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Encyclopedia > Chlorine
17 sulfurchlorineargon
F

Cl

Br
General
Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17
Chemical series nonmetals
Group, period, block 173, p
Appearance yellowish green
Standard atomic weight 35.453(2) g·mol−1
Electron configuration [Ne] 3s2 3p5
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 7
Physical properties
Phase gas
Density (0 °C, 101.325 kPa)
3.2 g/L
Melting point 171.6 K
(-101.5 °C, -150.7 °F)
Boiling point 239.11 K
(-34.4 °C, -29.27 °F)
Critical point 416.9 K, 7.991 MPa
Heat of fusion (Cl2) 6.406 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization (Cl2) 20.41 kJ·mol−1
Heat capacity (25 °C) (Cl2)
33.949 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P/Pa 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T/K 128 139 153 170 197 239
Atomic properties
Crystal structure orthorhombic
Oxidation states ±1, 3, 5, 7
(strongly acidic oxide)
Electronegativity 3.16 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies
(more)
1st: 1251.2 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 2298 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 3822 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 100 pm
Atomic radius (calc.) 79 pm
Covalent radius 99 pm
Van der Waals radius 175 pm
Miscellaneous
Magnetic ordering nonmagnetic
Electrical resistivity (20 °C) > 10 Ω·m
Thermal conductivity (300 K) 8.9x10-3  W·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (gas, 0 °C) 206 m/s
CAS registry number 7782-50-5
Selected isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of chlorine
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
35Cl 75.77% 35Cl is stable with 18 neutrons
36Cl syn 3.01×105 y β- 0.709 36Ar
ε - 36S
37Cl 24.23% 37Cl is stable with 20 neutrons
References
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Chlorine (IPA: /ˈklɔəriːn/, from the Greek word 'χλωρóς' (khlôros) meaning 'green'), is the chemical element with atomic number 17 and symbol Cl. It is a halogen, found in the periodic table in group 17 (formerly VIIa or VIIb). As the chloride ion, which is part of common salt and other compounds, it is abundant in nature and necessary to most forms of life, including humans. In its common elemental form (Cl2 or "dichlorine") under standard conditions, it is a pale green gas about 2.5 times as dense as air. It has a disagreeable, suffocating odor that is detectable in concentrations as low as 3.5 ppm[1] and is poisonous. Chlorine is a powerful oxidant and is used in bleaching and disinfectants. As a common disinfectant, chlorine compounds are used in swimming pools to keep them clean and sanitary. In the upper atmosphere, chlorine based molecules have been implicated in the destruction of the ozone layer. This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, symbol, number argon, Ar, 18 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 3, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 39. ... Distinguished from fluorene and fluorone. ... Bromo redirects here. ... This is a standard display of the periodic table of the elements. ... An extended periodic table was suggested by Glenn T. Seaborg in 1969. ... This is a list of chemical elements, sorted by name and color coded according to type of element. ... Categories: Chemical elements ... sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex... Together with the metals and metalloids, a nonmetal is one of three categories of chemical elements as distinguished by ionization and bonding properties. ... A group, also known as a family, is a vertical column in the periodic table of the chemical elements. ... In the periodic table of the elements, a period is a horizontal row of the table. ... A block of the periodic table of elements is a set of adjacent groups. ... The halogens are a chemical series. ... A period 3 element is one of the chemical elements in the third row (or period) of the periodic table of the elements. ... The p-block of the periodic table of elements consists of the last six groups. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1287 × 1716 pixel, file size: 845 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... The atomic mass (ma) is the mass of an atom at rest, most often expressed in unified atomic mass units. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude, the following list describes various mass levels between 10−36 kg and 1053 kg. ... Hydrogen = 1 List of Elements in Atomic Number Order. ... Molar mass is the mass of one mole of a chemical element or chemical compound. ... Electron atomic and molecular orbitals In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the arrangement of electrons in an atom, molecule, or other physical structure (, a crystal). ... For other uses, see Neon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... Example of a sodium electron shell model An electron shell, also known as a main energy level, is a group of atomic orbitals with the same value of the principal quantum number n. ... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... For other uses, see Gas (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... The melting point of a solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... In physical chemistry, thermodynamics, chemistry and condensed matter physics, a critical point, also called a critical state, specifies the conditions (temperature, pressure) at which the liquid state of the matter ceases to exist. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... Standard enthalpy change of fusion of period three. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... The heat of vaporization is a physical property of substances. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Vapor pressure is the pressure of a vapor in equilibrium with its non-vapor phases. ... Enargite crystals In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. ... Not to be confused with oxidation state. ... For other uses, see acid (disambiguation). ... Electronegativity is a measure of the ability of an atom or molecule to attract electrons in the context of a chemical bond. ... The ionization energy (IE) of an atom or of a molecule is the energy required to strip it of an electron. ... These tables list the ionization energy in kJ/mol necessary to remove an electron from a neutral atom (first energy), respectively from a singly, doubly, etc. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... Atomic radius: Ionic radius Covalent radius Metallic radius van der Waals radius edit Atomic radius, and more generally the size of an atom, is not a precisely defined physical quantity, nor is it constant in all circumstances. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... One picometre is defined as 1x10-12 metres, in standard units. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude this page lists lengths between 10 pm and 100 pm (10-11 m and 10-12 m). ... Atomic radius: Ionic radius Covalent radius Metallic radius van der Waals radius edit The covalent radius, rcov, is a measure of the size of atom which forms part of a covalent bond. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude this page lists lengths between 10 pm and 100 pm (10-11 m and 10-12 m). ... The van der Waals radius of an atom is the radius of an imaginary hard sphere which can be used to model the atom for many purposes. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... For other senses of this word, see magnetism (disambiguation). ... // Headline text POOP!! Danny Hornsby (also known as Gnome) is a measure indicating how strongly a Gnome can opposes the flow of electric current. ... K value redirects here. ... For other uses, see Speed of sound (disambiguation). ... Metre per second (U.S. spelling: meter per second) is an SI derived unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector), defined by distance in metres divided by time in seconds. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... Chlorine (Cl) Standard atomic mass: 35. ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... Natural abundance refers to the prevalence of different isotopes of an element as found in nature. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... In physics, the decay mode describes a particular way a particle decays. ... The decay energy is the energy released by a nuclear decay. ... The electronvolt (symbol eV) is a unit of energy. ... In nuclear physics, a decay product, also known as a daughter product, is a nuclide resulting from the radioactive decay of a parent or precursor nuclide. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... 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The salts of hydrochloric acid HCl contain chloride ions and can also be called chlorides. ... Sodium chloride, also known as common salt, table salt, or halite, is a chemical compound with formula NaCl. ... This article is about modern humans. ... Temperature and air pressure can vary from one place to another on the Earth, and can also vary in the same place with time. ... For other uses, see Poison (disambiguation). ... The most fundamental reactions in chemistry are the redox processes. ... In chemistry, to bleach something generally means to whiten it or oxidize it. ... For the 2003 film, see Swimming Pool (film). ... Earths atmosphere is the layer of gases surrounding the planet Earth and retained by the Earths gravity. ... Global monthly average total ozone amount Ozone depletion describes two distinct, but related observations: a slow, steady decline of about 4 percent per decade in the total amount of ozone in Earths stratosphere since around 1980; and a much larger, but seasonal, decrease in stratospheric ozone over Earths... The ozone layer is a layer in Earths atmosphere which contains relatively high concentrations of ozone (O3). ...

Contents

Characteristics

Chlorine gas in a transparent plastic container. It is not advisable to store chlorine in this manner.

Chlorine gas is diatomic, with the formula Cl2. It combines readily with all elements except O2 and N2[2] and the noble gases. Compounds with oxygen, nitrogen, and xenon are known but do not form by direct reaction of the elements.[3] Chlorine is not as extremely reactive as fluorine. Pure chlorine gas does, however, support combustion of organic compounds such as hydrocarbons, although the carbon component tends to burn incompletely, with much of it remaining as soot.[4] At 10 °C and atmospheric pressure, one liter of water dissolves 3.10 L of gaseous chlorine, and at 30°C, 1 L of water dissolves only 1.77 liters of chlorine.[2] Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2304x3072, 2375 KB) A 500-mL water bottle filled with chlorine. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2304x3072, 2375 KB) A 500-mL water bottle filled with chlorine. ... A space-filling model of the diatomic molecule dinitrogen, N2. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... The noble gases are a chemical series. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... General Name, Symbol, Number xenon, Xe, 54 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 5, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 131. ... Distinguished from fluorene and fluorone. ... Look up Hydrocarbon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... The liter (spelled liter in American English and litre in Commonwealth English) is a unit of volume. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ...


This element is a member of the salt-forming halogen series and is extracted from chlorides through oxidation often by electrolysis. As the chloride ion, Cl, it is also the most abundant dissolved ion in ocean water. This article is about common table salt. ... This article is about the chemical series. ... The most fundamental reactions in chemistry are the redox processes. ... In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a method of separating chemically bonded elements and compounds by passing an electric current through them. ... Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ...


Isotopes

Main article: Isotopes of chlorine

Chlorine has isotopes with mass numbers ranging from 32 to 40. There are two principal stable isotopes, 35Cl (75.77%) and 37Cl (24.23%), giving chlorine atoms in bulk an apparent atomic weight of 35.5 g/mol. Chlorine (Cl) Standard atomic mass: 35. ... The mass number (A), also called atomic mass number (not to be confused with atomic number (Z) which denotes the number of protons in a nucleus) or nucleon number, is the number of nucleons (protons and neutrons) in an atomic nucleus. ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Atom (disambiguation). ...

