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Encyclopedia > Cholas
சோழப் பேரரசு
Chola Empire
Image:LocationChola_empire_sm.png
Chola Empire (c. 1050 CE)
Official languages Tamil
Capitals Early Cholas: Poompuhar, Urayur,
Greater(Later) Cholas : Pazhaiyaarai,Thanjavur
Gangaikonda Cholapuram
Government Monarchy
Preceding state Unknown, ?Pandya
Succeeding states Pandya, Hoysala, Vijayanagara
edit
Topics in Chola history
Early Cholas
Legendary Early Chola Kings
Ilamcetcenni Karikala Chola
Nedunkilli Nalankilli
Killivalavan Kopperuncholan
Kocengannan Perunarkilli
Medieval Cholas
Vijayalaya Chola Aditya I
Parantaka Chola I Gandaraditya
Arinjaya Chola Sundara Chola
Uttama Chola Rajaraja Chola I
Rajendra Chola I Rajadhiraja Chola I
Rajendra Chola II Virarajendra Chola
Athirajendra Chola
Chalukya Cholas
Kulothunga Chola I Vikrama Chola
Kulothunga Chola II Rajaraja Chola II
Rajadhiraja Chola II Kulothunga Chola III
Rajaraja Chola III Rajendra Chola IV
Chola Society
Chola Government Chola Military
Chola Art Chola Literature
Poompuhar Urayur
Gangaikonda Cholapuram Thanjavur
edit

The Cholas [ʧudʒe] were a South Indian Tamil dynasty, antedating the early Sangam literature (c. 150 C.E.). The dynasty originated in the rich Kaveri valley, Urayur (near Thiruchirapalli) being their oldest capital. Karikala Chola and Sibi were ancient legendary Chola emperors, while Rajaraja Chola and Kulothunga Chola I were the famous emperors of the Later(Great) Cholas. Archaelogical evidence suggests that Cholas are related to Thondai Mandala mudaliars. Image File history File links LocationChola_empire_sm. ... An official language is a language that is given a privileged legal status in a state, or other legally-defined territory. ... Tamil (தமிழ் ) is a classical language and one of the major languages of the Dravidian language family. ... In politics, a capital (also called capital city or political capital — although the latter phrase has an alternative meaning based on an alternative meaning of capital) is the principal city or town associated with its government. ... Poompuhar is a town in the southern part of India in the state of Tamil Nadu. ... Uraiyur: Literally meaning the living place, Uraiyur was an ancient Chola city with a fortress and citywall on the southern banks of river Ponni and was made the official capital of the Chola empire around 540 B.C.E. by Tittan ( henceforth he was called Uraiyur thandha Thiththan). ILancaeN Cenni... Thanjavur, formerly known as Tanjore, is a city in Tamil Nadu, in southeastern India. ... Temple at Gangaikonda Cholapuram Gangaikonda Cholapuram is a village in the inland Perambalur district of Tamil Nadu, India. ... A monarchy, (from the Greek monos, one, and archein, to rule) is a form of government that has a monarch as Head of State. ... The Pandyan kingdom was an ancient state at the tip of South India, founded around the 6th century BCE. It was part of the Dravidian cultural area, which also comprised other kingdoms such as that of the Pallava, the Chera, the Chola, the Chalukya and the Vijayanagara. ... The Pandyan kingdom was an ancient state at the tip of South India, founded around the 6th century BCE. It was part of the Dravidian cultural area, which also comprised other kingdoms such as that of the Pallava, the Chera, the Chola, the Chalukya and the Vijayanagara. ... The Hoysala Empire ruled part of southern India from 1000 to 1346. ... Vijayanagara (often written Vijayanagar, meaning the city of victory), in northern Karnataka, is the name of the now ruined capital city of the historic Vijayanagara empire in the Southern part of India. ... The Early Cholas of the pre and post Sangam period (100 C.E. – 200 C.E.) were only the three main kingdoms of the ancient Tamil country. ... The lists of legendary early Chola Kings are recorded in Tamil literature and in the inscriptions left by the later Chola kings. ... Ilamcetcenni was a Chola king during the Sangam age in South India. ... Karikala Chola was the greatest among the Chola kings of the Sangam age in South India. ... Nedunkilli was one of the Early Cholas mentioned in Sangam Literature. ... Nalankilli was one of the Early Cholas mentioned in Sangam Literature. ... Killivalavan was one of the Early Cholas mentioned in Sangam Literature, and of a period close to that of Nedunkilli and Nalankilli. ... Kopperuncholan was one of the Early Cholas mentioned in Sangam Literature. ... Kocengannan was one of the Early Cholas mentioned in Sangam Literature. ... Perunarkilli was one of the Early Cholas mentioned in Sangam Literature. ... Medieval Cholas rose to prominence during the middle of the 9th century C.E. and established the greatest empire South India had seen. ... Vijayalaya was the Chola king of South India who captured Thanjavur during c. ... Aditya I (870-906) was an Indian ruler. ... Parantaka Chola I (907 c. ... Gandaraditya Chola succeeded his father Parantaka I and became the Chola king c. ... Arinjaya Chola succeeded Gandaraditya Chola c. ... Parantak Chola II (957 c. ... Uttama Chola ascended the Chola throne c. ... Rajaraja Chola I ascended the Chola throne in July 985 C.E. Raja Raja the Great, as he is known in history reigned for 29 years, and conquered the whole of southern India and the Chola empire expanded as far as Sri Lanka in the south, and Kalinga (Orissa) in... Rajendra Chola I was the son of Rajaraja Chola I, the great Chola king of South India. ... Rajadhiraja Chola I (1018-1054) was the king of the Cholas empire in southern India and the eldest son of king Rajendra Chola I. Although not supreme king untill his fathers death in 1044 he was associated in kingship since 1018 He maintained Cholas authority over most of Lanka, despite... Rajendra Chola II (1054 – 1063 C.E.) reigned as the Chola king succeeding his brother Rajadhiraja Chola. ... Virarajendra Chola (1063 – 1070 C.E.) became the Chola king succeeding his brother Rajendra Chola II. Rajamahendra, Rajendra’s son and heir apparent died before his father and Rajendra made his younger brother Virarajendra his heir. ... Athirajendra Chola ( 1070 C.E.) reigned for a very short period of few months as the Chola king succeeding his brother Virarajendra Chola. ... The Chalukya Chola dynasty ruled the Chola Empire from 1070 C.E. until the demise of the empire in the second half of the 13th century. ... Kulothunga Chola was the offspring of two rival dynasties - the Cholas of Thanjavoor and the Chalukyas of Vengi when he came to the throne in 1070 A.D. The Cholas and the Chalukyas had always existed in constant warfare, spaced by periods of uneasy peace, for decades, due to differences... Vikrama Chola succeeded his father the famous Kulothunga Chola I to the Chola throne in 1120 C.E. He inherited an empire that had been severely confined to the Tamil country and a few out-lying areas of the Telugu country. ... Kulothunga Chola II succeeded his father Vikrama Chola to the Chola throne in 1135 C.E. Vikrama Chola made his heir apparent and coregent in 1133 C.E and so the inscriptions of Kulothunga II count his reign from 1133 C.E. Kulothunga II reigned over a period of general... Rajaraja Chola II succeeded his father Kulothunga Chola II to the Chola throne in 1150 C.E. He was made his heir apparent and coregent in 1146 C.E and so the inscriptions of Rajaraja II count his reign from 1146 C.E. Rajarajas reign began to show signs... Rajadhiraja Chola II (1163 – 1063 C.E.) reigned as the Chola king succeeding Rajaraja Chola II. He was not the direct descendent of Rajaraja Chola II, but a grandson of Vikrama Chola by his dauther. ... Detail of a Statue of Rajaraja I at the Brihadisvara Temple The period of the imperial Cholas (c. ... Poompuhar is a town in the southern part of India in the state of Tamil Nadu. ... Uraiyur: Literally meaning the living place, Uraiyur was an ancient Chola city with a fortress and citywall on the southern banks of river Ponni and was made the official capital of the Chola empire around 540 B.C.E. by Tittan ( henceforth he was called Uraiyur thandha Thiththan). ILancaeN Cenni... Temple at Gangaikonda Cholapuram Gangaikonda Cholapuram is a village in the inland Perambalur district of Tamil Nadu, India. ... Thanjavur, formerly known as Tanjore, is a city in Tamil Nadu, in southeastern India. ... Tamil (தமிழ் ) is a classical language and one of the major languages of the Dravidian language family. ... The lists of legendary early Chola Kings are recorded in Tamil literature and in the inscriptions left by the later Chola kings. ... The Sangam is a collection of Tamil literature composed between 1,500 and 2,000 years ago. ... For other uses, see number 150. ... The Cauvery (sometimes written as Kaveri) is one of the major rivers of southern India. ... Uraiyur: Literally meaning the living place, Uraiyur was an ancient Chola city with a fortress and citywall on the southern banks of river Ponni and was made the official capital of the Chola empire around 540 B.C.E. by Tittan ( henceforth he was called Uraiyur thandha Thiththan). ILancaeN Cenni... Tiruchirapalli (also spelled Tiruchchirappalli, commonly known as Tiruchi or Trichy, formerly known as Trichinopoly under British rule) is a city situated on the banks of the Kaveri river, centrally located in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. ... Karikala Chola was the greatest among the Chola kings of the Sangam age in South India. ... Sibi is a district in the center of Balochistan province of Pakistan. ... Rajaraja Chola the first is considered the greatest of all Chola kings. ... Kulothunga Chola was the offspring of two rival dynasties - the Cholas of Thanjavoor and the Chalukyas of Vengi when he came to the throne in 1070 A.D. The Cholas and the Chalukyas had always existed in constant warfare, spaced by periods of uneasy peace, for decades, due to differences...


