the disease.[1] In its most severe forms, cholera is one of the most rapidly fatal illnesses known, and a healthy person may become hypotensive within an hour of the onset of symptoms; infected patients may die within three hours if treatment is not provided.[1] In a common scenario, the disease progresses from the first liquid stool to shock in 4 to 12 hours, with death following in 18 hours to several days without oral rehydration therapy.[3][4] Bacteria that are Gram-negative are not stained dark blue or violet by Gram staining, in contrast to Gram-positive bacteria. ... Drawing of Death bringing the cholera, in Le Petit Journal. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... The mucous membranes (or mucosa) are linings of ectodermic origin, covered in epithelium, that line various body cavities and internal organs. ... This article is about the epithelium as it relates to animal anatomy. ... In biology the small intestine is the part of the gastrointestinal tract (gut) between the stomach and the large intestine and comprises the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. ... In physiology and medicine, hypotension refers to an abnormally low blood pressure. ... Oral Rehydration Therapy, or ORT, is a simple, cheap, and effective treatment for diarrhea caused by, e. ...

Contents

Symptoms

The diarrhea associated with cholera is acute and so severe that, unless oral rehydration therapy is started promptly, the diarrhea may within hours result in severe dehydration (a medical emergency), or even death. In medicine, diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea (see spelling differences), refers to frequent loose or liquid bowel movements. ... In medicine, an acute disease is a disease with either or both of: a rapid onset; a short course (as opposed to a chronic course). ... Oral Rehydration Therapy, or ORT, is a simple, cheap, and effective treatment for diarrhea caused by, e. ... Dehydration (hypohydration) is the removal of water (hydro in ancient Greek) from an object. ... {{Otheruses4|the medical term|the Australian television series|Medical Emergenc an immediate threat to a persons life or long term health. ... For other uses, see Death (disambiguation). ...


According to novelist Susan Sontag, cholera was more feared than some other deadly diseases because it dehumanized the victim. Diarrhea and dehydration were so severe the victim could literally shrink into a wizened caricature of his or her former self before death.[5] Image needed Susan Sontag (January 16, 1933 – December 28, 2004) was an American essayist, novelist, filmmaker, and activist. ... In medicine, diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea (see spelling differences), refers to frequent loose or liquid bowel movements. ...


Other symptoms include rapid dehydration, rapid pulse, dry skin, tiredness, abdominal cramps, nausea, and vomiting.


Traditionally, Cholera was widespread throughout third world countries, however more recently outbreaks have occurred in more rural parts of England and the United States' mid-west region.


Treatment

Cholera patient being treated by medical staff in 1992.

Water and electrolyte replacement are essential treatments for cholera, as dehydration and electrolyte depletion occur rapidly. Prompt use of oral rehydration therapy is highly effective, safe, uncomplicated, and inexpensive. Image File history File links Cholera_rehydration_nurses. ... Image File history File links Cholera_rehydration_nurses. ... Dehydration (hypohydration) is the removal of water (hydro in ancient Greek) from an object. ... Oral Rehydration Therapy, or ORT, is a simple, cheap, and effective treatment for diarrhea caused by, e. ...


The use of intravenous rehydration may be absolutely necessary in severe cases, under some conditions. An intravenous drip in a hospital Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the administration of liquid substances directly into a vein. ...


In addition, tetracycline is typically used as the primary antibiotic, although some strains of V. cholerae exist that have shown resistance. Other antibiotics that have been proven effective against V. cholerae include cotrimoxazole, erythromycin, doxycycline, chloramphenicol, and furazolidone.[6] Fluoroquinolones such as norfloxacin also may be used, but resistance has been reported.[7] Tetracycline (INN) (IPA: ) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by the streptomyces bacterium, indicated for use against many bacterial infections. ... Co-trimoxazole (abbreviated SXT, TMP-SMX, or TMP-sulfa) is an antibiotic combination of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole, in the ratio of 1 to 5, used in the treatment of a variety of bacterial infections. ... Erythromycin is a macrolide antibiotic which has an antimicrobial spectrum similar to or slightly wider than that of penicillin, and is often used for people who have an allergy to penicillins. ... Doxycycline (INN) (IPA: ) is a member of the tetracycline antibiotics group and is commonly used to treat a variety of infections. ... Chloramphenicol is a bacteriostatic antibiotic originally derived from the bacterium Streptomyces venezuelae, isolated by David Gottlieb, and introduced into clinical practice in 1949. ... Furazolidone (also marketed as Furoxone) is an antibiotic used to treat diarrhea and enteritis caused by bacteria or protozoan infections. ... Quinolones and fluoroquinolones form a group of broad-spectrum antibiotics. ... Norfloxacin is an oral broad-spectrum quinoline antibacterial agent used in the treatment of urinary tract infections. ...


Rapid diagnostic assay methods are available for the identification of multidrug resistant V. cholerae.[8] New generation antimicrobials have been discovered which are effective against V. cholerae in in vitro studies.[9]


Epidemiology

Prevention

Although cholera can be life-threatening, the disease is straightforward to prevent if proper sanitation practices are followed. In the first world, due to advanced water treatment and sanitation systems, cholera is no longer a major health threat. The last major outbreak of cholera in the United States occurred in 1911. Travelers should be aware of how the disease is transmitted and what can be done to prevent it. Good sanitation practices, if instituted in time, are usually sufficient to stop an epidemic. There are several points along the transmission path at which the spread may be halted: The terms First World, Second World, and Third World were used to divide the nations of Earth into three broad categories. ... A water treatment plant in northern Portugal. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...

Cholera hospital in Dhaka.
  • Sterilization: Proper disposal and treatment of the germ infected fecal waste (and all clothing and bedding that come in contact with it) produced by cholera victims is of primary importance. All materials (such as clothing and bedding) that come in contact with cholera patients should be sterilized in hot water using chlorine bleach if possible. Hands that touch cholera patients or their clothing and bedding should be thoroughly cleaned and sterilized.
  • Sewage: Treatment of general sewage before it enters the waterways or underground water supplies prevents undiagnosed patients from spreading the disease.
  • Sources: Warnings about cholera contamination posted around contaminated water sources with directions on how to decontaminate the water.
  • Water purification: All water used for drinking, washing, or cooking should be sterilized by boiling or chlorination in any area where cholera may be present. Boiling, filtering, and chlorination of water kill the bacteria produced by cholera patients and prevent infections from spreading. Water filtration, chlorination, and boiling are by far the most effective means of halting transmission. Cloth filters, though very basic, have significantly reduced the occurrence of cholera when used in poor villages in Bangladesh that rely on untreated surface water. Public health education and appropriate sanitation practices can help prevent transmission.

