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Encyclopedia > Chocolate
Chocolate most commonly comes in dark, milk, and white varieties, with cocoa solids contributing to the brown coloration.
Chocolate most commonly comes in dark, milk, and white varieties, with cocoa solids contributing to the brown coloration.

Chocolate (pronounced /ˈtʃɑklət/ comprises a number of raw and processed foods that are produced from the seed of the tropical cacao tree. Native to lowland tropical South America, cacao has been cultivated for three millennia in Central America and Mexico, with its earliest documented use around 1100 BC. All of the Mesoamerican peoples made chocolate beverages, including the Maya and Aztecs, who made it into a beverage known as xocolātl, a Nahuatl word meaning "bitter water". The seeds of the cacao tree have an intense bitter taste, and must be fermented to develop the flavor. After being roasted and ground, the resulting products are known as chocolate or cocoa. Chocolate is one of the more popular flavours in the world. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 770 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1200 × 934 pixel, file size: 238 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Chocolate has no sense of humor, duh its an object not a person!!!!!!! File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 770 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1200 × 934 pixel, file size: 238 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Chocolate has no sense of humor, duh its an object not a person!!!!!!! File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Image File history File links En-us-chocolate. ... Binomial name L. Cacao (Theobroma cacao) is a small (4–8 m tall (15-26 ft)) evergreen tree in the family Sterculiaceae (alternatively Malvaceae), native to the deep tropical region of the Latin Americas. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... The Maya civilization is a Mesoamerican civilization, noted for the only known fully developed written language of the pre-Columbian Americas, as well as its spectacular art, monumental architecture, and sophisticated mathematical and astronomical systems. ... It has been suggested that Mexica be merged into this article or section. ... Nahuatl is a native language of central Mexico. ... Human taste sensory organs, called taste buds or gustatory calyculi, and concentrated on the upper surface of the tongue, appear to be receptive to relatively few chemical species as tastes. ... For other uses, see Fermentation. ... Cocoa beans in a cacao pod Cocoa is the dried and partially fermented fatty seed of the cacao tree from which chocolate is made. ...


Much of the chocolate consumed today is made into bars that combine cocoa solids, fats like cocoa butter, and sugar. Chocolate has become one of the most popular flavours in the world. Chocolate lovers are known as "chocoholics." Gifts of foiled wrapped chocolate molded into different shapes has become traditional on certain holidays: chocolate bunnies and eggs are popular on Easter, coins on Hanukkah, Santa Claus and other holiday symbols on Christmas, and hearts on Valentine's Day. Chocolate is also used in cold and hot beverages, to produce chocolate milk and cocoa. Cocoa solids is a term for the nonfat component of chocolate. ... For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Magnification of grains of sugar, showing their monoclinic hemihedral crystalline structure. ... Fabergé egg Easter eggs are specially decorated eggs given out to celebrate the Easter holiday or springtime. ... This article is about the Christian festival. ... Grand Rabbi Israel Abraham Portugal of the Hasidic group Skullen lighting Hanukkah lights Hanukkah (‎, also spelled Chanukah), also known as the Festival of Lights, is an eight-day Jewish holiday beginning on the 25th day of the month of Kislev, which may fall anytime from late November to late December. ... Christmas is an annual holiday that celebrates the birth of Jesus. ... For other uses, see Valentines Day (disambiguation). ...


Chocolate contains alkaloids such as theobromine and phenethylamine, which have physiological effects on the body. It has been linked to serotonin levels in the brain. Scientists claim that chocolate, eaten in moderation, can lower blood pressure. [1] The presence of theobromine renders it toxic to some animals. Chemical structure of ephedrine, a phenethylamine alkaloid An alkaloid is, strictly speaking, a naturally occurring amine produced by a plant,[1] but amines produced by animals and fungi are also called alkaloids. ... Theobromine, also known as xantheose,[1] is a bitter alkaloid of the cacao plant. ... Phenethylamine, or β-Phenylethylamine, is an alkaloid and monoamine. ... Serotonin (pronounced ) (5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter synthesized in serotonergic neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) and enterochromaffin cells in the gastrointestinal tract of animals including humans. ...

Brazilian candy Brigadeiro

Contents

Image File history File linksMetadata Brigadeiro. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Brigadeiro. ... Brigadeiro is a simple Brazilian chocolate fudge candy created in the 1920s, and named after Brigadeiro Eduardo Gomes, and its shape is reminiscent of that of some varieties of chocolate truffles. ...

History

A mug of modern hot chocolate. The first chocolate was drunk rather than eaten.
A mug of modern hot chocolate. The first chocolate was drunk rather than eaten.
Main article: History of chocolate

The word "chocolate" comes from the Aztecs of Mexico, and is derived from the Nahuatl word xocolatl (IPA /ʃo'kola:tɬ/)[2], which is a combination of the words, xocolli, meaning "bitter", and atl, which is "water". The Aztecs associated chocolate with Xochiquetzal, the goddess of fertility. Chocolate is also associated with the Mayan god of fertility. Mexican philologist Ignacio Davila Garibi, proposed that "Spaniards had coined the word by taking the Maya word chocol and then replacing the Maya term for water, haa, with the Aztec one, atl."[3]likely that the Aztecs themselves coined the term, [4] having long adopted into Nahuatl the Mayan word for the "cacao" bean; the Spanish had little contact with the Mayans before Cortés's early reports to the Spanish King of the beverage known as xocolatl.[5] However, Micheal D. Coe, professor Emeritus of Anthropology and Curator Emeritus in the Peabody Museum of Natural History at Yale University, and coauthor of the book The True History of Chocolate, argues that the word xocolatl appears in "no truly early source on the Nahuatl language or on Aztec culture." Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1129, 246 KB) A cup of hot chocolate File links The following pages link to this file: Hot chocolate User talk:Scottperry User:Fir0002/Fir0002 gallery Wikipedia:Featured pictures candidates/May-2005 Wikipedia:Featured picture candidates/Hot chocolate User talk:Javacava... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1129, 246 KB) A cup of hot chocolate File links The following pages link to this file: Hot chocolate User talk:Scottperry User:Fir0002/Fir0002 gallery Wikipedia:Featured pictures candidates/May-2005 Wikipedia:Featured picture candidates/Hot chocolate User talk:Javacava... The history of chocolate is very diverse from its naming to its creation. ... It has been suggested that Mexica be merged into this article or section. ... Nahuatl ( [1] is a term applied to a group of related languages and dialects of the Aztecan [2] branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family, indigenous to central Mexico. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... In Aztec mythology, Xochiquetzal (flower feather) was a goddess of flowers, fertility, games, dancing and agriculture, as well as craftsmen, prostitutes and pregnant women. ... Hernán(do) Cortés Pizarro, 1st Marqués del Valle de Oaxaca (1485–December 2, 1547) was the conquistador who became famous for leading the military expedition that initiated the Spanish Conquest of Mexico. ...