The Chola Empire was at its zenith during the tenth and eleventh century C.E. Under Rajaraja Chola (Rajaraja The Great) and his son Rajendra Chola, the Cholas rose as a notable military, economic and cultural power in Asia. The Chola Empire stretched from southern Maldives as far north as the Himalaya Mountains and West Bengal in North India. Rajaraja Cholan conquered peninsular South India, and annexed parts of Sri Lanka by defeating the Pandyas. Rajendra Cholan went beyond, occupying coastal Burma, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Lakshadweep, conquered the kings of Srivijaya (Sumatra, Java and Malaya in South East Asia) and Pegu islands with his fleet of ships. He defeated Mahipala, the king of Bihar and Bengal, and to commemorate his victory he built a new capital called Gangaikonda Cholapuram. Tamil Chola armies exacted tribute from Thailand and the Khmer kingdom of Cambodia. The power of the Cholas declined around the 14th century. Rajaraja Chola the first is considered the greatest of all Chola kings. ... Rajendra Chola I was the son of Rajaraja Chola I, the great Chola king of South India. ... Asia is the largest and most populous region or continent depending on the definition. ... Perspective view of the Himalaya and Mount Everest as seen from space looking south-south-east from over the Tibetan Plateau. ... Bengal, known as Bôngo (Bengali: বঙ্গ), Bangla (বাংলা), Bôngodesh (বঙ্গদেশ), or Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ) in Bangla, is a region in the northeast of South Asia. ... The Pandyan kingdom was an ancient state at the tip of South India, founded around the 6th century BCE. It was part of the Dravidian cultural area, which also comprised other kingdoms such as that of the Pallava, the Chera, the Chola, the Chalukya and the Vijayanagara. ... Andaman could mean: Andaman Islands Andaman Sea The book The Andaman Islanders by Alfred Radcliffe-Brown. ... Nicobar could refer to: Nicobar Islands of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands Nicobar Pigeon This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Lakshadweep (Malayalam:ലക്ഷദ്വീപ്) is the smallest Union Territory of India. ... Srivijaya (200s-1400) was an ancient Malay kingdom on the island of Sumatra which influenced much of the Malay Archipelago. ... Sumatra (also spelled Sumatara and Sumatera) is the sixth largest island of the world (approximately 470,000 km²) and is the 3rd largest island of Indonesia after Kalimantan and New Guinea. ... Map of Java Java (Indonesian, Javanese, and Sundanese: Jawa) is an island of Indonesia, and the site of its capital city, Jakarta. ... The Federation of Malaya, or in Malay Persekutuan Tanah Melayu, was formed in 1948 from the British settlements of Penang and Malacca and the nine Malay states and replaced the Malayan Union. ... Categories: Stub ... Mahipala I (c. ... For other uses, see Bihar (disambiguation). ... Bengal, known as Bôngo (Bengali: বঙ্গ), Bangla (বাংলা), Bôngodesh (বঙ্গদেশ), or Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ) in Bangla, is a region in the northeast of South Asia. ... Khmer can refer to, the: Khmer people, the ethnic group to which the great majority of Cambodians belong to Khmer language Khmer script Khmer Empire, which ruled much of Indochina from the 9th to the 13th centuries. ...

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Importance of the Cholas

In the age of Cholas, considered by many scholars as the most creative period of South Indian History, the whole of South India was for the first time brought under the sway of a single government, and a serious attempt was made to face and solve the problems of public administration. In local government, in art, religion and literature, the Tamil country reached heights of excellence never reached again in succeeding ages. In all these spheres as well as in that of foreign trade and maritime activity, the Chola period marked the culmination of movements that began in an earlier age, under the Pallavas. Monumental architecture in the form of majestic temples and sculpture both in stone and bronze reached a finesse never before achieved in India. Local governments are administrative offices of an area smaller than a state. ... Venus de Milo exhibited in the Louvre museum, France. ... Literature is literally acquaintance with letters as in the first sense given in the Oxford English Dictionary (from the Latin littera meaning an individual written character (letter)). The term has generally come to identify a collection of texts, which in Western culture are mainly prose, both fiction and non-fiction... The Pallavas were hereditary Hindu rulers who dominated southeastern India between the 4th and 9th centuries. ... An Italian Futurist sculpture by Umberto Boccioni at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City (MoMA). ... Assorted ancient bronze castings found as part of a cache, probably intended for recycling. ...


Sources

On the history of Cholas, as in many other subjects of Indian history, we have very little authentic written evidence. Historians during past 150 years have gleaned a great treasury of knowledge on the subject from a variety of sources such as ancient Tamil Sangam literature, oral traditions, religious texts, temple and copperplate inscriptions. Prehistory The prehistory of India goes back to the old Stone age (Palaeolithic). ... Tamil (தமிழ் ) is a classical language and one of the major languages of the Dravidian language family. ... Sangam Literature is the collective name for the Tamil literature created over 1800 years ago. ... One of the most important sources of history in the Indian subcontinent are the royal records of grants engraved on copper-plates (tamra-shasan or tamra-patra). ...


The main source for the available information of the early Cholas is the early Tamil literature of the Sangam Period. There are also brief notices on the Chola country and its towns, ports and commerce furnished by the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea (Periplus Maris Erythraei). Periplus is a work by an anonymous Alexandrian merchant, written in the time of Domitian (8196 CE) and contains precious little information of the Chola country. Writing half a century later, the geographer Ptolemy has more to tell us about the Chola country, its port and its inland cities. The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea (Periplus Maris Erythraei ) is a Greek periplus, describing navigation and trading opportunities from Roman Egyptian ports like Berenice along the coast of the Red Sea, and others along East Africa and India. ... Alexandrian is either: Alexandria Alexandrian text-type This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Domitian bust in the Louvre Titus Flavius Domitianus (24 October 51 – 18 September 96), commonly known as Domitian, was a Roman emperor of the gens Flavia. ... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 0s BC - 0s - 10s - 20s - 30s - 40s - 50s - 60s - 70s - 80s - 90s - 100s Years: 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 Events Domitian succeeds his brother Titus Flavius as emperor of the Roman Empire. ... For other uses, see number 96. ... Claudius Ptolemaeus (Greek: ; ca. ...


