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Encyclopedia > Cholecystokinin

Cholecystokinin (from Greek chole, bile; cysto, sac; kinin, move; hence, move the bile-sac (gall bladder)) is a peptide hormone of the gastrointestinal system responsible for stimulating the digestion of fat and protein. Cholecystokinin (CCK, previously pancreozymin) is secreted by the duodenum, the first segment of the small intestine, and causes the release of digestive enzymes and bile from the pancreas and gallbladder, respectively. It also acts as a hunger suppresant. Recent evidence has suggested it plays a major role in inducing drug tolerance to opioids like morphine and heroin, and is partly implicated in experiences of pain hypersensitivity during opioid withdrawal. The gallbladder (or cholecyst) is a pear-shaped organ that stores bile (or gall) until the body needs it for digestion. ... Peptides (from the Greek πεπτος, digestible), are the family of short molecules formed from the linking, in a defined order, of various α-amino acids. ... A hormone (from Greek horman - to set in motion) is a chemical messenger from one cell (or group of cells) to another. ... For the Physics term GUT, please refer to Grand unification theory The gastrointestinal or digestive tract, also referred to as the GI tract or the alimentary canal or the gut, is the system of organs within multicellular animals which takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and... Digestion is the process whereby a biological entity processes a substance, in order to chemically convert the substance into nutrients. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... In anatomy of the digestive system, the duodenum is a hollow jointed tube connecting the stomach to the jejunum. ... Diagram showing the small intestine In biology the small intestine is the part of the gastrointestinal tract between the stomach and the large intestine (colon). ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM. TIM is catalytically perfect, meaning its conversion rate is limited, or nearly limited to its substrate diffusion rate. ... Bile (or gall) is a bitter, greenish-yellow alkaline fluid secreted by the liver of most vertebrates. ... The pancreas is an organ that serves two functions: exocrine - it produces pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes. ... Gall bladder Digestive system diagram showing the bile duct The gallbladder (or cholecyst) is a pear-shaped organ that stores about 50 ml of bile (or gall) until the body needs it for digestion. ... For the 1983 horror film, see The Hunger. ... The cross of the war memorial and a menorah for Hanukkah coexist in Oxford. ... An opioid is any agent that binds to opioid receptors found principally in the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract. ... When something that generates a physical or a psychological dependency — a behavior or the use of a substance — is stopped or withdrawn from, some type of withdrawal symptoms almost always follow. ...

Contents


Structure

CCK is composed of varying numbers of amino acids (e.g., CCK58, CCK33, CCK8) depending on post-translational modification of the CCK gene product, preprocholecystokinin. CCK is very similar in structure to gastrin, another of the gut hormones, so much so that the last five C-terminal amino acids are same as those of gastrin. CCK58 is comprised of a helix-turn-helix configuration. In chemistry, an amino acid is any molecule that contains both amino and carboxylic acid functional groups. ... Biological and artificial methods for creation of proteins differ significantly. ... In humans, gastrin is a hormone that stimulates secretion of gastric acid by the stomach. ...


Function

CCK mediates a number of physiological processes, including digestion and satiety. Physiology (in Greek physis = nature and logos = word) is the study of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of living organisms. ... Digestion is the process whereby a biological entity processes a substance, in order to chemically convert the substance into nutrients. ... Satiety, or the feeling of fullness and disappearance of appetite after a meal, is a process mediated by the ventromedial nucleus in the hypothalamus. ...


Digestion

CCK is secreted by the duodenal mucosa when fat- or protein-rich chyme leaves the stomach and enters the duodenum. The hormone acts on the pancreas to stimulate the secretion of the enzymes lipase, amylase, trypsin, and chymotrypsin. Together these pancreatic enzymes catalyze the digestion of fat and protein. Chyme is the liquid substance found in the stomach before passing the pyloric valve and entering the duodenum. ... The stomach (Gaster) In anatomy, the stomach (in ancient Greek στόμαχος) is an organ in the gastrointestinal tract used to digest food. ... In anatomy of the digestive system, the duodenum is a hollow jointed tube connecting the stomach to the jejunum. ... A lipase is a water-soluble enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ester bonds in water–insoluble, lipid substrates. ... α-Amylase Amylase (EC 3. ... Trypsin family of serine proteases are enzymes that cleave proteins at the carboxyl side (or C-terminus) of the basic amino acids lysine and arginine except when these two residues are followed by proline . ... Chymotrypsin Chymotrypsin (bovine γ chymotrypsin: PDB 1AB9, EC 3. ...