Chocolate has been used solely as a drink for nearly all of its history. The earliest record of using chocolate pre-dates the Mayans. Chocolate residue has been found in pottery dating to 1100 BC from Honduras,[6] and 600-400 BC from Belize. The chocolate residue found in an early classic ancient Maya pot in Río Azul, northern Guatemala, suggests that Mayans were drinking chocolate around 400 A.D.. In the New World, chocolate was consumed in a bitter, spicy drink called xocoatl, and was often flavored with vanilla, chile pepper, and achiote, (which is known today as annatto). Xocoatl was believed to fight fatigue, a belief that is probably attributable to the theobromine content. Other chocolate drinks combined it with such edibles as maize starch paste (which acts as an emulsifier and thickener), various fruits, and honey.[citation needed] In 1689 noted physician and collector Hans Sloane, developed a milk chocolate drink in Jamaica which was initially used by apothecaries, but later sold by the Cadbury brothers.[7] The Maya civilization is a Mesoamerican civilization, noted for the only known fully developed written language of the pre-Columbian Americas, as well as its spectacular art, monumental architecture, and sophisticated mathematical and astronomical systems. ... Frontispiece of Peter Martyr dAnghieras De orbe novo (On the New World). Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, 1722. ... Vanilla pods Vanilla is a flavouring derived from orchids in the genus Vanilla native to Mexico. ... The chile pepper, chili pepper, or chilli pepper, or simply chile, is the fruit of the plant Capsicum from the nightshade family, Solanaceae. ... Binomial name Bixa orellana L. Achiote, or Achiotl, (Bixa orellana) is a shrub or small tree from the tropical regions of the Americas, also known also by its Tupi name of urucum. ... Bixin, the major apocarotinoid of annatto Annatto, sometimes called Roucou, is a derivative of the achiote trees of tropical regions of the Americas, used to produce a red food coloring. ... Theobromine, also known as xantheose,[1] is a bitter alkaloid of the cacao plant. ... This article is about the maize plant. ... A. Two immisicible liquids, not emulsified; B. An emulsion of Phase B dispersed in Phase A; C. The unstable emulsion progressively separates; D. The surfactant (purple outline) positions itself on the interfaces between Phase A and Phase B, stabilizing the emulsion An emulsion is a mixture of two immiscible (unblendable... For other uses, see Honey (disambiguation). ... Hans Sloane. ... Apothecary (from the Latin apothecarius, a keeper of an otheca, a store) is a historical name for a medical practitioner who formulates and dispenses materia medica to physicians, surgeons and patients — a role now served by a pharmacist. ... Chocolate Chocolate We all love chocolate, White, milk and dark its all good chocolate chocolate yum yum yummmmm. ...


Chocolate was also an important luxury good throughout pre-Columbian Mesoamerica, and cacao beans were often used as currency.[8] For example, the Aztecs used a system in which one turkey cost one hundred cacao beans and one avocado was worth three beans.[citation needed] The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the Americas continent. ... Location of Mesoamerica in the Americas. ...


Production

Chocolate is created from the cocoa bean. A cacao tree with fruit pods in various stages of ripening

Roughly two-thirds of the entire world's cocoa is produced in Western Africa, with close to half of the total sourced from Côte d'Ivoire.[citation needed] Like many food industry producers, individual cocoa farmers are at the mercy of volatile world markets. The price can vary from £500 ($945) to £3,000 ($5,672) per ton, in the space of just a few years. While investors trading in cacao can dump shares at will, individual cocoa farmers cannot increase production or abandon trees at anywhere near that pace. When cocoa prices drop, farmers in West Africa sometimes cut costs by using slave labor.[9] It has been alleged that an estimated 90% of cocoa farms in Côte d'Ivoire have used some form of slave labor in order to remain viable.[10] According to the World Cocoa Foundaton, some 50 million people around the world depend on cocoa as a source of livelihood. [1] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x1536, 505 KB) Photo by Medicaster. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x1536, 505 KB) Photo by Medicaster. ... Slavery is any of a number of related conditions involving control of a person against his or her will, enforced by violence or other clear forms of coercion. ...


Despite some disagreement in the EU about the definition, chocolate is any product made primarily of cocoa solids and cocoa fat. The different flavours of chocolate can be obtained by varying the time and temperature when roasting the beans, by adjusting the relative quantities of the cocoa solids and cocoa fat, and by adding non-chocolate ingredients.[citation needed] Cocoa solids is a term for the nonfat component of chocolate. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Production costs can be decreased by reducing cocoa solid content or by substituting cocoa butter with a non-cocoa fat, but allowing chocolate to be made with vegetable oils could have serious consequences for the millions of growers whose livelihoods depend on cocoa. [1] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


There are two main jobs associated with creating chocolate candy, chocolate makers and chocolatiers. Chocolate makers use harvested cacao beans and other ingredients to produce couverture chocolate. Chocolatiers use the finished couverture to make chocolate candies (bars, truffles, baked goods, etc.).[11] Binomial name L. Cacao (Theobroma cacao) is a small (4–8 m tall (15-26 ft)) evergreen tree in the family Sterculiaceae (alternatively Malvaceae), native to the deep tropical region of the Latin Americas. ... Warmed couverture chocolate for baking. ...


Bean

Varieties

The three main varieties of cacao beans used in chocolate are Criollo, Forastero and Trinitario.[citation needed] Binomial name L. Cacao (Theobroma cacao) is a small (4–8 m tall (15-26 ft)) evergreen tree in the family Sterculiaceae (alternatively Malvaceae), native to the deep tropical region of the Latin Americas. ... Criollo is a Spanish term (feminine criolla, plural criollos/criollas) which may refer to: The Criollos, a caste in the Spanish colonial caste system. ...


Criollo is the rarest and most expensive cocoa on the market and is native to Central America, the Caribbean islands and the northern tier of South American states.[citation needed] There is some dispute about the genetic purity of cocoas sold today as Criollo, because most populations have been exposed to the genetic influence of other varieties. Criollos are particularly difficult to grow, as they are vulnerable to a variety of environmental threats and produce low yields of cocoa per tree. The flavour of Criollo is unique. It is described as delicate yet complex, low in classic chocolate flavour, but rich in "secondary" notes of long duration.[citation needed] For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... This is a list of inhabited islands in the Caribbean. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...


Forastero is a large group of wild and cultivated cacaos, most likely native to the Amazon basin. The African cocoa crop is entirely of the Forastero variety. They are significantly hardier and of higher yield than Criollo. Forastero cocoas are typically strong in classic "chocolate" flavour, but have a short duration and are unsupported by secondary flavours. There are exceptional Forasteros, such as the "Nacional" or the "Arriba" varieties, which can be very complex flavors.[citation needed] Amazon River basin The Amazon Basin is the part of South America drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries. ...


