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Encyclopedia > Chola dynasty
சோழர் குலம்
Chola dynasty

Chola's empire and influence at the height of its power (c. 1050)
Official Language Tamil
Capitals Early Cholas: Poompuhar, Urayur,
Medieval Cholas: Pazhaiyaarai, Thanjavur
Gangaikonda Cholapuram
Government Monarchy
Preceding state of Early Cholas Unknown
Succeeding states Pandyas, Hoysala
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The Chola Dynasty (Tamil: சோழர் குலம், IPA: ['ʧoːɻə]) was a Tamil dynasty that ruled primarily in southern India until the 13th century. The dynasty originated in the fertile valley of the Kaveri River. Karikala Chola was the most famous among the early Chola kings, while Rajaraja Chola, Rajendra Chola and Kulothunga Chola I were notable emperors of the medieval Cholas. For the Choloa language, see Emberá languages. ... Image File history File links LocationChola_empire_sm. ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... Poompuhar is a town in the southern part of India in the state of Tamil Nadu. ... Uraiyur: Literally meaning the living place, Uraiyur was an ancient Chola city with a fortress and citywall on the southern banks of river Ponni and was made the official capital of the Chola empire around 540 B.C.E. by Tittan ( henceforth he was called Uraiyur thandha Thiththan). ILancaeN Cenni... Pazhaiyaarai was an ancient capital of the medieval Chola dynasty, in southern India. ... , Tanjore redirects here. ... Temple at Gangaikonda Cholapuram Gangaikonda Cholapuram is a village in the inland Perambalur district of Tamil Nadu, India. ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... The Pandyan kingdom was an ancient state at the tip of South India, founded around the 6th century BCE. It was part of the Dravidian cultural area, which also comprised other kingdoms such as that of the Pallava, the Chera, the Chola, the Chalukya and the Vijayanagara. ... The Hoysala Empire ruled part of southern India from 1000 to 1346. ... A temple from the Chola period. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (587x900, 70 KB) Summary Detail of the main Vimanam (Tower) of the Great Temple at Thanjavur Licensing The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with... // Pre-historic period c. ... The ancient Tamil country refers to the areas of South India and the northeastern Sri Lanka in which Tamil was the major language during ancient times. ... There are literary, archaeological, epigraphic and numismatic sources of ancient Tamil history. ... The Early Pandyas were one of the dynasties that ruled the ancient Tamil country from the pre-Christian era to about 200 AD. The Sangam works such as Mathuraikkanci, Netunalvatai and the Purananuru collection give a lot of information about the life and habits of the people during this age. ... The people of the ancient Tamil country of the Sangam age and before, practiced three main religions: Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism. ... The ancient Tamil music was the music of the ancient Tamil people. ... The Pallavas were hereditary Hindu rulers who dominated southeastern India between the 4th and 9th centuries. ... The Pandyan kingdom was an ancient state at the tip of South India, founded around the 6th century BCE. It was part of the Dravidian cultural area, which also comprised other kingdoms such as that of the Pallava, the Chera, the Chola, the Chalukya and the Vijayanagara. ... The Chera dynasty (Tamil: சேரர்) was one of the ancient Tamil dynasties that ruled southern India from ancient times until around the fifteenth century CE. The Early Cheras ruled over the Malabar Coast, Coimbatore, Karur and Salem Districts in South India, which now forms part of the modern day Kerala and... The Vijayanagara empire was based in the Deccan, in peninsular and southern India, from 1336 onwards. ... The Madurai Nayaks were the rulers of the city and region of Madurai, in India, from 1559 until 1736. ... TANJORE NAYAK KINGS Tanjore Nayak kings started as viceroys of Vijaynagar dynasty lasted 1535 to 1675,a span of 140 years by only 4 kings each having a lengthy reign. ... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... Languages Tamil Religions Hinduism, Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, Jainism Related ethnic groups Dravidian people Brahui people Kannadigas Malayalis Tamils Telugus Tuluvas Gonds The Tamil people are a multi-ethnic group from the Indian subcontinent with a recorded history going back more than two millennia. ... // For other uses, see Dynasty (disambiguation). ... South India is a geographic and linguistic-cultural region of India. ... This article is about a river. ... Karikala Chola was the greatest among the Chola kings of the Sangam age in South India. ... The Early Cholas of the pre and post Sangam period (100 C.E. – 200 C.E.) were only the three main kingdoms of the ancient Tamil country. ... Rajaraja Chola the first is considered the greatest of all Chola kings. ... Rajendra Chola I was the son of Rajaraja Chola I, the great Chola king of South India. ... Kulothunga Chola was the offspring of two rival dynasties - the Cholas of Thanjavoor and the Chalukyas of Vengi when he came to the throne in 1070 A.D. The Cholas and the Chalukyas had always existed in constant warfare, spaced by periods of uneasy peace, for decades, due to differences... Medieval Cholas rose to prominence during the middle of the 9th century C.E. and established the greatest empire South India had seen. ...


The Cholas were at the height of their power during the tenth, eleventh and twelfth centuries. Under Rajaraja Chola I (Rajaraja the Great) and his son Rajendra Chola, the dynasty became a military, economic and cultural power in Asia. The Chola territories stretched from the islands of the Maldives in the South to as far North as the banks of the Godavari River in Andhra Pradesh. Rajaraja Chola conquered peninsular South India, annexed parts of Sri Lanka and occupied the islands of the Maldives. Rajendra Chola sent a victorious expedition to North India that touched the river Ganga and defeated the Pala ruler of Pataliputra, Mahipala. He also successfully raided kingdoms of the Malay Archipelago. The power of the Cholas declined around the 12th century with the rise of the Pandyas and the Hoysala, eventually coming to an end towards the end of the 13th century. One of the hallmarks of contemporary great power status is permanent membership on the United Nations Security Council. ... Detail of a statue of Rajaraja at Brihadisvara Temple Rajaraja Chola I was the king of the Chola dynasty, who ruled between 985 and 1014 CE. Rajaraja, the greatest of all the Chola rulers of the Vijayalaya dynasty, laid the foundation for the growth of the Chola kingdom into an... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Godavari river map The Godavari River, adjacent to the town of Kovvur This article is about Godavari River in India. ... Andhra redirects here. ... The geographical south of India includes all Indian territory below the 20th parallel. ... Ganga redirects here. ... Buddha and Bodhisattvas, 11th century, Pala Empire. ... ... Mahipala I (c. ... World map depicting Malay Archipelago The Malay Archipelago is a vast archipelago located between mainland Southeastern Asia (Indochina) and Australia. ... One of the hallmarks of contemporary great power status is permanent membership on the United Nations Security Council. ... The Pandyan kingdom was an ancient state at the tip of South India, founded around the 6th century BCE. It was part of the Dravidian cultural area, which also comprised other kingdoms such as that of the Pallava, the Chera, the Chola, the Chalukya and the Vijayanagara. ... The Hoysala Empire ruled part of southern India from 1000 to 1346. ...


The Cholas left behind a lasting legacy. Their patronage of Tamil literature and their zeal in building temples have resulted in some great works of Tamil literature and architecture. The Chola kings were avid builders and envisioned the temples in their kingdoms not only as places of worship but also as centres of economic activity. They pioneered a centralised form of government and established a disciplined bureaucracy. Chola Literature denotes the literature, mainly in the Tamil language created during the period of Chola reign in south India between the ninth and the thirteenth centuries CE. The age of the imperial Cholas was the most create epoch of the history of South India and was the Golden Age... The Chola Government during the imperial period (850 – 1200) CE was marked for its uniqueness and innovativeness. ...

Contents

Origins

There is very little information available regarding the origin of the Chola Dynasty. The antiquity of this dynasty is evident from the mentions in ancient Tamil literature and in inscriptions. Later medieval Cholas also claimed a long and ancient lineage to their dynasty. Sangam literature refers to a body of classical Tamil literature created between the years 200 BCE and 300 CE.[1][2] This collection contains 2381 poems written by 473 poets, some 102 of whom are anonymous authors[3]. The period during which these poems were written is commonly referred to... Medieval Cholas rose to prominence during the middle of the 9th century C.E. and established the greatest empire South India had seen. ...

An early silver coin of Uttama Chola found in Sri Lanka showing the Tiger emblem of the cholas[1]

Mentions in the early Sangam literature (c. 150)[2] indicate that the earliest kings of the dynasty antedated 100 CE. Parimelalagar, the annotator of the Tamil classic Tirukkural, mentions that this could be the name of an ancient clan. The most commonly held view is that this is, like Cheras and Pandyas, the name of the ruling family or clan of immemorial antiquity.[3][4] Image File history File links Uttama_coin. ... Image File history File links Uttama_coin. ... According to Tiruvalangadu plates Parakesari Uththama Chola ruled the Chola kingdom from 969 to 985. ... Sangam literature refers to a body of classical Tamil literature created between the years 200 BCE and 300 CE.[1][2] This collection contains 2381 poems written by 473 poets, some 102 of whom are anonymous authors[3]. The period during which these poems were written is commonly referred to... Tiruvalluvar statue at Kanyakumari Tirukural (திருக்குறள் in Tamil) is an important work of Tamil literature by Tiruvalluvar written in the form of couplets expounding various aspects of life. ... The Cheras were one of the three ancient Tamil dynasties who ruled the southern tip of the peninsula of India for most of its early history. ...


