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Encyclopedia > Choking
Choking
Classification & external resources
ICD-10 F41.0, R06.8, T17, W78-W80
ICD-9 784.9, 933.1
For choking meaning compression of the neck, see Strangling. For other usage of choking, see choke. 'Chocking' redirects here, for the mechanical tool see Wheel chock

Choking is the mechanical obstruction of the flow of air from the environment into the lungs. Choking prevents breathing, and can be partial or complete, with partial choking allowing some, although inadequate, flow of air into the lungs. Prolonged or complete choking results in asphyxiation which leads to hypoxia and is potentially fatal. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... U.S. Army Combatives instructor Matt Larsen uses a chokehold to strangle an opponent in hand to hand combat training. ... Look up choke in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Wheel chocks placed around an aircrafts landing gear. ... Breathing transports oxygen into the body and carbon dioxide out of the body. ... Asphyxia is a condition of severely deficient supply of oxygen to the body. ... Hypoxia may refer to: Hypoxia (medical), the lack of oxygen in tissues Hypoxia or Oxygen depletion, a reduced concentration of dissolved oxygen in a water body leading to stress or even death in aquatic organisms This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ...


Choking can be caused by:

Contents

The airways are those parts of the respiratory system through which air flows, to get from the external environment to the alveoli. ... The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the neck and throat situated immediately posterior to the mouth and nasal cavity, and cranial, or superior, to the esophagus, larynx, and trachea. ... The larynx (plural larynges), colloquially known as the voicebox, is an organ in the neck of mammals involved in protection of the trachea and sound production. ... The trachea, or windpipe, is a tube that has an inner diameter of about 12mm and a length of about 10-16cm. ... Diseases of the mammalian Respiratory system are classified physiologically into obstructive (i. ... The pharynx is the part of the digestive system of many animals immediately behind the mouth and in front of the esophagus. ... Asphyxia is a condition of severely deficient supply of oxygen to the body. ...

Foreign objects

The type of choking most commonly recognised as such by the public is the lodging of foreign objects in the airway. This type of choking is often suffered by small children, who are unable to appreciate the hazard inherent in putting small objects in their mouth. In adults, it mostly occurs whilst the patient is eating. Look up hazard in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A patient having his blood pressure taken by a doctor. ...


Symptoms and Clinical Signs

  • The person cannot speak or cry out.
  • The person's face turns blue (cyanosis) from lack of oxygen.
  • The person desperately grabs at his or her throat.
  • The person has a weak cough, and labored breathing produces a high-pitched noise.
  • The person does any or all of the above, and then becomes unconscious.

Cyanosis refers to the bluish coloration of the skin due to the presence of deoxygenated hemoglobin in blood vessels near the skin surface. ...

Treatment

Choking can be treated with a number of different procedures, with both basic techniques available for first aiders and more advanced techniques available for health professionals. First aid is a series of simple, life-saving medical techniques that a non-doctor or layman can be trained to perform. ...


Many members of the public associate abdominal thrusts, also known as the 'Heimlich Manoeuvre' with the correct procedure for choking, which is partly due to the widespread use of this technique in movies, which in turn was based on the widespread adoption of this technique in the USA at the time, although it also produced easy material for writers to create comedy effect. For other uses see film (disambiguation) Film refers to the celluliod media on which movies are printed Film — also called movies, the cinema, the silver screen, moving pictures, photoplays, picture shows, flicks, or motion pictures, — is a field that encompasses motion pictures as an art form or as...


Most modern protocols (including those of the American Heart Association and the American Red Cross, who changed policy in 2006[1] from recommending only abdominal thrusts) involve several stages, designed to apply increasingly more pressure.


The key stages in most modern protocols include:


Encouraging the victim to cough

This stage was introduced in many protocols as it was found that many people were too quick to undertake potentially dangerous interventions, such as abdominal thrusts, for items which could have been dislodged without intervention.


Back slaps

The majority of protocols now advocate the use of hard blows with the heel of the hand on the upper back of the victim. The number to be used varies by training organisation, but is usually between 5 and 20.


The back slap is designed to use percussion to create pressure behind the blockage, assisting the patient in dislodging the article. In some cases the physical vibration of the action may also be enough to cause movement of the article sufficient to allow clearance of the airway. Look up vibration in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Almost all protocols give back slaps as a technique to be used prior to the consideration of potentially damaging interventions such as Abdominal thrusts[2][3]


Abdominal thrusts

A demonstration of abdominal thrusts
A demonstration of abdominal thrusts

Abdominal thrusts, also known as the Heimlich Maneuver (after Henry Heimlich, who first described the procedure in a June 1974 informal article entitled "Pop Goes the Cafe Coronary," published in the journal Emergency Medicine. Edward A. Patrick, MD, PhD, an associate of Heimlich, has claimed to be the uncredited co-developer of the procedure, and has been quoted called it the Patrick maneuver.[4] Heimlich has objected to the name "abdominal thrusts" on the grounds that the vagueness of the term "abdomen" could cause the rescuer to exert force at the wrong site.[5] Image File history File linksMetadata Abdominal_thrusts3. ... Henry J. Heimlich (b. ...


Performing abdominal thrusts involves a rescuer standing behind a patient and using their hands to exert pressure on the bottom of the diaphragm. This compresses the lungs and exerts pressure on any object lodged in the trachea, hopefully expelling it. This amounts to an artificial cough. In the anatomy of mammals, the diaphragm is a shelf of muscle extending across the bottom of the ribcage. ... The trachea, or windpipe, is a tube that has an inner diameter of about 12mm and a length of about 10-16cm. ...