Trinitario is a natural hybrid of Criollo and Forastero. Trinitario originated in Trinidad (hence the name) after an introduction of (Amelonado) Forastero to the local Criollo crop. These cocoas encompass a wide range of flavour profiles according to the genetic heritage of each tree.[citation needed] Look up Trinidad in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Nearly all cacao produced over the past five decades is of the Forastero or lower-grade Trinitario varieties.[citation needed] The share of higher quality Criollos and Trinitarios (so-called flavour cacao) is just under 5% per annum.[12]


Cacao trees are difficult to grow and cultivate as they will only grow twenty degrees north and twenty degrees south of the equator. The temperature for cacao trees cannot drop below sixty degrees Fahrenheit without damaging the tree.[citation needed]


Harvesting

Harvesting cacao beans is a delicate process. First, the pods, containing cacao beans, are harvested. The beans, together with their surrounding pulp, are removed from the pod and placed in piles or bins to ferment for three to seven days. The fermentation process is what gives the beans their familiar chocolate taste. The beans must then be quickly dried to prevent mold growth; weather permitting, this is done by spreading the beans out in the sun. Binomial name L. Cacao (Theobroma cacao) is a small (4–8 m tall (15-26 ft)) evergreen tree in the family Sterculiaceae (alternatively Malvaceae), native to the deep tropical region of the Latin Americas. ... For other uses, see Fermentation. ...


Chocolate liquor

The dried beans are transported from the plantation where they were grown to a chocolate manufacturing facility.


The beans are then cleaned (removing twigs, stones, and other debris), roasted, and graded. Next the shells are removed to extract the nib. Finally, the nibs are ground which releases and melts the cocoa butter producing chocolate liquor. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Chocolate liquor, also known as cocoa liquor and cocoa mass, is a smooth liquid form of chocolate. ...


There are three things that can be done with the chocolate liquor at this point:

  • It can be solidified and sold as unsweetened baking chocolate.
  • Cocoa butter can be removed from it and the result is cocoa powder. There are several mechanisms for removing cocoa butter from chocolate liquor. These include using hydraulic pressure and the Broma process.
  • Cocoa butter can be added to it to make eating chocolate.

This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Cocoa powder, also known as cocoa solids, is the nonfat component of chocolate after the fat, known as cocoa butter, has been separated. ... The Broma process is a method used to remove cocoa butter from cacao beans. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Blending

Main article: Types of chocolate

Chocolate liquor is blended with the cocoa butter in varying quantities to make different types of chocolate or couvertures. The basic blends of ingredients for the various types of chocolate (in order of highest quantity of cocoa liquor first), are as follows: // The cacao bean products from which chocolate is made are known under different names in different parts of the world. ...

  • Dark chocolate: sugar, cocoa butter, cocoa liquor, and (sometimes) vanilla
  • Milk chocolate: sugar, cocoa butter, cocoa liquor, milk or milk powder, and vanilla
  • White chocolate: sugar, cocoa butter, milk or milk powder, and vanilla

Usually, an emulsifying agent such as soya lecithin is added, though a few manufacturers prefer to exclude this ingredient for purity reasons and to remain GMO-free (Soya is a heavily genetically modified crop), sometimes at the cost of a perfectly smooth texture. Some manufacturers are now using PGPR, an artificial emulsifier derived from castor oil that allows them to reduce the amount of cocoa butter while maintaining the same mouthfeel. Binomial name (L.) Merr. ... Phosphatidylcholine, a phospholipid in lecithin. ... A genetically modified organism (GMO) is an organism whose genetic material has been altered using the genetic engineering techniques generally known as recombinant DNA technology. ... Polyglycerol Polyrcinoleate (PGPR) is an artificially derived emulsifier that is mainly used to replace some of the cocoa butter in chocolate used in lower grade candy bars. ... In many areas related to the testing and evaluating of foodstuffs,such as wine-tasting and rheology, mouthfeel is a product’s physical and chemical interaction in the mouth from initial perception on the palate, to first bite, through mastication to swallowing. ...


The texture is also heavily influenced by processing, specifically conching (see below). The more expensive chocolates tend to be processed longer and thus have a smoother texture and "feel" on the tongue, regardless of whether emulsifying agents are added.


Different manufacturers develop their own "signature" blends based on the above formulas but varying proportions of the different constituents are used.

Chocolate made with enough cocoa butter flows gently over a chocolate fountain to serve fondue.
Chocolate made with enough cocoa butter flows gently over a chocolate fountain to serve fondue.

The finest plain dark chocolate couvertures contain at least 70% cocoa (solids + butter), whereas milk chocolate usually contains up to 50%. High-quality white chocolate couvertures contain only about 33% cocoa. Some mass-produced chocolate contains much less cocoa (as low as 7% in many cases) and fats other than cocoa butter. Some chocolate makers say that these "chocolate" products should not be classed as couvertures, or even as chocolate, because of the low or virtually non-existent cocoa content. [citation needed] Download high resolution version (526x800, 57 KB) A chocolate fountain in Brussels. ... Download high resolution version (526x800, 57 KB) A chocolate fountain in Brussels. ... A chocolate fountain in a shop in Brussels, Belgium. ... Fondue refers to several French Swiss communal dishes shared at the table in an earthenware pot (caquelon) over a small burner (rechaud). The term fondue comes from the French fondre (to melt), referring to the fact that the contents of the pot are kept in a liquid state so that...


In 2007, the Chocolate Manufacturers Association in the United States, whose members include Hershey, Nestlé, and Archer Daniels Midland, lobbied the Food and Drug Administration to change the legal definition of chocolate to let them substitute partially hydrogenated vegetable oils for cocoa butter in addition to using artificial sweeteners and milk substitutes.[13] Currently, the FDA does not allow a product to be referred to as "chocolate" if the product contains any of these ingredients. [14][15] This article is about the political effort. ... hi “FDA” redirects here. ... Hydrogenation is a class of chemical reactions which result an addition of hydrogen (H2) usually to unsaturated organic compounds. ...


Conching

Main article: Conching

The penultimate process is called conching. A conche is a container filled with metal beads, which act as grinders. The refined and blended chocolate mass is kept liquid by frictional heat. The conching process produces cocoa and sugar particles smaller than the tongue can detect, hence the smooth feel in the mouth. The length of the conching process determines the final smoothness and quality of the chocolate. High-quality chocolate is conched for about 72 hours, lesser grades about four to six hours. After the process is complete, the chocolate mass is stored in tanks heated to approximately 45–50 °C (113–122 °F) until final processing. A conche is a container filled with wood or metal beads, which act as grinders. ...


Tempering

Chocolate truffles typically have a thin shell of tempered chocolate, a dusting of cocoa powder and a soft creamy center.
Chocolate truffles typically have a thin shell of tempered chocolate, a dusting of cocoa powder and a soft creamy center.