On the history of Cholas there is very little authentic written evidence available. Historians during the past 150 years have gleaned a lot of knowledge on the subject from a variety of sources such as ancient Tamil Sangam literature, oral traditions, religious texts, temple and copperplate inscriptions. The main source for the available information of the early Cholas is the early Tamil literature of the Sangam Period.[5] There are also brief notices on the Chola country and its towns, ports and commerce furnished by the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea (Periplus Maris Erythraei).[6] Periplus is a work by an anonymous Alexandrian merchant, written in the time of Domitian (81 – 96) and contains very little information of the Chola country. Writing half a century later, the geographer Ptolemy gives more detail about the Chola country, its port and its inland cities.[7] Mahavamsa, a Buddhist text, recounts a number of conflicts between the inhabitants of Ceylon and the Tamil immigrants.[8] Cholas are mentioned in the Pillars of Ashoka (inscribed 273 BCE – 232 BCE) inscriptions, where they are mentioned among the kingdoms which, though not subject to Ashoka, were on friendly terms with him.[9][10] One of the most important sources of history in the Indian subcontinent are the royal records of grants engraved on copper-plates (tamra-shasan or tamra-patra). ... Names, routes and locations of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea. ... Alexandrian is either: Alexandria Alexandrian text-type This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Titus Flavius Domitianus (24 October 51 – 18 September 96), commonly known as Domitian, was a Roman Emperor of the gens Flavia. ... This article is about the geographer, mathematician and astronomer Ptolemy. ... The Mahavansha, also Mahawansha, (Pāli: great chronicle) is a historical record, often thought to be the oldest written record oh history, written in the Pāli language, of the Buddhist kings as well as Dravidian kings of Sri Lanka. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... The Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka (ශ්රී ලංකා in Sinhala / இலங்கை in Tamil) (known as Ceylon before 1972) is a tropical island nation off the southeast coast of the Indian subcontinent. ... The pillars of Ashoka are a series of columns dispersed throughout the northern Indian subcontinent, and erected by the Mauryan king Ashoka during his reign in the 3rd century BCE. SAlMAN Ashish Many of the pillars are carved with proclamations reflecting Buddhist teachings: the Edicts of Ashoka. ...


Etymology of Chola

The etymology of the word Chola has been agreed upon by many historians and linguists and it has been confirmed to be derived from the Tamil word Sora or Chora. Moreover, numerous inscriptions confirm that the name of the Dynasty was Chora or Sora but pronounced as Chola.[11] The shift from 'r' to 'l' has also been validated and Sora or Chora in Tamil becomes Chola in Sanskrit and Chola or Choda in Telugu.[12][13][14] Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Telugu redirects here. ...


History

List of Chola kings
Early Cholas
Ilamcetcenni  ·   Karikala Chola
Nedunkilli  ·   Nalankilli
Killivalavan  ·   Kopperuncholan
Kocengannan  ·   Perunarkilli
Interregnum (c.200-848)
Medieval Cholas
Vijayalaya Chola 848-871(?)
Aditya I 871-907
Parantaka Chola I 907-950
Gandaraditya 950-957
Arinjaya Chola 956-957
Sundara Chola 957-970
Uttama Chola 970-985
Rajaraja Chola I 985-1014
Rajendra Chola I 1012-1044
Rajadhiraja Chola 1018-1054
Rajendra Chola II 1051-1063
Virarajendra Chola 1063-1070
Athirajendra Chola 1067-1070
Chalukya Cholas
Kulothunga Chola I 1070-1120
Vikrama Chola 1118-1135
Kulothunga Chola II 1133-1150
Rajaraja Chola II 1146-1163
Rajadhiraja Chola II 1163-1178
Kulothunga Chola III 1178-1218
Rajaraja Chola III 1216-1256
Rajendra Chola III 1246-1279
Chola society
Chola government
Chola military
Chola art  ·   Chola literature
Solesvara Temples
Poompuhar  ·   Urayur
Gangaikonda Cholapuram
Thanjavur  ·   Telugu Cholas
edit

The history of the Cholas falls naturally into four periods: the early Cholas of the Sangam literature, the interregnum between the fall of the Sangam Cholas and the rise of the medieval Cholas under Vijayalaya (c. 848), the dynasty of Vijayalaya, and finally the Chalukya Chola dynasty of Kulothunga Chola I from the third quarter of the eleventh century.[15] The Early Cholas of the pre and post Sangam period (100 C.E. – 200 C.E.) were only the three main kingdoms of the ancient Tamil country. ... Ilamcetcenni was a Chola king during the Sangam age in South India. ... Karikala Chola was the greatest among the Chola kings of the Sangam age in South India. ... Nedunkilli was one of the Early Cholas mentioned in Sangam Literature. ... Nalankilli was one of the Early Cholas mentioned in Sangam Literature. ... Killivalavan was one of the Early Cholas mentioned in Sangam Literature, and of a period close to that of Nedunkilli and Nalankilli. ... Kopperuncholan was one of the Early Cholas mentioned in Sangam Literature. ... Kocengannan was one of the Early Cholas mentioned in Sangam Literature. ... Perunarkilli was one of the Early Cholas mentioned in Sangam Literature. ... Look up Circa on Wiktionary, the free dictionary The Latin word circa, literally meaning about, is often used to describe various dates (often birth and death dates) that are uncertain. ... Medieval Cholas rose to prominence during the middle of the 9th century C.E. and established the greatest empire South India had seen. ... Vijayalaya was the Chola king of South India who captured Thanjavur during c. ... Aditya I (870-906) was an Indian ruler. ... Parantaka Chola I (907 c. ... Gandaraditya Chola succeeded his father Parantaka I and became the Chola king c. ... Arinjaya Chola succeeded Gandaraditya Chola c. ... Parantak Chola II (957 c. ... Uttama Chola ascended the Chola throne c. ... Detail of a statue of Rajaraja at Brihadisvara Temple Rajaraja Chola I was the king of the Chola dynasty, who ruled between 985 and 1014 CE. Rajaraja, the greatest of all the Chola rulers of the Vijayalaya dynasty, laid the foundation for the growth of the Chola kingdom into an... Rajendra Chola I was the son of Rajaraja Chola I, the great Chola king of South India. ... Rajadhiraja Chola I (1018-1054) was the king of the Cholas empire in southern India and the eldest son of king Rajendra Chola I. Although not supreme king untill his fathers death in 1044 he was associated in kingship since 1018 He maintained Cholas authority over most of Lanka, despite... Rajendra Chola II (1054 – 1063 C.E.) reigned as the Chola king succeeding his brother Rajadhiraja Chola. ... Virarajendra Chola (1063 – 1070 C.E.) became the Chola king succeeding his brother Rajendra Chola II. Rajamahendra, Rajendra’s son and heir apparent died before his father and Rajendra made his younger brother Virarajendra his heir. ... Athirajendra Chola ( 1070 C.E.) reigned for a very short period of few months as the Chola king succeeding his brother Virarajendra Chola. ... The Chalukya Chola dynasty ruled the Chola Empire from 1070 C.E. until the demise of the empire in the second half of the 13th century. ... Kulothunga Chola was the offspring of two rival dynasties - the Cholas of Thanjavoor and the Chalukyas of Vengi when he came to the throne in 1070 A.D. The Cholas and the Chalukyas had always existed in constant warfare, spaced by periods of uneasy peace, for decades, due to differences... Vikrama Chola succeeded his father the famous Kulothunga Chola I to the Chola throne in 1120 C.E. He inherited an empire that had been severely confined to the Tamil country and a few out-lying areas of the Telugu country. ... Kulothunga Chola II succeeded his father Vikrama Chola to the Chola throne in 1135 C.E. Vikrama Chola made his heir apparent and coregent in 1133 C.E and so the inscriptions of Kulothunga II count his reign from 1133 C.E. Kulothunga II reigned over a period of general... Rajaraja Chola II succeeded his father Kulothunga Chola II to the Chola throne in 1150 C.E. He was made his heir apparent and coregent in 1146 C.E and so the inscriptions of Rajaraja II count his reign from 1146 C.E. Rajarajas reign began to show signs... Rajadhiraja Chola II (1163 – 1178 C.E.) reigned as the Chola king succeeding Rajaraja Chola II. He was not the direct descendant of Rajaraja Chola II, but a grandson of Vikrama Chola by his daughter. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Rajendra Chola III was the son of Rajaraja Chola III who came to the Chola throne in 1246 CE. Although his father Rajaraja III was still alive, Rajendra began to take effective control over the administration. ... The Chola Government during the imperial period (850 – 1200) CE was marked for its uniqueness and innovativeness. ... Chola Military was one of the most well organised and effective fighting machines of the medieval times. ... Detail of a Statue of Rajaraja Chola I at the Brihadisvara Temple The period of the imperial Cholas (c. ... Chola Literature denotes the literature, mainly in the Tamil language created during the period of Chola reign in south India between the ninth and the thirteenth centuries CE. The age of the imperial Cholas was the most create epoch of the history of South India and was the Golden Age... The Solesvara temples were in honor of the Chola kings, who were believers in Shiva, the Hindu god. ... Poompuhar is a town in the southern part of India in the state of Tamil Nadu. ... Uraiyur: Literally meaning the living place, Uraiyur was an ancient Chola city with a fortress and citywall on the southern banks of river Ponni and was made the official capital of the Chola empire around 540 B.C.E. by Tittan ( henceforth he was called Uraiyur thandha Thiththan). ILancaeN Cenni... Temple at Gangaikonda Cholapuram Gangaikonda Cholapuram is a village in the inland Perambalur district of Tamil Nadu, India. ... , Tanjore redirects here. ... Many Telugu Choda kingdoms ruled over many regions including the cities on the banks of Krishna River in the period between the seventh and the thirteenth century. ... The Early Cholas of the pre and post Sangam period (100 C.E. – 200 C.E.) were only the three main kingdoms of the ancient Tamil country. ... Vijayalaya was the Chola king of South India who captured Thanjavur during c. ... The Chalukya Chola dynasty ruled the Chola Empire from 1070 C.E. until the demise of the empire in the second half of the 13th century. ...