CCK also stimulates both the contraction of the gall bladder, and the relaxtion of the Sphincter of Oddi (Glisson's Sphinctor), which delivers, (not secretes) bile into the small intestine. Bile salts serve to emulsify fats, thereby increasing the effectiveness with which enzymes can digest them. The gallbladder (or cholecyst) is a pear-shaped organ that stores bile (or gall) until the body needs it for digestion. ... Bile (or gall) is a bitter, greenish-yellow alkaline fluid secreted by the liver of most vertebrates. ... Bile is also another name for Belenus, a god in Brythonic mythology. ... An emulsion is a mixture of two immiscible substances. ...


Neurobiology

As a neuropeptide, CCK mediates satiety by acting on the CCK receptors distributed widely throughout the central nervous system. In humans, CCK administration causes nausea and anxiety, and weakly decreases the desire to eat [1]. A Neuropeptide is any of the variety of peptides found in neural tissue; e. ... Cholecystokinin receptors or CCK receptors are a group of G_protein coupled receptors. ... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... For other uses, see Nausea (disambiguation). ... Anxiety refers to a complex combination of negative emotions that includes fear, apprehension and worry, and is often accompanied by physical sensations such as palpitations, nausea, chest pain and/or shortness of breath. ...


The effects of CCK vary between individuals. For example, in rats, CCK administration significantly reduces hunger in young males, but is less effective in older subjects, and even less effective in females. The hunger-suppressive effects of CCK also diminish in obese rats [2]. Species 50 species; see text *Several subfamilies of Muroids include animals called rats. ...


References

  • Greenough A, Cole G, Lewis J, Lockton A, Blundell J. "Untangling the effects of hunger, anxiety, and nausea on energy intake during intravenous cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8) infusion". Physiol Behav. 1998 Nov 15;65(2):303-10. PMID 9855480
  • Fink H, Rex A, Voits M, Voigt JP. "Major biological actions of CCK--a critical evaluation of research findings". Exp Brain Res. 1998 Nov;123(1-2):77-83. PMID 9835394
  • Cholecystokinin, NIH/NLM Medical Subject Headings
Hormones and endocrine glands -

Hypothalamus: GnRH - TRH - CRH - GHRH - somatostatin | Posterior pituitary: ADH - oxytocin | Anterior pituitary: GH - ACTH - TSH - LH - FSH - prolactin - MSH A hormone (from Greek horman - to set in motion) is a chemical messenger from one cell (or group of cells) to another. ... An endocrine gland is one of a set of internal organs involved in the secretion of hormones into the blood. ... In the anatomy of mammals, the hypothalamus is a region of the brain located below the thalamus, forming the major portion of the ventral region of the diencephalon and functioning to regulate certain metabolic processes and other autonomic activities. ... Gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (GNRH1 also called LHRH) is a peptide hormone responsible for the release of FSH and LH from the anterior pituitary. ... Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) is a tripeptide hormone that stimulates the release of TSH and prolactin by the anterior pituitary. ... Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), also called corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) or corticoliberin, is a polypeptide hormone involved in the stress response. ... Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), also known as growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF or GHRF), is a 44-amino acid peptide hormone produced in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. ... Somatostatin is a hormone. ... The posterior pituitary (also called the neurohypophysis) comprises the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is part of the endocrine system. ... Antidiuretic hormone (ADH), or arginine vasopressin (AVP), is a peptide hormone produced by the hypothalamus, and stored in the posterior part of the pituitary gland. ... Oxytocin is a hormone, found in mammals, which in humans is released mainly after stimulation of the nipples or distention of the vagina and which facilitates birth and breastfeeding. ... The anterior pituitary (also called the adenohypophysis) comprises the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is part of the endocrine system. ... Growth hormone Growth hormone is a polypeptide hormone synthesised and secreted by the anterior pituitary gland which stimulates growth and cell reproduction in humans and other vertebrate animals. ... Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH or corticotropin) is a polypeptide hormone synthesised (from POMC, pre-opiomelanocortin) and secreted from corticotropes in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland in response to the hormone corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) released by the hypothalamus. ... Thyroid-stimulating hormone (also known as TSH or thyrotropin) is a hormone synthesised and secreted by thyrotrope cells in the anterior pituitary gland which regulates the endocrine function of the thyroid gland. ... Luteinizing hormone (LH) is a hormone synthesised and secreted by gonadotropes in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. ... Follicle stimulating hormone Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is a hormone synthesised and secreted by gonadotropes in the anterior pituitary gland. ... Prolactin is a peptide hormone synthesised and secreted by lactotrope cells in the adenohypophysis (anterior pituitary gland). ... Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) is a peptide hormone produced by cells in the intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland. ...