The final process is called tempering. Uncontrolled crystallization of cocoa butter typically results in crystals of varying size, some or all large enough to be clearly seen with the naked eye. This causes the surface of the chocolate to appear mottled and matte, and causes the chocolate to crumble rather than snap when broken. The uniform sheen and crisp bite of properly processed chocolate are the result of consistently small cocoa butter crystals produced by the tempering process. Download high resolution version (3008x2000, 4517 KB) A bowl of chocolate truffles. ... Download high resolution version (3008x2000, 4517 KB) A bowl of chocolate truffles. ... Look up Temper in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The fats in cocoa butter can crystallize in six different forms (polymorphous crystallization). The primary purpose of tempering is to assure that only the best form is present. The six different crystal forms have different properties.

Crystal Melting Temp. Notes
I 17 °C (63 °F) Soft, crumbly, melts too easily.
II 21 °C (70 °F) Soft, crumbly, melts too easily.
III 26 °C (78 °F) Firm, poor snap, melts too easily.
IV 28 °C (82 °F) Firm, good snap, melts too easily.
V 34 °C (94 °F) Glossy, firm, best snap, melts near body temperature (37 °C).
VI 36 °C (97 °F) Hard, takes weeks to form.

Making good chocolate is about forming the most of the type V crystals. This provides the best appearance and mouth feel and creates the most stable crystals so the texture and appearance will not degrade over time. To accomplish this, the temperature is carefully manipulated during the crystallization.


Generally, the chocolate is first heated to 45 °C (113 °F) to melt all six forms of crystals. Then the chocolate is cooled to about 27 °C (80 °F), which will allow crystal types IV and V to form (VI takes too long to form). At this temperature, the chocolate is agitated to create many small crystal "seeds" which will serve as nuclei to create small crystals in the chocolate. The chocolate is then heated to about 31 °C (88 °F) to eliminate any type IV crystals, leaving just the type V. After this point, any excessive heating of the chocolate will destroy the temper and this process will have to be repeated. However, there are other methods of chocolate tempering used-- the most common variant is introducing already tempered, solid "seed" chocolate. The temper of chocolate can be measured with a chocolate temper meter to ensure accuracy and consistency. A sample cup is filled with the chocolate and placed in the unit which then displays or prints the results.


Two classic ways of manually tempering chocolate are:

  • Working the molten chocolate on a heat-absorbing surface, such as a stone slab, until thickening indicates the presence of sufficient crystal "seeds"; the chocolate is then gently warmed to working temperature.
  • Stirring solid chocolate into molten chocolate to "inoculate" the liquid chocolate with crystals (this method uses the already formed crystal of the solid chocolate to "seed" the molten chocolate).

Chocolate tempering machines (or temperers) with computer controls can be used for producing consistently tempered chocolate, particularly for large volume applications.


Storing

Chocolate is very sensitive to temperature and humidity. Ideal storage temperatures are between 15 and 17 degrees Celsius (59 to 63 degrees Fahrenheit), with a relative humidity of less than 50%. Chocolate should be stored away from other foods as it can absorb different aromas. Ideally, chocolates are packed or wrapped, and placed in proper storage with the correct humidity and temperature. Additionally chocolate should be stored in a dark place or protected from light by wrapping paper. Various types of "blooming" effects can occur if chocolate is stored or served improperly. If refrigerated or frozen without containment, chocolate can absorb enough moisture to cause a whitish discoloration, the result of fat or sugar crystals rising to the surface. Moving chocolate from one temperature extreme to another, such as from a refrigerator on a hot day can result in an oily texture. Although visually unappealing, these conditions are perfectly safe for consumption.[16][17][18] The degree Celsius (°C) is a unit of temperature named after the Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius (1701–1744), who first proposed it in 1742. ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ...


Physiological effects

Pleasure of consuming

Molten Chocolate
Molten Chocolate

Part of the pleasure of eating chocolate is due to the fact that its melting point is slightly below human body temperature: it melts in the mouth. Chocolate intake has been linked with release of serotonin in the brain, which produces feelings of pleasure.[19] A study reported by the BBC indicated that melting chocolate in one's mouth produced an increase in brain activity and heart rate that was more intense than that associated with passionate kissing, and also lasted four times as long after the activity had ended.[20] Research has shown that heroin addicts tend to have an increased liking for chocolate; this may be because it triggers dopamine release in the brain's reinforcement systems[21] — an effect, albeit a legal one, similar to that of cocaine. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1067, 301 KB) Melted brown chocolate File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Chocolate ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1067, 301 KB) Melted brown chocolate File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Chocolate ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... Serotonin (pronounced ) (5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter synthesized in serotonergic neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) and enterochromaffin cells in the gastrointestinal tract of animals including humans. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, which is usually known as the BBC, is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion. ... Dopamine is a phenethylamine naturally produced by the human body. ... In operant conditioning, reinforcement is an increase in the strength of a response following the presentation of a stimulus contingent on that response. ... Cocaine is a crystalline tropane alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant. ...


Potential health benefits and risks

Recent studies have suggested that cocoa or dark chocolate may possess certain beneficial effects on human health. Dark chocolate, with its high cocoa content, is a rich source of the flavonoids epicatechin and gallic acid, which are thought to possess cardioprotective properties. Cocoa possesses a significant antioxidant action, protecting against LDL oxidation, perhaps more than other polyphenol antioxidant-rich foods and beverages. Processing cocoa with alkali destroys most of the flavonoids.[22] Some studies have also observed a modest reduction in blood pressure and flow-mediated dilation after consuming approximately 100g of dark chocolate daily. There has even been a fad diet, named "Chocolate diet", that emphasizes eating chocolate and cocoa powder in capsules. However, consuming milk chocolate or white chocolate, or drinking fat-containing milk with dark chocolate, appears largely to negate the health benefit.[23] Processed cocoa powder (so called Dutch chocolate), processed with alkali greatly reduces the antioxidant capacity as compared to "raw" cocoa powder. [24] Chocolate is also a calorie-rich food with a high fat content, so daily intake of chocolate also requires reducing caloric intake of other foods. Molecular structure of flavone The term flavonoid refers to a class of plant secondary metabolites based around a phenylbenzopyrone structure. ... Epicatechin Epigallocatechin Catechins are bioflavonoids, polyphenols and powerful anti-oxidants. ... Chemical structure of gallic acid Gallic acid is an organic acid, also known as 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, found in gallnuts, sumac, witch hazel, tea leaves, oak bark, and other plants. ... Space-filling model of the antioxidant metabolite glutathione. ... Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) belongs to the lipoprotein particle family. ... The most fundamental reactions in chemistry are the redox processes. ... Molecular structure of flavone, a common Polyphenol antioxidant Polyphenol antioxidant is a class of multi-phenolic compounds known for their role of down-regulating free radical formation in mammals . ... A sphygmomanometer, a device used for measuring arterial pressure. ... Food faddism and fad diet are terms which refer to the tendency for idiosyncratic diets and eating patterns. ... In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qalyالقلوي, القالي ) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkali earth metal element. ...