Early Cholas

Main article: Early Cholas

The earliest Chola kings of whom there is tangible evidence are mentioned in the Sangam literature. Scholars now generally agree that this literature belongs to the first few centuries of the common era.[2] The internal chronology of this literature is still far from settled, and at present a connected account of the history of the period cannot be derived. The Sangam literature is full of names of the kings and the princes, and of the poets who extolled them. Despite a rich literature that depicts the life and work of these people, these cannot be worked into connected history. The Early Cholas of the pre and post Sangam period (100 C.E. – 200 C.E.) were only the three main kingdoms of the ancient Tamil country. ... BCE redirects here. ...


The Sangam literature is also full of legends about mythical Chola kings. The Cholas were looked upon as descended from the sun.[16] These myths speak of the Chola king Kantaman, a supposed contemporary of the sage Agastya, whose devotion brought the river Kaveri into existence.[17] Two names stand out prominently from among those Chola kings known to have existed, who feature in Sangam literature: Karikala Chola and Kocengannan. There is no sure means of settling the order of succession, of fixing their relations with one another and with many other princelings of about the same period.[18] Urayur (now in/part-of Thiruchirapalli) was their oldest capital. In Hinduism, Agastya (अगस्त्य in devanagari, pronounced /ə gəs tyə/) is a legendary Vedic sage or rishi. ... Kocengannan was one of the Early Cholas mentioned in Sangam Literature. ... Uraiyur: Literally meaning the living place, Uraiyur was an ancient Chola city with a fortress and citywall on the southern banks of river Ponni and was made the official capital of the Chola empire around 540 B.C.E. by Tittan ( henceforth he was called Uraiyur thandha Thiththan). ILancaeN Cenni... Tiruchirapalli (also spelled Tiruchchirappalli, commonly known as Tiruchi or Trichy, formerly known as Trichinopoly under British rule) is a city situated on the banks of the Kaveri river, centrally located in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. ...


Interregnum

Little is known about the transition period of around three centuries from the end of the Sangam age (c. 300) to that in which the Pandyas and Pallavas dominate the Tamil country. An obscure dynasty, the Kalabhras, invaded the Tamil country, displaced the existing kingdoms and ruled for around three centuries. They were displaced by the Pallavas and the Pandyas in the 6th century. Little is known of the fate of the Cholas during the succeeding three centuries until the accession of Vijayalaya in the second quarter of the ninth century. The Pallava kingdom (Tamil: பல்லவர்) was an ancient South Indian kingdom. ... Kalabhras were the South Indian dynasty who between the 3rd and the 6th century C.E. ruled over entire Tamil country, displacing the ancient Chola, Pandya and Chera dynasties. ...


Epigraphy and literature provide a few faint glimpses of the transformations that came over this ancient line of kings during this long interval. What is certain is that when the power of the Cholas fell to its lowest ebb and that of the Pandyas and Pallavas rose to the north and south of them,[19] this dynasty was compelled to seek refuge and patronage under their more successful rivals.[20] The Pallavas and Pandyas seem to have left the Cholas alone for the most part; however, possibly out of regard for their reputation, they accepted Chola princesses in marriage and employed in their service Chola princes who were willing to accept it.[21] The Chinese pilgrim Xuanzang, who spent several months in Kanchipuram during 639 – 640 writes about the 'kingdom of Culi-ya'.[22] Numerous inscriptions of Pallavas, Pandyas and Chalukya of this period mention conquering 'the Chola country'.[23] Despite this loss in influence and power, it is unlikely that the Cholas lost total grip of the territory around Urayur, their old capital. Vijayalaya, when he rose to prominence hailed from this geographical area. The Rosetta Stone in the British Museum. ... A portrait of Xuanzang Xuanzang (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsüan-tsang; CantoneseIPA: jyn4tsɔŋ1; CantoneseJyutping: jyun4zong1) was a famous Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar, traveler and translator that brought up the interaction between China and India in the early Tang period. ... , Kanchipuram, Kanchi, or Kancheepuram (also sometimes Conjeevaram) is a city and a municipality in Kancheepuram district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. ... The Chalukya dynasty (Kannada: ಚಾಲುಕ್ಯರು) was a powerful Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between the 6th and the 12th century C.E. They began to assert their independence at the decline of the Satavahana empire and rapidly rose to prominence during the reign of...


Around the 7th century, a Chola kingdom flourished in present-day Andhra Pradesh. These Telugu Cholas traced their descent to the early Sangam Cholas.[24] However, nothing definite is known of their connection to the early Cholas. It is possible that a branch of the Tamil Cholas migrated north during the time of the Pallavas to establish a kingdom of their own, away from the dominating influences of the Pandyas and Pallavas.


Medieval Cholas

Main article: Medieval Cholas

While there is little reliable information on the Cholas during the period between the early Cholas and Vijayalaya dynasties, there is an abundance of materials from diverse sources on the Vijayalaya and the Chalukya Chola dynasties. A large number of stone inscriptions by the Cholas themselves and by their rival kings, Pandyas and Chalukyas, and copper-plate grants, have been instrumental in constructing the history of Cholas of that period.[25] Medieval Cholas rose to prominence during the middle of the 9th century C.E. and established the greatest empire South India had seen. ... The Chalukya Dynasty was an Indian royal dynasty that ruled parts of southern India between 550 and 750, and again between 973 and 1190. ...


Around 850, Vijayalaya rose from obscurity to take an opportunity arising out of a conflict between Pandyas and Pallavas,[26] captured Thanjavur and eventually established the imperial line of the medieval Cholas.[27] , Tanjore redirects here. ...

Chola territories during Rajendra Chola I, c. 1030

The Chola dynasty was at the peak of its influence and power during the medieval period. Great kings such as Rajaraja Chola I and Rajendra Chola I occupied the throne, and through their leadership and vision took extended the Chola kingdom beyond the traditional limits of a Tamil kingdom. At its peak, the Chola Empire stretched from the island of Sri Lanka in the south to the Godavari basin in the north.[28] The kingdoms along the east coast of India up to the river Ganges acknowledged Chola suzerainty. Chola navies invaded and conquered Srivijaya in the Malayan archipelago.[29] The report on the conquest of Srivijaya however might be an exaggeration.[30] Image File history File links Rajendra_territories_cl. ... Image File history File links Rajendra_territories_cl. ... Detail of a statue of Rajaraja at Brihadisvara Temple Rajaraja Chola I was the king of the Chola dynasty, who ruled between 985 and 1014 CE. Rajaraja, the greatest of all the Chola rulers of the Vijayalaya dynasty, laid the foundation for the growth of the Chola kingdom into an... Rajendra Chola I was the son of Rajaraja Chola I, the great Chola king of South India. ... Godavari river map The Godavari River, adjacent to the town of Kovvur This article is about Godavari River in India. ... Map of Southeast Asia at end of 12th century. ...


Throughout this period, the Cholas were constantly troubled by the ever-resilient Sinhalas, who attempted to overthrow the Chola occupation of Lanka, Pandya princes who tried to win independence for their traditional territories, and by the growing ambitions of the Chalukyas in the western Deccan. This period saw constant warfare between the Cholas and these antagonists. A balance of power existed between the Chalukyas and the Cholas, and there was a tacit acceptance of the Tungabhadra River as the boundary between the two empires. However, the bone of contention between these two powers was the growing Chola influence in the Vengi kingdom. Language(s) Sinhala Religion(s) Theravada Buddhism, Christianity, small groups of atheists, agnostics, Muslims, others Related ethnic groups Indo-Aryans, Dravidians, Veddahs, Bengalis The Sinhalese are the main ethnic group of Sri Lanka. ... Lanka is the name given in Hindu mythology to the island fortress capital of the evil king Ravana in the epic Ramayana. ... The Deccan Plateau is a vast plateau in India, encompassing most of Central and Southern India. ... The Tungabhadra is a river of southern India. ... // Vengi dynasties Vengi kingdom extended from River Godavari in the north to Mount MahendraGiri in the southeast and to just below the southern banks of River Krishna in the south. ...


Chalukya Cholas

Main article: Chalukya Cholas

Marital and political alliances between the Eastern Chalukya kings based around Vengi located on the south banks of the River Godavari began during the reign of Rajaraja following his invasion of Vengi. Rajaraja Chola's daughter married prince Vimaladitya. Rajendra Chola's daughter was also married to an Eastern Chalukya prince Rajaraja Narendra. The Chalukya Chola dynasty ruled the Chola Empire from 1070 C.E. until the demise of the empire in the second half of the 13th century. ... Eastern Chalukyas were a South Indian dynasty whose kingdom was located in the present day Andhra Pradesh. ... Rajaraja Narendra (1018 – 1061 CE) was the Eastern Chalukya king of the Vengi kingdom in South India. ...


Virarajendra Chola's son Athirajendra Chola was assassinated in a civil disturbance in 1070 and Kulothunga Chola I ascended the Chola throne starting the Chalukya Chola dynasty. Kulothunga was a son of the Vengi king Rajaraja Narendra. Athirajendra Chola ( 1070 C.E.) reigned for a very short period of few months as the Chola king succeeding his brother Virarajendra Chola. ...