A vaccine is available outside the US, but this prophylactic is short-lived in efficacy and not currently recommended by the CDC.[10] Dhaka (previously Dacca; Bengali: Ḍhākā; IPA: ) is the capital of Bangladesh and the principal city of Dhaka District. ... Sterilization (or sterilisation) refers to any process that effectively kills or eliminates transmissible agents (such as fungi, bacteria, viruses and prions) from a surface, equipment, foods, medications, or biological culture medium. ... Sewage is the mainly liquid waste containing some solids produced by humans which typically consists of washing water, faeces, urine, laundry waste and other material which goes down drains and toilets from households and industry. ... Decontamination of humans is usually done by a three step procedure, separated by sex: removal of clothing, washing, and reclothing. ... Chlorination is the process of adding the element chlorine to water as a method of water purification to make it fit for human consumption as drinking water. ... In polluted or even unfiltered mountain water there are lots of parasitic organisms and inorganic chemicals that are dangerous to humans. ... Developed for use in Bangladesh, the cloth filter is a simple and cost-effective appropriate technology method for reducing the contamination of drinking water. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ...


Susceptibility

Recent epidemiologic research suggests that an individual's susceptibility to cholera (and other diarrheal infections) is affected by their blood type: Those with type O blood are the most susceptible,[11][12] while those with type AB are the most resistant. Between these two extremes are the A and B blood types, with type A being more resistant than type B.[13] Epidemiology is the study of factors affecting the health and illness of populations, and serves as the foundation and logic of interventions made in the interest of public health and preventive medicine. ... In medicine, diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea (see spelling differences), refers to frequent loose or liquid bowel movements. ... This article is about human blood types (or blood groups). ... A blood type (or blood group) is a surface molecule in the cell membrane of red blood cells, which exists in different variants among members of the same species. ... A blood type (or blood group) is a surface molecule in the cell membrane of red blood cells, which exists in different variants among members of the same species. ...


About one million V. cholerae bacteria must typically be ingested to cause cholera in normally healthy adults, although increased susceptibility may be observed in those with a weakened immune system, individuals with decreased gastric acidity (as from the use of antacids), or those who are malnourished. A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... Look up antacid in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Percentage of population affected by malnutrition by country, according to United Nations statistics. ...


It has also been hypothesized that the cystic fibrosis genetic mutation has been maintained in humans due to a selective advantage: heterozygous carriers of the mutation (who are thus not affected by cystic fibrosis) are more resistant to V. cholerae infections.[14] In this model, the genetic deficiency in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator channel proteins interferes with bacteria binding to the gastrointestinal epithelium, thus reducing the effects of an infection. For linguistic mutation, see Apophony. ... Heterozygote cells are diploid or polyploid and have different alleles at a locus (position) on homologous chromosomes. ... Orthologs Human Mouse Entrez Ensembl Uniprot Refseq Location CFTR are also the call letters for radio station CFTR (AM) in Toronto, Ontario. ... For the Physics term GUT, please refer to Grand unification theory The gastrointestinal or digestive tract, also referred to as the GI tract or the alimentary canal or the gut, is the system of organs within multicellular animals which takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and...


Transmission

Drawing of Death bringing the cholera, in Le Petit Journal.

Persons infected with cholera have massive diarrhea. This highly-liquid diarrhea is loaded with bacteria that can spread to infect water used by other people. Cholera is transmitted from person to person through ingestion of water contaminated with the cholera bacterium, usually from feces or other effluent. The source of the contamination is typically other cholera patients when their untreated diarrhea discharge is allowed to get into waterways or into groundwater or drinking water supply. Any infected water and any foods washed in the water, as well as shellfish living in the affected waterway, can cause an infection. Cholera is rarely spread directly from person to person. V. cholerae harbors naturally in the plankton of fresh, brackish, and salt water, attached primarily to copepods in the zooplankton. Both toxic and non-toxic strains exist. Non-toxic strains can acquire toxicity through a lysogenic bacteriophage.[15] Coastal cholera outbreaks typically follow zooplankton blooms, thus making cholera a zoonotic disease. Image File history File links Cholera. ... Image File history File links Cholera. ... For scale drawings or plans, see Plans (drawings). ... A Western depiction of Death as a skeleton carrying a scythe. ... Le Petit Journal was a daily Parisian newspaper that appeared between 1863 and 1944. ... In medicine, diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea (see spelling differences), refers to frequent loose or liquid bowel movements. ... Horse feces Feces, faeces, or fæces (see spelling differences) is a waste product from an animals digestive tract expelled through the anus (or cloaca) during defecation. ... In the context of creating Plutonium at the Hanford Site, effluent refers to the cooling water that is discharged from a nuclear reactor that may or may not be radioactive. ... Groundwater is water located beneath the ground surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of lithologic formations. ... Cooked mussels Shellfish is a term used to describe shelled molluscs and crustaceans used as food. ... This article is about the real-life under-sea organisms. ... For the village on the Isle of Wight, see Freshwater, Isle of Wight. ... Brackish redirects here. ... Annual mean sea surface salinity for the World Ocean. ... Orders Calanoida Cyclopoida Gelyelloida Harpacticoida Misophrioida Monstrilloida Mormonilloida Platycopioida Poecilostomatoida Siphonostomatoida Acanthochondria cornuta, an ectoparasite on Whiting in the North Sea. ... Photomontage of plankton organisms Plankton is the aggregate community of weakly swimming but mostly drifting small organisms that inhabit the water column of the ocean, seas, and bodies of freshwater. ... Lysogeny is the fusion of the nucleic acid of a bacteriophage with that of a host bacterium so that the potential exists for the newly integrated genetic material to be transmitted to daughter cells at each subsequent cell division. ... An artists rendering of an Enterobacteria phage T4. ... Algal blooms can present problems for ecosystems and human society An algal bloom or marine bloom or water bloom is a rapid increase in the population of algae in an aquatic system. ... Zoonosis (pronounced ) is any infectious disease that may be transmitted from other animals, both wild and domestic, to humans or from humans to animals (the latter is sometimes called reverse zoonosis). ...