  • 36Cl

Trace amounts of radioactive 36Cl exist in the environment, in a ratio of about 7x10−13 to 1 with stable isotopes. 36Cl is produced in the atmosphere by spallation of 36Ar by interactions with cosmic ray protons. In the subsurface environment, 36Cl is generated primarily as a result of neutron capture by 35Cl or muon capture by 40Ca. 36Cl decays to 36S and to 36Ar, with a combined half-life of 308,000 years. The half-life of this hydrophilic nonreactive isotope makes it suitable for geologic dating in the range of 60,000 to 1 million years. Additionally, large amounts of 36Cl were produced by irradiation of seawater during atmospheric detonations of nuclear weapons between 1952 and 1958. The residence time of 36Cl in the atmosphere is about 1 week. Thus, as an event marker of 1950s water in soil and ground water, 36Cl is also useful for dating waters less than 50 years before the present. 36Cl has seen use in other areas of the geological sciences, including dating ice and sediments. Radioactive decay is the set of various processes by which unstable atomic nuclei (nuclides) emit subatomic particles. ... Chlorine-36 is an isotope of chlorine. ... In general, spallation is a process in which fragments of material are ejected from a body due to impact or stress. ... General Name, symbol, number argon, Ar, 18 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 3, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 39. ... Cosmic rays can loosely be defined as energetic particles originating outside of the Earth. ... For other uses, see Proton (disambiguation). ... The process of neutron capture can proceed in two ways - as a rapid process (an r-process) or a slow process (an s-process). ... Muon capture is the capture of a negative muon by a proton, usually resulting in production of a neutron and a neutrino, and sometimes a gamma photon. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, symbol, number argon, Ar, 18 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 3, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 39. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... The adjective hydrophilic describes something that likes water (from Greek hydros = water; philos = friend). ... Radiometric dating is a technique used to date materials based on a knowledge of the decay rates of naturally occurring isotopes, and the current abundances. ... Annual mean sea surface salinity for the World Ocean. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland For the American hard rock band, see SOiL. For the System of a Down song, see Soil (song). ... Groundwater is any water found below the land surface. ...


Occurrence

See also Halide minerals.

In nature, chlorine is found primarily as the chloride ion, a component of the salt that is deposited in the earth or dissolved in the oceans — about 1.9% of the mass of seawater is chloride ions. Even higher concentrations of chloride are found in the Dead Sea and in underground brine deposits. Most chloride salts are soluble in water, thus, chloride-containing minerals are usually only found in abundance in dry climates or deep underground. Common chloride minerals include halite (sodium chloride), sylvite (potassium chloride), and carnallite (potassium magnesium chloride hexahydrate). Over 2000 naturally-occurring organic chlorine compounds are known.[5] The chloride ion is formed when the element chlorine picks up one electron to form the negatively charged ion Cl−. The salts of hydrochloric acid HCl are also called chlorides. ... This article is about common table salt. ... Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ... The Dead Sea (Hebrew: ‎, , Sea of Salt; Arabic: , , Dead Sea) is a salt lake between the West Bank and Israel to the west, and Jordan to the east. ... For the sports equipment manufacturer, see Brine, Corp. ... For Halite Bittorrent client , see Halite Client. ... R-phrases 36 S-phrases none Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Other anions NaF, NaBr, NaI Other cations LiCl, KCl, RbCl, CsCl, MgCl2, CaCl2 Related salts Sodium acetate Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Sylvite is potassium chloride (KCl) in natural mineral form. ... The chemical compound potassium chloride (KCl) is a metal halide composed of potassium and chlorine. ... CarnalliteBold text ...


Industrially, elemental chlorine is usually produced by the electrolysis of sodium chloride dissolved in water. Along with chlorine, this chloralkali process yields hydrogen gas and sodium hydroxide, according to the following chemical equation: In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a method of separating chemically bonded elements and compounds by passing an electric current through them. ... The chloralkali process is a redox reaction, an electrolysis of an aqueous solution of sodium chloride: 2 NaCl(aq) + 2 H2O(l) —→ 2 NaOH(aq) + Cl2(g) + 2 H+ + 2 e- 2 H+ + 2 e- —→ H2(g) The process is primarily used to produce chlorine, but one of its byproducts... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as lye, caustic soda and (incorrectly, according to IUPAC nomenclature)[1] sodium hydrate, is a caustic metallic base. ... A chemical equation is a symbolic representation of a chemical reaction. ...

2 NaCl + 2 H2O → Cl2 + H2 + 2 NaOH

R-phrases 36 S-phrases none Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Other anions NaF, NaBr, NaI Other cations LiCl, KCl, RbCl, CsCl, MgCl2, CaCl2 Related salts Sodium acetate Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as lye, caustic soda and (incorrectly, according to IUPAC nomenclature)[1] sodium hydrate, is a caustic metallic base. ...

Production

Gas extraction

Chlorine can be manufactured by electrolysis of a sodium chloride solution (brine). The production of chlorine results in the co-products caustic soda (sodium hydroxide, NaOH) and hydrogen gas (H2). These two products, as well as chlorine itself, are highly reactive. Chlorine can also be produced by the electrolysis of a solution of potassium chloride, in which case the co-products are hydrogen and caustic potash (potassium hydroxide). There are three industrial methods for the extraction of chlorine by electrolysis of chloride solutions, all proceeding according to the following equations: In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a method of separating chemically bonded elements and compounds by passing an electric current through them. ... R-phrases 36 S-phrases none Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Other anions NaF, NaBr, NaI Other cations LiCl, KCl, RbCl, CsCl, MgCl2, CaCl2 Related salts Sodium acetate Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Making a saline water solution by dissolving table salt (NaCl) in water This article is about chemical solutions. ... For the sports equipment manufacturer, see Brine, Corp. ... Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as caustic soda or lye in North America, is a caustic metallic base used in industry (mostly as a strong chemical base) in the manufacture of paper, textiles, and detergents. ... Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as lye, caustic soda and (incorrectly, according to IUPAC nomenclature)[1] sodium hydrate, is a caustic metallic base. ... Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as caustic soda or lye in North America, is a caustic metallic base used in industry (mostly as a strong chemical base) in the manufacture of paper, textiles, and detergents. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a method of separating chemically bonded elements and compounds by passing an electric current through them. ... Making a saline water solution by dissolving table salt (NaCl) in water This article is about chemical solutions. ... The chemical compound potassium chloride (KCl) is a metal halide composed of potassium and chlorine. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... The chemical compound potassium hydroxide, (KOH) sometimes known as caustic potash, potassa, potash lye and potassium hydrate, is a metallic base. ... The chemical compound potassium hydroxide, (KOH) sometimes known as caustic potash, potassa, potash lye, and potassium hydrate, is a metallic base. ... In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a method of separating chemically bonded elements and compounds by passing an electric current through them. ...

Cathode: 2 H+ (aq) + 2 e → H2 (g)
Anode: 2 Cl (aq) → Cl2 (g) + 2 e

Overall process: 2 NaCl (or KCl) + 2 H2O → Cl2 + H2 + 2 NaOH (or KOH)

  • Mercury cell electrolysis

Mercury cell electrolysis, also known as the Castner-Kellner process, was the first method used at the end of the nineteenth century to produce chlorine on an industrial scale.[6][7] The "rocking" cells used have been improved over the years.[8] Today, in the "primary cell", titanium anodes (formerly graphite ones) are placed in a sodium (or potassium) chloride solution flowing over a liquid mercury cathode. When a potential difference is applied and current flows, chlorine is released at the titanium anode and sodium (or potassium) dissolves in the mercury cathode forming an amalgam. This flows continuously into a separate reactor ("denuder" or "secondary cell"), where it is usually converted back to mercury by reaction with water, producing hydrogen and sodium (or potassium) hydroxide at a commercially useful concentration (50% by weight). The mercury is then recycled to the primary cell. This article is about the element. ... In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a method of separating chemically bonded elements and compounds by passing an electric current through them. ... The Castner-Kellner process is a method of electrolysis on an aqueous alkali chloride solution (usually sodium chloride solution) to produce the corresponding alkali hydroxide,[1] invented by Hamilton Castner and Karl Kellner in the 1890s. ... General Name, symbol, number titanium, Ti, 22 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 4, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 47. ... For other uses, see Graphite (disambiguation). ... This article is about the element. ... Diagram of a copper cathode in a Daniells cell. ... General Name, symbol, number titanium, Ti, 22 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 4, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 47. ... Diagram of a zinc anode in a galvanic cell. ... For sodium in the diet, see Salt. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... This article is about the element. ... Diagram of a copper cathode in a Daniells cell. ... This article is about mixtures (alloys) of mercury with other elements. ... This article is about the element. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as lye, caustic soda and (incorrectly, according to IUPAC nomenclature)[1] sodium hydrate, is a caustic metallic base. ... The chemical compound potassium hydroxide, (KOH) sometimes known as caustic potash, potassa, potash lye, and potassium hydrate, is a metallic base. ... Hydroxide is a polyatomic ion consisting of oxygen and hydrogen: OH− It has a charge of −1. ... This article is about the element. ...


The mercury process is the least energy-efficient of the three main technologies (mercury, diaphragm and membrane) and there are also concerns about mercury emissions. This article is about the element. ... Look up diaphragm in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... It has been suggested that Net flux be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the element. ... Air pollution Pollution is the introduction of pollutants (whether chemical substances, or energy such as noise, heat, or light) into the environment to such a point that its effects become harmful to human health, other living organisms, or the environment. ...