Two-thirds of the fat in chocolate comes in the forms of a saturated fat called stearic acid and a monounsaturated fat called oleic acid. However, unlike other saturated fats, stearic acid does not raise levels of LDL cholesterol in the bloodstream.[25] Consuming relatively large amounts of dark chocolate and cocoa does not seem to raise serum LDL cholesterol levels; some studies even find that it could lower them[26]. Saturated fat is fat that consists of triglycerides containing only saturated fatty acids. ... Stearic acid, also called octadecanoic acid, is one of the useful types of saturated fatty acids that comes from many animal and vegetable fats and oils. ... Oleic acid is a monounsaturated omega-9 fatty acid found in various animal and vegetable sources. ... Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol), a lipid found in the cell membranes of all body tissues, and is transported in the blood plasma of all animals. ...


Several population studies have observed an increase in the risk of certain cancers among people who frequently consume sweet 'junk' foods such as chocolate. However, very little evidence exists to suggest whether consuming flavonoid-rich dark chocolate may increase or decrease the risk of cancer. Evidence from laboratory studies suggest that cocoa flavonoids may possess anticarcinogenic mechanisms, but more research is needed to prove this idea. Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ...


The major concern that nutritionists have is that even though eating dark chocolate may favorably affect certain biomarkers of cardiovascular disease, the amount needed to have this effect would provide a relatively large quantity of calories which, if unused, would promote weight gain. Obesity is a significant risk factor for many diseases, including cardiovascular disease. As a consequence, consuming large quantities of dark chocolate in an attempt to protect against cardiovascular disease has been described as 'cutting off one's nose to spite one's face'.[27]. Biomarker is an occasionally used synonym for biosignature, which is a term used in astrobiology to indicate a measurable phenomenon that indicates the presence of life. ... Cardiovascular disease refers to the class of diseases that involve the heart and/or blood vessels (arteries and veins). ... A calorie refers to a unit of energy. ...


Studies suggest a specially formulated type of cocoa may boost brain function and delay decline as people age.[28]


Small but regular amounts of dark chocolate were shown to lower the possibility of heart attack.[29] A myocardial infarction occurs when an atherosclerotic plaque slowly builds up in the inner lining of a coronary artery and then suddenly ruptures, totally occluding the artery and preventing blood flow downstream. ...


As a stimulant

See also: chocoholism
A chocolate sweet.
A chocolate sweet.

Chocolate contains a variety of substances, some of which have an effect on body chemistry. These include: Chocoholism is a faceitious word refering to an addiction to chocolate. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 2244 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Chocolate Confectionery Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 2244 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Chocolate Confectionery Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera...

  • Sugar: Chocolate bars (as opposed to cocoa) contain large amounts of sugar.
  • Theobromine: This is the primary alkaloid found in cocoa and chocolate[30], and is one of the causes for chocolate's mood-elevating effects. This mild stimulant belongs to the methylxanthine family, which also includes the similar compound caffeine, with which theobromine is frequently confused.
  • Anandamide: An endogenous cannabinoid.
  • Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is a precursor to serotonin, an important neurotransmitter involved in regulating moods.
  • Phenethylamine: An endogenous alkaloid and monoamine. Often described as a 'love chemical'[31], it can cause endorphin releases in the brain.[20]. However, unlike its synthetic derivative amphetamine, it is quickly metabolized by the enzyme MAO-B, preventing significant concentrations from reaching the brain.
  • Caffeine: This stimulant is present mainly in coffee and tea, but exists in chocolate in very small amounts[30]. The amount of caffeine in chocolate is roughly 6 mg per ounce (about 30 g) of chocolate bar[6]. Compare with 100–150 mg of caffeine in a cup of coffee.

Current research indicates that chocolate has a weak stimulant effect due mainly to its content of theobromine.[32] However, chocolate contains too little of this compound for a reasonable serving to create effects in humans that are on par with a coffee buzz. Chocolate contains only small amounts of the compound caffeine.[33] There are 5 to 10 milligrams of caffeine in one ounce of bittersweet chocolate, 5 milligrams in milk chocolate, and 10 milligrams in a 170 millilitre cup of cocoa. There are 100 to 150 milligrams of caffeine in a 220 millilitre cup of coffee; it would be necessary to eat more than a dozen chocolate bars to get the same amount of caffeine as one cup of coffee. The pharmacologist Ryan J. Huxtable has described chocolate as "more than a food but less than a drug". However, chocolate is a very potent stimulant for horses; its use is therefore banned in horse-racing. Theobromine is also a contributing factor in acid reflux because it relaxes the esophageal sphincter muscle, allowing stomach acid to enter the esophagus more easily. Magnification of grains of sugar, showing their monoclinic hemihedral crystalline structure. ... Theobromine, also known as xantheose,[1] is a bitter alkaloid of the cacao plant. ... Chemical structure of ephedrine, a phenethylamine alkaloid An alkaloid is, strictly speaking, a naturally occurring amine produced by a plant,[1] but amines produced by animals and fungi are also called alkaloids. ... Cocoa beans in a cacao pod Cocoa is the dried and partially fermented fatty seed of the cacao tree from which chocolate is made. ... Xanthines are a group of alkaloids that are commonly used for their effects as mild stimulants and as bronchodilators, notably in treating the symptoms of asthma. ... Caffeine is a xanthine alkaloid compound that acts as a stimulant in humans. ... Anandamide, also known as arachidonoylethanolamine or AEA, is a naturally occurring endogenous cannabinoid neurotransmitter found in the brain of animals, as well as other organs. ... Look up Endogenous in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Cannabinoids are a group of chemicals which activate the bodys cannabinoid receptors. ... Tryptophan is an essential amino acid involved in human nutrition. ... Serotonin (pronounced ) (5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter synthesized in serotonergic neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) and enterochromaffin cells in the gastrointestinal tract of animals including humans. ... Chemical structure of D-aspartic acid, a common amino acid neurotransmitter. ... Phenethylamine, or β-Phenylethylamine, is an alkaloid and monoamine. ... Look up Endogenous in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Chemical structure of ephedrine, a phenethylamine alkaloid An alkaloid is, strictly speaking, a naturally occurring amine produced by a plant,[1] but amines produced by animals and fungi are also called alkaloids. ... In biochemistry, monoamines are a group of organic compounds containing only one amino group. ... In the fields of neuroscience, behavioral psychology, and evolutionary psychology, with specific reference to intimate relationships, romantic relationships, or friendships, interpersonal chemistry is a reaction between two people or the spontaneous reaction of two people to each other, especially a mutual sense of attraction or understanding. ... Runners high redirects here. ... Amphetamine or Amfetamine (Alpha-Methyl-PHenEThylAMINE), also known as, beta-phenyl-isopropylamine, and benzedrine, is a prescription stimulant commonly used to treat Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and children. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... MAO-B is an abbreviation for monoamine oxidase B. There are 2 varieties of monoamine oxidase, which are MAO-A and MAO-B. MAO-A mainly breaks down the neurochemicals serotonin and norepinephrine, whereas MAO-B mainly breaks down the neurochemicals dopamine and phenylethylamine. ... Caffeine is a xanthine alkaloid compound that acts as a stimulant in humans. ... Stimulants are drugs that temporarily increase alertness and wakefulness. ... Theobromine, also known as xantheose,[1] is a bitter alkaloid of the cacao plant. ... A cup of coffee. ... Caffeine is a xanthine alkaloid compound that acts as a stimulant in humans. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmacon is drug, and logos is science) is the study of how chemical substances interfere with living systems. ... An assortment of psychoactive drugs A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a chemical substance that acts primarily upon the central nervous system where it alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness and behavior. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... Monmouth Racetrack in New Jersey in May 2005. ... Theobromine, also known as xantheose,[1] is a bitter alkaloid of the cacao plant. ... Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD, or GORD when -oesophageal, the BE form, is substituted) is injury to the esophagus that develops from chronic exposure of the esophagus to acid coming up from the stomach (reflux). ...