Laboratory diagnosis

Stool and swab samples collected in the acute stage of the disease, before antibiotics have been administered, are the most useful specimens for laboratory diagnosis. A number of special media have been employed for the cultivation for cholera vibrios. They are classified as follows:


Holding or transport media

  1. Venkataraman-ramakrishnan (VR) medium: This medium has 20g Sea Salt Powder and 5g Peptone dissolved in 1L of distilled water.
  2. Cary-Blair medium: This the most widely-used carrying media. This is a buffered solution of sodium chloride, sodium thioglycollate, disodium phosphate and calcium chloride at pH 8.4.
  3. Autoclaved sea water'

Enrichment media

  1. Alkaline peptone water at pH 8.6
  2. Monsur's taurocholate tellurite peptone water at pH 9.2

Plating media

  1. Alkaline bile salt agar (BSA): The colonies are very similar to those on nutrient agar.
  2. Monsur's gelatin Tauro cholate trypticase tellurite agar (GTTA) medium: Cholera vibrios produce small translucent colonies with a greyish black centre.
  3. TCBS medium: This the mostly widely used medium. This medium contains thiosulphate, citrate, bile salts and sucrose. Also in oysters and lobster in some cases. Cholera vibrios produce flat 2-3 mm in diameter, yellow nucleated colonies.

Direct microscopy of stool is not recommended as it is unreliable. Microscopy is preferred only after enrichment, as this process reveals the characteristic motility of Vibrios and its inhibition by appropriate antiserum. Diagnosis can be confirmed as well as serotyping done by agglutination with specific sera. This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Microscopy is any technique for producing visible images of structures or details too small to otherwise be seen by the human eye, using a microscope or other magnification tool. ... Antiserum is blood serum containing antibodies. ... For the music festival, see Agglutination Metal Festival. ...


Biochemistry of the V. cholerae bacterium

Most of the V. cholerae bacteria in the contaminated water that a host drinks do not survive the very acidic conditions of the human stomach.[16] The few bacteria that do survive conserve their energy and stored nutrients during the passage through the stomach by shutting down much protein production. When the surviving bacteria exit the stomach and reach the small intestine, they need to propel themselves through the thick mucus that lines the small intestine to get to the intestinal wall where they can thrive. V. cholerae bacteria start up production of the hollow cylindrical protein flagellin to make flagella, the curly whip-like tails that they rotate to propel themselves through the mucous that lines the small intestine. In anatomy, the stomach is a bean-shaped hollow muscular organ of the gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication. ... A nutrient is a substance used in an organisms metabolism which must be taken in from the environment. ... In biology the small intestine is the part of the gastrointestinal tract (gut) between the stomach and the large intestine and comprises the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. ... The mucous membranes (or mucosae; singular: mucosa) are linings of mostly endodermal origin, covered in epithelium, and are involved in absorption and secretion. ... Helicobacter pylori electron micrograph, showing multiple flagella on the cell surface Flagellin is a protein that arranges itself in a hollow cylinder to form the filament in bacterial flagellum. ... A flagellum (plural, flagella) is a whip-like organelle that many unicellular organisms, and some multicellular ones, use to move about. ...


Once the cholera bacteria reach the intestinal wall, they do not need the flagella propellers to move themselves any longer. The bacteria stop producing the protein flagellin, thus again conserving energy and nutrients by changing the mix of proteins that they manufacture in response to the changed chemical surroundings. On reaching the intestinal wall, V. cholerae start producing the toxic proteins that give the infected person a watery diarrhea. This carries the multiplying new generations of V. cholerae bacteria out into the drinking water of the next host—if proper sanitation measures are not in place. In medicine, diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea (see spelling differences), refers to frequent loose or liquid bowel movements. ...

Cholera Toxin. The delivery region (blue) binds membrane carbohydrates to get into cells. The toxic part (red) is activated inside the cell (PDB code: 1xtc)

Microbiologists have studied the genetic mechanisms by which the V. cholerae bacteria turn off the production of some proteins and turn on the production of other proteins as they respond to the series of chemical environments they encounter, passing through the stomach, through the mucous layer of the small intestine, and on to the intestinal wall.[17] Of particular interest have been the genetic mechanisms by which cholera bacteria turn on the protein production of the toxins that interact with host cell mechanisms to pump chloride ions into the small intestine, creating an ionic pressure which prevents sodium ions from entering the cell. The chloride and sodium ions create a salt water environment in the small intestines which through osmosis can pull up to six liters of water per day through the intestinal cells creating the massive amounts of diarrhea.[18]The host can become rapidly dehydrated if an appropriate mixture of dilute salt water and sugar is not taken to replace the blood's water and salts lost in the diarrhea. Image File history File links Cholera_Toxin. ... Image File history File links Cholera_Toxin. ... Gene expression, or simply expression, is the process by which the inheritable information which comprises a gene, such as the DNA sequence, is made manifest as a physical and biologically functional gene product, such as protein or RNA. Several steps in the gene expression process may be modulated, including the... The chloride ion is formed when the element chlorine picks up one electron to form an anion (negatively-charged ion) Cl−. The salts of hydrochloric acid HCl contain chloride ions and can also be called chlorides. ...


By inserting separately, successive sections of V. cholerae DNA into the DNA of other bacteria such as E. coli that would not naturally produce the protein toxins, researchers have investigated the mechanisms by which V. cholerae responds to the changing chemical environments of the stomach, mucous layers, and intestinal wall. Researchers have discovered that there is a complex cascade of regulatory proteins that control expression of V. cholerae virulence determinants. In responding to the chemical environment at the intestinal wall, the V. cholerae bacteria produce the TcpP/TcpH proteins, which, together with the ToxR/ToxS proteins, activate the expression of the ToxT regulatory protein. ToxT then directly activates expression of virulence genes that produce the toxins that cause diarrhea in the infected person and that permit the bacteria to colonize the intestine.[17] Current research aims at discovering "the signal that makes the cholera bacteria stop swimming and start to colonize (that is, adhere to the cells of) the small intestine."[17] See also Entamoeba coli. ...


History

Origin and spread

Cholera was originally endemic to the Indian subcontinent, with the Ganges River likely serving as a contamination reservoir. The disease spread by trade routes (land and sea) to Russia, then to Western Europe, and from Europe to North America. Cholera is now no longer considered a pressing health threat in Europe and North America due to filtering and chlorination of water supplies. In epidemiology, an infection is said to be endemic in a population when that infection is maintained in the population without the need for external inputs. ... This article is about the river. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... North American redirects here. ... In polluted or even unfiltered mountain water there are lots of parasitic organisms and inorganic chemicals that are dangerous to humans. ... Chlorination is the process of adding the element chlorine to water as a method of water purification to make it fit for human consumption as drinking water. ...