It is estimated that there are still around 100 mercury-cell plants operating worldwide. In Japan, mercury-based chloralkali production was virtually phased out by 1987 (except for the last two potassium chloride units shut down in 2003). In the United States, there will be only five mercury plants remaining in operation by the end of 2008. In Europe, mercury cells accounted for 43% of capacity in 2006 and Western European producers have committed to closing or converting all remaining chloralkali mercury plants by 2020.[9] The chemical compound potassium chloride (KCl) is a metal halide composed of potassium and chlorine. ... This article is about the element. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... This article is about the element. ... This article is about the element. ...

  • Diaphragm cell electrolysis

In diaphragm cell electrolysis, an asbestos (or polymer-fiber) diaphragm separates acathode and an anode, preventing the chlorine forming at the anode from re-mixing with the sodium hydroxide and the hydrogen formed at the cathode.[10] This technology was also developed at the end of the nineteenth century. There are several variants of this process: the Le Sueur cell (1893), the Hargreaves-Bird cell (1901), the Gibbs cell (1908), and the Townsend cell (1904).[11][12] The cells vary in construction and placement of the diaphragm, with some having the diaphragm in direct contact with the cathode. In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a method of separating chemically bonded elements and compounds by passing an electric current through them. ... For other uses, see Asbestos (disambiguation). ... Look up diaphragm in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Diagram of a copper cathode in a Daniells cell. ... Diagram of a zinc anode in a galvanic cell. ... Diagram of a zinc anode in a galvanic cell. ... Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as lye, caustic soda and (incorrectly, according to IUPAC nomenclature)[1] sodium hydrate, is a caustic metallic base. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... Diagram of a copper cathode in a Daniells cell. ... Look up diaphragm in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Diagram of a copper cathode in a Daniells cell. ...


The salt solution (brine) is continuously fed to the anode compartment and flows through the diaphragm to the cathode compartment, where the caustic alkali is produced and the brine is partially depleted. This article is about common table salt. ... Making a saline water solution by dissolving table salt (NaCl) in water This article is about chemical solutions. ... For the sports equipment manufacturer, see Brine, Corp. ... Look up diaphragm in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Diagram of a copper cathode in a Daniells cell. ... Look up caustic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Alkaline redirects here. ... For the sports equipment manufacturer, see Brine, Corp. ...


As a result, diaphragm methods produce alkali that is quite dilute (about 12%) and of lower purity than do mercury cell methods. But diaphragm cells are not burdened with the problem of preventing mercury discharge into the [environment. They also operate at a lower voltage, resulting in an energy savings over the mercury cell method[12], but large amounts of steam are required if the caustic has to be evaporated to the commercial concentration of 50%. Look up diaphragm in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Alkaline redirects here. ... This article is about the element. ... International safety symbol Caution, risk of electric shock (ISO 3864), colloquially known as high voltage symbol. ... For other uses, see Steam (disambiguation). ... Look up caustic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Evaporation is the process whereby atoms or molecules in a liquid state (or solid state if the substance sublimes) gain sufficient energy to enter the gaseous state. ...

  • Membrane cell electrolysis

Development of this technology began in the 1970s. The electrolysis cell is divided into two "rooms" by a cation permeable membrane acting as an ion exchanger. Saturated sodium (or potassium) chloride solution is passed through the anode compartment, leaving at a lower concentration.[13] Sodium (or potassium) hydroxide solution is circulated through the cathode compartment, exiting at a higher concentration. A portion of the concentrated sodium hydroxide solution leaving the cell is diverted as product, while the remainder is diluted with deionized water and passed through the electrolysis apparatus again. In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a method of separating chemically bonded elements and compounds by passing an electric current through them. ... A cation is an ion with positive charge. ... Function: adjective capable of being permeated : PENETRABLE; especially : having pores or openings that permit liquids or gases to pass through. ... It has been suggested that Net flux be merged into this article or section. ... Ion exchange is defined as an exchange of ions between two electrolytes. ... R-phrases 36 S-phrases none Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Other anions NaF, NaBr, NaI Other cations LiCl, KCl, RbCl, CsCl, MgCl2, CaCl2 Related salts Sodium acetate Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... The chemical compound potassium chloride (KCl) is a metal halide composed of potassium and chlorine. ... Making a saline water solution by dissolving table salt (NaCl) in water This article is about chemical solutions. ... Diagram of a zinc anode in a galvanic cell. ... For other uses, see Concentration (disambiguation). ... Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as lye, caustic soda and (incorrectly, according to IUPAC nomenclature)[1] sodium hydrate, is a caustic metallic base. ... The chemical compound potassium hydroxide, (KOH) sometimes known as caustic potash, potassa, potash lye, and potassium hydrate, is a metallic base. ... Hydroxide is a polyatomic ion consisting of oxygen and hydrogen: OH− It has a charge of −1. ... Making a saline water solution by dissolving table salt (NaCl) in water This article is about chemical solutions. ... Diagram of a copper cathode in a Daniells cell. ... For other uses, see Concentration (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Concentration (disambiguation). ... Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as lye, caustic soda and (incorrectly, according to IUPAC nomenclature)[1] sodium hydrate, is a caustic metallic base. ... Making a saline water solution by dissolving table salt (NaCl) in water This article is about chemical solutions. ... Deionized water (DI water or de-ionized water; also spelled deionised water, see spelling differences) is water that lacks ions, such as cations from sodium, calcium, iron, copper and anions such as chloride and bromide. ... In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a method of separating chemically bonded elements and compounds by passing an electric current through them. ...


This method is more efficient than the diaphragm cell and produces very pure sodium (or potassium) hydroxide at about 32% concentration, but requires very pure brine. Look up diaphragm in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as lye, caustic soda and (incorrectly, according to IUPAC nomenclature)[1] sodium hydrate, is a caustic metallic base. ... The chemical compound potassium hydroxide, (KOH) sometimes known as caustic potash, potassa, potash lye, and potassium hydrate, is a metallic base. ... Hydroxide is a polyatomic ion consisting of oxygen and hydrogen: OH− It has a charge of −1. ... For other uses, see Concentration (disambiguation). ... For the sports equipment manufacturer, see Brine, Corp. ...

  • Other electrolytic processes

Although a much lower production scale is involved, electrolytic diaphragm and membrane technologies are also used industrially to recover chlorine from hydrochloric acid solutions, producing hydrogen (but no caustic alkali) as a co-product. Look up diaphragm in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... It has been suggested that Net flux be merged into this article or section. ... Hydrochloric acid is the aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride gas (HCl). ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... Look up caustic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Alkaline redirects here. ...


Furthermore, electrolysis of fused chloride salts (Downs process) also enables chlorine to be produced, in this case as a by-product of the manufacture of metallic sodium or magnesium. In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a method of separating chemically bonded elements and compounds by passing an electric current through them. ... The Downs process is a method for the commercial preparation of metallic sodium, in which molten NaCl is electrolyzed in a special apparatus called the Downs cell. ... For alternative meanings see metal (disambiguation). ... For sodium in the diet, see Salt. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ...


Other methods

Before electrolytic methods were used for chlorine production, the direct oxidation of hydrogen chloride with oxygen or air was exercised in the Deacon process: The most fundamental reactions in chemistry are the redox processes. ... R-phrases , S-phrases , , , , Flash point non-flammable Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... Look up air in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Deacon process is used in the manufacture of alkalis, to reduce emissions of Hydrochloric Acid. ...

4 HCl + O2 → 2 Cl2 + 2 H2O

This reaction is accomplished with the use of copper(II) chloride (CuCl2) as a catalyst and is performed at high temperature (about 400 °C). The amount of extracted chlorine is approximately 80%. Due to the extremely corrosive reaction mixture, industrial use of this method is difficult and several pilot trials failed in the past. Nevertheless, recent developments are promising. Recently Sumitomo patented a catalyst for the Deacon process using ruthenium(IV) oxide (RuO2).[14] Copper(II) chloride is the chemical compound with the formula CuCl2. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Catalysis. ... Corrosion is the destructive reaction of a metal with another material, e. ... The Sumitomo Group is a group of related japanese companies, (keiretsu). ... This article lacks information on the importance of the subject matter. ...


Another earlier process to produce chlorine was to heat brine with acid and manganese dioxide. For other uses, see acid (disambiguation). ... Manganese(IV) oxide is the chemical compound MnO2, commonly called manganese dioxide. ...

2 NaCl + 2H2SO4 + MnO2 → Na2SO4 + MnSO4 + 2 H2O + Cl2

Using this process, chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele was the first to isolate chlorine in a laboratory. The manganese can be recovered by the Weldon process.[15] Carl Wilhelm Scheele Scheeles house with his pharmacy in Köping. ... General Name, symbol, number manganese, Mn, 25 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 7, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 54. ... The Weldon process is a process for recovering manganese dioxide in chlorine manufacturing. ...


Small amounts of chlorine gas can be made in the laboratory by putting concentrated hydrochloric acid in a flask with a side arm and rubber tubing attached. Manganese dioxide is then added and the flask stoppered. The reaction is not greatly exothermic. As chlorine is denser than air, it can be easily collected by placing the tube inside a flask where it will displace the air. Once full, the collecting flask can be stoppered. Hydrochloric acid is the aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride gas (HCl). ... Manganese(IV) oxide is the chemical compound MnO2, commonly called manganese dioxide. ...


Another method for producing small amounts of chlorine gas in a lab is by adding concentrated hydrochloric acid (typically about 5M) to sodium hypochlorite or sodium chlorate solution. Hydrochloric acid is the aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride gas (HCl). ... Sodium hypochlorite is a chemical compound with the formula NaClO. Sodium hypochlorite solution, commonly known as bleach, is frequently used as a disinfectant and as a bleaching agent. ... Sodium chlorate (NaClO3) is an oxidizing agent. ...