Mahavamsa, a Buddhist text, also recounts a number of conflicts between the inhabitants of Ceylon and the Tamil immigrants. The Mahavamsa, also Mahawamsa, (Pāli: great chronicle) is a historical record, written in the Pāli language, of the Buddhist kings of Sri Lanka. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by...


While there is hardly any reliable information on the Cholas during the period between the early Cholas and the Vijayalaya dynasty, and the Chalukya-Chola dynasties that followed, there is an abundance of materials from diverse sources on the Cholas who followed Vijayalaya. A large number of stone incriptions by both the Cholas themselves and by their rival kings Pandyas and Chalukyas, and copper-plate grants have been instrumental in constructing the history of Cholas of that period. Vijayalaya was the Chola king of South India who captured Thanjavur during c. ... The Chalukya Dynasty was an Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between 550 and 750 from Badami in Bagalkot district, Karnataka state, and again between 973 and 1190 from Manyakheta initially and later from Kalyana in Bidar district. ... The Pandyan kingdom was an ancient state at the tip of South India, founded around the 6th century BCE. It was part of the Dravidian cultural area, which also comprised other kingdoms such as that of the Pallava, the Chera, the Chola, the Chalukya and the Vijayanagara. ... The Chalukya Dynasty was an Indian royal dynasty that ruled parts of southern India between 550 and 750, and again between 973 and 1190. ...


Cholas also are mentioned in the Pillars of Ashoka (inscribed 273 - 232 BCE) inscriptions, where they are mentioned among the kingdoms which, though not subject to Ashoka, were on friendly terms with him. The pillars of Ashoka are a series of columns dispersed throughout the northern Indian subcontinent, and erected by the Mauryan king Ashoka during his reign in the 3rd century BCE. SAlMAN Ashish Many of the pillars are carved with proclamations reflecting Buddhist teachings: the Edicts of Ashoka. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC - 270s BC - 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 278 BC 277 BC 276 BC 275 BC 274 BC - 273 BC - 272 BC 271 BC 270... (Redirected from 232 BCE) Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC - 230s BC - 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC Years: 237 BC 236 BC 235 BC 234 BC 233 BC - 232 BC... Emperor Ashoka (a possible picturisation) Ashoka the Great (Devanagari: अशोक; IAST transliteration: ) was the emperor of the Mauryan Empire from 273 BCE to 232 BCE. After a number of military conquests, Ashoka reigned over most of South Asia and beyond, from present-day Afghanistan to Bengal and as far south as...


Chola Country

The Chola country.
The Chola country.
History of the Indian Subcontinent
Stone Age 70,0007000 BCE
Mehrgarh Culture 70003300 BCE
Indus Valley Civilization 33001700 BCE
Late Harappan Culture 17001300 BCE
Vedic Civilization 1500500 BCE
Kuru Dynasty 1200316 BCE
Maha Janapadas 700321 BCE
Magadha Empire 684321 BCE
Middle Kingdoms 600 BCE1279 CE
Maurya Empire 321184 BCE
Gupta Empire 240550 CE
Chola Empire 8481279 CE
Islamic Sultanates 9791596
Hoysala Empire 10401346
Delhi Sultanate 12101526
Vijayanagara Empire 13361565
Mughal Era 15261707
Maratha Empire 16741761
Colonial Era 17571947
Republic of India 1947 onwards
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According to tradition, the old Chola country comprised of the region that include the modern day Tiruchirapalli, and the Thanjavur districts in Tamil Nadu state. The river Kaveri and its tributaries dominate this landscape of this generally flat country which gradually slopes towards the sea. There are no major hills or valleys to mar this monotony. Image File history File links Chola_country. ... Image File history File links Chola_country. ... This article is about the History of South Asia. ... The Palaeolithic and Mesolithic in South Asia. ... Human migration denotes any movement by humans from one locality to another, often over long distances or in large groups. ... (8th millennium BC – 7th millennium BC – 6th millennium BC – other millennia) // Events Circa 7000 BC – Agriculture and settlement at Mehrgarh in South Asia. ... Mehrgarh was an ancient settlement in South Asia and is one of the most important sites in archaeology for the study of the earliest neolithic settlements in that region. ... (8th millennium BC – 7th millennium BC – 6th millennium BC – other millennia) Events circa 7000 BC – Agriculture and settlement at Mehrgarh in South Asia circa 6500 BC – English Channel formed circa 6100 BC – The Storegga Slide, causing a megatsunami in the Norwegian Sea circa 6000 BC – Neolithic Age in Korea circa... (34th century BC - 33rd century BC - 32nd century BC - other centuries) (5th millennium BC - 4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC) Events Major climate shift possibly due to shift in solar activity. ... The Indus Valley Civilization (3300–1700 BCE) was an ancient civilization thriving along the Indus River and the Ghaggar-Hakra River in what is now Pakistan and Northern India. ... (34th century BC - 33rd century BC - 32nd century BC - other centuries) (5th millennium BC - 4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC) Events Major climate shift possibly due to shift in solar activity. ... (Redirected from 1700 BC) (18th century BC - 17th century BC - 16th century BC - other centuries) (1690s BC - 1680s BC - 1670s BC - 1660s BC - 1650s BC - 1640s BC - 1630s BC - 1620s BC - 1610s BC - 1600s BC - 1590s BC - other decades) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events 1700... The Cemetery H culture developed out of the northern part of the Indus Valley Civilization around 1900 BC, in and around the Punjab region. ... (Redirected from 1700 BC) (18th century BC - 17th century BC - 16th century BC - other centuries) (1690s BC - 1680s BC - 1670s BC - 1660s BC - 1650s BC - 1640s BC - 1630s BC - 1620s BC - 1610s BC - 1600s BC - 1590s BC - other decades) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events 1700... (Redirected from 1300 BC) Centuries: 15th century BC - 14th century BC - 13th century BC Decades: 1350s BC 1340s BC 1330s BC 1320s BC 1310s BC - 1300s BC - 1290s BC 1280s BC 1270s BC 1260s BC 1250s BC Events and Trends Cecrops II, legendary King of Athens dies after a reign... The Vedic Civilization is the Indo-Aryan culture associated with the Vedas, the earliest known records of Indian history. ... (Redirected from 1500 BC) Centuries: 17th century BC - 16th century BC - 15th century BC Decades: 1550s BC 1540s BC 1530s BC 1520s BC 1510s BC - 1500s BC - 1490s BC 1480s BC 1470s BC 1460s BC 1450s BC Events and Trends Stonehenge built in Wiltshire, England The element Mercury has been... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC - 450s BC Events and Trends 509 BC - Foundation of the Roman Republic 508 BC - Office of pontifex maximus created... The position of the Kuru kingdom in Iron Age Vedic India. ... (Redirected from 1200 BC) Centuries: 14th century BC - 13th century BC - 12th century BC Decades: 1250s BC 1240s BC 1230s BC 1220s BC 1210s BC - 1200s BC - 1190s BC 1180s BC 1170s BC 1160s BC 1150s BC Events and Trends 1204 BC - Theseus, legendary King of Athens is deposed after... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 321 BC 320 BC 319 BC 318 BC 317 BC 316 BC 315 BC 314 BC 313... Mahajanapadas (महाजनपद) literally means Great kingdoms (from Sanskrit Maha = great, Janapada = foothold of tribe = country). ... Centuries: 9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC Decades: 750s BC 740s BC 730s BC 720s BC 710s BC - 700s BC - 690s BC 680s BC 670s BC 660s BC 650s BC Events and Trends 708 BC - Spartan immigrants found Taras (Tarentum, the modern Taranto) colony in southern Italy. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC - 320s BC - 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 326 BC 325 BC 324 BC 323 BC 322 BC - 321 BC - 320 BC 319 BC 318... Magadha was an ancient kingdom of India, mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. ... Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 730s BC 720s BC 710s BC 700s BC 690s BC - 680s BC - 670s BC 660s BC 650s BC 640s BC 630s BC Events and trends 689 BC - King Sennacherib of Assyria sacks Babylon 687 BC - Gyges becomes king of... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC - 320s BC - 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 326 BC 325 BC 324 BC 323 BC 322 BC - 321 BC - 320 BC 319 BC 318... Middle kingdoms of India refers to the political entities in India from the 6th century BCE through to the Islamic invasions and the related Decline of Buddhism from the 7th century CE. // Kingdoms and Empires The Aryans had invaded India from the Northwest, according to the Aryan Invasion Theory, and... Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 650s BC 640s BC 630s BC 620s BC 610s BC - 600s BC - 590s BC 580s BC 570s BC 560s BC 550s BC Events and Trends Fall of the Assyrian Empire and Rise of Babylon 609 BC _ King Josiah... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... Chandragupta Maurya (ruled 322–298 BC), known to the Greeks as Sandracottus, was the first emperor of the Mauryan empire. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC - 320s BC - 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 326 BC 325 BC 324 BC 323 BC 322 BC - 321 BC - 320 BC 319 BC 318... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC - 180s BC - 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC Years: 189 BC 188 BC 187 BC 186 BC 185 BC - 184 BC - 183 BC 182 BC... The Gupta Empire in 400 CE (not including vassal states) The Gupta Empire was one of the largest political and military empires in ancient India. ... For alternate uses, see Number 240. ... Events End of the Eastern Wei Dynasty and beginning of the Northern Qi Dynasty in northern China. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Cholas. ... Events The Borobudur is completed. ... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... During the middle ages, several Islamic regimes established empires in India. ... Events: The Tynwald, the parliament of the Isle of Man, is founded. ... Events February 5 - 26 catholics crucified in Nagasaki, Japan. ... The Hoysala Empire ruled part of southern India from 1000 to 1346. ... 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The Vijayanagara empire was based in the Deccan, in peninsular and southern India, from 1336 onwards. ... Events End of the Kemmu restoration and beginning of the Muromachi period in Japan. ... Events March 1 - the city of Rio de Janeiro is founded April 27 - Cebu City is established becoming the first Spanish settlement in the Philippines. ... // The Mughal Empire Main article: Mughal Empire India in the 16th century presented a fragmented picture of rulers, both Muslim and Hindu, who lacked concern for their subjects and who failed to create a common body of laws or institutions. ... Events January 14 - Treaty of Madrid. ... Events January 1 - John V is crowned King of Portugal April 25 - Allied army is defeated by Bourbonic army at Almansa (Spain) in the War of the Spanish Succession. ... Extent of the Maratha Confederacy ca. ... Events February 19 - England and the Netherlands sign the Treaty of Westminster. ... 1761 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... In 1498, the Portuguese set foot in Goa. ... 1757 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... // Introduction The first known use of the word Punjab is in the book Tarikh-e-Sher Shah (1580), which mentions the construction of a fort by Sher Khan of Punjab. The name is mentioned again in Ain-e-Akbari (part 1), written by Abul Fazal, who also mentions that the... The history of South India begins with the Sangam age, from 200 BC to 300 AD. It is called so after the sangam literature. ... The history of Assam is the history of a confluence of peoples from the east, west and the north; the confluence of the Indo-Aryan, Austro-Asiatic and the Tibeto-Burman cultures. ... The historical regions of Pakistan are former states, provinces and territories which mainly existed between 1947 and 1975 when the current provinces and territories were finally established. ... Bengal had been quite distant and cut off (by the rivers, especially the Ganga and the Brahmaputra) from the mainland of India for ages. ... This is a timeline of Indian history. ... ... India has had a maritime history dating back around 5,000 years. ... The chronology of Indian mathematics spans from the Indus Valley civilization (3300-1500 BC) and Vedic civilization (1500-500 BC) to modern India (21st century CE). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Tiruchirapalli (also spelt Tiruchchirapalli, commonly known as Tiruchi or Trichy, formerly known as Trichinopoly under British rule) is a city situated on the banks of the Kaveri River, centrally located in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. ... Thanjavur, formerly known as Tanjore, is a city in Tamil Nadu, in southeastern India. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... The Cauvery (sometimes written as Kaveri) is one of the major rivers of southern India. ...