Molten chocolate and a piece of a chocolate bar

Chocolate also contains small quantities of the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide and the cannabinoid breakdown inhibitors N-oleoylethanolamine and N-linolenoylethanolamine. Anandamides are produced naturally by the body, in such a way that their effects are extremely targeted (compared to the broad systemic effects of drugs like tetrahydrocannabinol) and relatively short-lived. In experiments, N-oleoylethanolamine and N-linolenoylethanolamine interfere with the body's natural mechanisms for breaking down endogenous cannabinoids, causing them to last longer. However, noticeable effects of chocolate related to this mechanism in humans have not been demonstrated. Download high resolution version (800x768, 84 KB)Chocolate Chocolate block in a pool of melted chocolate. ... Download high resolution version (800x768, 84 KB)Chocolate Chocolate block in a pool of melted chocolate. ... It has been suggested that Endocannabinoid system be merged into this article or section. ... Anandamide, also known as arachidonoylethanolamine or AEA, is a naturally occurring endogenous cannabinoid neurotransmitter found in the brain of animals, as well as other organs. ... “THC” redirects here. ...


Some studies have described a condition called Hysteroid dysphoria, characterized by repeated episodes of depressed mood in response to feeling rejected, and a craving for chocolate. Hysteroid dysphoria is a name given to repeated episodes of depressed mood in response to feeling rejected, and a craving for sweets, especially chocolate. ...


Medical applications

Mars, Incorporated, a Virginia-based candy company, spends millions of dollars each year on flavonol research. The company is talking with pharmaceutical companies to license drugs based on synthesized cocoa flavonol molecules. According to Mars-funded researchers at Harvard, the University of California, and European universities, cocoa-based prescription drugs could potentially help treat diabetes, dementia and other diseases.[34] Mars, Incorporated is a world-wide manufacturer of confectionery, pet food and other food products with $18 billion (USD) in annual sales (2005). ... Flavonoids are a group of chemical compounds naturally found in certain fruits, vegetables, teas, wines, nuts, seeds, and roots. ... Harvard University is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, and a member of the Ivy League. ... Berkeley Davis Irvine Los Angeles Merced San Diego Santa Barbara Santa Cruz UC Office of the President in Oakland The University of California (UC) is a public university system in the state of California. ... This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ... For other uses, see Dementia (disambiguation). ...


Coughing

Research indicates that chocolate may be effective at preventing persistent coughing. The ingredient theobromine was found to be almost one third more effective than codeine, the leading cough medicine.[35] The chocolate also appears to soothe and moisten the throat. Theobromine, also known as xantheose,[1] is a bitter alkaloid of the cacao plant. ... Codeine (INN) or methylmorphine is an opiate used for its analgesic, antitussive and antidiarrheal properties. ...


Diarrhea

South American and European cultures have used cocoa to treat diarrhea for hundreds of years.[36] A study done at Children's Hospital & Research Center Oakland, in collaboration with scientists at Heinrich Heine University in Germany, has shown that flavonoids can inhibit the development of fluids that result in diarrhea.[37] Molecular structure of flavone The term flavonoid refers to a class of plant secondary metabolites based around a phenylbenzopyrone structure. ...


Aphrodisiac

Romantic lore commonly identifies chocolate as an aphrodisiac. The reputed aphrodisiac qualities of chocolate are most often associated with the simple sensual pleasure of its consumption. More recently, suggestion has been made that serotonin and other chemicals found in chocolate, most notably phenethylamine, can act as mild sexual stimulants. While there is no firm proof that chocolate is indeed an aphrodisiac, giving a gift of chocolate to one's sweetheart is a familiar courtship ritual.[38] An aphrodisiac is an agent which is used to increase sexual desire [1]. The name comes from the Greek goddess of Sensuality Aphrodite. ... Serotonin (pronounced ) (5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter synthesized in serotonergic neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) and enterochromaffin cells in the gastrointestinal tract of animals including humans. ... Phenethylamine, or β-Phenylethylamine, is an alkaloid and monoamine. ... Love gift Man presents a cut of meat to a youth with a hoop. ...


Acne

There is a popular belief that the consumption of chocolate can cause acne. Pure chocolate contains anti-oxidants which aid better skin complexion. The University of Pennsylvania and the US Naval Academy conducted experiments that fed subjects chocolate or a bar with similar amounts of macronutrients (fat, sugar etc.) and found that consumption of chocolate, frequent or not, had no effect on the developing of acne. [39] Chocolate bars with milk content may contribute to acne. It is not the chocolate itself that causes acne, but rather the milk with which the chocolate is mixed.[40] This article is about the private Ivy League university in Philadelphia. ... Teamwork: Fourth Class Midshipmen lock arms and use ropes made from uniform items as they brace themselves climbing the Herndon Monument The United States Naval Academy, or USNA, is an institution for the undergraduate education of officers of the United States Navy and the United States Marine Corps. ...

Chocolate, ranging from dark to light, can be molded and decorated like these chickens with ribbons.

Download high resolution version (700x1000, 128 KB)Chocolate chickens in Les Deux Alpes. ... Download high resolution version (700x1000, 128 KB)Chocolate chickens in Les Deux Alpes. ...

Lead

Chocolate has one of the higher concentrations of lead among products that constitute a typical Westerner's diet. Recent studies have shown that although the beans themselves absorb little lead, it tends to bind to cocoa shells and contamination may occur during the manufacturing process.[41] A recent peer-reviewed publication found significant amounts of lead in chocolate.[42] A review article published in a peer-reviewed journal in 2006 states that despite high consumption levels of chocolate, there is a paucity of data on lead concentrations in chocolate products. In a USDA study in 2004, mean lead levels in the samples tested ranged from 0.0010 to 0.0965 µg lead per gram of chocolate, but another study by a Swiss research group in 2002 found that some chocolate contained up to 0.769 µg per gram, close to the international (voluntary) standard limit for lead in cocoa powder or beans, which is 1 µg of lead per gram.[43] In 2006, the U.S. FDA lowered by one-fifth the amount of lead permissible in candy, but compliance is only voluntary.[44] While studies show that the lead consumed in chocolate may not all be absorbed by the human body, there is no known threshold for the effects of lead on children's brain function and even small quantities of lead can cause permanent neurodevelopmental deficits including impaired IQ.[45] For Pb as an abbreviation, see PB. General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ...