Industrial production

Large-scale production of chlorine involves several steps and many pieces of equipment. The description below is typical of a membrane plant. The plant also simultaneously produces sodium hydroxide (caustic soda) and hydrogen gas. A typical plant consists of brine production/treatment, cell operations, chlorine cooling & drying, chlorine compression & liquefaction, liquid chlorine storage & loading, caustic handling, evaporation, storage & loading and hydrogen handling. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as lye, caustic soda and (incorrectly, according to IUPAC nomenclature)[1] sodium hydrate, is a caustic metallic base. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... For the sports equipment manufacturer, see Brine, Corp. ... Look up caustic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ...

  • Brine

Key to the production of chlorine is the operation of the brine saturation/treatment system. Maintaining a properly saturated solution with the correct purity is vital, especially for membrane cells. Many plants have a salt pile which is sprayed with recycled brine. Others have slurry tanks that are fed raw salt. For the sports equipment manufacturer, see Brine, Corp. ... It has been suggested that Net flux be merged into this article or section. ... u fuck in ua ... For the sports equipment manufacturer, see Brine, Corp. ... This article is about common table salt. ...


The raw brine is partially or totally treated with sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate and a flocculant to reduce calcium, magnesium and other impurities. The brine proceeds to a large clarifier or a filter where the impurities are removed. The total brine is additionally filtered before entering ion exchangers to further remove impurities. At several points in this process, the brine is tested for hardness and strength. For the sports equipment manufacturer, see Brine, Corp. ... Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as lye, caustic soda and (incorrectly, according to IUPAC nomenclature)[1] sodium hydrate, is a caustic metallic base. ... Sodium carbonate (also known as washing soda or soda ash), Na2CO3, is a sodium salt of carbonic acid. ... A flocculant is a chemical which causes the particles in a colloidal dispersal to clump together and form flocs. Flocculants are commonly used to facilitate the removal by filtration of particles of impurity from a liquid which would otherwise be too fine to be caught by a filter. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... Impurities are substances inside a confined amount of liquid, gas, or solid, which differ from the chemical composition of the material or compound. ... For the sports equipment manufacturer, see Brine, Corp. ... Impurities are substances inside a confined amount of liquid, gas, or solid, which differ from the chemical composition of the material or compound. ... For the sports equipment manufacturer, see Brine, Corp. ... Ion exchange is defined as an exchange of ions between two electrolytes. ... Impurities are substances inside a confined amount of liquid, gas, or solid, which differ from the chemical composition of the material or compound. ... For the sports equipment manufacturer, see Brine, Corp. ... Look up hardness in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up strength in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


After the ion exchangers, the brine is considered pure, and is transferred to storage tanks to be pumped into the cell room. Brine, fed to the cell line, is heated to the correct temperature to control exit brine temperatures according to the electrical load. Brine exiting the cell room must be treated to remove residual chlorine and control pH levels before being returned to the saturation stage. This can be accomplished via dechlorination towers with acid and sodium bisulfite addition. Failure to remove chlorine can result in damage to the cells. Brine should be monitored for accumulation of bothchlorate anions and sulfate anions, and either have a treatment system in place, or purging of the brine loop to maintain safe levels, since chlorate anions can diffuse through the membranes and contaminate the caustic, while sulfate anions can damage the anode surface coating. Ion exchange is defined as an exchange of ions between two electrolytes. ... For the sports equipment manufacturer, see Brine, Corp. ... Look up pure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the sports equipment manufacturer, see Brine, Corp. ... For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ... For the sports equipment manufacturer, see Brine, Corp. ... If an electric circuit has a well-defined output terminal, the circuit connected to this terminal (or its input impedance) is the load. ... For the sports equipment manufacturer, see Brine, Corp. ... For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ... Look up Saturation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see acid (disambiguation). ... Sodium hydrogen sulfite or sodium bisulfite is a chemical compound with the chemical formula NaHSO3. ... For the sports equipment manufacturer, see Brine, Corp. ... The chlorate ion Structure and bonding in the chlorate ion The chlorate ion ClO3−. A chlorate (compound) is a compound that contains this group, with chlorine in oxidation state +5. ... The sulfate anion, SO42− The structure and bonding of the sulfate ion In inorganic chemistry, a sulfate (IUPAC-recommended spelling; also sulphate in British English) is a salt of sulfuric acid. ... The chlorate ion Structure and bonding in the chlorate ion The chlorate ion ClO3−. A chlorate (compound) is a compound that contains this group, with chlorine in oxidation state +5. ... This article or section should include material from Net flux A membrane is a thin, typically planar structure or material that separates two environments. ... Look up caustic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The sulfate anion, SO42− The structure and bonding of the sulfate ion In inorganic chemistry, a sulfate (IUPAC-recommended spelling; also sulphate in British English) is a salt of sulfuric acid. ... Diagram of a zinc anode in a galvanic cell. ...

  • Cell room

The building that houses the many electrolytic cells is usually called a cell room or cell house, although some plants are built outdoors. This building contains support structures for the cells, connections for supplying electrical power to the cells and piping for the fluids. Monitoring and control of the temperatures of the feed caustic and brine is done to control exit temperatures. Also monitored are the voltages of each cell which vary with the electrical load on the cell room that is used to control the rate of production. Monitoring and control of the pressures in the chlorine and hydrogen headers is also done via pressure control valves. Transmission lines in Lund, Sweden Electric power, often known as power or electricity, involves the production and delivery of electrical energy in sufficient quantities to operate domestic appliances, office equipment, industrial machinery and provide sufficient energy for both domestic and commercial lighting, heating, cooking and industrial processes. ... Look up caustic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the sports equipment manufacturer, see Brine, Corp. ... International safety symbol Caution, risk of electric shock (ISO 3864), colloquially known as high voltage symbol. ... If an electric circuit has a well-defined output terminal, the circuit connected to this terminal (or its input impedance) is the load. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... Relief Valve A relief valve opens to release excess pressure when the pressure is too high to protect the vessel or other equipment from overpressurization. ...


Direct current is supplied via a rectified power source. Plant load is controlled by varying the current to the cells. As the current is increased, flow rates for brine and caustic and deionized water are increased, while lowering the feed temperatures. Direct current (DC or continuous current) is the continuous flow of electricity through a conductor such as a wire from high to low potential. ... AC, half-wave and full wave rectified signals A rectifier is an electrical device, comprising one or more semiconductive devices (such as diodes) or vacuum tubes arranged for converting alternating current to direct current. ... Look up current in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up current in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the sports equipment manufacturer, see Brine, Corp. ... Look up caustic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Deionized water (DI water or de-ionized water; also spelled deionised water, see spelling differences) is water that lacks ions, such as cations from sodium, calcium, iron, copper and anions such as chloride and bromide. ...

  • Cooling and drying

Chlorine gas exiting the cell line must be cooled and dried since the exit gas can be over 80°C and contains moisture that allows chlorine gas to be corrosive to iron piping. Cooling the gas allows for a large amount of moisture from the brine to condense out of the gas stream. Cooling also improves the efficiency of both the compression and the liquefaction stage that follows. Chlorine exiting is ideally between 18°C and 25°C. After cooling the gas stream passes through a series of towers with counter flowing sulfuric acid. These towers progressively remove any remaining moisture from the chlorine gas. After exiting the drying towers the chlorine is filtered to remove any remaining sulfuric acid. Corrosion is the destructive reaction of a metal with another material, e. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... Piping is used to convey fluids (usually liquids and gases but sometimes loose solids) from one location to another. ... For other uses, see Condensation (disambiguation). ... Look up efficiency in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up compressor, compression in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Liquefaction may refer to: Soil liquefaction, the process by which sediments are converted into suspension, as in earthquake liquefaction, quicksand, quick clay, and turbidity currents. ... Sulfuric acid, (also known as sulphuric acid) H2SO4, is a strong mineral acid. ... Dew on a spider web Moldy bread Moisture generally refers to the presence of water, often in trace amounts. ... Sulfuric acid, (also known as sulphuric acid) H2SO4, is a strong mineral acid. ...

  • Compression and liquefaction

Several methods of compression may be used: liquid ring, reciprocating, or centrifugal. The chlorine gas is compressed at this stage and may be further cooled by inter- and after-coolers. After compression it flows to the liquefiers, where it is cooled enough to liquefy. Non condensible gases and remaining chlorine gas are vented off as part of the pressure control of the liquefaction systems. These gases are routed to a gas scrubber, producing sodium hypochlorite, or used in the production of hydrochloric acid (by combustion with hydrogen) or ethylene dichloride (by reaction with ethylene). A liquid ring pump is a rotating positive displacement pump. ... A motor-driven six-cylinder reciprocating compressor that can operate with two, four or six cylinders. ... A centrifugal compressor, also called a radial blower, squirrel cage, or squirrel wheel compressor, consists of an axle to which is mounted a cylindrical assembly of compressor blades. ... Sodium hypochlorite is a chemical compound with the formula NaClO. Sodium hypochlorite solution, commonly known as bleach, is frequently used as a disinfectant and as a bleaching agent. ... Hydrochloric acid is the aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride gas (HCl). ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... Ethylene dichloride (EDC), systematically known as 1,2-dichloroethane is, together with vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) or chloroethene, the major precursor for PVC production. ... Ethylene (or IUPAC name ethene) is the chemical compound with the formula C2H4. ...

  • Storage and loading

Liquid chlorine is typically gravity-fed to storage tanks. It can be loaded into rail or road tankers via pumps or padded with compressed dry gas. Gravity is a force of attraction that acts between bodies that have mass. ...