  • 1816-1826 - First cholera pandemic: Previously restricted, the pandemic began in Bengal, and then spread across India by 1820. The cholera outbreak extended as far as China and the Caspian Sea before receding.
  • 1829-1851 - Second cholera pandemic reached Europe, London and Paris in 1832. In London, the disease claimed 6,536 victims; in Paris, 20,000 succumbed (out of a population of 650,000) with about 100,000 deaths in all of France.[19] The epidemic reached Russia (see Cholera Riots), Quebec, Ontario and New York in the same year and the Pacific coast of North America by 1834. [20]
  • 1849 - Second major outbreak in Paris. In London, it was the worst outbreak in the city's history, claiming 14,137 lives, over twice as many as the 1832 outbreak. In 1849 cholera claimed 5,308 lives in the port city of Liverpool, England, and 1,834 in Hull, England.[19] An outbreak in North America took the life of former U.S. President James K. Polk. Cholera spread throughout the Mississippi river system killing over 4,500 in St. Louis[19] and over 3,000 in New Orleans[19] as well as thousands in New York.[19] In 1849 cholera was spread along the California and Oregon trail as hundreds died on their way to the California Gold Rush, Utah and Oregon.[19]
  • 1852-1860 - Third cholera pandemic mainly affected Russia, with over a million deaths. In 1853-4, London's epidemic claimed 10,738 lives.
  • 1854 - Outbreak of cholera in Chicago took the lives of 5.5% of the population (about 3,500 people).[19] The Soho outbreak in London ended after removal of the handle of the Broad Street pump by a committee instigated to action by John Snow.[21]
  • 1863-1875 - Fourth cholera pandemic spread mostly in Europe and Africa.
  • 1866 - Outbreak in North America. In London, a localized epidemic in the East End claimed 5,596 lives just as London was completing its major sewage and water treatment systems--the East End was not quite complete. William Farr, using the work of John Snow et al. as to contaminated drinking water being the likely source of the disease, was able to relatively quickly identify the East London Water Company as the source of the contaminated water. Quick action prevented further deaths.[19] Also a minor outbreak at Ystalyfera in South Wales. Caused by the local water works using contaminated canal water, it was mainly its workers and their families who suffered. Only 119 died.
1892 Cholera outbreak in Hamburg, Germany, hospital ward
1892 Cholera outbreak in Hamburg, Germany, disinfection team
  • 1881-1896 - Fifth cholera pandemic ; The 1892 outbreak in Hamburg, Germany was the only major European outbreak; about 8,600 people died in Hamburg. Although generally held responsible for the virulence of the epidemic, the city government went largely unchanged. This was the last serious European cholera outbreak.
  • 1899-1923 - Sixth cholera pandemic had little effect in Europe because of advances in public health, but major Russian cities were particularly hard hit by cholera deaths.
  • 1961-1970s - Seventh cholera pandemic began in Indonesia, called El Tor after the strain, and reached Bangladesh in 1963, India in 1964, and the USSR in 1966. From North Africa it spread into Italy by 1973. In the late 1970s, there were small outbreaks in Japan and in the South Pacific. There were also many reports of a cholera outbreak near Baku in 1972, but information about it was suppressed in the USSR.
  • January 1991 to September 1994 - Outbreak in South America, apparently initiated when a ship discharged ballast water. Beginning in Peru there were 1.04 million identified cases and almost 10,000 deaths. The causative agent was an O1, El Tor strain, with small differences from the seventh pandemic strain. In 1992 a new strain appeared in Asia, a non-O1, nonagglutinable vibrio (NAG) named O139 Bengal. It was first identified in Tamil Nadu, India and for a while displaced El Tor in southern Asia before decreasing in prevalence from 1995 to around 10% of all cases. It is considered to be an intermediate between El Tor and the classic strain and occurs in a new serogroup. There is evidence of the emergence of wide-spectrum resistance to drugs such as trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole and streptomycin.

For other uses, see Bengal (disambiguation). ... The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the worlds largest lake or a full-fledged sea. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... The Cholera Riots (Холерные бунты in Russian) were the anti-serf riots of the urban population, peasants and soldiers in Russia in 1830-1831 during the cholera outbreak. ... This article describes the Canadian province. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Lieutenant Governor James K. Bartleman Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Area 1,076,395 km² (4th)  - Land 917,741 km²  - Water 158,654 km² (14. ... This article is about the state. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. President. ... The California Gold Rush (1848–1855) began shortly after January 24, 1848 (when gold was discovered at Sutters Mill in Coloma). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Cast-iron architecture in Greene Street SoHo is a neighborhood in the New York City borough of Manhattan. ... Broadwick Street showing the John Snow memorial and pub Sited at the junction of Broad Street (today Broadwick Street) and Cambridge Street (today Lexington Street) in Soho, London W1, close to the rear wall of what is today is the John Snow pub. ... Dr. John Snow John Snow (16 March 1813 – 16 June 1858) was a British physician and a leader in the adoption of anaesthesia and medical hygiene. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Dr. John Snow John Snow (16 March 1813 – 16 June 1858) was a British physician and a leader in the adoption of anaesthesia and medical hygiene. ... Mynydd Y Ddarren Ystalyfera (Grid reference SN767089) is a rural village in the of South Wales, UK. It is situated on the River Tawe in the County of Neath Port Talbot, or more traditionally, West Glamorgan. ... This article is about the city in Germany. ... This article is about the city in Germany. ... This article is about the city in Germany. ... El Tor is the name given to a particular strain of Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Location in Azerbaijan Coordinates: , Country Government  - Mayor Hajibala Abutalybov Area  - Total 260 km² (100. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... Trimethoprim is a bacteriostatic antibiotic mainly used in the prophylaxis and treatment of urinary tract infections (cystitis). ... Sulfamethoxazole is a sulfonamide bacteriostatic antibiotic. ... Streptomycin is an antibiotic drug, the first of a class of drugs called aminoglycosides to be discovered, and was the first antibiotic remedy for tuberculosis. ...

Famous cholera victims

The pathos in the last movement of Tchaikovsky's (c. 1840-1893) last symphony made people think that Tchaikovsky had a premonition of death. "A week after the premiere of his Sixth Symphony, Tchaikovsky was dead--6 November 1893. The cause of this indisposition and stomach ache was suspected to be his intentionally infecting himself with cholera by drinking contaminated water. The day before, while having lunch with Modest (his brother and biographer), he is said to have poured tap water from a pitcher into his glass and drunk a few swallows. Since the water was not boiled and cholera was once again rampaging St. Petersburg, such a connection was quite plausible ...."[22] “Tchaikovsky” redirects here. ... Excerpt from the fourth movement of Tchaikovskys Pathetique Symphony. ... Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (Russian: Пётр Ильич Чайкoвский Pëtr Ilič ÄŒajkovskij) (7 May [O.S. 25 April] 1840 – 6 November [O.S. 25 October] 1893), also transliterated Piotr Ilitsch Tschaikowsky or Peter Ilich Tschaikowsky, was a Russian composer of the Romantic era. ... Saint Petersburg  listen (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of...