Toxicity in animals

Main article: theobromine poisoning

In sufficient amounts, the theobromine found in chocolate is toxic to animals such as horses, dogs, parrots, small rodents, and cats (kittens especially) because they are unable to metabolise the chemical effectively. If they are fed chocolate, the theobromine will remain in their bloodstream for up to 20 hours, and these animals may experience epileptic seizures, heart attacks, internal bleeding, and eventually death. Medical treatment involves inducing vomiting within two hours of ingestion, or contacting a veterinarian. Theobromine poisoning or chocolate poisoning is an adverse reaction to the alkaloid theobromine, found in chocolate, tea, cola beverages, and some other foods. ... Theobromine, also known as xantheose,[1] is a bitter alkaloid of the cacao plant. ... Toxic redirects here, but this is also the name of a song by Britney Spears; see Toxic (song) Look up toxic and toxicity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... This article is about the domestic dog. ... Systematics (but see below) Family Cacatuidae (cockatoos) Family Psittacidae (true parrots) Subfamily Loriinae (lories and lorikeets) Subfamily Psittacinae (typical parrots and allies) Tribe Arini (American psittacines) Tribe Cyclopsitticini (fig-parrots) Tribe Micropsittini (pygmy-parrots) Tribe Nestorini (kakas and Kea) Tribe Platycercini (broad-tailed parrots) Tribe Psittrichadini (Pesquets Parrot) Tribe... Binomial name Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms Felis lybica invalid junior synonym The cat (or domestic cat, house cat) is a small carnivorous mammal. ... Kitten at six weeks. ... Santorio Santorio (1561-1636) in his steelyard balance, from Ars de statica medecina, first published 1614 Metabolism (from μεταβολισμος(metavallo), the Greek word for change), in the most general sense, is the ingestion and breakdown of complex compounds, coupled... Red blood cells (erythrocytes) are present in the blood and help carry oxygen to the rest of the cells in the body Blood is a circulating tissue composed of fluid plasma and cells (red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets). ... Epilepsy (often referred to as a seizure disorder) is a chronic neurological condition characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures. ... Acute myocardial infarction (AMI or MI), more commonly known as a heart attack, is a disease state that occurs when the blood supply to a part of the heart is interrupted. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Vomiting (also throwing up or emesis) is the forceful expulsion of the contents of ones stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose. ... Look up veterinarian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


A typical 20-kilogram (40-lb) dog will normally experience great intestinal distress after eating fewer than 240 grams (8.47 oz) of dark chocolate, but will not necessarily experience bradycardia or tachycardia unless it eats at least a half a kilogram (1.1 lb) of milk chocolate. Dark chocolate has 2 to 5 times more theobromine and thus is more dangerous to dogs. According to the Merck Veterinary Manual, approximately 1.3 grams of baker's chocolate per kilogram of a dog's body weight (0.02 oz/lb) is sufficient to cause symptoms of toxicity. For example, a typical 25-gram (0.88 oz) baker's chocolate bar would be enough to bring about symptoms in a 20-kilogram (44 lb) dog. Of course, baking chocolate is rarely consumed directly due to its unpleasant taste, but other dark chocolates' canine toxicities may be extrapolated based on this figure. Large dogs such as St. Bernards or Rottweilers are somewhat less susceptible to poisoning, but caution is still necessary. As dogs like the taste of chocolate products as much as humans do, and are capable of finding and eating quantities much larger than typical human servings, they should be kept out of their reach. Treats made from carob are a good substitute and pose no threat. There are reports that mulch made from cacao bean shells is dangerous to pets (and other animals).[46][47][48] Bradycardia, as applied to adult medicine, is defined as a resting heart rate of under 60 beats per minute, though it is seldom symptomatic until the rate drops below 50 beat/min. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Merck Veterinary Manual The Merck Veterinary Manual is the single most comprehensive electronic reference for animal care information. ... Carob trees near Mehmetcik, Northern Cyprus Carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua) is a species native to the Mediterranean region, cultivated for its edible seed pods. ... In agriculture and gardening, mulch is a protective cover placed over the soil, primarily to modify the effects of the local climate. ...


An alternative to chocolate

A model of the Reichstag made of chocolate at a Berlin shop
A model of the Reichstag made of chocolate at a Berlin shop

The seeds of the Carob tree are used as a chocolate substitute and in some animal treats instead of chocolate due to the toxicity of real chocolate. It is also used as a sweetener. For those allergic to chocolate it may provide an alternative without the allergic side effects. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2288 × 1712 pixel, file size: 903 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2288 × 1712 pixel, file size: 903 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Reichstag may refer to: Reichstag (institution), the Diets or parliaments of the Holy Roman Empire, of the Austrian-Hungarian monarchy and of Germany from 1871 to 1945 Reichstag building, Berlin location where the German legislature met from 1894 to 1933 and again since 1999 The Reichstag fire in 1933, which... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Binomial name Ceratonia siliqua Linnaeus The Carob tree (from Arabic: خروب kharoub and Hebrew: חרוב Charuv), Ceratonia siliqua, is an evergreen shrub or tree native to the Mediterranean region, cultivated for its edible seed pods. ...


Labelling

Some manufacturers provide the percentage of chocolate in a finished chocolate confection as a label quoting percentage of "cocoa" or "cacao". It should be noted that this refers to the combined percentage of both cocoa solids and cocoa butter in the bar, not just the percentage of cocoa solids [7]. Cocoa beans in a cacao pod Cocoa is the dried and partially fermented fatty seed of the cacao tree from which chocolate is made. ... Binomial name L. Cacao (Theobroma cacao) is a small (4–8 m tall (15-26 ft)) evergreen tree in the family Sterculiaceae (alternatively Malvaceae), native to the deep tropical region of the Latin Americas. ... Cocoa solids is a term for the nonfat component of chocolate. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Cocoa solids is a term for the nonfat component of chocolate. ...


Chocolates that are organic or fair trade certified carry labels accordingly. Manufacturers may also state whether their chocolate is shade grown. An organically-grown apple. ...


In the United States, some manufacturers are lobbying the government to permit confection containing hydrogenated vegetable oil in place of cocoa butter to be sold as "chocolate". This is controversial [8] and as of July 2007 the FDA has not yet consented to permit it. Trans fatty acids (commonly termed trans fats) are a type of unsaturated fat (and may be monounsaturated or polyunsaturated). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The United States Food and Drug Administration is the government agency responsible for regulating food, dietary supplements, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, biologics and blood products in the United States. ...