  • Caustic handling, evaporation, storage and loading

Caustic, fed to the cell room flows in a loop that is simultaneously bled off to storage with a part diluted with deionized water and returned to the cell line for strengthening within the cells. The caustic exiting the cell line must be monitored for strength, to maintain safe concentrations. Too strong or too weak a solution may damage the membranes. Membrane cells typically produce caustic in the range of 30% to 33% by weight. The feed caustic flow is heated at low electrical loads to control its exit temperature. Higher loads require the caustic to be cooled, to maintain correct exit temperatures. The caustic exiting to storage is pulled from a storage tank and may be diluted for sale to customers who require weak caustic or for use on site. Another stream may be pumped into a multiple effect evaporator set to produce commercial 50% caustic. Rail cars and tanker trucks are loaded at loading stations via pumps. Look up caustic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Deionized water (DI water or de-ionized water; also spelled deionised water, see spelling differences) is water that lacks ions, such as cations from sodium, calcium, iron, copper and anions such as chloride and bromide. ... Look up caustic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Making a saline water solution by dissolving table salt (NaCl) in water This article is about chemical solutions. ... Look up caustic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... If an electric circuit has a well-defined output terminal, the circuit connected to this terminal (or its input impedance) is the load. ... Look up caustic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up caustic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up caustic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up caustic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

  • Hydrogen handling

Hydrogen produced may be vented unprocessed directly to the atmosphere or cooled, compressed and dried for use in other processes on site or sold to a customer via pipeline, cylinders or trucks. Some possible uses include the manufacture of hydrochloric acid or hydrogen peroxide, as well as desulfurization of petroleum oils, or use as a fuel in boilers or fuel cells. In Porsgrunn the byproduct is used for the hydrogen fueling station at hynor. This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... Atmospheres redirects here. ... Hydrochloric acid is the aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride gas (HCl). ... Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a very pale blue liquid which appears colorless in a dilute solution, slightly more viscous than water. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Hydrodesulfurization and Hydrotreater (Discuss) Oil desulfurization is a widely used process for removing sulfur from petroleum products (gasoline, diesel fuel, fuel oil, etc. ... Petro redirects here. ... For other uses, see Fuel (disambiguation). ... A boiler is a closed vessel in which water or other fluid is heated. ... A fuel cell is an electrochemical device similar to a battery, but differing from the latter in that it is designed for continuous replenishment of the reactants consumed; i. ... County Telemark District Grenland Municipality NO-0805 Administrative centre Porsgrunn Mayor (2003) Øystein Beyer (Ap) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 352 165 km² 161 km² 0. ... A hydrogen station is a storage or filling station for hydrogen, usually located along a road or hydrogen highway, or at home as part of the distributed generation resources concept. ...

  • Energy consumption

Production of chlorine is extremely energy intensive.[16] Energy consumption per unit weight of product is not far below that for iron and steel manufacture[17] and greater than for the production of glass[18] or cement.[19]


Since electricity is an indispensable raw material for the production of chlorine, the energy consumption corresponding to the electrochemical reaction cannot be reduced. Energy savings arise primarily through applying more efficient technologies and reducing ancillary energy use. Electricity (from New Latin Ä“lectricus, amberlike) is a general term for a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. ... English chemists John Daniell (left) and Michael Faraday (right), both credited to be founders of electrochemistry as known today. ...


Compounds

See also Chlorine compounds

For general references to the chloride ion (Cl), including references to specific chlorides, see chloride. For other chlorine compounds see chlorate (ClO3), chlorite (ClO2), hypochlorite(ClO), and perchlorate(ClO4), and chloramine (NH2Cl).[20] Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The chloride ion is formed when the element chlorine picks up one electron to form an anion (negatively-charged ion) Cl−. The salts of hydrochloric acid HCl contain chloride ions and can also be called chlorides. ... The chlorate ion Structure and bonding in the chlorate ion The chlorate ion ClO3−. A chlorate (compound) is a compound that contains this group, with chlorine in oxidation state +5. ... The chlorite ion This discusses some chlorine compounds. ... The hypochlorite ion The hypochlorite ion is ClO−. A hypochlorite compound is a chemical compound containing this group, with chlorine in oxidation state +1. ... Perchlorates are the salts derived from perchloric acid (HClO4). ... Chloramine (monochloramine) is chemical compound with the formula NH2Cl. ...


Other chlorine-containing compounds include:

Chlorine monofluoride has formula ClF. External links National Pollutant Inventory - Flouride and compounds fact sheet WebBook page for ClF Categories: | | ... Chlorine trifluoride is a colourless, very poisonous gas that condenses to a pale-yellow liquid. ... Chlorine pentafluoride has formula ClF5. ... Chlorine dioxide is a chemical compound with the formula ClO2. ... Dichlorine monoxide, Cl2O, is a chlorine oxide. ... Dichlorine heptoxide, Cl2O7, is a chlorine oxide. ... Hydrochloric acid is the aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride gas (HCl). ... Chloric acid, HClO3, is an oxoacid of chlorine, and the formal precursor of chlorate salts. ... Perchloric acid has the formula HClO4 and is a colorless liquid soluble in water. ...

Oxidation states

Oxidation
state
Name Formula Example compounds
−1 chlorides Cl ionic chlorides, organic chlorides, hydrochloric acid
0 chlorine Cl2 elemental chlorine
+1 hypochlorites ClO sodium hypochlorite, calcium hypochlorite
+3 chlorites ClO2 sodium chlorite
+5 chlorates ClO3 sodium chlorate, potassium chlorate, chloric acid
+7 perchlorates ClO4 potassium perchlorate, perchloric acid,magnesium perchlorate
organic perchlorates, ammonium perchlorate

Chlorine exists in all odd numbered oxidation states from −1 to +7, as well as the elemental state of zero. Progressing through the states, hydrochloric acid can be oxidized using manganese dioxide, or hydrogen chloride gas oxidized catalytically by air to form elemental chlorine gas. The solubility of chlorine in water is increased if the water contains dissolved alkali hydroxide. This is due to disproportionation: The chloride ion is formed when the element chlorine picks up one electron to form an anion (negatively-charged ion) Cl−. The salts of hydrochloric acid HCl contain chloride ions and can also be called chlorides. ... Hydrochloric acid is the aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride gas (HCl). ... The hypochlorite ion The hypochlorite ion is ClO−. A hypochlorite compound is a chemical compound containing this group, with chlorine in oxidation state +1. ... Sodium hypochlorite is a chemical compound with the formula NaClO. Sodium hypochlorite solution, commonly known as bleach, is frequently used as a disinfectant and as a bleaching agent. ... Calcium hypochlorite is a chemical compound with formula Ca(ClO)2. ... The chlorite ion This discusses some chlorine compounds. ... Sodium chlorite is a chemical compound used in the manufacture of paper. ... The chlorate ion Structure and bonding in the chlorate ion The chlorate ion ClO3−. A chlorate (compound) is a compound that contains this group, with chlorine in oxidation state +5. ... Sodium chlorate (NaClO3) is an oxidizing agent. ... Potassium chlorate is a compound containing potassium, chlorine and oxygen, with the chemical formula KClO3. ... Chloric acid, HClO3, is an oxoacid of chlorine, and the formal precursor of chlorate salts. ... Perchlorates are the salts derived from perchloric acid (HClO4). ... Potassium perchlorate, a perchlorate salt with the chemical formula KClO4, is a strong oxidizer. ... Perchloric acid has the formula HClO4 and is a colorless liquid soluble in water. ... Magnesium perchlorate is a powerful oxidizing agent, with the formula Mg(ClO4)2. ... Ammonium perchlorate is a chemical compound with the formula NH4ClO4. ... The oxidation state or oxidation number is defined as the sum of negative and positive charges in an atom, which indirectly indicates the number of electrons it has accepted or donated. ... Hydrochloric acid is the aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride gas (HCl). ... Manganese(IV) oxide is the chemical compound MnO2, commonly called manganese dioxide. ... R-phrases , S-phrases , , , , Flash point non-flammable Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Disproportionation is a concept in chemistry and is a redox reaction where a reactant is both oxidised and reduced in the same chemical reaction. ...

Cl2 + 2OH → Cl + ClO + H2O

In hot concentrated alkali solution disproportionation continues:

2ClO → Cl + ClO2
ClO + ClO2 → Cl + ClO3

Sodium chlorate and potassium chlorate can be crystallized from solutions formed by the above reactions. If their crystals are heated, they undergo the final disproportionation step. Sodium chlorate (NaClO3) is an oxidizing agent. ... Potassium chlorate is a compound containing potassium, chlorine and oxygen, with the chemical formula KClO3. ...

4ClO3 → Cl + 3ClO4

This same progression from chloride to perchlorate can be accomplished by electrolysis. The anode reaction progression is:[21] In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a method of separating chemically bonded elements and compounds by passing an electric current through them. ...

Reaction Electrode
potential
Cl + 2OH → ClO + H2O + 2e +0.89 volts
ClO + 2OH → ClO2 + H2O + 2e +0.67 volts
ClO2 + 2OH → ClO3 + H2O + 2e +0.33 volts
ClO3 + 2OH → ClO4 + H2O + 2e +0.35 volts


Each step is accompanied at the cathode by

2H2O + 2e → 2OH + H2          −0.83 volts

Applications and uses

Production of industrial and consumer products

Chlorine's principal applications are in the production of a wide range of industrial and consumer products.[22] [23] For example, it is used in making plastics, solvents for dry cleaning and metal degreasing, textiles, agrochemicals and pharmaceuticals, insecticides, dyestuffs, etc.