Chola territories during Kulothunga Chola I c. 1120

The Chalukya Chola dynasty saw very capable rulers in Kulothunga Chola I and Vikrama Chola; however, the decline of the Chola power practically started during this period. The Cholas lost control of the island of Lanka and were driven out by the revival of Sinhala power. Around 1118 they lost the control of Vengi to Western Chalukya king Vikramaditya VI and Gangavadi (southern Mysore districts) to the growing power of Hoysala Vishnuvardhana, a Chalukya feudatory. In the Pandya territories, the lack of a controlling central administration prompted a number of claimants to the Pandya throne to cause a civil war in which the Sinhalas and the Cholas were involved by proxy. During the last century of the Cholas, a permanent Hoysala army was stationed in Kanchipuram to protect them from the growing influence of the Pandyas. Image File history File links Kulothunga_territories_cl. ... Image File history File links Kulothunga_territories_cl. ... Vikrama Chola succeeded his father the famous Kulothunga Chola I to the Chola throne in 1120 C.E. He inherited an empire that had been severely confined to the Tamil country and a few out-lying areas of the Telugu country. ... The Western Chalukyas ruled the western Deccan in South India between the tenth and the thirteenth centuries CE. They were related to the Chalukya dynasty of Badami who were a powerful dynasty who reigned over most of the Deccan between the seventh and the eight centuries. ... Vikramaditya VI was a king of the Kalyani Chalukya clan. ... , For other uses, see Mysore (disambiguation). ... Vishnuvardhana (Kannada: ವಿಷ್ಣುವರ್ಧನ) (1108-1152), was a king of the Hoysala Empire in what is today the Indian state of Karnataka. ...


The Cholas, under Rajendra Chola III, experienced continuous trouble. At the close of the 12th century, the growing influence of the Hoysalas replaced the declining Chalukyas as the main player in the north. The local feudatories were also becoming sufficiently confident to challenge the central Chola authority. One feudatory, the Kadava chieftain Kopperunchinga I, even held the Chola king as hostage for sometime. The Cholas were exposed to assaults from within and without. The Pandyas in the south had risen to the rank of a great power. The Hoysalas in the west threatened the existence of the Chola empire. Rajendra tried to survive by aligning with the two powers in turn. At the close of Rajendra’s reign, the Pandyan Empire was at the height of prosperity and had taken the place of the Chola empire in the eyes of the foreign observers. The last recorded date of Rajendra III is 1279. There is no evidence that Rajendra was followed immediately by another Chola prince. The Chola empire was completely overshadowed by the Pandyan empire, though many small chieftains continued to claim the title "Chola" well into the 15th century. Rajendra Chola III was the son of Rajaraja Chola III who came to the Chola throne in 1246 CE. Although his father Rajaraja III was still alive, Rajendra began to take effective control over the administration. ... The Hoysala Empire ruled part of southern India from 1000 to 1346. ... Kadava was the name of a South Indian ruling dynasty who ruled parts of the Tamil country during the thirteenth and the fourteenth century CE. Kadavas were related to the Pallava dynasty and ruled from Kudalur near Cuddalore in Tamil Nadu. ... Kopperunchinga I (reigned c. ...


Government and society

Main article: Chola Government

The Chola Government during the imperial period (850 – 1200) CE was marked for its uniqueness and innovativeness. ...

Chola country

According to Tamil tradition, the old Chola country comprised the region that includes the modern-day Tiruchirapalli District, and the Thanjavur District in Tamil Nadu state. The river Kaveri and its tributaries dominate this landscape of generally flat country that gradually slopes towards the sea, unbroken by major hills or valleys. The river Kaveri, which was also known as Ponni (golden) river, had a special place in the culture of Cholas. The unfailing annual floods in the Kaveri marked an occasion for celebration, Adiperukku, in which the whole nation took part, from the king to the lowest peasant. Tiruchirapalli District Map Tiruchirapalli District (also known as Tiruchchirapalli District) is located along the Kaveri river in Tamil Nadu India. ... Thanjavur district is one of the 30 districts of the state of Tamil Nadu, in southeastern India. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... The Cauvery (sometimes written as Kaveri) is one of the major rivers of southern India. ... Adiperukku is a unique Tamil festival celebrated on the 18th day of the Tamil month of Adi (mid July). ...


Kaverippattinam on the coast near the Kaveri delta was a major port town. Ptolemy knew of this and the other port town of Nagappattinam as the most important centres of Cholas.[31] These two cosmopolitan towns became hubs of trade and commerce and attracted many religious faiths, including Buddhism.[32] Roman ships found their way in to these ports. Roman coins dating from the early centuries of the common era have been found near the Kaveri delta.[33] Nagapattinam is a city, taluk, and District on the coast of Tamil Nadu, India. ... For other uses, see Ship (disambiguation). ...


The other major towns were Thanjavur, Urayur and Kudanthai, now known as Kumbakonam. After Rajendra Chola moved his kingdom to Gangaikonda Cholapuram, Thanjavur lost its importance. The later Chola kings of the Chalukya Chola dynasty moved around their country frequently and made cities such as Chidambaram, Madurai and Kanchipuram their regional capitals. , Kumbakonam (Tamil: கும்பகோணம்) is a city and a municipality in the Thanjavur district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. ... Temple at Gangaikonda Cholapuram Gangaikonda Cholapuram is a village in the inland Perambalur district of Tamil Nadu, India. ... , This article is about the town in Cuddalore district. ... , Madurai   (Tamil: , IPA: ) is a city and a municipal corporation with a city population of 922,913 according to 2001 census. ...


Nature of government

In the age of the Cholas, the whole of South India was, for the first time, brought under a single government,[34] when a serious attempt was made to face and solve the problems of public administration. The Cholas system of government was monarchical, as in the Sangam age. However, there was little in common between the primitive and somewhat tribal chieftaincy of the earlier time, and the almost Byzantine royalty—Rajaraja Chola—and his successors with its numerous palaces, and the pomp and circumstance associated with the royal court. Byzantine redirects here. ...


Between 980, and c. 1150, the Chola Empire comprised the entire south Indian peninsula, extending east to west from coast to coast, and bounded to the north by an irregular line along the Tungabhadra river and the Vengi frontier. Although Vengi had a separate political existence, it was so closely connected to the Chola Empire that, for all practical purposes, the Chola dominion extended up to the banks of the Godavari river.[35]

Extent of Chola empire c. 1014

Thanjavur and later Gangaikonda Cholapuram were the imperial capitals. However both Kanchipuram and Madurai were considered to be regional capitals, in which occasional courts were held. The king was the supreme commander and a benevolent dictator.[36] His administrative role consisted of issuing oral commands to responsible officers when representations were made to him.[37] A powerful bureaucracy assisted the king in the tasks of administration and in executing his orders. Due to the lack of a legislature or a legislative system in the modern sense, the fairness of king’s orders dependent on the goodness of the man and in his belief in Dharma—a sense of fairness and justice. All Chola kings built temples and endowed great wealth to them. The temples acted not only as places of worship but as centres of economic activity, benefiting their entire community.[38] Image File history File links Chola_map. ... Image File history File links Chola_map. ...


Local government

Every village was a self-governing unit. A number of villages constituted a larger entity known as a Kurram, Nadu or Kottram, depending on the area. A number of Kurrams constituted a valanadu. These structures underwent constant change and refinement throughout the Chola period.[39]


Justice was mostly a local matter in the Chola Empire; minor disputes were settled at the village level. Punishment for minor crimes were in the form of fines or a direction for the offender to donate to some charitable endowment. Even crimes such as manslaughter or murder were punished with fines. Crimes of the state, such as treason, were heard and decided by the king himself; the typical punishment in these cases was either execution or the confiscation of property.[40]


Foreign trade

Hindu temple complex at Prambanan in Java clearly showing Dravidian architectural influences[41]

The Cholas excelled in foreign trade and maritime activity, extending their influence overseas to China and Southeast Asia. Towards the end of the 9th century, southern India had developed extensive maritime and commercial activity. The Cholas, being in possession of parts of both the west and the east coasts of peninsular India, were at the forefront of these ventures. The Tang dynasty of China, the Srivijaya empire in the Malayan archipelago under the Sailendras, and the Abbasid Kalifat at Bagdad were the main trading partners.[42] For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... Map of Southeast Asia at end of 12th century. ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... Bagdad can refer to several places. ...


Chinese Song Dynasty reports record that an embassy from Chulian (Chola) reached the Chinese court in the year 1077, and that the king of the Chulien at the time was called Ti-hua-kia-lo.[43] It is possible that these syllables denote "Deva Kulo[tunga]" (Kulothunga Chola I). This embassy was a trading venture and was highly profitable to the visitors, who returned with 81,800 strings of copper coins in exchange for articles of tributes, including glass articles, and spices.[44] Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Bianjing (汴京) (960–1127) Linan (臨安) (1127–1276) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 960–976 Emperor Taizu  - 1126–1127 Emperor Qinzong  - 1127–1162 Emperor Gaozong  - 1278–1279 Emperor Bing History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou...


A fragmentary Tamil inscription found in Sumatra cites the name of a merchant guild Nanadesa Tisaiyayirattu Ainnutruvar (literally, "the five hundred from the four countries and the thousand directions"), a famous merchant guild in the Chola country.[45] The inscription is dated 1088, indicating that there was an active overseas trade during the Chola period. For other uses, see Sumatra (disambiguation). ...


Chola society

There is little information on the size and the density of the population during the Chola reign. The overwhelming stability in the core Chola region enabled the people to lead a very productive and contented life. There is only one recorded instance of civil disturbance during the entire period of Chola reign.[46] However, there were reports of widespread famine caused by natural calamities.


The quality of the inscriptions of the regime indicates a presence of high level of literacy and education in the society. The text in these inscriptions was written by court poets and engraved by talented artisans. Education in the contemporary sense was not considered important; there is circumstantial evidence to suggest that some village councils organized schools to teach the basics of reading and writing to children, although there is no evidence of systematic educational system for the masses.[47] Vocational education was through hereditary training in which the father passed on his skills to his sons. Tamil was the medium of education for the masses; Sanskrit education was restricted to the Brahmins. Religious monasteries (matha or gatika) were centers of learning, which were supported by the government.[48][49] Young Indian brahmachari Brahmin A Brahmin (less often Brahman) is a member of the Hindu priestly caste. ...