Other famous people who succumbed to the disease include:

Edward Hand (December 31, 1744–September 3, 1802) was an American physician and soldier from Lancaster, Pennsylvania. ... This article is about the U.S. President. ... Mary Abigail Fillmore (born 1832 in Buffalo, New York; died 1854 in East Aurora, New York) was the daughter of President Millard Fillmore and Abigail Powers, and was the White House Hostess from 1850 to 1853 due to her mothers broken ankle. ... Not to be confused with Mallard Fillmore. ... Jack the Ripper is the pseudonym given to an unidentified serial killer active in the largely impoverished Whitechapel area of London, England in the second half of 1888. ... For other uses, see Andrew Jackson (disambiguation). ... Robert Lee Frost (March 26, 1874 – January 29, 1963) was an American poet. ... Sadi Carnot in the dress uniform of a student of the École polytechnique Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot (June 1, 1796 - August 24, 1832) was a French physicist and military engineer who gave the first successful theoretical account of heat engines, now known as the Carnot cycle, thereby laying the... Hegel redirects here. ... Harriet Elizabeth Beecher Stowe (June 14, 1811 – July 1, 1896) was an American author and abolitionist, whose novel Uncle Toms Cabin (1852) attacked the cruelty of slavery; it reached millions as a novel and play, and became influential, even in Britain. ... Carl Philipp Gottfried von Clausewitz (IPA: ) (June 1, 1780[1] – November 16, 1831) was a Prussian soldier, military historian and influential military theorist. ... George Bradshaw (July 29, 1801 - August, 1853) was an English cartographer, printer and publisher and the originator of the railway timetable. ... Adam Mickiewicz. ... August Wilhelm Antonius Graf[1] Neidhardt von Gneisenau (27 October 1760 – 23 August 1831) was a Prussian field marshal. ... William Jenkins Worth (March 1, 1794 - May 7, 1849) was a United States general during the Mexican-American War. ... John Blake Dillon (1816 - September 15, 1866) was an Irish writer and Politician who was one of the founding members of the Young Ireland movement. ... Nickname: Location in Jackson, Clay, Platte, and Cass Counties in the state of Missouri. ... This article is about the American pioneer. ... James Clarence Mangan (1803 - 1849), poet, born at Dublin, son of a small grocer, was brought up in poverty, and received most of his education from a priest who instructed him in several modern languages. ... Dowlatshahi Mohammad Ali Mirza, Qavam ol-Khelafa, Dowlatshah, (1789-1821), Fath Ali Shah’s eldest son (seven months older than Abbas Mirza Nayeb-Saltaneh), born of a Georgian woman, Ziba-Chehr Khanoum, of a Qajar origin. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Memorial portrait of Hiroshige by Kunisada. ... James Bowie James Bowie (probably April 10, 1796 - March 6, 1836), aka Jim Bowie, was a nineteenth century pioneer and soldier who took a prominent part in the Texas Revolution and was killed at the Battle of the Alamo. ... Constantine was known for his repugnant physical features which resembled those of his father, Emperor Paul. ... Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (née Godwin) (30 August 1797 – 1 February 1851) was an English romantic/gothic novelist and the author of Frankenstein, or The Modern Prometheus. ... Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (née Godwin) (30 August 1797 – 1 February 1851) was an English romantic/gothic novelist and the author of Frankenstein, or The Modern Prometheus. ... Custer redirects here. ... Inessa Armand (born Inès Stéphane; May 8, 1874–September 24, 1920) was a French-born Communist who spent most of her life in Russia. ... Vladimir Ilyich Lenin ( Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин  listen?), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) ( April 22 (April 10 ( O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a Russian revolutionary, the leader of the Bolshevik party, the first Premier of the Soviet Union, and the founder of the ideology of Leninism. ... Honinbo Shusaku (本因坊秀策, Honinbō ShÅ«saku, born as Kuwabara Torajirō (桑原虎次郎 Kuwabara Torajirō), June 6, 1829 - August 10, 1862) was a professional Go player and is considered by many to be the greatest player of the golden age of Go in the mid-19th century. ... Henry Louis Vivian Derozio (April, 1809 – December, 1831) was an appointed teacher of the Hindu College of Calcutta and a scholar, poet and academic of Eurasian and Portuguese descent. ... Alexandre Dumas redirects here. ... For other uses, see The Three Musketeers (disambiguation). ... The Count of Monte Cristo (French: Le Comte de Monte-Cristo) is an adventure novel by Alexandre Dumas. ... Charles X (October 9, 1757 – November 6, 1836) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1824 until the French Revolution of 1830, when he abdicated. ...

Research

One of the major contributions to fighting cholera was made by physician and self-trained scientist John Snow (1813-1858), who found the link between cholera and contaminated drinking water in 1854.[19] In addition, Henry Whitehead, an Anglican minister, helped Snow track down and verify the source of the disease, which turned out to be an infected well in London. Their conclusions were widely distributed and firmly established for the first time a definite link between germs and disease. Clean water and good sewage treatment, despite their major engineering and financial cost, slowly became a priority throughout the major developed cities in the world from this time onward. Robert Koch, 30 years later, identified V. cholerae with a microscope as the bacillus causing the disease in 1885. The bacterium had been originally isolated thirty years earlier (1855) by Italian anatomist Filippo Pacini, but its exact nature and his results were not widely known around the world. The Spanish doctor Jaume Ferran i Clua developed the first cholera vaccine in 1885. Dr. John Snow John Snow (16 March 1813 – 16 June 1858) was a British physician and a leader in the adoption of anaesthesia and medical hygiene. ... 1854 (MDCCCLIV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... For the American lobbyist, see Bobby Koch. ... This microscope slide, prepared by Pacini in 1854, was clearly identified as containing the cholera bacillus. ... Year 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Cholera has been a laboratory for the study of evolution of virulence. The province of Bengal in British India was partitioned into West Bengal and East Pakistan in 1947. Prior to partition, both regions had cholera pathogens with similar characteristics. After 1947, India made more progress on public health than East Pakistan (now Bangladesh). As a consequence, the strains of the pathogen that succeeded in India had a greater incentive in the longevity of the host and are less virulent than the strains prevailing in Bangladesh, which uninhibitedly draw upon the resources of the host population, thus rapidly killing many victims. Anthem God Save The King-Emperor The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (1858 - 1912) New Delhi (1912 - 1947) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy... , West Bengal (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Poshchim Bônggo IPA: ) is a state in eastern India. ... East Pakistan was a former province of Pakistan which existed between 1955 and 1971. ...