Purification and disinfection

Chlorine is an important chemical for water purification, in disinfectants, and in bleach. It is used (in the form of hypochlorous acid) to kill bacteria and other microbes in drinking water supplies and public swimming pools. However, in most private swimming pools chlorine itself is not used, but rather sodium hypochlorite (household bleach), formed from chlorine and sodium hydroxide, or solid tablets of chlorinated isocyanurates. Even small water supplies are now routinely chlorinated.[24] (See also chlorination) Water purification is the process of removing contaminants from a raw water source. ... This is an article about antimicrobial agents. ... This article is about the chemical whitener. ... Hypochlorous acid is a weak, unstable acid with chemical formula HOCl. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Tap water Mineral Water Drinking water is water that is intended to be ingested through drinking by humans. ... For the 2003 film, see Swimming Pool (film). ... Sodium hypochlorite is a chemical compound with the formula NaClO. Sodium hypochlorite solution, commonly known as bleach, is frequently used as a disinfectant and as a bleaching agent. ... Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as lye, caustic soda and (incorrectly, according to IUPAC nomenclature)[1] sodium hydrate, is a caustic metallic base. ... Chlorination is the process of adding the element chlorine to water as a method of water purification to make it fit for human consumption as drinking water. ...


Chemistry

Elemental chlorine is an oxidizer. It undergoes halogen substitution reactions with lower halide salts. For example, chlorine gas bubbled through a solution of bromide or iodide anions oxidizes them to bromine and iodine respectively. An oxidizing agent is a substance that oxidizes another substance in electrochemistry or redox chemical reactions in general. ...


Like the other halogens, chlorine participates in free-radical substitution reactions with hydrogen-containing organic compounds. This reaction is often – but not invariably – non-regioselective, and hence may result in a mixture of isomeric products. It is often difficult to control the degree of substitution as well, so multiple substitutions are common. If the different reaction products are easily separated, e.g. by distillation, substitutive free-radical chlorination (in some cases accompanied by concurrent thermal dehydrochlorination) may be a useful synthetic route. Industrial examples of this are the production of methyl chloride, methylene chloride, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride from methane, allyl chloride from propylene, and trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene from 1,2-dichloroethane. “Free radical” redirects here. ... Chloromethane or Methyl chloride is a chemical compound once widely used as a refrigerant. ... Dichloromethane or Methylene chloride is a chemical compound widely used as a solvent for organic materials. ... R-phrases , , , S-phrases , Flash point Non-flammable U.S. Permissible exposure limit (PEL) 50 ppm (240 mg/m3) (OSHA) Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... R-phrases , , , , S-phrases , , , , , Flash point Non flammable Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... allyl chloride Allyl chloride, or 3-chloropropene, is a very toxic and highly flammable clear liquid with chemical formula CH2CHCH2Cl, insoluble in water, used as an alkylating agent. ... The chemical compound trichloroethylene is a chlorinated hydrocarbon commonly used as an industrial solvent. ... Tetrachloroethylene Cl2C=CCl2 is a manufactured chemical compound that is widely used for the dry cleaning of fabrics and for metal-degreasing. ... Ethylene dichloride (EDC), systematically known as 1,2-dichloroethane is, together with vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) or chloroethene, the major precursor for PVC production. ...


Like the other halides, chlorine undergoes electrophilic additions reactions, most notably, the chlorination of alkenes and aromatic compounds with a Lewis acid catalyst. Organic chlorine compounds tend to be less reactive in nucleophilic substitution reactions than the corresponding bromine or iodine derivatives, but they tend to be cheaper. They may be activated for reaction by substituting with a tosylate group, or by the use of a catalytic amount of sodium iodide. Sodium iodide (NaI) is used in polymerase chain reactions (PCR) Categories: Chemistry stubs ...


Chlorine is used extensively in organic and inorganic chemistry as an oxidizing agent and in substitution reactions because chlorine often imparts many desired properties to an organic compound, due to its electronegativity. Organic chemistry is a specific discipline within chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of chemical compounds consisting primarily of carbon and hydrogen, which may contain any number of other elements, including nitrogen, oxygen, the halogens as... Inorganic chemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the properties and reactions of inorganic compounds. ... Substitution in the context of organic chemistry has the general meaning of replacing an atom, a functional group, or a substituent in a molecule. ... Benzene is the simplest of the arenes, a family of organic compounds An organic compound is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon. ...


Chlorine compounds are used as intermediates in the production of a number of important commercial products that do not contain chlorine. Examples are: polycarbonates, polyurethanes, silicones, polytetrafluoroethylene, carboxymethyl cellulose and propylene oxide. Polycarbonates are a particular group of thermoplastic polyesters. ... A polyurethane is any polymer consisting of a chain of organic units joined by urethane links. ... Not to be confused with the element silicon. ... In chemistry, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a synthetic fluoropolymer which finds numerous applications. ... Carboxymethyl cellulose, or CMC, is a cellulose derivative with carboxymethyl groups (-CH2-COOH) bound to some of the hydroxyl groups of the glucopyranose monomers that make up the cellulose backbone. ... Propylene oxide is a highly toxic flammable chemical compound. ...


Use as a weapon

  • World War I

Chlorine gas, also known as bertholite, was first used as a weapon in World War I by Germany on April 22, 1915 in the Second Battle of Ypres. As described by the soldiers it had a distinctive smell of a mixture between pepper and pineapple. It also tasted metallic and stung the back of the throat and chest. Chlorine can react with water in the mucosa of the lungs to form hydrochloric acid, an irritant which can be lethal. The damage done by chlorine gas can be prevented by a gas mask which makes the deaths by chlorine gas much lower then those of other chemical weapons. It was pioneered by a German scientist later to be a Nobel laureate, Fritz Haber of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute in Berlin, in collaboration with the German chemical conglomerate IG Farben, who developed methods for discharging chlorine gas against an entrenched enemy. It is alleged that Haber's role in the use of chlorine as a deadly weapon drove his wife, Clara Immerwahr, to suicide. After its first use, chlorine was utilized by both sides as a chemical weapon, but it was soon replaced by the more deadly gases phosgene and mustard gas.[25] A poison gas attack using gas cylinders in World War I. The use of poison gas in World War I was a major military innovation. ... Chemical warfare is warfare (and associated military operations) using the toxic properties of chemical substances to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants Belgium  Canada France Colonial forces United Kingdom British India  German Empire Commanders Horace Smith-Dorrien[1] Henri Gabriel Putz[2] A.-L.-T. de Ceuninck[3] Albrecht of Württemberg[4] Strength 8 infantry divisions[5] 7 infantry divisions Casualties 70,000 dead, wounded, or missing 35,000 dead... Hydrochloric acid is the aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride gas (HCl). ... Fritz Haber (9 December 1868 – 29 January 1934) was a German chemist, who received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1918 for his development of synthetic ammonia, important for fertilisers and explosives. ... IG Farben (short for Interessen-Gemeinschaft Farbenindustrie AG) was a German conglomerate of companies formed in 1925 and even earlier during World War I. IG Farben held nearly a total monopoly on the chemical production, later during the time of Nazi Germany. ... For other uses of the word, see Trench (disambiguation). ... Clara Immerwahr (June 21, 1870 – May 2, 1915) was the German born wife of the well known chemist, Fritz Haber, who was most widely known for his development of the Haber-Bosch process, an effective method of synthesizing ammonia. ... Phosgene is a highly toxic chemical compound with the formula COCl2. ... Airborne exposure limit 0. ...

  • Iraq War

Chlorine gas has also been used by insurgents in the Iraq War as a chemical weapon to terrorize the local population and coalition forces. On March 17, 2007, for example, three chlorine filled trucks were detonated in the Anbar province killing 2 and sickening over 350.[26] Other chlorine bomb attacks resulted in higher death tolls, with more than 30 deaths on two separate occasions.[27] Most of the deaths were caused by the force of the explosions rather than the effects of chlorine, since the toxic gas is readily dispersed and diluted in the atmosphere by the blast. The Iraqi authorities have tightened up security for chlorine, which is essential for providing safe drinking water for the population. Chlorine bombings in Iraq began in January 2007, when terrorists in Al Anbar province started using chlorine gas in conjunction with conventional vehicle-borne explosive devices. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... There are two types of devices referred to as a chlorine bomb, one a small-scale device using the pressure of chlorine gas to produce an explosion, and the other a terrorist weapon - using the chlorine itself as a chemical weapon. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


Other uses

Chlorine is used in the manufacture of numerous organic chlorine compounds, the most significant of which in terms of production volume are 1,2-dichloroethane and vinyl chloride, intermediates in the production of PVC. Other particularly important organochlorines are methyl chloride, methylene chloride, chloroform, vinylidene chloride, trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, allyl chloride, epichlorohydrin, chlorobenzene, dichlorobenzenes and trichlorobenzenes. The chemical compound 1,2-dichloroethane, commonly known by its old name of ethylene dichloride (EDC), is a chlorinated hydrocarbon, mainly used to produce vinyl chloride monomer (VCM, chloroethene), the major precursor for PVC production. ... Vinyl chloride, also known as chloroethene in IUPAC nomenclature, is an important industrial chemical chiefly used to produce its polymer, polyvinyl chloride (PVC). ... PVC may refer to the following: Polyvinyl chloride, a plastic Premature ventricular contraction, irregular heartbeat Permanent virtual circuit, a term used in telecommunications and computer networks Param Vir Chakra, Indias highest military honor. ... Chloromethane or Methyl chloride is a chemical compound once widely used as a refrigerant. ... Dichloromethane or Methylene chloride is a chemical compound widely used as a solvent for organic materials. ... R-phrases , , , S-phrases , Flash point Non-flammable U.S. Permissible exposure limit (PEL) 50 ppm (240 mg/m3) (OSHA) Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Disclaimer and references 1,1-Dichloroethene, commonly called 1,1-dichloroethylene or 1,1-DCE, is an organochloride with the molecular formula C2H2Cl2. ... The chemical compound trichloroethylene is a chlorinated hydrocarbon commonly used as an industrial solvent. ... Tetrachloroethylene Cl2C=CCl2 is a manufactured chemical that is widely used for the dry cleaning of fabrics and for metal-degreasing. ... allyl chloride Allyl chloride, or 3-chloropropene, is a very toxic and highly flammable clear liquid with chemical formula CH2CHCH2Cl, insoluble in water, used as an alkylating agent. ... Epichlorohydrin is reactive organic compound. ... Chlorobenzene is an aromatic organic compound with the chemical formula C6H5Cl. ... 1,2,3-Trichlorobenzene 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene 1,3,5-Trichlorobenzene Trichlorobenzene may refer to any of three isomeric chlorinated derivatives of benzene with the molecular formula C6H3Cl3: 1,2,3-Trichlorobenzene 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene 1,3,5-Trichlorobenzene Categories: | | ...