References

  1. ^ a b c Sides square off in chocolate fight
  2. ^ Your Dictionary
  3. ^ The True History of Chocolate, S. D. Coe and M. D. Coe, Pp 118-119, Thames & Hudson, 2000
  4. ^ The Clever Mouse - History of Chocolate
  5. ^ Theobroma... "Food of the gods" (accessed 17 September 2006)
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  7. ^ About Hans Sloane (accessed 8 June 2007)
  8. ^ Athena Review Vol.2, no.2 A Brief History of Chocolate, Food of the Gods (accessed 8 June 2007
  9. ^ Bittersweet Chocolate. Retrieved on 2006-06-27.
  10. ^ Truevision TV Slavery - a global investigation. Retrieved on 2006-06-27.
  11. ^ What's Noka Worth? An investigation in high-priced chocolate. Retrieved on 2006-12-31.
  12. ^ International Cocoa Organization_ICCO_Questions_and_Answers_varieties. Retrieved on 2006-06-27.
  13. ^ Bragg, Lynn (2007). Letter to CMA from President (pdf). Retrieved on 2007-06-08.
  14. ^ 2007P-0085: Adopt Regulations of General Applicability to all Food Standards that would Permit, within Stated Boundaries, Deviations from the Requirements of the Individual Food Standards of Identity. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (2007). Retrieved on 2007-06-09.
  15. ^ Copy of 2007P-0085 Appendix C 2007P-0085 Appendix C Changes Allowed to Modernize Food Standards While Retaining The Basic Nature and Essential Characteristics of Standardized Food. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (2007). Retrieved on 2007-06-09.
  16. ^ Ghirardelli. Tips for Chocolate Care. Retrieved on 2007-04-16.
  17. ^ Miller, Teresa (1997). MILKFAT FRACTIONS HELP BEAT BLOOMING CHOCOLATE. College of Agricultural Life and Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison. Retrieved on 2007-04-16.
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  20. ^ a b http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/6558775.stm
  21. ^ Chocolate and its effects on serotonin. Retrieved on 2007-02-09.
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  24. ^ PDF file - requires subscription
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  28. ^ "New Benefits Found in Chocolate". Reuters, February 19, 2007.
  29. ^ Chocolate good for your heart
  30. ^ a b MATISSEK R., Evaluation of xanthine derivatives in chocolate: nutritional and chemical aspects. (Abstract)
  31. ^ Liebowitz, Michael, R. (1983). The Chemistry of Love. Boston: Little, Brown, & Co.
  32. ^ Smit HJ, Gaffan EA, Rogers PJ. (2004) Methylxanthines are the psycho-pharmacologically active constituents of chocolate. Psychopharmacology Nov;176(3-4):412-9. (Abstract) from PubMed.
  33. ^ California Academy of Sciences - Natural History Museum. Retrieved on 2006-06-27.
  34. ^ The Standard - Mars talks up cocoa's medicinal potential - World Section. Retrieved on 2006-06-27.
  35. ^ Usmani, Omar S.; Maria G. Belvisi, Hema J. Patel, Natascia Crispino, Mark A. Birrell, Márta Korbonits, Dezso Korbonits, and Peter J. Barnes (February 2005). "Theobromine inhibits sensory nerve activation and cough" (PDF). FASEB Journal 19 (2): 231-233. DOI:10.1096/fj.04-1990fje. PubMed. Retrieved on 2006-06-27. 
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  37. ^ Schuier, Maximilian; Helmut Sies, Beate Illek, and Horst Fischer (October 2005). "Cocoa-Related Flavonoids Inhibit CFTR-Mediated Chloride Transport across T84 Human Colon Epithelia" (PDF). Journal of Nutrition 135 (10): 2320-2325. Retrieved on 2007-05-02. 
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  46. ^ Animal Control Poison Center
  47. ^ Drolet R, Arendt TD, Stowe CM. Cacao bean shell poisoning in a dog. JAVMA 1984;185(8): 902.
  48. ^ Blakemore F, Shearer GD. The poisoning of livestock by cacao products. Vet Record 1943;55(15).

is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Reuters Group plc (LSE: RTR and NASDAQ: RTRSY); pron. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ...

Further reading

  • Bitter Chocolate: Investigating the Dark Side of the World's Most Seductive Sweet, by Carol Off, Random House, 2006.
  • Chocolate, by the editors of Fine Cooking magazine, 2006.
  • The True History of Chocolate, by Sophie D. Coe & Michael D. Coe, Thames & Hudson, 1996. ISBN-13 978-0500282298
  • Naked Chocolate, by David Wolfe and Shazzie, Rawcreation, 2005.
  • The Great Book of Chocolate, by David Lebovitz, Ten Speed Press, 2004.
  • The Chocolate Connoisseur, by Chloe Doutre-Roussel, Piatkus, 2005.
  • Green & Black's Chocolate Recipes, by Kyle Cathie Limited, 2003.
  • Candyfreak: A Journey Through the Chocolate Underbelly of America (book) ISBN 0-15-603293-7
  • McNeil, Cameron (editor) (2006). Chocolate in Mesoamerica: A Cultural History of Cacao. Gainesville: University of Florida Press. ISBN 0-8130-2953-8. 

See also

The history of chocolate is very diverse from its naming to its creation. ... Normal sized semi-sweet chocolate chips Chocolate chips are small chunks of chocolate. ... It has been suggested that chocolate and slavery be merged into this article or section. ... Binomial name L. Cacao (Theobroma cacao) is a small (4–8 m tall (15-26 ft)) evergreen tree in the family Sterculiaceae (alternatively Malvaceae), native to the deep tropical region of the Latin Americas. ... Binomial name Candida krusei (Castellani) Berkhout Candida krusei is a budding yeast (a species of fungus) involved in chocolate production. ... Cocoa beans in a cacao pod Cocoa is the dried and partially fermented fatty seed of the cacao tree from which chocolate is made. ... Some chocolate-producing companies employ exploitative labor practices (notably enslavement of young males) in contemporary chocolate plantations in west Africa. ... This is a list of companies who produce chocolate, not chocolates. ... For other uses, see Chocolate milk (disambiguation). ... A thick, creamy slice of Russian fudge Fudge is a type of sweet, usually extremely rich and flavored with cocoa. ... // The cacao bean products from which chocolate is made are known under different names in different parts of the world. ... Hersheys Tropical Bar, 1943 Military chocolate has been a part of standard U.S. armed forces rations since 1937, and is issued to troops as part of basic field rations and sundry packs. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

External links

Wikibooks
Wikibooks Cookbook has an article on
Chocolate
Look up chocolate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Chocolate
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Chocolate

[[]]uاکلیٹ [i:טשאקאלאד]] Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is a sister project of Wikipedia, using the same MediaWiki software. ... The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ...


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