Cultural contributions

Detail of the main vimanam (tower) of the Thanjavur Temple

Under the Cholas, the Tamil country reached new heights of excellence in art, religion and literature. In all of these spheres, the Chola period marked the culmination of movements that had begun in an earlier age under the Pallavas. Monumental architecture in the form of majestic temples and sculpture in stone and bronze reached a finesse never before achieved in India. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (587x900, 70 KB) Summary Detail of the main Vimanam (Tower) of the Great Temple at Thanjavur Licensing The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (587x900, 70 KB) Summary Detail of the main Vimanam (Tower) of the Great Temple at Thanjavur Licensing The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... For other uses, see Literature (disambiguation). ... Sculptor redirects here. ... This article is about the metal alloy. ...


The Cholas excelled in maritime activity in both military and the mercantile fields. Their conquest of Kadaram (Kedah) and the Srivijaya, and their continued commercial contacts with the Chinese Empire, enabled them to influence the local cultures. Many of the surviving examples of the Hindu cultural influence found today throughout the Southeast Asia owe much to the legacy of the Cholas.[50] State anthem: Allah Selamatkan Sultan Mahkota Capital Alor Star Royal capital Anak Bukit Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Sultan Tuanku Abdul Halim  - Menteri Besar Mahdzir Khalid History    - British control 1909   - Japanese occupation 1942   - Accession into Federation of Malaya 1948  Area  - Total 9,426 km² Population  - 2003 estimate 1,778,188  - Density... China is the worlds oldest continuous major civilization, with written records dating back about 3,500 years and with 5,000 years being commonly used by Chinese as the age of their civilization. ... Hinduism in Southeast Asia influenced the Champa kingdom in Vietnam, the Srivijayan kingdom on Sumatra, the Singhasari kingdom and the Majapahit Empire based in Java, Bali, and a number of the islands of the Philippine archipelago. ...


Art

Main article: Chola Art

The Cholas continued the temple-building traditions of the Pallava dynasty and contributed significantly to the Dravidian temple design. They built numerous temples throughout their kingdom such as the Brihadeshvara Temple. Aditya I built a number of Siva temples along the banks of the river Kaveri. These temples were not on a large scale until the end of the 10th century.[51] Detail of a Statue of Rajaraja Chola I at the Brihadisvara Temple The period of the imperial Cholas (c. ... The Brihadisvara temple (also spelled Brihadeshvara Temple) is an ancient Hindu temple located at Thanjavur in the state of Tamil Nadu, India. ... Aditya I (870-906) was an Indian ruler. ... For other uses, see Shiva (disambiguation). ...

Airavateswarar Temple, Darasuram c. 1200

Temple building received great impetus from the conquests and the genius of Rajaraja Chola and his son Rajendra Chola I. The maturity and grandeur to which the Chola architecture had evolved found expression in the two temples of Tanjavur and Gangaikondacholapuram. The magnificent Siva temple of Thanjavur, completed around 1009, is a fitting memorial to the material achievements of the time of Rajaraja. The largest and tallest of all Indian temples of its time, it is at the apex of South Indian architecture.[52] Image File history File links Airavateswarar_temple. ... Image File history File links Airavateswarar_temple. ... The Brihadisvara temple (also spelled Brahadeeswarar temple) is an ancient Hindu temple located at Thanjavur in the state of Tamil Nadu, India. ...


The temple of Gangaikondacholapuram, the creation of Rajendra Chola, was intended to exceed its predecessor in every way. Completed around 1030, only two decades after the temple at Thanjavur and in much the same style, the greater elaboration in its appearance attests the more affluent state of the Chola Empire under Rajendra.[53]


The Chola period is also remarkable for its sculptures and bronzes. Among the existing specimens in museums around the world and in the temples of South India may be seen many fine figures of Siva in various forms, such as Vishnu and his consort Lakshmi, and the Siva saints. Though conforming generally to the iconographic conventions established by long tradition, the sculptors worked with great freedom in the 11th and the 12th centuries to achieve a classic grace and grandeur. The best example of this can be seen in the form of Nataraja the Divine Dancer.[54] For other meanings, see Vishnu (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Lakshmi (disambiguation). ... Bronze Chola Statue of Nataraja Nataraja (literally, The King of Dance) is the dancing posture of Lord Åšiva, the aspect of God as the Destroyer in Hinduism. ...

Chola bronze from the Ulster Museum

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 374 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1064 × 1704 pixel, file size: 206 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) ==Licensing== }} File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 374 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1064 × 1704 pixel, file size: 206 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) ==Licensing== }} File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Corrie Denew Chase. ...

Literature

Main article: Chola literature

The age of the Imperial Cholas (850–1200) was the golden age of Tamil culture, marked by the importance of literature. Chola inscriptions cite many works, and it is a tragedy that most of them have been lost to us,[55] Chola Literature denotes the literature, mainly in the Tamil language created during the period of Chola reign in south India between the ninth and the thirteenth centuries CE. The age of the imperial Cholas was the most create epoch of the history of South India and was the Golden Age...


The revival of Hinduism from its nadir during the Kalabhras spurred the construction of numerous temples and these in turn generated Saiva and Viashnava devotional literature. Jain and Buddhist authors flourished as well, although in fewer numbers than in previous centuries. Jivaka-chintamani by Tirutakkadevar and Sulamani by Tolamoli are among notable by non-Hindu authors. The art of Tirutakkadevar is marked by all the qualities of great poetry.[56] It is considered as the model for Kamban for his masterpiece Ramavatharam. seevaga-chintamani (transliterated with innumerable variations) is a classical Tamil language epic poem. ... Kambar is one of the greatest Tamil poets. ...


Kamban flourished during the reign of Kulothunga Chola III.[57] His Ramavatharam is the greatest epic in Tamil Literature, and although the author states that he followed Valmiki, his work is no mere translation or simple adaptation of the Sanskrit epic: Kamban imports into his narration the colour and landscape of his own time; his description of Kosala is an idealised account of the features of the Chola country. The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Valmiki composes the Ramayana Valmiki (Sanskrit: वाल्मीकि, vālmīki) born as Ratnakar is a legendary Hindu sage (maharishi) traditionally regarded as the author of the epic, Ramayana, based on the attribution in the text of the epic itself[1]. He was the tenth child of Pracheta. ...


Jayamkondar’s masterpiece Kalingattuparani is an example of narrative poetry that draws a clear boundary between history and fictitious conventions. This describes the events during Kulothunga Chola I’s war in Kalinga and depicts not only the pomp and circumstance of war, but the gruesome details of the field. The famous Tamil poet Ottakuttan was a contemporary of Kulothunga Chola I. Ottakuttan wrote Kulothunga Solan Ula a poem extolling the virtues of the Chola king. He served at the courts of three of his successors.


The impulse to produce devotional religious literature continued into the Chola period and the arrangement of the Saiva canon into 11 books was the work of Nambi Andar Nambi, who lived close to the end of 10th century. However, relatively few works on Vaishnavite religion were composed during the Chola period, possibly because of the apparent animosity towards the Vaishnavites by the Chaluka Chola monarchs.[58] This article is about the Hindu God Åšiva. ... Vaishnavites are followers of Vaishnavism in which Vishnu or His avatars are worshipped as the supreme God. ...


Religion

Bronze Chola Statue of Nataraja at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City

In general, Cholas were the adherents of Hinduism. Throughout their history, they were not swayed by the rise of Buddhism and Jainism as were the kings of the Pallava and Pandya dynasties. Even the early Cholas followed a version of the classical Hindu faith. There is evidence in Purananuru for Karikala Chola’s faith in the Vedic Hinduism in the Tamil country.[59] Kocengannan, another early Chola, was celebrated in both Sangam literature and in the Saiva canon as a saint. Image File history File links Chola Bronze statue of Nataraja at the Met of New York File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Chola Bronze statue of Nataraja at the Met of New York File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This article is about the metal alloy. ... The Cholas were the most famous of the three dynasties that ruled ancient Tamil Nadu. ... Metropolitan Museum of Art New York Elevation The Metropolitan Museum of Art, often referred to simply as the Met, is one of the worlds largest and most important art museums. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Jain and Jaina redirect here. ... Pura Nanooru or Pura Nanuru is an ancient Tamil Sangam collection of poems, dating from 900 BCE to 220 CE. It is one of the oldest Tamil anthologies. ...


Later Cholas were also staunch Saivites, although there was a sense of toleration towards other sects and religions. Parantaka I and Sundara Chola endowed and built temples for both Siva and Vishnu. Rajaraja Chola I even patronised Buddhists, and built the Chudamani Vihara (a Buddhist monastery) in Nagapattinam at the request of the Srivijaya Sailendra king.[60] Parantaka Chola I (907 c. ... Parantak Chola II (957 c. ... This article is about the Hindu God. ... Chudamani Vihara constructed in 1006 CE, flourished at Nagapattinam for several centuries. ... Nagapattinam (formerly known as Negapatam and also as Shiva Rajadhani) is a small city with a population of about 100,000, located in coastal Tamil Nadu, India. ...


During the period of Chalukya Cholas, there were instances of intolerance towards Vaishnavites—especially towards Ramanuja, the leader of the Vaishnavites. This intolerance led to persecution and Ramanuja went into exile in the Chalukya country. He led a popular uprising that resulted in the assassination of Athirajendra Chola. Kulothunga Chola II is reported to have removed a statue of Vishnu from the Siva temple at Chidambaram. There is ample evidence, from the inscriptions, that Kulothunga II was a religious fanatic who wanted to upset the camaraderie between Hindu faiths in the Chola country.[61] Vaishnavites are followers of Vaishnavism in which Vishnu or His avatars are worshipped as the supreme God. ... Ramanuja Tamil: ,  [?] (traditionally 1017–1137) was a theologian, philosopher, and scriptural exegete. ... Kulothunga Chola II succeeded his father Vikrama Chola to the Chola throne in 1135 C.E. Vikrama Chola made his heir apparent and coregent in 1133 C.E and so the inscriptions of Kulothunga II count his reign from 1133 C.E. Kulothunga II reigned over a period of general...