The river Kaveri, which was also known as Ponni (golden) river, had a special place in the culture of Cholas. It never failed them and the annual freshes in the Kaveri marked an occasion for celebration in which the whole nation from the king down to the lowest peasant took part. Kaverippattinam on the coast near the Kaveri delta was a major port town. Ptolemy knew of this and the other port town of Nagappattinam as the most important towns of Cholas. These two towns became seats of trade and commerce and acted as a cosmopolitan center attracting many religious faiths including Buddhism. Roman galleys also found their way in to these ports. Many Roman coins dating from the early centuries CE have been found near the Kaveri delta. Poompuhar is a town in the southern part of India in the state of Tamil Nadu. ... Nagapattinam is a city, taluk, and District on the coast of Tamil Nadu, India. ... Buddhism (Pāli Buddhadhamma or Sanskrit Buddhadharma) is a religion and philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, who lived in the 5th century BCE. Buddhism spread throughout the ancient Indian sub-continent in the five centuries following his death, and propagated into Central, Southeast, and... A French galley and Dutch men-of-war off a port by Abraham Willaerts, painted 17th century. ...


Thanjavur, Tiruchirapalli, Urayur and Kumbakonam were the other major towns. Uraiyur: Literally meaning the living place, Uraiyur was an ancient Chola city with a fortress and citywall on the southern banks of river Ponni and was made the official capital of the Chola empire around 540 B.C.E. by Tittan ( henceforth he was called Uraiyur thandha Thiththan). ILancaeN Cenni... Kumbeswara temple at Kumbakonam Kumbakonam is a town in the Thanjavur district of Tamil Nadu state in southern India. ...


Origin of the Name Chola

We have no definite information on the origins of the name Chola. Parimelalagar, who annotated the great Tamil classic Tirukkural, mentions that this could be the name of an ancient clan. The most commonly held view is that this is, like Cheras and Pandyas, the name of the ruling family or clan of immemorial antiquity. Tiruvalluvar statue at Kanyakumari Tirukural (திருக்குறள் in Tamil) is an important work of Tamil literature by Tiruvalluvar written in the form of couplets expounding various aspects of life. ... The Cheras were one of the three ancient Tamil dynasties who ruled the southern tip of the peninsula of India for most of its early history. ... The Pandyan kingdom was an ancient state at the tip of South India, founded around the 6th century BCE. It was part of the Dravidian cultural area, which also comprised other kingdoms such as that of the Pallava, the Chera, the Chola, the Chalukya and the Vijayanagara. ...


Attempts have been made to connect the word with the Sanskrit Kala (black) and with Kola which in the early days designated the dark colored pre-Aryan population of Southern India in general. Sanskrit ( संस्कृतम्) is an Indo-European classical language of India and a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. ...


Other names in common use for the Cholas are Killi (கிள்ளி), Valavan (வளவன்) and Sembiyan (சேம்பியன்). Killi perhaps comes from the Tamil 'kil' (கிள்) meaning dig or cleave and conveys the idea of a digger or a worker of the land. This word often forms an integral part of early Chola names like Nedungilli, Nalangilli and so on, but almost drops out of use in later times. Valavan is most probably connected with 'valam' (வளம்) – fertility and means owner or ruler of a fertile country. Sembiyan is generally taken to mean a descendant of Shibi – a legendary hero whose self-sacrifice in saving a dove from the pursuit of a falcon figures among the early Chola legends and forms the subject matter of the Sibi Jataka among the Jataka stories of Buddhism. King Shibi Chakravati was a famous Hindu mythological king. ... Sibi Jataka is one of the Jataka tales detailing episodes of the various incarnations of Buddha. ... The Jataka stories are a significant body of works about the previous lives of Gautama Buddha. ... Buddhism (Pāli Buddhadhamma or Sanskrit Buddhadharma) is a religion and philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, who lived in the 5th century BCE. Buddhism spread throughout the ancient Indian sub-continent in the five centuries following his death, and propagated into Central, Southeast, and...