Due to the forceful nature of the procedure, even when done correctly it can injure the person on whom it is performed. Bruising to the abdomen is highly likely and more serious injuries can occur, including fracture of the xiphoid process or ribs.[6] For the human abdomen, see human abdomen. ... The xiphoid process is a small cartilaginous extension to the lower part of the sternum which is usually ossified in the adult human. ... The human rib cage. ...


Self treatment with abdominal thrusts

A person may also perform abdominal thrusts on themselves by using a fixed object such as a railing or the back of a chair to apply pressure where a rescuers hands would normally do so. As with other forms of the procedure, it is likely that internal injuries may result.


Other uses of abdominal thrusts

Dr. Heimlich also advocates the use of the technique as a treatment for drowning[7] and asthma[8] attacks, but Heimlich's promotion to use the maneuver to treat these conditions resulted in marginal acceptance. Criticism of these uses has been the subject of numerous print and television reports which resulted from an internet and media campaign by his son, Peter M. Heimlich, who alleges that in August 1974 his father published the first of a series of fraudulent case reports in order to promote the use of abdominal thrusts for near-drowning rescue.[9]


Modified chest thrusts

A modified version of the technique is sometimes taught for use with pregnant women and obese casualties. The rescuer places their hand in the center of the chest to compress, rather than in the abdomen. A pregnant woman Pregnancy is the process by which a mammalian female carries a live offspring from conception until it develops to the point where the offspring is capable of living outside the womb. ... Obesity is an excess storage of fat and can affect any mammal, such as the mouse on the left. ...


CPR

In most protocols, once the patient has become unconscious, the emphasis switches to performing CPR, involving both chest compressions and artificial respiration. These actions are often enough to dislodge the item sufficiently for air to pass it, allowing gaseous exchange in the lungs. For other meanings of CPR, see CPR (disambiguation). ... Wikibooks has a book on the topic of First Aid Artificial respiration is a technique for providing air for a person who is not breathing on their own, but whose heart is still beating. ...


Finger Sweeping

Some protocols advocate the use of the rescuer's finger to 'sweep' foreign objects away once they have reached the mouth. However, many modern protocols recommend against the use of the finger sweep as if the patient is conscious, they will be able to remove themselves, or if they are unconscious the rescuer should simply place them in the recovery position (where the object should fall out due to gravity). There is also a risk of causing further damage (for instance inducing vomiting) by using a finger sweep technique.


Direct vision removal

The advanced medical procedure to remove such objects is inspection of the airway with a laryngoscope or bronchoscope, and removal of the object under direct vision, followed by CPR if the patient does not start breathing on their own. Severe cases where there is an inability to remove the object may require cricothyrotomy. Laryngoscope in use intubating a dummy A laryngoscope is a medical instrument that is used to obtain a view of the glottis by direct laryngoscopy. ... In medicine, bronchoscopy is the visualization of the lower airways using a flexible or rigid endoscope. ... For other meanings of CPR, see CPR (disambiguation). ... In cricothyrotomy, the incision or puncture is made through the cricothyroid membrane inbetween the thyroid cartilage and the cricoid cartilage. ...


Notable victims

George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... This article is about the baked snack. ... Jimmie Foxx on the cover of Time in 1929 James Emory Foxx (October 22, 1907 – July 21, 1967) was an American first baseman in Major League Baseball who was, up until Mark McGwires glory days in the late 1990s, the most prolific right-handed power hitter to ever play... MLB and Major Leagues redirect here. ... Thomas Lanier Williams III (March 26, 1911 – February 25, 1983), better known by the pseudonym Tennessee Williams, was a major American playwright and one of the prominent playwrights of the twentieth century. ... Mama Cass Elliot (September 19, 1941 - July 29, 1974), born Ellen Naomi Cohen, was a noted American singer who performed with The Mamas & the Papas. ... For the thrash metal band, see Coroner (band). ...

References

  1. ^ Red Cross press release on the move from abdominal thrusts only to an integrated protocol
  2. ^ Guildner MD, Charles (September 1976). Abstract of Article on the Heimlich Maneuver. Retrieved on 2007-06-05.
  3. ^ Article on chest compressions versus abdominal thrusts (Apr 2000). Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
  4. ^ Patrick Institute. Retrieved on 2007-06-05.
  5. ^ Cite error 8; No text given.
  6. ^ Broomfield, James (1st January 2007). Heimlich maneuver on self. Discovery Channel. Retrieved on 2007-06-15.
  7. ^ Heimlich Institute on rescuing drowning victims. Retrieved on 2007-06-05.
  8. ^ Heimlich Institute on rescuing asthma victims. Retrieved on 2007-06-05.
  9. ^ Heimlich, Peter M. 'Outmaneuvered - How We Busted the Heimlich Medical Frauds'. Retrieved on 2007-06-22.
  10. ^ "Bush makes light of pretzel scare", BBC News, 14th Jan 2002. Retrieved on 2007-06-15. 
  11. ^ Jimmie Foxx Obituary. Retrieved on 2007-06-15.
  12. ^ Biography of Tennessee Williams. IMDB. Retrieved on 2007-06-15.
  13. ^ Urband Legend of Mama Cass choking. Snopes Urban Legend Reference. Retrieved on 2007-06-15.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikibooks
Wikibooks First Aid has a page on the topic of
Abdominal thrusts

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