Thyroid: T3 and T4 - calcitonin | Parathyroid: PTH | Adrenal medulla: epinephrine - norepinephrine | Adrenal cortex: aldosterone - cortisol | Pancreas: insulin - glucagon | Ovary: estradiol - progesterone - inhibin - activin | Testis: testosterone - AMH | Pineal gland: melatonin | Kidney: renin - EPO - calcitriol - prostaglandin | Heart atrium: ANP The thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), are tyrosine-based hormones produced by the thyroid gland. ... Calcitonin is a a 32 amino acid polypeptide hormone that is produced in humans primarily by the C cells of the thyroid, and in many other animals in the ultimobranchial body. ... Categories: Anatomy stubs | Endocrine system ... Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is secreted by the parathyroid glands as a polypeptide containing 84 amino acids. ... Grays Fig. ... Epinephrine (INN), also epinephrin (both pronounced ep-i-NEF-rin), or adrenaline (BAN) is a hormone and a neurotransmitter. ... Norepinephrine or noradrenaline is a catecholamine and a phenethylamine with chemical formula C8H11NO3. ... Grays Fig. ... Aldosterone is a steroid hormone synthesized from cholesterol by the enzyme aldosterone synthase. ... Cortisol is a corticosteroid hormone that is involved in the response to stress; it increases blood pressure and blood sugar levels and suppresses the immune system. ... The pancreas is an organ that serves two functions: exocrine - it produces pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes. ... The structure of insulin. ... Glucagon ball and stick model Glucagon is a 29-amino acid polypeptide acting as an important hormone in carbohydrate metabolism. ... Human female internal reproductive anatomy Ovaries are egg-producing reproductive organs found in female organisms. ... Estradiol (17-beta estradiol) (also oestradiol) is a sex hormone. ... Progesterone is a C-21 steroid hormone involved in the female menstrual cycle, pregnancy (supports gestation) and embryogenesis of humans and other species. ... Inhibin is a peptide that is an inhibitor of FSH synthesis and secretion and participates in the regulation of the menstrual cycle. ... Activin is a peptide that enhances FSH synthesis and secretion and participates in the regulation of the menstrual cycle. ... Human male anatomy The testicles, known medically as testes (singular testis), are the male generative glands in animals. ... Testosterone is a steroid hormone from the androgen group. ... Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is a dimeric glycoprotein that inhibits the development of the Müllerian ducts in a male embryo. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Structuring urgently requested // Definition Melatonin, 5-methoxy-N-acetyltryptamine, is a hormone found in all living creatures that have been studied from algae [1] to humans, at levels that vary in a diurnal cycle. ... Human kidneys viewed from behind with spine removed The kidneys are bean-shaped excretory organs in vertebrates. ... Renin, also known as angiotensinogenase, is a circulating enzyme (EC 3. ... Erythropoietin Erythropoietin (or EPO) is a glycoprotein hormone that is a growth factor for erythrocyte (red blood cell) precursors in the bone marrow. ... Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin that contributes to the maintenance of normal levels of calcium and phosphorus in the bloodstream. ... Chemical structure of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1). ... In anatomy, the atrium (plural: atria) is the blood collection chamber of a heart. ... Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) or atriopeptin, is a peptide hormone involved in the homeostatic control of body water and sodium. ...


Stomach: gastrin | Duodenum: CCK - GIP - secretin - motilin - VIP | Ileum: enteroglucagon The stomach (Gaster) In anatomy, the stomach (in ancient Greek στόμαχος) is an organ in the gastrointestinal tract used to digest food. ... In humans, gastrin is a hormone that stimulates secretion of gastric acid by the stomach. ... In anatomy of the digestive system, the duodenum is a hollow jointed tube connecting the stomach to the jejunum. ... Gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP) is a gastrointestinal hormone secreted by the duodenum. ... Secretin is a peptide hormone produced in the S cells of the duodenum. ... Motilin is a polypeptide hormone secreted by the small intestine that increases gastrointestinal motility and stimulates the production of pepsin. ... VIP is a peptide hormone containing 28 amino acid residues. ... Grays Fig. ... An editor has expressed a concern that the topic of this article may be unencyclopedic. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Cholecystokinin - definition of Cholecystokinin in Encyclopedia (390 words)
Cholecystokinin (CCK, previously pancreozymin) is a peptide hormone of the gastrointestinal system responsible for stimulating the digestion of fat and protein.
CCK is secreted by the duodenum, the first segment of the small intestine, and causes the release of digestive enzymes and bile from the pancreas and gall bladder, respectively.
The term "cholecystokinin" originates from the Latin chole for "bile", cysto for "sac", and kinin for "move".
Cholecystokinin (604 words)
It is secreted from mucosal epithelial cells in the first segment of the small intestine (duodenum), and stimulates delivery into the small intestine of digestive enzymes from the pancreas and bile from the gallbladder.
Cholecystokinin is also produced by neurons in the enteric nervous system, and is widely and abundantly distributed in the brain.
Cholecystokinin deficiency has been described in humans as part of autoimmune polyglandular syndrome, and was manifest as a malabsorption syndrome clinically similar to pancreatic exocrine insufficiency.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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