Chola Crest

An early silver kasu of Uttama Chola found in Sri Lanka showing the Tiger emblem of the cholas.
An early silver kasu of Uttama Chola found in Sri Lanka showing the Tiger emblem of the cholas.

The Cholas adapted the tiger as their crest and the same animal was figured in their flags. Not one of the numerous references that appear in Tamil literature tells us anything of its origin. Image File history File links Uttama_coin. ... Image File history File links Uttama_coin. ... According to Tiruvalangadu plates Parakesari Uththama Chola ruled the Chola kingdom from 969 to 985. ...


Periods of Chola history

The history of Cholas falls naturally into four divisions: the early Cholas of the Sangam literature, the interregnum between the fall of the Sangam Cholas and the rise of the medieval Cholas under Vijayalaya (c. 848 C.E.), the dynasty of Vijayalaya, and finally the Chalukya Chola dynasty of Kulothunga Chola I from the third quarter of the eleventh century. Vijayalaya was the Chola king of South India who captured Thanjavur during c. ... Events The Borobudur is completed. ... The Chalukya Dynasty was an Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between 550 and 750 from Badami in Bagalkot district, Karnataka state, and again between 973 and 1190 from Manyakheta initially and later from Kalyana in Bidar district. ... Kulothunga Chola was the offspring of two rival dynasties - the Cholas of Thanjavoor and the Chalukyas of Vengi when he came to the throne in 1070 A.D. The Cholas and the Chalukyas had always existed in constant warfare, spaced by periods of uneasy peace, for decades, due to differences...


Early Cholas

Main article: Early Cholas

The earliest Chola kings of whom we have tangible evidence are those mentioned in the Sangam literature. Scholars now generally agree that this literature belongs to the first few centuries C.E. The internal chronology of this literature is still far from settled, and this remains at present an insurmountable obstacle in the way of giving a connected account of the history of the period. The Early Cholas of the pre and post Sangam period (100 C.E. – 200 C.E.) were only the three main kingdoms of the ancient Tamil country. ...


The Sangam literature is abound with the names of kings and prices, and of the poets who extolled them. The literature is also rich in its depiction of the life and work of these people. It is therefore a great pity that these cannot be worked into connected history. Sangam Literature is the collective name for the Tamil literature created over 1800 years ago. ...


The Sangam literature is also full of legends about the mythical Chola kings. The Cholas were looked upon as descended from the sun. These myths speak of the Chola king Kantaman, supposed contemporary of the sage Agastya, whose devotion brought the river Kavery into existence. There is also the story of the king Manu who sentenced his son to death for having accidentally killed a calf. Mahavamasa portrays King Elara who was defeated by Duttha Gamini (c. second centure B.C.E.) as the just king who '...had a bell with a rope attached at the head of his bed, so that all who sought redress might ring it...'. King Shibi who rescued a dove from a hawk by giving his own flesh to the hungry hawk was also part of the early Chola legends. King Shibi was also called Sembiyan, a popular title assumed by a number of Chola kings. In Hinduism, Agastya (अगस्त्य in devanagari, pronounced as /ə gəs tyə/; also transliterated as Agathiar, Agasthiar, Agastyar and in other ways) is a legendary Vedic sage or rishi. ... Statue of Manu Needhi Cholan in the premises of Madras High Court in Chennai Manuneedhi Cholan or Manu Needhi Cholan was a legendary Chola king believed to have killed his own son to provide justice to a cow. ... Ellaalan( c. ... Gamini Abhaya or Dutte Gamini(c. ... King Shibi Chakravati was a famous Hindu mythological king. ...


These legends received enormous emphasis in the later Chola period in the long mythical genealogies incorporated into the copper-plate charters of the tenth and eleventh centuries. The earliest version of this is found in the Anbil Plates which gives fifteen names before Vijayalaya Cholan including the genuinely historical ones of Karikala, Perunarkilli and Kocengannan. The Thiruvalangadu Plate swells this list to forty-four, and the Kanyakumari Plate runs up to fifty-two. There are other lists gathered from literary works such as Kalingathuparani. No two of these lists agree, although some names and details are common to all. Tamil copperplate inscriptions are mostly records of grants of villages or plots of cultivable lands to private individuals or public institutions, by the members of the various South Indian royal dynasties. ... Tamil copperplate inscriptions are mostly records of grants of villages or plots of cultivable lands to private individuals or public institutions, by the members of the various South Indian royal dynasties. ... The Tiruvalluvar statue The Vivekananda memorial The Gandhi Mandepam Kanyakumari is a town and a cape at the southernmost tip of the Indian peninsula. ...


Two names stand out prominently from among those the Chola kings known to the Sangam literature: Karikala Chola and Kocengannan. There is no sure means of settling the order of succession, of fixing their relations with one another and with many other princelings of about the same period. Karikala Chola was the greatest among the Chola kings of the Sangam age in South India. ... Kocengannan was one of the Early Cholas mentioned in Sangam Literature. ...


In an attempt to separate myths from history, the following list consciously omits attributing any dates for these legendary kings. The lists of legendary early Chola Kings are recorded in Tamil literature and in the inscriptions left by the later Chola kings. ...

Ilamcetcenni c.100 C.E. *
Karikala Chola c.120 C.E *
Nedunkilli c.150 C.E. *
Nalankilli c.150 C.E. *
Killivalavan c. 200 C.E. *
Perunarkilli c. 300 C.E.*
Kocengannan c. 220 C.E. *
  • * - Dates are approximate.

Ilamcetcenni was a Chola king during the Sangam age in South India. ... -1... Karikala Chola was the greatest among the Chola kings of the Sangam age in South India. ... For other uses, see number 120. ... Nedunkilli was one of the Early Cholas mentioned in Sangam Literature. ... For other uses, see number 150. ... Nalankilli was one of the Early Cholas mentioned in Sangam Literature. ... For other uses, see number 150. ... Killivalavan was one of the Early Cholas mentioned in Sangam Literature, and of a period close to that of Nedunkilli and Nalankilli. ... For other uses, see number 200. ... Perunarkilli was one of the Early Cholas mentioned in Sangam Literature. ... Events Romano-Celtic temple-mausoleum complex is constructed in Lullingstone, and also in Anderida (approximate date). ... Kocengannan was one of the Early Cholas mentioned in Sangam Literature. ... Events Han Xiandi abdicates his throne to Cao Pi, symbolizing the end of the Han Dynasty and the beginning of the Three Kingdoms period in China. ...

From the Sangam Age to Vijayalaya

The transition period, from the end of the Sangam age (c. 300 C.E.) to that in which the Pandyas and Pallavas dominate the Tamil country, of around three centuries is completely hidden from our views. The same darkness surrounds the fate of Cholas for a further three centuries until the accession of Vijayala in the second quarter of the ninth century. Events Romano-Celtic temple-mausoleum complex is constructed in Lullingstone, and also in Anderida (approximate date). ... The Pandyan kingdom was an ancient state at the tip of South India, founded around the 6th century BCE. It was part of the Dravidian cultural area, which also comprised other kingdoms such as that of the Pallava, the Chera, the Chola, the Chalukya and the Vijayanagara. ... The Pallavas were hereditary Hindu rulers who dominated southeastern India between the 4th and 9th centuries. ...


Epigraphy and literature provide a few faint glimpses of the transformations that came over this ancient line of kings in this long interval. What is certain however is that when the power of Cholas fell to the lowest ebb and that of the Pandyas and Pallavas rose the north and South of them, this ancient dynasty was compelled to seek refuge and patronage under their more successful rivals. The Pallavas and Pandyas seem to have left the Cholas alone for the most part, though, possible out of regard for their name, they accepted Chola princeses in marriage and employed in their service Chola princes who were willing to accept it. Epigraphy (Greek, επιγραφή - written upon) is the study of inscriptions engraved into stone or other permanent materials, or cast in metal, the science of classifying them as to cultural context and date, elucidating them and assessing what conclusions can be deduced from them. ...