False historical report of cholera

A persistent myth states that 90,000 people died in Chicago of cholera and typhoid fever in 1885, but this story has no factual basis.[23] In 1885, there was a torrential rainstorm that flushed the Chicago river and its attendant pollutants into Lake Michigan far enough that the city's water supply was contaminated. However, because cholera was not present in the city, there were no cholera-related deaths, though the incident caused the city to become more serious about its sewage treatment. The Chicago 1885 cholera epidemic myth is a persistent urban legend, stating that 90,000 people in Chicago died of typhoid fever and cholera in 1885. ... For a similar disease with a similar name, see typhus. ...


Cholera morbus

The term cholera morbus was used in the 19th and early 20th centuries to describe both non-epidemic cholera and other gastrointestinal diseases (sometimes epidemic) that resembled cholera. The term is not in current use, but is found in many older references.[24] The other diseases are now known collectively as gastroenteritis. See also Bacterial gastroenteritis and Diarrhea Gastroenteritis is a general term referring to inflammation or infection of the gastrointestinal tract, primarily the stomach and intestines. ...


Other historical information

In the past, people traveling in ships would hang a yellow flag if one or more of the crew members suffered from cholera. Boats with a yellow flag hung would not be allowed to disembark at any harbor for an extended period, typically 30 to 40 days.[25]


References

  1. ^ a b c Ryan KJ, Ray CG (editors) (2004). Sherris Medical Microbiology, 4th ed., McGraw Hill, 376–7. ISBN 0838585299. 
  2. ^ Faruque SM; Nair GB (editors). (2008). Vibrio cholerae: Genomics and Molecular Biology. Caister Academic Press. [ISBN 978-1-904455-33-2]. 
  3. ^ McLeod K (2000). "Our sense of Snow: John Snow in medical geography". Soc Sci Med 50 (7-8): 923-35. PMID 10714917. 
  4. ^ Cholera: prevention and control. World Health Organization (WHO) (2007). Retrieved on 2008-01-03.
  5. ^ Susan Sontag, AIDS and Its Metaphors, 1988, Farra, Strauss and Giroux
  6. ^ Cholera treatment. Molson Medical Informatics (2007). Retrieved on 2008-01-03.
  7. ^ .Recently Hemendra Yadav reported his findings at A.I.I.M.S.,New Delhi that Ampicillin resistance has again decreased in V.cholerae strains of DelhiKrishna BVS, Patil AB, Chandrasekhar MR (2006). "Fluoroquinolone-resistant Vibrio cholerae isolated during a cholera outbreak in India" 100 (3): 224–26. doi:10.1016/j.rstmh.2005.07.007. 
  8. ^ Mackay IM (editor). (2007). Real-Time PCR in Microbiology: From Diagnosis to Characterization. Caister Academic Press. [ISBN 978-1-904455-18-9]. 
  9. ^ Ramamurthy T (2008). "Antibiotic Resistance in Vibrio cholerae", Vibriocholerae: Genomics and Molecular Biology. Caister Academic Press. [ISBN 978-1-904455-33-2]. 
  10. ^ Is a vaccine available to prevent cholera?. CDC Disease Info: Cholera. Retrieved on 2007-01-21.
  11. ^ Swerdlow D, Mintz E, Rodriguez M, Tejada E, Ocampo C, Espejo L, Barrett T, Petzelt J, Bean N, Seminario L (1994). "Severe life-threatening cholera associated with blood group O in Peru: implications for the Latin American epidemic". J Infect Dis 170 (2): 468-72. PMID 8035040. 
  12. ^ Harris J, Khan A, LaRocque R, Dorer D, Chowdhury F, Faruque A, Sack D, Ryan E, Qadri F, Calderwood S (2005). "Blood group, immunity, and risk of infection with Vibrio cholerae in an area of endemicity". Infect Immun 73 (11): 7422-7. PMID 16239542. 
  13. ^ Waltz, Robert (2007). Genetics, Evolutionary Biology, and Evolutionary Variation. Retrieved on 2008-01-03.
  14. ^ Bertranpetit J, Calafell F (1996). "Genetic and geographical variability in cystic fibrosis: evolutionary considerations". Ciba Found Symp 197: 97-114; discussion 114-8. PMID 8827370. 
  15. ^ Archivist (1997). "Cholera phage discovery". Arch Dis Child 76: 274. 
  16. ^ Hartwell LH, Hood L, Goldberg ML, Reynolds AE, Silver LM, and Veres RC (2004). Genetics: From Genes to Genomes. Mc-Graw Hill, Boston: p. 551-552, 572-574 (using the turning off and turning on of gene expression to make toxin proteins in cholera bacteria as a "comprehensive example" of what is known about the mechanisms by which bacteria change the mix of proteins they manufacture to respond to the changing opportunities for surviving and thriving in different chemical environments).
  17. ^ a b c DiRita V, Parsot C, Jander G, Mekalanos J (1991). "Regulatory cascade controls virulence in Vibrio cholerae". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 88 (12): 5403-7. PMID 2052618. 
  18. ^ Cholera. Nursing Gazette (2007-11-12). Retrieved on 2008-01-02.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i Charles E. Rosenberg (1987). The Cholera Years: The United States in 1832, 1849, and 1866. 
  20. ^ "How Epidemics Helped Shape the Modern Metropolis.", New York Times. Retrieved on 2008-04-15. "On a Sunday in July 1832, a fearful and somber crowd of New Yorkers gathered in City Hall Park for more bad news. The epidemic of cholera, cause unknown and prognosis dire, had reached its peak." 
  21. ^ John Snow, M.D. (1855). On the Mode of Communication of Cholera. 
  22. ^ Meumayr A (1997). Music and Medicine: Chopin, Smetana, Tchaikovsky, Mahler: Notes on Their Lives, Works, and Medical Histories. Med-Ed Press: pp. 282-283 (summarizing various theories on what killed the composer Tchaikovsky, including his brother Modest's idea that Tchaikovksy drank cholera infested water the day before he became ill).
  23. ^ Did 90,000 people die of typhoid fever and cholera in Chicago in 1885?. The Straight Dope (2004-11-12). Retrieved on 2008-01-03.
  24. ^ Archaic Medical Terms. Antiquus Morbus (2007). Retrieved on 2008-01-03.]
  25. ^ Mackowiak PA (2002). "The Origin of Quarantine". Clinical Infectious Diseases 35: 1071–2. 

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Gene expression, or simply expression, is the process by which the inheritable information which comprises a gene, such as the DNA sequence, is made manifest as a physical and biologically functional gene product, such as protein or RNA. Several steps in the gene expression process may be modulated, including the... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... “Tchaikovsky” redirects here. ... Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (Russian: Пётр Ильич Чайкoвский Pëtr Ilič Čajkovskij) (7 May [O.S. 25 April] 1840 – 6 November [O.S. 25 October] 1893), also transliterated Piotr Ilitsch Tschaikowsky or Peter Ilich Tschaikowsky, was a Russian composer of the Romantic era. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

  • Johnson, S.(2006) The Ghost Map: a street, an epidemic and the two men who battled to save Victorian London Penguin
  • The Painted Veil (2006 film), starring Naomi Watts and Edward Norton, in which the disease cholera is a prominent subject.