In popular culture

Standing Hanuman, Chola Dynasty, 11thCentury.

The history of the Chola dynasty has inspired many Tamil authors to produce literary and artistic creations during the last several decades. These works of popular literature have helped continue the memory of the great Cholas in the minds of the Tamil people. The most important work of this genre is the popular Ponniyin Selvan (The son of Ponni), a historical novel in Tamil written by Kalki Krishnamurthy. Written in five volumes, this narrates the story of Rajaraja Chola. Ponniyin Selvan deals with the events leading up to the ascension of Uttama Chola on the Chola throne. Kalki had cleverly utilised the confusion in the succession to the Chola throne after the demise of Sundara Chola. This book was serialised in the Tamil periodical Kalki during the mid 1950s. The serialisation lasted for nearly five years and every week its publication was awaited with great interest. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 398 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1058 × 1592 pixels, file size: 411 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 398 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1058 × 1592 pixels, file size: 411 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... This article is about a divine entity in Hinduism. ... Ponniyin Selvan (பொன்னியின் செல்வன், The Son of Ponni) is a famous 20th-century Tamil historical novel written by Kalki Krishnamurthy. ... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... Kalki R Krishnamurthy Kalki (Tamil: ) is the pen name of Krishnamurthy (Tamil: ) (September 9, 1899–December 5, 1954), an Indian freedom fighter, novelist, short-story writer, journalist, satirist, travel writer, script-writer, poet, critic, and connoisseur of the arts. ... Uttama Chola ascended the Chola throne c. ... Kalki is one of the leading Tamil language weekly magazines published in Chennai. ...


Kalki perhaps laid the foundations for this novel in his earlier historical romance Parthiban Kanavu, which deals with the fortunes of an imaginary Chola prince Vikraman who was supposed to have lived as a feudatory of the Pallava king Narasimhavarman I during the 7th century. The period of the story lies within the interregnum during which the Cholas were in eclipse before Vijayalaya Chola revived their fortune. Parthiban Kanavu was also serialised in the Kalki weekly during the early 1950s. Parthiban Kanavu (Parthibans dream) is a famous Tamil novel written by Kalki Krishnamurthy. ... Narasimhavarman I was one of the most famous Pallava kings who ruled from A.D. 630 - 668. ...


Sandilyan, another popular Tamil novelist, wrote Kadal Pura in the 1960s. It was serialised in the Tamil weekly Kumudam. Kadal Pura is set during the period when Kulothunga Chola I was in exile from the Vengi kingdom, after he was denied the throne that was rightfully his. Kadal Pura speculates the whereabouts of Kulothunga during this period. Sandilyan's earlier work Yavana Rani written in the early 1960s is based on the life of Karikala Chola. More recently, Balakumaran wrote the opus Udaiyar based on the event surrounding Rajaraja Chola's construction of the Brihadisvara Temple in Thanjavur. In January 2007, Kaviri mainthan - a novel set in the Chola period and a sequel to Ponniyin Selvan was written by Anusha Venkatesh, published by The Avenue Press. Kumudam is aTamil language weekly magazines published in Chennai, India The group also publishes other Tamil magazines including Kumudam Reporter, Kumudam Snehidi, Kumudam Bhakti, Kumudam Jothidam, Kumudam Theeranadhi. ... Balakumaran is a Tamil author. ... Udaiyar is tamil novel written by the famous tamil writer Balakumaran and is written in six volumes. ... Kaviri Mainthan is a 1300 page sequel to a sixty year old popular tamil novel Ponniyin Selvan. ...


There were stage productions based on the life of Rajaraja Chola during the 1950s and in 1973, Shivaji Ganesan acted in a screen adaptation of this play. Ganesan in Thayaipola Pillai Noolaipola Selai, 1959 Sivaji Ganesan (October 1, 1927 - July 21, 2001) was a famous Indian actor and politician. ...


The Chola are also featured in the History of the World board game, produced by Avalon Hill. History of the World is a board game designed by Gary Dicken and Steve Kendall, originally published in 1991 by Ragnar Brothers. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Not one of the numerous references that appear in Tamil literature tells us anything of its origin. The Telugu Cholas who claimed to have descended from the early Cholas adapted the lion crest.
  2. ^ a b The age of Sangam is established through the correlation between the evidence on foreign trade found in the poems and the writings by ancient Greek and Romans such as Periplus. See Nilakanta Sastri, K.A., History of South India, pp 106
  3. ^ See Tirukkural poem 955 (வழங்குவ துள்வீழ்ந்தக் கண்ணும் பழங்குடி/பண்பில் தலைப்பிரிதல் இன்று. The annotator Parimelazhagar writes "The charity of people with ancient lineage (such as the Cholas, the Pandyas and the Cheras) are forever generous in spite of their reduced means".
  4. ^ Other names in common use for the Cholas are Killi (கிள்ளி), Valavan (வளவன்) and Sembiyan (சேம்பியன்). Killi perhaps comes from the Tamil 'kil' (கிள்) meaning dig or cleave and conveys the idea of a digger or a worker of the land. This word often forms an integral part of early Chola names like Nedunkilli, Nalankilli and so on, but almost drops out of use in later times. Valavan is most probably connected with 'valam' (வளம்) – fertility and means owner or ruler of a fertile country. Sembiyan is generally taken to mean a descendant of Shibi – a legendary hero whose self-sacrifice in saving a dove from the pursuit of a falcon figures among the early Chola legends and forms the subject matter of the Sibi Jataka among the Jataka stories of Buddhism. See Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. The CōĻas, 1935. pp 19–20
  5. ^ The period covered by the Sangam poetry is likely to extend not longer than five or six generations - Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. The CōĻas, 1935 pp 3
  6. ^ The Periplus refers to the region of the eastern seaboard of South India as Damirica - The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea (Ancient History source book).
  7. ^ Ptolemy mentions the town of Kaveripattinam (under the form Khaberis) - Proceedings, American Philosophical Society, vol. 122, No. 6, 1978.
  8. ^ See Mahavamsa eText - http://lakdiva.org/mahavamsa/
  9. ^ The Asokan inscriptions speak of the Cholas in plural, implying that, in his time, there were more than one Chola - Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. The CōĻas, 1935 pp 20
  10. ^ The Edicts of Ashoka, issued around 250 BCE by the Mauryan emperor Ashoka, mention the Cholas as recipients of his Buddhist prozelitism: "The conquest by Dharma has been won here, on the borders, and even six hundred yojanas (5,400–9,600 km) away, where the Greek king Antiochos rules, beyond there where the four kings named Ptolemy, Antigonos, Magas and Alexander rule, likewise in the south among the Cholas, the Pandyas, and as far as Tamraparni (Sri Lanka). (Edicts of Ashoka, 13th Rock Edict, S. Dhammika)."
  11. ^ Archaeological News A. L. Frothingham, Jr. The American Journal of Archaeology and of the History of the Fine Arts, Vol. 4, No. 1 (Mar., 1888), pp. 69-125
  12. ^ India in Classical Greek Writings By Baij Nath Puri
  13. ^ Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland By Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland
  14. ^ "The name Coromandel is used for the east coast of India from Cape Comorin to Nellore, or from point Calimere to the mouth of Krihsna. The word is a corrupt form of Choramandala or the Realm of Chora, which is the Tamil form of the title of the Chola dynasty". - Sarojini Naidu's Select Poems, with an Introduction, Notes, and Bibliography for Further Study By A. N. Gupta, Satish Gupta
  15. ^ The direct line of Cholas of the Vijayalaya dynasty came to a bloody end with the assassination of Virarajendra Chola. Kulothunga Chola I a distant relation to the main Chola line through marriage ascended the throne in 1070.
  16. ^ "செங்கதிர்ச் செல்வன் திருக் குலம் விளக்கும்" - Manimekalai (poem 00-10)
  17. ^ See Manimekalai (22-030).
  18. ^ The only evidence for the approximate period of these early kings is the Sangam Literature and the synchronization with the history of Sri Lanka as given in the Mahavamsa. Gajabahu I who is said to be the contemporary of the Chera Senguttuvan is determined to belong to the 2nd century. This leads us to date the poems mentioning Senguttuvan and his contemporaries to belong to this period.
  19. ^ See Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. The CōĻas, 1935. pp 102
  20. ^ Pandya Kadungon and Pallava Simhavishnu overthrew the Kalabhras. Acchchutakalaba is likely the last Kalabhra king - Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. The CōĻas, 1935 pp 102
  21. ^ Periyapuranam, a Saiva religious work of 12th century tells us of the Pandya contemporary of the saint Tirugnanasambandar who had for his queen a Chola princess.
  22. ^ Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. The CōĻas, 1935 pp 102
  23. ^ Copperplate grants of the Pallava Buddhavarman(late 4th century) mention that the king as the 'underwater fire that destroyed the ocean of the Chola army' - Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. The CōĻas, 1935 pp 104–105 Simhavishnu (575–600) is also stated to have seized the Chola country. Mahendravarman I was called the 'crown of the Chola country' in his inscriptions. The Chalukya Pulakesin II in his inscriptions in Aihole states that he defeated the Pallavas and brought relief to the Cholas. - Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. The CōĻas, 1935 pp 105
  24. ^ KAN Sastri postulates that there was a live connection between the early Cholas and the Renandu Cholas of the Andhra country. The northward migration probably took place during the Pallava domination of Simhavishnu. Sastri also categorically rejects the claims that these were the descendants of Karikala Chola - Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. The CōĻas, 1935 pp 107
  25. ^ The Chola inscriptions followed the practice of prefacing the intended text with a historical recounting, in a poetic and ornate style of Tamil, of the main achievements of the reign and the decent of the king and of his ancestors - See South Indian Inscriptions
  26. ^ The opportunity for Vijayalaya arose during the battle of Sripurambayam between the Pallava ally Ganga Pritvipati and the Pandya Varaguna.
  27. ^ Vijayalaya invaded Thanjavur and defeated the Muttarayar king, feudatory of the Pandyas.
  28. ^ Rajendra Chola I completed the conquest of the island of Sri Lanka and captured the Sinhala king Mahinda V prisoner. See KAN Sastri, The Colas pp 194–210
  29. ^ The kadaram campaign is first mentioned in Rajendra's inscriptions dating from his 14th year. The name of the Srivijaya king was Sangrama Vijayatungavarman -Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. The CōĻas, 1935 pp 211–220
  30. ^ Stuart Munro-Hay. Nakhon Sri Thammarat - The Archaeology, History and Legends of a Southern Thai Town. Page 18. ISBN 9747534738
  31. ^ Ptolomy mentions the markets of Kaverippattinam as Chabaris Emporium in his Geographica.
  32. ^ The Buddhist work Milinda Panha dated to the early Christian era, mentions Kolapttna among the best-known sea ports on the Chola coast - Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. The CōĻas, 1935, pp 23
  33. ^ Nagaswamy, R. Tamil Coins - a study (1981) (http://tamilartsacademy.com/books/coins/cover.html)
  34. ^ The only other time when peninsular India would be brought under one umbrella before the Independence was during the Vijayanagara Empire (1336–1614)
  35. ^ Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. The CōĻas, 1935, pp 448
  36. ^ There were no legislature or controls on the executive. The king ruled by edicts, which generally followed dharma a culturally mediated concept of 'fair and proper' practice. See Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. The CōĻas, 1935 pp 451, 460–461
  37. ^ For example, Rajaraja is mentioned in the Layden copperplate grant to have issued an oral order for a gift to a Buddhist vihara at Nagapattinam, and his orders were written out by a clerk (...நாம் சொல்ல நம் ஓலை எழுதும்...) - Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. The CōĻas, 1935 pp 461
  38. ^ Some of the output of villages throughout the kingdom was given to temples that reinvested some of the wealth accumulated as loans to the settlements. The temple served as a centre for redistribution of wealth and contributed towards the integrity of the kingdom - John Keays, India a History, pp 217–218
  39. ^ Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. The CōĻas, 1935 pp 465
  40. ^ Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. The CōĻas, 1935 pp 477
  41. ^ See Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. (1955). A History of South India, pp 424–426
  42. ^ See Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. The CōĻas, 1935. pp 604
  43. ^ See Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. The CōĻas, 1935. pp 316
  44. ^ The Tamil merchants took glassware, camphor, sandalwood, rhinoceros horns, ivory, rose water, asafoetida, spices such as pepper, cloves, etc. See Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. A History of South India, pp 173
  45. ^ Tamil : நானாதேச திசையாயிரத்து ஐந்நூற்றுவர்
  46. ^ —during the short reign of Virarajendra Chola, which possibly had some sectarian roots.
  47. ^ 17th century Italian traveler Pietro Della Valle (1623) has given a vivid account of the village schools in South India. These accounts reflect the system of primary education in existence until the morder times in Tamil Nadu
  48. ^ Rajendra Chola I endowed a large college in which more than 280 students learnt from 14 teachers - Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. A History of South India, pp 293
  49. ^ The students studied a number of subjects in these colleges, including philosophy (anvikshiki), Vedas (trayi – the threefold Vedas of Rigveda, Yajurveda and Samaveda. The fourth Atharvaveda was considered a non-religious text.), economics (vartta), government (dandaniti), grammar, prosody, etymology, astronomy, logic (tarka), medicine (ayurveda), politics (arthasastra) and music. - Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. A History of South India, pp 292
  50. ^ The great temple complex at Prambanan in Indonesia exhibit a number of similarities with the South Indian architecture. See Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. The CōĻas, 1935 pp 709
  51. ^ See Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. (1955). A History of South India, pp 418
  52. ^ See Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. (1955). A History of South India, pp 421
  53. ^ Nagasamy R, Gangaikondacholapuram (1970)
  54. ^ The bronze image of nataraja at the Nagesvara Temple in Kumbakonam is the largest image known.
  55. ^ , including Rajarajesvara Natakam- a work on drama, Viranukkaviyam by one Virasola Anukkar, and Kannivana Puranam, a work of popular nature. - Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. The CōĻas, 1935 pp 663–664
  56. ^ Sindamani was based on Uttarapurana of Gunabhadra composed in 898.
  57. ^ Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. The CōĻas, 1935 pp 672
  58. ^ Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. The CōĻas, 1935 pp 681
  59. ^ Purananuru (poem 224) movingly expresses his faith and the grief caused by his passing away.
  60. ^ The name of the Sailendra king was Sri Chulamanivarman. the Vihara was named 'Chudamani vihara' in his honour - Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. The CōĻas, 1935 pp 214
  61. ^ There is an inscription from 1160 that the custodians of Siva temples who had social intercourses with Vaishnavites would forfeit their property. - Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. The CōĻas, 1935 pp 645
Middle kingdoms of India
Timeline: Northern Empires Southern Dynasties Northwestern Kingdoms