The Chinese pilgrim Xuanzang, who spent several months in Kanchipuram during 639 – 640 C.E. writes about the 'kingdom of Culi-ya'. Xuanzang, Dunhuang cave, 9th century. ... Kanchipuram temple, engraved in 1811. ...


Numerous inscriptions of Pallavas, Pandyas and Chlukyas of this period mention conquering ‘the Chola country’.


Despite this loss in influence and power, it is unlikely that the Cholas lost total grip of their ancient land around Uraiyur, their old capital. Vijayalaya when he rose to prominence hailed from this geographical area.


Around seventh century C.E., there flourished a Chola kingdom in the present day Andhra Pradesh. These Telugu Cholas traced their descent to the early Sangam Cholas. Nothing definite is known however of their connection to the early Cholas. It is possible that a branch of the Tamil Cholas migrated north during the time of the Pallavas to establish a kingdom of their own, away from the dominating influences of the Pandyas and Pallavas. Andhra Pradesh: ఆంధ్ర ప్రదేశ్; Āndhra Prādesh), is a state in South India and is part of the linguistic-cultural region of South India. ... Many Telugu Chola kingdoms held sway over regions to the south of the Krishna River in the period between the seventh and the thirteenth century C.E. Some of them claimed descent from the legendary Karikala Chola (c 100 C.E.). It is not known much about these families or...


So, the once mighty Cholas, waited, bending low before every storm that passed over them in their original abode and bided their time.


The Medieval Cholas

Around 850 C.E., out of obscurity rose Vijayalaya. Vijayalaya, who must have been a vassal of the Pallava king, made use of an opportunity arising out of a conflict between Pandyas and Pallavas, captured Thanjavur and eventually established the imperial line of the Medieval Cholas. Events April 20 - Guntherus becomes Bishop of Cologne. ... Vijayalaya was the Chola king of South India who captured Thanjavur during c. ... A vassal or liege, in the terminology that both preceded and accompanied the feudalism of medieval Europe, is one who enters into mutual obligations with a lord, usually of military support and mutual protection, in exchange for certain guarantees, which came to include the terrain held as a fief. ...

Vijayalaya Chola 848 - 871(?) C.E.
Aditya I 871 - 907 C.E.
Parantaka Chola I 907 - 950 C.E.
Gandaraditya 950 - 957 C.E.
Arinjaya Chola 956 - 957 C.E.
Parantaka Chola II (Sundara Chola) 957 - 970 C.E.
Uttama Chola 970 - 985 C.E.
Rajaraja Chola I 985 - 1014 C.E.
Rajendra Chola I 1012 - 1044 C.E.
Rajadhiraja Chola I 1018 - 1054 C.E.
Rajendra Chola II 1051 - 1063 C.E.
Virarajendra Chola 1063 - 1070 C.E.
Athirajendra Chola 1067 - 1070 C.E.

Vijayalaya was the Chola king of South India who captured Thanjavur during c. ... Events The Borobudur is completed. ... Events Nine battles are fought between the Danes and Wessex. ... Aditya I (870-906) was an Indian ruler. ... Events Nine battles are fought between the Danes and Wessex. ... Events Oleg leads Kievan Rus in a campaign against Constantinople Yelü Abaoji establishes Liao (Khitan) dynasty Births Deaths Categories: 907 ... Parantaka Chola I (907 c. ... Events Oleg leads Kievan Rus in a campaign against Constantinople Yelü Abaoji establishes Liao (Khitan) dynasty Births Deaths Categories: 907 ... Events World Population: 250 Million. ... Gandaraditya Chola succeeded his father Parantaka I and became the Chola king c. ... Events World Population: 250 Million. ... Events Births Deaths Categories: 957 ... Arinjaya Chola succeeded Gandaraditya Chola c. ... Deaths April 8 - Gilbert of Chalon, Duke of Burgundy Categories: 956 ... Events Births Deaths Categories: 957 ... Parantak Chola II (957 c. ... Events Births Deaths Categories: 957 ... Events Major volcano eruption in Mashu Japan Devastating decade long famine begins in France Byzantine Emperor John I successfully defends the Eastern Roman Empire from massive barbarian invasion Construction completed on Al-Azhar mosque in Cairo, worlds oldest Islamic university Births Leif Ericson, Norse explorer Seyyed Razi, important Muslim... Uttama Chola ascended the Chola throne c. ... Events Major volcano eruption in Mashu Japan Devastating decade long famine begins in France Byzantine Emperor John I successfully defends the Eastern Roman Empire from massive barbarian invasion Construction completed on Al-Azhar mosque in Cairo, worlds oldest Islamic university Births Leif Ericson, Norse explorer Seyyed Razi, important Muslim... Events Barcelona sacked by Al-Mansur Greenland colonized by Icelandic Viking Erik the Red (the date is according to legend but has been established as at least approximately correct – see History of Greenland) Lady Wulfruna founded the town that later became the city of Wolverhampton Births Al-Hakim bi-Amr... Rajaraja Chola I ascended the Chola throne in July 985 C.E. Raja Raja the Great, as he is known in history reigned for 29 years, and conquered the whole of southern India and the Chola empire expanded as far as Sri Lanka in the south, and Kalinga (Orissa) in... Events Barcelona sacked by Al-Mansur Greenland colonized by Icelandic Viking Erik the Red (the date is according to legend but has been established as at least approximately correct – see History of Greenland) Lady Wulfruna founded the town that later became the city of Wolverhampton Births Al-Hakim bi-Amr... Events February 14 - Pope Benedict VIII recognizes Henry of Bavaria as King of Germany July 29 - Battle of Kleidion: Basil II inflicts not only a decisive defeat on the Bulgarian army, but his subsequent savage treatment of 15,000 prisoners reportedly causes Tsar Samuil of Bulgaria to die of shock... Rajendra Chola I was the son of Rajaraja Chola I, the great Chola king of South India. ... Events Mael Morda starts a rebellion against Brian Boru in Ireland, which would eventually end in 1014 at the Battle of Clontarf. ... Events King Anawrahta seizes the throne of Pagan, Myanmar Births Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar, known as The Cid (d. ... Rajadhiraja Chola I (1018-1054) was the king of the Cholas empire in southern India and the eldest son of king Rajendra Chola I. Although not supreme king untill his fathers death in 1044 he was associated in kingship since 1018 He maintained Cholas authority over most of Lanka, despite... Events Bulgaria becomes part of the Byzantine Empire. ... Events Cardinal Humbertus, a representative of Pope Leo IX, and Michael Cerularius, Patriarch of Constantinople, decree each others excommunication. ... Rajendra Chola II (1054 – 1063 C.E.) reigned as the Chola king succeeding his brother Rajadhiraja Chola. ... -1... Events Anselm of Canterbury becomes prior at Le Bec Sancho I becomes ruler of Aragon Bishopric of Olomouc is founded Births Deaths April 30 - Emperor Renzong (b. ... Virarajendra Chola (1063 – 1070 C.E.) became the Chola king succeeding his brother Rajendra Chola II. Rajamahendra, Rajendra’s son and heir apparent died before his father and Rajendra made his younger brother Virarajendra his heir. ... Events Anselm of Canterbury becomes prior at Le Bec Sancho I becomes ruler of Aragon Bishopric of Olomouc is founded Births Deaths April 30 - Emperor Renzong (b. ... Events Hereward the Wake begins a Saxon revolt in the Fens of eastern England. ... Athirajendra Chola ( 1070 C.E.) reigned for a very short period of few months as the Chola king succeeding his brother Virarajendra Chola. ... Events Constantine X emperor of the Byzantine Empire dies. ... Events Hereward the Wake begins a Saxon revolt in the Fens of eastern England. ...