For other uses, see The Painted Veil. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Look up cholera in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... WHO redirects here. ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ... For other uses, see New Yorker. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... Distribution of cholera Cholera, sometimes known as Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera, is an infectious gastroenteritis caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... Distribution of cholera Cholera, sometimes known as Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera, is an infectious gastroenteritis caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... Distribution of cholera Cholera, sometimes known as Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera, is an infectious gastroenteritis caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... Distribution of cholera Cholera, sometimes known as Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera, is an infectious gastroenteritis caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... Distribution of cholera Cholera, sometimes known as Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera, is an infectious gastroenteritis caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... Distribution of cholera Cholera, sometimes known as Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera, is an infectious gastroenteritis caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... Distribution of cholera Cholera, sometimes known as Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera, is an infectious gastroenteritis caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... Vibrio cholerae. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Binomial name Vibrio cholerae Pacini 1854 Vibrio cholerae is a gram negative bacterium with a curved-rod shape that causes cholera in humans. ... In biology, Strain can be used two ways. ... El Tor is the name given to a particular strain of Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera. ... There have been several people named John Snow: Dr. John Snow (physician), the founder of epidemiology and a major contributor to the development of anaesthesia John W. Snow, current United States Secretary of the Treasury John Snow (cricketer), English cricketer See also Jon Snow (A Song of Ice and Fire... Distribution of cholera Cholera, sometimes known as Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera, is an infectious gastroenteritis caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... Oral Rehydration Therapy, or ORT, is a simple, cheap, and effective treatment for diarrhea caused by, e. ... An antibiotic is a drug that kills or slows the growth of bacteria. ... Tetracycline (INN) (IPA: ) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by the streptomyces bacterium, indicated for use against many bacterial infections. ... Co-trimoxazole (abbreviated SXT, TMP-SMX, or TMP-sulfa) is an antibiotic combination of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole, in the ratio of 1 to 5, used in the treatment of a variety of bacterial infections. ... Erythromycin is a macrolide antibiotic which has an antimicrobial spectrum similar to or slightly wider than that of penicillin, and is often used for people who have an allergy to penicillins. ... Doxycycline (INN) (IPA: ) is a member of the tetracycline antibiotics group and is commonly used to treat a variety of infections. ... Chloramphenicol is a bacteriostatic antibiotic originally derived from the bacterium Streptomyces venezuelae, isolated by David Gottlieb, and introduced into clinical practice in 1949. ... Furazolidone (also marketed as Furoxone) is an antibiotic used to treat diarrhea and enteritis caused by bacteria or protozoan infections. ... Quinolones and fluoroquinolones form a group of broad-spectrum antibiotics. ... Norfloxacin is an oral broad-spectrum quinoline antibacterial agent used in the treatment of urinary tract infections. ... Distribution of cholera Cholera, sometimes known as Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera, is an infectious gastroenteritis caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... An outbreak of classical swine fever (hog cholera) in the Philippine region of Central Luzon, particularly the provinces of Pampanga and Bulacan occurred in mid-2007, the Philippine Department of Agriculture (DA) confirmed. ... A lack of clean drinking water in Iraq in 2007 has led to an outbreak of cholera. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria is also the fictional name of a warring nation under Benzino Napaloni as dictator, in the 1940 film The Great Dictator... Gram-positive bacteria are those that are stained dark blue or violet by gram staining, in contrast to gram-negative bacteria, which are not affected by the stain. ... Classes Bacilli Clostridia Mollicutes The Firmicutes are a division of bacteria, most of which have Gram-positive cell wall structure. ... Species Clostridium acetobutylicum Clostridium aerotolerans Clostridium botulinum Clostridium colicanis Clostridium difficile Clostridium formicaceticum Clostridium novyi Clostridium perfringens Clostridium sordelli Clostridium tetani Clostridium piliforme Clostridium tyrobutyricum etc. ... Pseudomembranous colitis is an infection of the colon often, but not always, caused by the bacterium Clostridium difficile. ... Botulism (Latin, botulus, sausage) is a rare, but serious paralytic illness caused by a nerve toxin, botulin, that is produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. ... Tetanus is a medical condition that is characterized by a prolonged contraction of skeletal muscle fibers. ... Gas gangrene is a bacterial infection that produces gas within tissues in gangrene. ... The group A streptococcus bacterium (Streptococcus pyogenes, or GAS) is a form of Streptococcus bacteria responsible for most cases of streptococcal illness. ... It has been suggested that Perinatal Group B Streptococcal Disease be merged into this article or section. ... Staphylococcus (in Greek staphyle means bunch of grapes and coccos means granule) is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria. ... Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is a rare but potentially fatal disease caused by a bacterial toxin. ... This page is about the bacterial class. ... Gram-positive bacteria are those that are stained dark blue or violet by gram staining, in contrast to gram-negative bacteria, which are not affected by the stain. ... Subclasses Acidimicrobidae Actinobacteridae Coriobacteridae Rubrobacteridae Sphaerobacteridae The Actinobacteria or Actinomycetes are a group of Gram-positive bacteria. ... Species See text. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... Visible cavities in later stage tuberculosis; Ghon focuses are smaller. ... Ghons complex is a pathological entity caused by the the progression of tuberculosis, an infectious respiratory disease. ... Tuberculous meningitis is also called TB meningitis. Tuberculous meningitis is Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection of the meninges. ... Tuberculosis of the spine in an Egyptian mummy Potts disease is a presentation of extrapulmonary tuberculosis that affects the spine, a kind of tuberculous arthritis of the intervertebral joints. ... King Henry IV of France touching a number of sufferers of scrofula who are gathered about him in a circle. ... Bazin disease is a skin ulceration on the back of the calves. ... Lupus vulgaris are cutaneous tuberculosis skin lesions with nodular appearance, most often on the face around nose and ears. ... For the malady found in the Hebrew Bible, see Tzaraath. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Buruli ulcer is an infectious disease caused by the Mycobacterium ulcerans, from the same family of bacteria which causes tuberculosis and leprosy. ... Suborders Actinomycineae Corynebacterineae Frankineae Glycomycineae Micrococcineae Micromonosporineae Propionibacterineae Pseudonocardineae Streptomycineae Streptosporangineae Actinomycetales is an order of Actinobacteria. ... Erythrasma is a skin disease that can result in pink patches, which can turn into brown scales. ... Bacteria that are Gram-negative are not stained dark blue or violet by Gram staining, in contrast to Gram-positive bacteria. ... Families Spirochaetaceae Brachyspiraceae    Brachyspira    Serpulina Leptospiraceae    Leptospira    Leptonema Spirochaetes is a phylum of distinctive Gram-negative bacteria, which have long, helically coiled cells. ... Syphilis is a curable sexually transmitted disease caused by the Treponema pallidum spirochete. ... Bejel, or endemic syphilis, is a chronic skin and tissue disease caused by infection by a subspecies of the spirochete Treponema pallidum. ... Yaws (also Frambesia tropica, thymosis, polypapilloma tropicum or pian) is a tropical infection of the skin, bones and joints caused by the spirochete bacterium Treponema pertenue. ... Pinta is a human skin disease endemic to Mexico, Central America, and South America. ... Noma (from Greek numein: to devour) also known as cancrum oris or gangrenous stomatitis, is a gangrenous disease leading to tissue destruction of the face, especially the mouth and cheek. ... Trench mouth is a polymicrobial infection of the gums leading to inflammation, bleeding, deep ulceration and necrotic gum tissue, there may also be fever. ... Lyme disease, or borreliosis, is an emerging infectious disease caused by at least three species of bacteria from the genus Borrelia. ... Sodoku is a bacterial zoonotic disease. ... Bacteria that are Gram-negative are not stained dark blue or violet by Gram staining, in contrast to Gram-positive bacteria. ... Genera Chlamydia Chlamydophila Parachlamydia Simkania Waddlia The Chlamydiae are a group of bacteria, all of which are intracellular parasites of eukaryotic cells. ... Species See text. ... In medicine (pulmonology), psittacosis -- also known as parrot disease, parrot fever, and ornithosis -- is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by a bacterium called Mycoplasma psittaci and contracted from parrots, macaws, cockatiels, and parakeets. ... Species Chlamydia muridarum Chlamydia suis Chlamydia trachomatis For the disease in humans, see Chlamydia infection. ... The term Chlamydia refers to an infection by any one of the species in the bacterial genus, Chlamydia—Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydia suis or Chlamydia muridarum—but of these, only C. trachomatis is found in humans. ... Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV), also known as lymphopathia venerea, tropical bubo, climatic bubo, strumous bubo, poradenitis inguinales, Durand-Nicolas-Favre disease and lymphogranuloma inguinale, is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the invasive serovars L1, L2, or L3 of Chlamydia trachomatis. ... Bacteria that are Gram-negative are not stained dark blue or violet by Gram staining, in contrast to Gram-positive bacteria. ... Orders Alpha Proteobacteria    Caulobacterales - e. ... A rickettsiosis is a disease casused by Rickettsiales. ... For the unrelated disease caused by Salmonella typhi, see Typhoid fever. ... Scrub typhus is a form of typhus caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi and transmitted by chiggers, which are found in areas of heavy scrub vegetation. ... Binomial name Wolbach, 1919 Rocky Mountain spotted fever is the most severe and most frequently reported rickettsial illness in the United States, and has been diagnosed throughout the Americas. ... Boutonneuse fever (also called Mediterranean Fever) is a fever as a result of a Rickettsial infection. ... Trench Fever is a moderately serious disease, transmitted by body lice. ... Rickettsialpox is caused by bacteria found in the Rickettsia family (Rickettsia akari) but humans contract the disease through a much less direct route. ... For other uses, see Catscratch and Cat Scratch Fever. ... Bacillary angiomatosis (BA) is a bacterial infection caused by either Bartonella henselae or Bartonella quintana. ... Bacteria that are Gram-negative are not stained dark blue or violet by Gram staining, in contrast to Gram-positive bacteria. ... Orders Alpha Proteobacteria    Caulobacterales - e. ... Species S. bongori S. enterica This article is about the bacteria. ... For a similar disease with a similar name, see typhus. ... Species S. enterica Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped Gram-negative enterobacteria that causes typhoid fever, paratyphoid and foodborne illness. ... Salmonellosis is an infection with Salmonella bacteria. ... Zoonosis (pronounced ) is any infectious disease that may be transmitted from other animals, both wild and domestic, to humans or from humans to animals (the latter is sometimes called reverse zoonosis). ... Bubonic plague is the best-known manifestation of the bacterial disease plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. ... Tularemia (also known as rabbit fever) is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis. ... Glanders is an infectious disease that occurs primarily in horses, mules, and donkeys. ... Melioidosis, also known as pseudoglanders and Whitmores disease (after Capt Alfred Whitmore) is an uncommon infectious disease caused by a Gram-negative bacterium, Burkholderia pseudomallei, found in soil and water. ... Pasteurellosis is an infection with a species of the bacteria genus Pasteurella, which is found in humans and animals. ... Pertussis, also known as whooping cough, a highly contagious disease caused by the bacterium, Bordetella pertussis; it derived its name from a characteristic severe hacking cough followed by a high-pitched intake of breath that sounds like whoop; a similar, milder disease is caused by B. parapertussis. ... Binomial name Neisseria meningitidis Albrecht & Ghon, 1901 Neisseria meningitidis, also simply known as meningococcus is a gram-negative bacterium best known for its role in meningitis. ... Meningitis is inflammation of the membranes (meninges) covering the brain and the spinal cord. ... Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome is massive, usually bilateral, hemorrhage into the adrenal glands caused by fulminant meningococcemia. ... Legionellosis is an infectious disease caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Legionella. ... Brazilian purpuric fever (BPF) is a fulminant sceptacaemic illness of children caused by the gram negative bacteria Haemophilus influenzae biogroup aegyptius Category: ... Chancroid is a sexually transmitted disease characterized by painful sores on the genitalia. ... Granuloma inguinale or Donovanosis is a bacterial disease caused by the organism Calymmatobacterium granulomatis. ... The clap redirects here. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Cholera - MSN Encarta (473 words)
The symptoms of cholera are diarrhea and the loss of water and salts in the stool.
Cholera epidemics swept through Europe and the United States in the 19th century but did not recur in those areas after improvement of the water supply.
Epidemics of cholera occurred in 1953 in Calcutta (now Kolkata), India; between 1964 and 1967 in South Vietnam; among Bangladeshi refugees fleeing to India during the civil war of 1971; in Latin America in 1991, and in Democratic Republic of the Congo in 1994 where the epidemic deaths were estimated at 23,800 within one month.
Cholera (357 words)
Cholera is a bacterial disease that affects the intestinal tract.
While cholera is a rare disease, those who may be at risk include people traveling to foreign countries where outbreaks are occurring and people who consume raw or undercooked seafood from warm coastal waters subject to sewage contamination.
The cholera bacteria is passed in the stools (feces).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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