 6th century BCE
 5th century BCE
 4th century BCE

 3rd century BCE
 2nd century BCE

 1st century BCE
 1st century CE


 2nd century
 3rd century
 4th century
 5th century
 6th century
 7th century
 8th century
 9th century
10th century
11th century Many Telugu Choda kingdoms ruled over many regions including the cities on the banks of Krishna River in the period between the seventh and the thirteenth century. ... For other uses, see Lion (disambiguation). ... Nedunkilli was one of the Early Cholas mentioned in Sangam Literature. ... Nalankilli was one of the Early Cholas mentioned in Sangam Literature. ... King Shibi Chakravati was a famous Hindu mythological king. ... Sibi Jataka is one of the Jataka tales detailing episodes of the various incarnations of Buddha. ... The Jataka stories are a significant body of works about the previous lives of Gautama Buddha. ... Buddhism is a variety of teachings described as a religion[1] or way of life that attempts to identify the causes of human suffering and offer various ways that are claimed to end, or ease suffering. ... Poompuhar (Tamil: பூம்புகார்) is a town in Thanjavur district in the southern Indian state of Tamil Nadu. ... The Edicts of Ashoka are a collection of 33 inscriptions on the Pillars of Ashoka, as well as boulders and cave walls, made by the Emperor Ashoka of the Mauryan dynasty during his reign from 272 to 231 BCE. These inscriptions are dispersed throughout the areas of modern-day Pakistan... The Mauryan empire (321 to 185 BCE), at its largest extent around 230 BCE. The Mauryan empire was Indias first great unified empire. ... Allegiance: Magadhan Empire Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Dasaratha Maurya Reign: 273 BC-232 BC Place of birth: Pataliputra, India Battles/Wars Kalinga War Emperor Ashoka the Great (Devanagari: अशोक(:); IAST transliteration: , pronunciation: ) (304 BC–232 BC) (Imperial Title:Devanampiya Piyadassi ie He who is the beloved of the Gods who, in... For other uses, see Dharma (disambiguation). ... Å–Å…A yojana is a Vedic measure of distance, possibly somewhere from 5. ... Coin of Antiochus II. The Greek inscription reads ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ (of king Antiochus). ... 309–246 BC), with Arsinoë II. Ptolemy II Philadelphus (Greek: , 309 BC–246 BC), was the king of Ptolemaic Egypt from 281 BC to 246 BC. He was the son of the founder of the Ptolemaic kingdom Ptolemy I Soter and Berenice. ... Coin of Antigonus II Gonatas Antigonus II Gonatas (c. ... Magas of Cyrene (r. ... Alexander II, king of Epirus, succeeded his father Pyrrhus in 272 BC. He attacked Antigonus Gonatas and conquered the greater part of Macedonia, but was in turn driven out of both Epirus and Macedonia by Demetrius, the son of Antigonus. ... The Pandyan kingdom was an ancient state at the tip of South India, founded around the 6th century BCE. It was part of the Dravidian cultural area, which also comprised other kingdoms such as that of the Pallava, the Chera, the Chola, the Chalukya and the Vijayanagara. ... Tamraparni is an ancient region of southern India, corresponding to the area of a Tamraparni river, in Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu. ... Virarajendra Chola (1063 – 1070 C.E.) became the Chola king succeeding his brother Rajendra Chola II. Rajamahendra, Rajendra’s son and heir apparent died before his father and Rajendra made his younger brother Virarajendra his heir. ... Manimekalai, written by Seethalai Saathanar, is one of the masterpieces of Tamil literature and belongs to The Five Great Epics of Tamil Literature. ... The recorded History of Sri Lanka boasts of 25 chronicled centuries. ... Gajabahu I (c. ... Senguttuvan was a Chera king who probably lived during the early centuries of the Common Era. ... Simhavishnu portait along with his queens found in Adivaraha mandapam in Mahabalipuram. ... Pulakesi II (c. ... Aihole (Kannada ಐಹೊಳೆ)is in the Bagalkot district of Karnataka, India. ... The Vijayanagara empire was based in the Deccan, in peninsular and southern India, from 1336 onwards. ... For other uses, see Dharma (disambiguation). ... R-phrases 11-20/21/22-36/37/38 S-phrases 16-26-36 RTECS number EX1260000 (R) EX1250000 (S) Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... The branches of a young sandalwood tree found in Hawaii Sandalwood is the fragrant wood of trees in the genus Santalum. ... For other uses, see Rhinoceros (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Binomial name L. Asafoetida (Ferula assafoetida, family Apiaceae), alternative spelling asafetida (also known as devils dung, stinking gum, asant, food of the gods, hing, and giant fennel) is a species of Ferula native to Iran. ... Binomial name L.[1] Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. ... This article is about spices, the word clove is also used to describe a segment of a head of garlic and a clove hitch is a useful kind of knot. ... Pietro Della Valle Pietro della Valle (April 1586–1652) was an Italian traveler in Asia. ... Veda redirects here. ... Rig veda is the oldest text in the world. ... The Yajurveda (Sanskrit , a tatpurusha compound of sacrifice + knowledge) is one of the four Hindu Vedas. ... The Samaveda (Sanskrit: सामवेद, sāmaveda, a tatpurusha compound of ritual chant + knowledge ), is third in the usual order of enumeration of the four Vedas, the ancient core Hindu scriptures. ... The Atharvaveda (Sanskrit: अथर्ववेद, , a tatpurusha compound of , a type of priest, and meaning knowledge) is a sacred text of Hinduism, and one of the four Vedas, often called the fourth Veda. According to tradition, the Atharvaveda was mainly composed by two groups of rishis known as the Bhrigus and the... Prambanan is the largest Hindu temple compound in Indonesia, located in central Java, approximately 18 km east of Yogyakarta ( ). It was built around 850 CE by either Rakai Pikatan, king of the second Mataram dynasty or Balitung Maha Sambu, during the Sanjaya dynasty. ... Middle kingdoms of India refers to the political entities in India from the 6th century BCE through to the Islamic invasions and the related Decline of Buddhism from the 7th century CE. // Kingdoms and Empires The Aryans had invaded India from the Northwest, according to the Aryan Invasion Theory, and...