Chalukya Cholas

Marital links between the Eastern Chalukya kings based around Vengi located on the south banks of the River Godavari began during the reign of Rajaraja following Rajaraja's invasion of Vengi. Rajaraja Chola's daughter married prince Vimaladitan. Rajendra Chola's daughter was also married to an Eastern Chalukya prince Rajaraja Narendra. Eastern Chalukyas were a South Indian dynasty whose kingdom was located in the present day Andhra Pradesh. ... The Godavari River is a major waterway in India, next to the Ganges and Indus rivers. ... Rajaraja Chola I ascended the Chola throne in July 985 C.E. Raja Raja the Great, as he is known in history reigned for 29 years, and conquered the whole of southern India and the Chola empire expanded as far as Sri Lanka in the south, and Kalinga (Orissa) in...


Virarajendra Chola's son Athirajendra Chola was assassinated in a civil disturbance in 1070 C.E. and Kulothunga Chola I ascended the Chola throne starting the Chalukya Chola dynasty. Virarajendra Chola (1063 – 1070 C.E.) became the Chola king succeeding his brother Rajendra Chola II. Rajamahendra, Rajendra’s son and heir apparent died before his father and Rajendra made his younger brother Virarajendra his heir. ... Athirajendra Chola ( 1070 C.E.) reigned for a very short period of few months as the Chola king succeeding his brother Virarajendra Chola. ... Events Hereward the Wake begins a Saxon revolt in the Fens of eastern England. ... Kulothunga Chola was the offspring of two rival dynasties - the Cholas of Thanjavoor and the Chalukyas of Vengi when he came to the throne in 1070 A.D. The Cholas and the Chalukyas had always existed in constant warfare, spaced by periods of uneasy peace, for decades, due to differences... The Chalukya Chola dynasty ruled the Chola Empire from 1070 C.E. until the demise of the empire in the second half of the 13th century. ...

Kulothunga Chola I 1070 - 1120 C.E.
Vikrama Chola 1118 - 1135 C.E.
Kulothunga Chola II 1133 - 1150 C.E.
Rajaraja Chola II 1146 - 1163 C.E.
Rajadiraja Chola II 1163 - 1178 C.E.
Kulothunga Chola III 1178 - 1218 C.E.
Rajaraja Chola III 1216 - 1256 C.E.
Rajendra Chola IV 1246 - 1279 C.E.

Kulothunga Chola was the offspring of two rival dynasties - the Cholas of Thanjavoor and the Chalukyas of Vengi when he came to the throne in 1070 A.D. The Cholas and the Chalukyas had always existed in constant warfare, spaced by periods of uneasy peace, for decades, due to differences... Events Hereward the Wake begins a Saxon revolt in the Fens of eastern England. ... Events Welcher of Malvern creates a system of measurement for the earth using degrees, minutes, and seconds of latitude and longitude. ... Vikrama Chola succeeded his father the famous Kulothunga Chola I to the Chola throne in 1120 C.E. He inherited an empire that had been severely confined to the Tamil country and a few out-lying areas of the Telugu country. ... Events Knights Templar founded Baldwin of Le Bourg succeeds his cousin Baldwin I as king of Jerusalem John II Comnenus succeeds Alexius I as Byzantine emperor Gelasius II succeeds Paschal II as pope Births November 28 - Manuel I Comnenus, Byzantine Emperor (died 1180) Andronicus I Comnenus, Byzantine Emperor (died 1185... Events January - Byland Abbey founded Stephen of Blois succeeds King Henry I. Empress Maud, daughter of Henry I and widow of Henry V opposed Stephen and claims the throne as her own Owain Gwynedd of Wales defeats the Normans at Crug Mawr. ... Kulothunga Chola II succeeded his father Vikrama Chola to the Chola throne in 1135 C.E. Vikrama Chola made his heir apparent and coregent in 1133 C.E and so the inscriptions of Kulothunga II count his reign from 1133 C.E. Kulothunga II reigned over a period of general... Events Geoffrey of Monmouth produces the Historia Regum Britanniae Durham Cathedral is completed Construction of Exeter Cathedral begun June 4 - Lothair III is crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Innocent II Births March 5 - King Henry II of England (died 1189) Honen Shonin, Japanese founder of Pure Land Buddhism (died 1212... Events Åhus, Sweden gains city privileges City of Airdrie, Scotland founded King Sverker I of Sweden is deposed and succeeded by Eric IX of Sweden. ... Rajaraja Chola II succeeded his father Kulothunga Chola II to the Chola throne in 1150 C.E. He was made his heir apparent and coregent in 1146 C.E and so the inscriptions of Rajaraja II count his reign from 1146 C.E. Rajarajas reign began to show signs... Events Saint Bernard of Clairvaux preaches the Second Crusade at Vezelay, Burgundy First written mention of Bryansk. ... // Events Owain Gwynedd is recognized as ruler of Wales. ... Rajadhiraja Chola II (1163 – 1063 C.E.) reigned as the Chola king succeeding Rajaraja Chola II. He was not the direct descendent of Rajaraja Chola II, but a grandson of Vikrama Chola by his dauther. ... // Events Owain Gwynedd is recognized as ruler of Wales. ... Events June 18 - Five Canterbury monks see what was possibly the Giordano Bruno crater being formed The Sung Document written detailing the discovery of Mu-Lan-Pi (suggested by some to be California) by Muslim sailors The Chronicle of Gervase of Canterbury written The Leaning Tower of Pisa begins to... Events June 18 - Five Canterbury monks see what was possibly the Giordano Bruno crater being formed The Sung Document written detailing the discovery of Mu-Lan-Pi (suggested by some to be California) by Muslim sailors The Chronicle of Gervase of Canterbury written The Leaning Tower of Pisa begins to... // Events Damietta is besieged by the knights of the Fifth Crusade. ... Events Prince Louis of France, the future King Louis VIII, invades England in the First Barons War Henry III becomes King of England. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Go-Saga, emperor of Japan. ... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ...

Fall of the Chola Empire

The Chola Empire under Rajendra Chola IV was experiencing a period of continuous trouble. It coincides with an epoch of great changes in the political map of the south. The Cholas were exposed to assaults from within and without. The Pandyas in the south had risen to the rank of a great power. Hoysalas in the west threatened the existence of the Chola empire. Rajendra tried to survive by aligning with the two powers in turn. At the close of Rajendra’s reign, the Pandyan empire was at the height of prosperity and had taken the place of the Chola empire in the eyes of the foreign observers. There is no evidence that Rajendra was followed immediately by another Chola prince. The Chola empire was completely absorbed by the Pandyan empire. The Hoysala Empire ruled part of southern India from 1000 to 1346. ...


Chola Government

Main article: Chola Government

The system of government of the Imperial Cholas was as was in the Sangam age, monarchy. But there was little in common between the primitive and somewhat tribal chieftaincy of the earlier time, and the almost Byzantine royalty or Rajaraja Chola and his successors with its numerous palaces, the pomp and circumstance associated with the royal court. The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... Rajaraja Chola the first is considered the greatest of all Chola kings. ...


Extent of Government

Between 980 C.E. and c. 1150 C.E., the Chola Empire comprised of the entire south Indian peninsula up to the banks of the river Godavari. The character of the Empire took true Imperial proportions. The king was referred to as Chakravartigal (Emperor) and the lord of the three worlds (Tribhuvanachakravarti). The crown prince began to take part in active administration from the time of Rajaraja and minor princes were appointed as regional governors.


Thanjavur and later Gangaikondacholapuram, were the imperial capitals. However both Kanchipuram and Madhurai were considered as regional capitals and occasional courts were held in them.


Administrative machinery

The king was the supreme commander and a benevolent dictator. His share in the administration consisted of issuing oral commands to responsible officers when representations were made to him.