Chlorine is also used in the production of chlorates and in bromine extraction. The chlorate ion Structure and bonding in the chlorate ion The chlorate ion ClO3−. A chlorate (compound) is a compound that contains this group, with chlorine in oxidation state +5. ... Bromo redirects here. ...


History

Chlorine was discovered in 1774 by Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele, who called it dephlogisticated marine acid (see phlogiston theory) and mistakenly thought it contained oxygen. Scheele isolated chlorine by reacting MnO2 with HCl. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Carl Wilhelm Scheele Scheeles house with his pharmacy in Köping. ... Phlogiston theory was a 17th century attempt to explain oxidation processes, such as fire and rust. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... Manganese(IV) oxide is the chemical compound MnO2, commonly called manganese dioxide. ... Hydrochloric acid is the aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride gas (HCl). ...

4 HCl + MnO2 → MnCl2 + 2 H2O + Cl2

Scheele observed several of the properties of chlorine. The bleaching effect on litmus and the deadly effect on insects additional to the yellow green colour and the smell similar to aqua regina. Chlorine was given its current name in 1810 by Sir Humphry Davy, who insisted that it was in fact an element. Litmus may refer to: a litmus test Litmus, a test case management tool developed by Mozilla. ... Humphry Davy Sir Humphry Davy (December 17, 1778 - May 29, 1829), often incorrectly spelled Humphrey, was an Cornish chemist. ...


Safety

Chlorine is a toxic gas that irritates the respiratory system. Because it is heavier than air, it tends to accumulate at the bottom of poorly ventilated spaces. Chlorine gas is a strong oxidizer, which may react with flammable materials.[28] Image File history File links Skull_and_crossbones. ...


Never use ABC Dry Chemical to fight a chlorine fire, the resulting chemical reaction with the ammonium phosphate will release toxic gases and/or result in an explosion. Water fogs or CAFS should be used to extinguish the material.[28] {| class=wikitable |- Bold text |}ABC or Multi-Purpose dry chemical is a dry chemical extinguishing agent. ... A Compressed Air Foam System, abbreviated CAFS, is a system used in firefighting to deliver fire retardant foam for the purpose of extinguishing a fire or protecting unburned areas from becoming involved in flame. ...


The number of people allergic to chlorine is very small.[citation needed] People who are allergic to chlorine cannot drink tap water, bathe in tap water or swim in pools. Dechlorinating bath salts are used to neutralize the chlorine in bath water. Otherwise, fresh water is boiled and cooled. The name bath salts is applied to a range of soluble solid products designed to be added to a bath, either to improve cleaning, provide a medical improvement, or to improve the experience of bathing. ...


Chlorine cracking

chlorine attack of acetal resin plumbing joint

The element is widely used for purifying water owing to its powerful oxidising properties, especially potable water supplies and water used in swimming pools. However, some polymers are sensitive to attack, including acetal resin and polybutene. Both materials were used in hot and cold water domestic supplies, and stress corrosion cracking cause widespread failures in the USA in the 1980's and 90's. One example shows an acetal joint in a water supply system, which when it fractured, caused substantial physical damage to computers in the labs below the supply. The cracks started at injection moulding defects in the joint and grew slowly until finally triggered. The fracture surface shows iron and calcium salts which were deposited in the leaking joint from the water supply before failure. For the 2003 film, see Swimming Pool (film). ... A polymer (from Greek: πολυ, polu, many; and μέρος, meros, part) is a substance composed of molecules with large molecular mass composed of repeating structural units, or monomers, connected by covalent chemical bonds. ... Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is the unexpected sudden failure of normally ductile metals subjected to a constant tensile stress in a corrosive environment, especially at elevated temperature. ... Injection moulding is a manufacturing technique for making parts from thermoplastic material in production. ...


See also

The chloride ion is formed when the element chlorine picks up one electron to form an anion (negatively-charged ion) Cl−. The salts of hydrochloric acid HCl contain chloride ions and can also be called chlorides. ... Polymer degradation is an undesirable change in the properties - tensile strength, colour, shape, etc - of a polymer or polymer based product under the influence of one or more environmental factors such as heat, light or chemicals. ...

References

  1. ^ Merck Index of Chemicals and Drugs, 9th ed., monograph 2065
  2. ^ a b WebElements.com – Chlorine. Mark Winter [The University of Sheffield and WebElements Ltd, UK]. Retrieved on 2007-03-17.
  3. ^ Merck Index of Chemicals and Drugs, 9th ed.
  4. ^ Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 10th ed
  5. ^ Risk assessment and the cycling of natural organochlorines. Euro Chlor. Retrieved on 2007-08-12.
  6. ^ Pauling, Linus, General Chemistry, 1970 ed., Dover publications
  7. ^ Electrolytic Processes for Chlorine and Caustic Soda. Lenntech Water treatment & air purification Holding B.V., Rotterdamseweg 402 M, 2629 HH Delft, The Netherlands. Retrieved on 2007-03-17.
  8. ^ Mercury cell. Euro Chlor. Retrieved on 2007-08-15.
  9. ^ Regional Awareness-raising Workshop on Mercury Pollution. UNEP. Retrieved on 2007-10-28.
  10. ^ Diaphragm cell. Euro Chlor. Retrieved on 2007-08-15.
  11. ^ The Electrolysis of Brine. Salt Manufacturers' Association. Retrieved on 2007-03-17.
  12. ^ a b Kiefer, David M.. When the Industry Charged Ahead. Chemistry Chronicles. Retrieved on 2007-03-17.
  13. ^ Membrane cell. Euro Chlor. Retrieved on 2007-08-15.
  14. ^ J. Catal. 255, 29 (2008)
  15. ^ The Chlorine Industry. Lenntech Water treatment & air purification Holding B.V., Rotterdamseweg 402 M, 2629 HH Delft, The Netherlands. Retrieved on 2007-03-17.
  16. ^ Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) - Reference Document on Best Available Techniques in the Chlor-Alkali Manufacturing Industry. European Commission. Retrieved on 2007-09-02.
  17. ^ Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) - Best Available Techniques Reference Document on the Production of Iron and Steel. European Commission. Retrieved on 2007-09-02.
  18. ^ Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) - Reference Document on Best Available Techniques in the Glass Manufacturing Industry. European Commission. Retrieved on 2007-09-02.
  19. ^ Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) - Reference Document on Best Available Techniques in the Cement and Lime Manufacturing Industries. European Commission. Retrieved on 2007-09-02.
  20. ^ Chlorine compounds of the month. Euro Chlor. Retrieved on 2007-08-29.
  21. ^ Cotton, F. Albert and Wilkinson, Geoffrey, Advanced Inorganic Chemistry 2nd ed. John Wiley & sons, p568
  22. ^ Uses. Euro Chlor. Retrieved on 2007-08-20.
  23. ^ Chlorine Tree. Chlorine Tree. Retrieved on 2007-08-20.
  24. ^ Chlorine. Los Alamos National Laboratory. Retrieved on 2007-03-17.
  25. ^ Weapons of War: Poison Gas. First World War.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-12.
  26. ^ Mahdi, Basim. "Iraq gas attack makes hundreds ill", CNN, 2007-03-17. Retrieved on 2007-03-17. 
  27. ^ "'Chlorine bomb' hits Iraq village", BBC News, 2007-05-17. Retrieved on 2007-05-17. 
  28. ^ a b "Chlorine." MSDS. Issued on October 23, 1997; Revised on November 1, 1999; Retrieved on September 8, 2007.

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... This article is about the day of the year. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... This article is about the day of the year. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... This article is about the day of the year. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...