Magadha was an ancient kingdom of India, mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. ... Shishunaga dynasty of north India ruled the Magadhan Empire from 684 BCE to 424 BCE. Its dynastic succession was: Shishunaga (ruled from around 684 BCE) Kakavarna Kshemadharman Kshatraujas Bimbisara 544 BCE - 491 BCE Ajatashatru 491 BCE - 461 BCE Darshaka Udayin Nandivardhana Mahanandin Mahavira and Gautama Buddha lived during the period... The Nanda Empire at its greatest extent under Dhana Nanda circa 323 BC. The Nanda dynasty ruled Magadha during the 5th and 4th centuries BC. It is said to have been established by an illegitimate son of the king Mahanandin of the previous Shishunaga dynasty. ... Kalinga in 265 B.C. Kalinga was an ancient Indo-Aryan kingdom of central-eastern India, in the province of Orissa. ... A representation of the Lion Capital of Ashoka, which was erected around 250 BCE. It is the emblem of India. ... The Sunga Empire (or Shunga Empire) is a Magadha dynasty that controlled North-central and Eastern India from around 185 to 73 BCE. It was established after the fall of the Indian Mauryan empire. ... Silver coin of the Kuninda Kingdom, c. ...







The Gupta Empire under Chandragupta II (ruled 375-415) The Gupta Empire was one of the largest political and military empires in the world. ... Harsha or Harshavardhana (606-648) was an Indian emperor who ruled northern India as paramount monarch for over forty years. ... Buddha and Bodhisattvas, 11th century, Pala Empire. ... For the English cricketer, See Vikram Solanki The Solanki or Chalukya is a Hindu Gurjar,Rajput dynasty of India, who ruled the kingdom of Gujarat from the 10th to the 13th centuries. ... The Sena dynasty ruled Bengal through the 11th and 12th centuries. ... The Pandyan kingdom பாண்டியர் was an ancient Tamil state in South India of unknown antiquity. ... The Chera dynasty (Tamil: சேரர்) was one of the ancient Tamil dynasties that ruled southern India from ancient times until around the fifteenth century CE. The Early Cheras ruled over the Malabar Coast, Coimbatore, Karur and Salem Districts in South India, which now forms part of the modern day Kerala and... The Sātavāhanas (Marathi:सातवाहन Telugu:సాతవాహనులు), also known as the Andhras, were a dynasty which ruled from Junnar, Pune over Southern and Central India starting from around 230 BCE. Although there is some controversy about when the dynasty came to an end, the most liberal estimates suggest that it lasted...

(Persian rule)
(Greek conquests)


Kalabhras were the South Indian dynasty who between the 3rd and the 6th century C.E. ruled over entire Tamil country, displacing the ancient Chola, Pandya and Chera dynasties. ...  Extent of Kadamba Empire, 500 CE Capital Banavasi Language(s) Sanskrit, Kannada Religion Hindu Government Monarchy King  - 345 - 365 Mayurasharma Krishna Varma II History  - Earliest Kadamba records 450  - Established 345  - Disestablished 525 Kadamba Dynasty (Kannada:ಕದಂಬರು) (345 - 525 CE) was an ancient royal dynasty of Karnataka that ruled from Banavasi in... The Pallava kingdom (Tamil: பல்லவர்) was an ancient South Indian kingdom. ... Virupaksha temple, Pattadakal, built 740 Badami Chalukya Territories in the reign of Pulakesi II, 640 The Chalukya dynasty (Sanskrit/Marathi[1]:चालुक्य राजवंश,Kannada:ಚಾಲುಕ್ಯರು) IPA: ) was an Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between the 6th and the 12th centuries. ... Jain cave in Ellora The Rastrakutas (Sanskrit:राष्ट्रकूट, Kannada: ರಾಷ್ಟ್ರಕೂಟ) were a dynasty which ruled the southern and the central parts or the Deccan, India during the 8th - 10th century. ... Extent of Western Chalukya Empire, 1121 CE Capital Manyakheta, Basavakalyan Language(s) Kannada Religion Hindu Government Monarchy King  - 957 – 997 Tailapa II  - 1184 – 1189 Somesvara IV History  - Earliest records 957  - Established 973  - Disestablished 1189 The Western Chalukya Empire (Kannada:ಪಶ್ಚಿಮ ಚಾಲುಕ್ಯ ಸಾಮ್ರಾಜ್ಯ) ruled most of the western deccan, South India, between the 10th... Extent of Hoysala Empire, 1200 CE Capital Belur, Halebidu Language(s) Kannada Religion Hindu Government Monarchy King  - 1026 – 1047 Nripa Kama II  - 1292 – 1343 Veera Ballala III History  - Earliest Hoysala records 950  - Established 1026  - Disestablished 1343 The Hoysala Empire (Kannada: ಹೊಯ್ಸಳ ಸಾಮ್ರಾಜ್ಯ) (pronunciation: in Kannada) was a prominent South Indian empire that... Gandhāra (Sanskrit: गन्धार, Persian; Gandara, Waihind) (Urdu: گندھارا) is the name of an ancient Indian Mahajanapada, currently in northern Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. ... Founder of empires: Cyrus, The Great is still revered in modern Iran as he was in all the successor Persian Empires. ... In ancient times, trade between India and Greece flourished with silk, spices and gold being traded. ...

  • Indo-Greeks


(Islamic invasions)
The Indo-Greek Kingdom (or sometimes Graeco-Indian Kingdom[2]) covered various parts of the northwest and northern Indian subcontinent from 180 BCE to around 10 CE, and was ruled by a succession of more than thirty Hellenic and Hellenistic kings,[3] often in conflict with each other. ... The Indo-Scythians are a branch of the Indo-Iranian Sakas (Scythians), who migrated from southern Siberia into Bactria, Sogdiana, Arachosia, Gandhara, Kashmir, Punjab, and into parts of Western and Central India, Gujarat and Rajasthan, from the middle of the 2nd century BCE to the 4th century CE. The first... Coin of Gondophares (20-50 CE), first and greatest king of the Indo-Parthian Kingdom. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... The Western Satraps, or Western Kshatrapas (35-405) were Saka rulers of the western and central part of India (Saurashtra and Malwa: modern Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh states). ... Coin of the Indo-Sassanid kushansha Varhran I (early 4th century). ... Coin of Kidara (reigned circa 360-380 CE), founder of the Kidarite Kingdom Obv: King Kidara standing. ... The Hephthalite bowl, NFP Pakistan, 5-6th century CE. British Museum. ... The Muslim conquest of the Indian subcontinent took place during the ascendancy of the Rajput Kingdoms in North India, during the 7th to the 12th centuries. ...

(Islamic empires) This article is about the Hindu dynasty. ... During the middle ages, several Islamic regimes established empires in South Asia. ...

References

Find more about Chola dynasty on Wikipedia's sister projects:
Dictionary definitions
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  • Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. The CōĻas, University of Madras, Madras, 1935 (Reprinted 1984).
  • Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. A History of South India, OUP, New Delhi, 1955 (Reprinted 2002).
  • Nagaswamy, R. Tamil Coins - a study, 1981.
  • Nagasamy R, Gangaikondacholapuram, State Department of Archaeology, Government of Tamil Nadu, 1970
  • Keay, John, India A History, Harper Collins Publishers, New Delhi, 2000.
  • UNESCO World Heritage sites constructed by the Chola Empire: http://whc.unesco.org/pg.cfm?cid=31&id_site=250

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External Links

A temple from the Chola period. ... A good number of Tamil inscriptions as well as Hindu and Buddhist icons emanating from South India have been found in Southeast Asia (and even in parts of south China). ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Chola dynasty - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5353 words)
At its peak, the Chola Empire stretched from the island of Sri Lanka in the south to the Godavari basin in the north.
Chola navies invaded and conquered Srivijaya in the Malayan archipelago.
The age of the Imperial Cholas (850 – 1200 CE) was the golden age of Tamil culture, and it was marked by the widespread practise and patronage of literature.
c. South India. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History (376 words)
A second invasion of Ceylon secured the regalia and treasure of the Pandya kings, so that a son of the Chola could be consecrated king of Pandya.
An invasion of Bengal enabled the Chola to assume a new title and establish a new capital near Trichinopoly.
Chola Virarajendra defeated the Chalukyas and gave his daughter to Vikramaditya VI.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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