Council of Ministers

There is no definite evidence of the existence of a council of ministers or of other officers connected to the central government. A powerful bureaucracy assisted the king in the tasks of administration and in executing his orders. Due to the lack of a legislature or a legislative system in the modern sense, the fairness of king’s orders dependent on the goodness of the man and in his belief in Dharma – sense of fairness and justice. Dharma - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


There was a definite hierarchy of the bureaucracy and the tenure of the officials simply dependent on the 'Crown’s pleasure'. One of the important such officers were the Revenue officials responsible for the receipts and expenditures of the government.


Administrative Divisions

Every village was a self governing unit. A number of such villages constituted a Kurram or nadu or Kottram in different parts of the country. A number of Kurrams constituted a valanadu. These divisions and names underwent constant change and refinement throughout the Chola period.


Justice

Justice was mostly a local matter in the Chola Empire, where minor disputes were settled at the village level. The punishments for minor crimes were in the form of fines or a direction for the offender to donate to some charitable endowment. Even crimes such as manslaughter or murder were punished by fines. Crimes of the state such as treason were heard and decided by the king himself and the typical punishment in such cases was either execution or confiscation of property.


Chola Art and Architecture

Main article: Chola Art

Detail of a Statue of Rajaraja I at the Brihadisvara Temple The period of the imperial Cholas (c. ...

Architecture

The Cholas continued the temple building traditions of the Pallava dynasty and elevated the Dravidian temple design to heights never reached before. They built numerous temples through out their kingdom. Aditya I built a number of Siva temples along the banks of the river Kaveri. These temples were not of very big scale until the end of the tenth century C.E. The Pallavas are believed to be hereditary Hindu rulers who dominated southeastern India between the 4th and 9th centuries. ... Aditya I (870-906) was an Indian ruler. ...


Temple building received great impetus from the conquests and the genius of Rajaraja Chola and his son Rajendra Chola I. The maturity and grandeur to which the Chola architecture had evolved found expression in the two maginificent temples of Tanjavur and Gangaikondacholapuram. The magnificent Siva temple of Thanjavur, completed around 1009 C.E. is a fitting memorial to the material achievements of the time of Rajaraja. The largest and tallest of all Indian temples, it is a masterpiece constituting the high watermark of South Indian architecture. Rajaraja Chola the first is considered the greatest of all Chola kings. ... Rajendra Chola I was the son of Rajaraja Chola I, the great Chola king of South India. ...


The temple of Gangaikondcholapuram, the creation of Rajendra Chola, was evidently meant to excel its predecessor in every way. Completed aroung 1030 C.E., only two decades after the Temple at Thanjavur and in much the same style, the greater elaboration in its appearance attests the more affluent state of the Chola Empire under Rajendra.


Sculpture and Bronze

The Chola period is also remarkable for its sculptures and bronzes. Among the existing specimens in the various museums of the world and in the temples of South India may be seen many fine figures of Siva in various forms, Vishnu and his consort Lakshmi, Siva saints and many more. Though conforming generally to the iconographic conventions established by long tradition, the sculptor worked in great freedom in the eleventh and the twelfth centuries and the sculptures and bronzes show classic grace, grandeur and perfect taste. The best example of this can be seen in the form of Nataraja the Divine Dancer. A museum is a non-profit making, permanent institution in the service of society and of its development, open to the public, which acquires, conserves, researches, communicates and exhibits, for purposes of study, education and enjoyment, the tangible and intangible evidence of people and their environment. ... For other uses of the name Vishnu, see Vishnu (disambiguation). ... Image of Goddess Lakshmi Sculpture of Lakshmi In Hinduism, Lakshmi or Laxmi (Sanskrit: लक्ष्मी ) is the goddess of wealth, light, wisdom and fortune, as well as (secondarily) luck, beauty and fertility. ... Bronze Chola Statue of Nataraja Nataraja (literally, The King of Dance) is the dancing posture of Lord Śiva, the aspect of God as the Destroyer in Hinduism. ...

Tamil Literature during Cholas

Main article: Chola Literature

The age of the Imperial Cholas (8501200 C.E.) was the golden age of Tamil culture, and it was marked by the widespread practise and patronage of literature. Chola inscriptions note many works and it is a tragedy that most of them have been lost to us beyond recovery. Events April 20 - Guntherus becomes Bishop of Cologne. ... Events University of Paris receives charter from Philip II of France The Kanem-Bornu Empire was established in northern Africa around the year 1200 Mongol victory over Northern China — 30,000,000 killed Births Al-Abhari, Persian philosopher and mathematician (died 1265) Ulrich von Liechtenstein, German nobleman and poet (died...


The revival of Hinduism from its nadir during the Kalabhras spurred the construction of numerous temples and these in turn generated Saiva and Viashnava devotional literature. Jain and Buddhist authors flourished as well although in reduced numbers compared to the past centuries. Jivaka-chintamani by Tirutakkadevar and Sulamani by Tolamoli are among notable by non-hindu authors. The art of Tirutakkadevar is marked by all the qualities of great poetry. It is also considered as the model for Kamban for his masterpiece Ramavatharam. Kalabhras were the South Indian dynasty who between the 3rd and the 6th century C.E. ruled over entire Tamil country, displacing the ancient Chola, Pandya and Chera dynasties. ... seevaga-chintamani (transliterated with innumerable variations) is a classical Tamil language epic poem. ... Kambar, is one of the greatest Tamil poets. ...


Kamban flourished during the reign of Kulottunga III. His Ramavatharam is the greatest epic in Tamil Literature, and although the author states that he followed Valmiki, his work is not a mere translation or even an adaptation of the Sanskrit epic. Kamban imports into his narration the colour and landscape of his own time. His description of Kosala is an idealised account of the features of the Chola country. Maharishi Valmiki is the author of the Hindu epic Ramayana. ...


Jayamkondar’s masterpiece Kalingattuparani is an example of narrative poetry which keeps a clear line between history and fictitious convensions. This describes the events during Kulottunga I’s war in Kalinga and depicts not only the pomp and circumstance of war, but also the gruesome details of the field.


Ottakuttan was the contemporary of Kulotunga I and three of his successors and sang eloquent ulas on each of them


The impulse to produce devotional religious literature continued into the Chola period and the arrangement of the Saiva canon into eleven books was the work of Nambi Andar Nambi who lived close to the end of tenth century.


External links

  • http://tamilnation.org/culture/architecture/thanjavur.htm Architecture of the Chola Empire.
  • http://tamilnation.org/culture/cholabronze.htm Chola Bronze sculptures.
  • http://whc.unesco.org/pg.cfm?cid=31&id_site=250 UNESCO World Heritage sites constructed by the Chola Empire.
  • http://www.baudelet.net/in16.htm Pictures Temples of South India.
  • List of Chola rulers
  • Indian Navy

References

  • Venkata Ramanappa, M. N. (1987). Outlines of South Indian History. (Rev. edn.) New Delhi: Vikram.
  • Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. (1935). The CōĻas, University of Madras, Madras (Reprinted 1984).
  • Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. (1955). A History of South India, OUP, New Delhi (Reprinted 2002).

  Results from FactBites:
 
Chola dynasty Summary (5738 words)
At its peak, the Chola Empire stretched from the island of Sri Lanka in the south to the Godavari basin in the north.
Chola navies invaded and conquered Srivijaya in the Malayan archipelago.
Throughout this period, the Cholas were constantly troubled by the ever-resilient Sinhalas, who attempted to overthrow the Chola occupation of Lanka, Pandya princes who tried to win independence for their traditional territories, and by the growing ambitions of the Chalukyas in the western Deccan.
Cholas - definition of Cholas in Encyclopedia (374 words)
The early Cholas ruled between the 1st and the 4th centuries A.D. The first and the most famous king of the early Cholas was Karikalan.
The greatest kings among the Medieval Cholas were Rajaraja Chola-I (reigned 985-1014) and his son Rajendra Chola-I (reigned 1014-42).
It succumbed to an attack by the Hoysalas from the west and the Pandyas from the south.
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