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The Periodic Table redirects here. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... General Name, symbol, number helium, He, 2 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 1, s Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 4. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, symbol, number beryllium, Be, 4 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 2, s Appearance white-gray metallic Standard atomic weight 9. ... For other uses, see Boron (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... Distinguished from fluorene and fluorone. ... For other uses, see Neon (disambiguation). ... For sodium in the diet, see Salt. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... Aluminum redirects here. ... Not to be confused with Silicone. ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, symbol, number argon, Ar, 18 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 3, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 39. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number scandium, Sc, 21 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 3, 4, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 44. ... General Name, symbol, number titanium, Ti, 22 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 4, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 47. ... General Name, symbol, number vanadium, V, 23 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 5, 4, d Appearance silver-grey metal Standard atomic weight 50. ... REDIRECT [[ Insert text]]EWWWWWWWWWWWWW YO General Name, symbol, number chromium, Cr, 24 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 6, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 51. ... General Name, symbol, number manganese, Mn, 25 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 7, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 54. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... For other uses, see Cobalt (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nickel (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... Not to be confused with Galium. ... General Name, Symbol, Number germanium, Ge, 32 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 14, 4, p Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 72. ... General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 4, p Appearance metallic gray Standard atomic weight 74. ... For other uses, see Selenium (disambiguation). ... Bromo redirects here. ... For other uses, see Krypton (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number rubidium, Rb, 37 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 5, s Appearance grey white Standard atomic weight 85. ... General Name, Symbol, Number strontium, Sr, 38 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 5, s Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 87. ... General Name, Symbol, Number yttrium, Y, 39 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 3, 5, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 88. ... General Name, Symbol, Number zirconium, Zr, 40 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 5, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 91. ... General Name, Symbol, Number niobium, Nb, 41 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 5, 5, d Appearance gray metallic Standard atomic weight 92. ... General Name, Symbol, Number molybdenum, Mo, 42 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 5, d Appearance gray metallic Standard atomic weight 95. ... General Name, Symbol, Number technetium, Tc, 43 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 7, 5, d Appearance silvery gray metal Standard atomic weight [98](0) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Kr] 4d5 5s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 13, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Ruthenium, Ru, 44 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 5, d Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 101. ... General Name, Symbol, Number rhodium, Rh, 45 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 9, 5, d Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 102. ... For other uses, see Palladium (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number cadmium, Cd, 48 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 5, d Appearance silvery gray metallic Standard atomic weight 112. ... General Name, Symbol, Number indium, In, 49 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Standard atomic weight 114. ... This article is about the metallic chemical element. ... This article is about the element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tellurium, Te, 52 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 16, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Standard atomic weight 127. ... For other uses, see Iodine (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number xenon, Xe, 54 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 5, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 131. ... General Name, Symbol, Number caesium, Cs, 55 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 6, s Appearance silvery gold Standard atomic weight 132. ... For other uses, see Barium (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number lanthanum, La, 57 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block 3, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 138. ... General Name, Symbol, Number cerium, Ce, 58 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 140. ... General Name, Symbol, Number praseodymium, Pr, 59 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 140. ... General Name, Symbol, Number neodymium, Nd, 60 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white, yellowish tinge Standard atomic weight 144. ... General Name, Symbol, Number promethium, Pm, 61 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance metallic Atomic mass [145](0) g/mol Electron configuration [Xe] 4f5 6s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 23, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number samarium, Sm, 62 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 150. ... General Name, Symbol, Number gadolinium, Gd, 64 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 157. ... General Name, Symbol, Number terbium, Tb, 65 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 158. ... General Name, Symbol, Number dysprosium, Dy, 66 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 162. ... General Name, Symbol, Number holmium, Ho, 67 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 164. ... General Name, Symbol, Number erbium, Er, 68 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 167. ... General Name, Symbol, Number thulium, Tm, 69 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block ?, 6, f Appearance silvery gray Atomic mass 168. ... Yb redirects here; for the unit of information see Yottabit General Name, Symbol, Number ytterbium, Yb, 70 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 173. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lutetium, Lu, 71 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 174. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hafnium, Hf, 72 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 6, d Appearance grey steel Standard atomic weight 178. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tantalum, Ta, 73 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 5, 6, d Appearance gray blue Standard atomic weight 180. ... For other uses, see Tungsten (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number rhenium, Re, 75 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 7, 6, d Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 186. ... General Name, Symbol, Number osmium, Os, 76 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 6, d Appearance silvery, blue cast Standard atomic weight 190. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number platinum, Pt, 78 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 6, d Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 195. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... This article is about the element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number thallium, Tl, 81 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 6, p Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 204. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... General Name, Symbol, Number bismuth, Bi, 83 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 15, 6, p Appearance lustrous pink Standard atomic weight 208. ... General Name, Symbol, Number polonium, Po, 84 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 16, 6, p Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight (209) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p4 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 6 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number astatine, At, 85 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 6, p Appearance metallic (presumed) Standard atomic weight (210) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p5 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 7 Physical properties Phase solid Melting point 575 K... For other uses, see Radon (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number francium, Fr, 87 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 7, s Appearance metallic Standard atomic weight (223) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 7s1 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 8, 1 Physical properties Phase  ? solid Density (near r. ... For other uses, see Radium (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number actinium, Ac, 89 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block 3, 7, f Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight (227) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 9, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number thorium, Th, 90 Chemical series Actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 232. ... General Name, Symbol, Number protactinium, Pa, 91 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance bright, silvery metallic luster Standard atomic weight 231. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number neptunium, Np, 93 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight (237) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f4 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 22, 9, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... This article is about the radioactive element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number americium, Am, 95 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white sometimes yellow Standard atomic weight (243) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f7 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 25, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near... General Name, Symbol, Number curium, Cm, 96 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block ?, 7, f Appearance silvery Atomic mass (247) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f7 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 25, 9, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number berkelium, Bk, 97 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (247) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f9 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 27, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid... General Name, Symbol, Number californium, Cf, 98 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (251) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f10 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 28, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid... General Name, Symbol, Number einsteinium, Es, 99 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Standard atomic weight (252) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f11 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 29, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase... General Name, Symbol, Number fermium, Fm, 100 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (257) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f12 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 30, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid... General Name, Symbol, Number mendelevium, Md, 101 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (258) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f13 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 31, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid... General Name, Symbol, Number nobelium, No, 102 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (259) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f14 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Melting... General Name, Symbol, Number lawrencium, Lr, 103 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Standard atomic weight [262] g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f14 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 9, 2 Physical... General Name, Symbol, Number rutherfordium, Rf, 104 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 7, d Standard atomic weight (265) g·mol−1 Electron configuration probably [Rn] 5f14 6d2 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 10, 2 Physical properties Phase presumably a solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number dubnium, Db, 105 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 5, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (262) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d3 7s2 (guess based on tantalum) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 11... General Name, Symbol, Number seaborgium, Sg, 106 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (266) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d4 7s2 (guess based on tungsten) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 12... General Name, Symbol, Number bohrium, Bh, 107 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 7, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (264) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d5 7s2 (guess based on rhenium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 13... General Name, Symbol, Number hassium, Hs, 108 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (269) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d6 7s2 (guess based on osmium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 14... General Name, Symbol, Number meitnerium, Mt, 109 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 9, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (268) g·mol−1 Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d7 7s2 (guess based on iridium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number darmstadtium, Ds, 110 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (281) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d9 7s1 (guess based on platinum) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 17... General Name, Symbol, Number roentgenium, Rg, 111 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably yellow or orange metallic Atomic mass (284) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s1 (guess based on gold) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 1... General Name, Symbol, Number ununbium, Uub, 112 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray liquid Atomic mass (285) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 (guess based on mercury) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number ununtrium, Uut, 113 Chemical series presumably poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (284) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p1 (guess based on thallium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number ununquadium, Uuq, 114 Chemical series presumably poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (298) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p2 (guess based on lead) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number ununpentium, Uup, 115 Group, Period, Block 15, 7, p Atomic mass (299) g·mol−1 Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p3 (guess based on bismuth) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 5 CAS registry number 54085-64-2 Selected isotopes References... General Name, Symbol, Number ununhexium, Uuh, 116 Chemical series presumably poor metals Group, Period, Block 16, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (302) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p4 (guess based on polonium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number ununseptium, Uus, 117 Chemical series presumably halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably dark metallic Standard atomic weight predicted, (310) g·mol−1 Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p5 (guess based on astatine) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number ununoctium, Uuo, 118 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably colorless Atomic mass predicted, (314) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p6 (guess based on radon) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 8 Phase... The alkali metals are a series of elements comprising Group 1 (IUPAC style) of the periodic table: lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs), and francium (Fr). ... The alkaline earth metals are a series of elements comprising Group 2 (IUPAC style) of the periodic table: beryllium (Be), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba) and radium (Ra). ... The lanthanide (or lanthanoid) series comprises the 15 elements with atomic numbers 57 through 71, from lanthanum to lutetium[1]. All lanthanides are f-block elements, corresponding to the filling of the 4f electron shell, except for lutetium which is a d-block lanthanide. ... The actinide (or actinoid) series encompasses the 15 chemical elements that lie between actinium and lawrencium on the periodic table, with atomic numbers 89 - 103[1]. The actinide series derives its name from the first element in the series, actinium. ... This article is in need of attention. ... This article is about metallic materials. ... Metalloid is a term used in chemistry when classifying the chemical elements. ... Together with the metals and metalloids, a nonmetal is one of three categories of chemical elements as distinguished by ionization and bonding properties. ... This article is about the chemical series. ... This article is about the chemical series. ...


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Chlorine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1391 words)
Chlorine gas, also known as bertholite, was first used as a weapon against human beings in WWI on April 22nd, 1915, and afterwards was used by both sides.
In nature chlorine is found mainly as the chloride ion, a component of the salt that is deposited in the earth or dissolved in the oceans—about 1.9% of the mass of seawater is chloride ions.
Chlorine is used extensively in organic and inorganic chemistry as an oxidizing agent and in substitution reactions because chlorine often imparts many desired properties in an organic compound when it is substituted for hydrogen (as in synthetic rubber production).It has the highest electron affinity among halides.
Chlorine (Cl) - Chemical properties, Health and Environmental effects (814 words)
Chlorine is an important chemical in water purification, in disinfectants, in bleach and in mustard gas.
Chlorine often imparts many desired properties in an organic compound when it is substituted for hydrogen (synthetic rubber), so it is widely use in organic chemistry, in the production of chlorates, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, and in the bromine extraction.
Chlorine is especially harmful to organisms living in water and in soil.
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