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Encyclopedia > Chlamydophila pneumoniae
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Chlamydophila pneumoniae
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Phylum: Chlamydiae
Order: Chlamydiales
Family: Chlamydiaceae
Genus: Chlamydophila
Species: C. pneumoniae

Chlamydophila pneumoniae (previously known as Chlamydia pneumoniae) is a species of chlamydiae bacteria which infects humans and is a major cause of pneumonia. Chlamydophila pneumoniae has a complex life cycle and must infect another cell in order to reproduce and is thus is classified as an obligate intracellular pathogen. In addition to its role in pneumonia, there is evidence associating Chlamydophila pneumoniae with atherosclerosis and with asthma. The full genome sequence for Chlamydophila pneumoniae was published in 1999. Scientific classification or biological classification is how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Genera Chlamydia Chlamydophila Parachlamydia Simkania Waddlia The Chlamydiae are a group of bacteria, all of which are intracellular parasites of eukaryotic cells. ... Genera Chlamydia Chlamydophila Parachlamydia Simkania Waddlia The Chlamydiae are a group of bacteria, all of which are intracellular parasites of eukaryotic cells. ... Genera Chlamydia Chlamydophila Parachlamydia Simkania Waddlia The Chlamydiae are a group of bacteria, all of which are intracellular parasites of eukaryotic cells. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Pneumonia fills the lungs alveoli with fluid, keeping oxygen from reaching the bloodstream. ... For other uses, see Reproduction (disambiguation) Reproduction is the biological process by which new individual organisms are produced. ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) is a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ...

Contents


Life cycle and method of infection

Life cycle of Chlamydophila pneumoniae
Life cycle of Chlamydophila pneumoniae

Chlamydophila pneumoniae is a small bacteria (0.5 micrometres) which undergoes several transformations during its life cycle. It exists as an elementary body (EB) in between hosts. The EB is not biologically active but is resistant to environmental stresses and can survive outside outside of a host. The EB travels from an infected person to the lungs of a non-infected person in small droplets and is responsible for infection. Once in the lungs, the EB is taken up by cells in a pouch called an endosome by a process called phagocytosis. However, the EB is not destroyed by fusion with lysosomes as is typical for phagocytosed material. Instead, it transforms into a reticulate body and begins to replicate within the endosome. The reticulate bodies must utilize some of the host's cellular machinery to complete its replication. The reticulate bodies then convert back to elementary bodies and are released back into the lung, often after causing the death of the host cell. The EBs are thereafter able to infect new cells, either in the same organism or in a new host. Thus, the life cycle of Chlamydophila pneumoniae is divided between the elementary body which is able to infect new hosts but can not replicate and the reticulate body which replicates but is not able to cause new infection. ImageMetadata File history File links Chlamydophila_pneumoniae. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Chlamydophila_pneumoniae. ... A micrometre (American spelling: micrometer), symbol µm, is an SI unit of length. ... This article needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... The lungs flank the heart and great vessels in the chest cavity. ... See also drop (telecommunication). ... A cell is a single unit or compartment, enclosed by a border or wall. ... In biology an endosome is a membrane-bound compartment inside cells. ... Phagocytosis (literally, cell eating) is a form of endocytosis where large particles are enveloped by the cell membrane of a (usually larger) cell and internalized to form a phagosome, or food vacuole. ... Lysosomes contain digestive enzymes (acid hydrolases) to digest macromolecules. ... In biology and ecology, an organism (in Greek organon = instrument) is an assembly of organs that influence each other in such a way that they function as a more or less stable whole and have properties of life. ...


Pneumonia caused by Chlamydophila pneumoniae

Chlamydophila pneumoniae is a common cause of pneumonia around the world. Chlamydophila pneumoniae is typically acquired by otherwise healthy people and is a form of community-acquired pneumonia. Because treatment and diagnosis are different from historically recognized causes such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, pneumonia caused by Chlamydophila pneumoniae is categorized as an "atypical pneumonia." Pneumonia. ... Binomial name Streptococcus pneumoniae (Klein 1884) Chester 1901 Streptococcus pneumoniae is a species of Streptococcus that is a major human pathogen. ... Atypical pneumonia is a term used to describe a disease caused by one or a combination of the following organisms: Legionella pneumophila Causes a severe from of pneumonia with a relatively high mortality rate. ...


Symptoms and diagnosis

Symptoms of infection with Chlamydophila pneumoniae are indistiguishable from other causes of pneumonia. These include cough, fever, and difficulties breathing. Chlamydophila pneumoniae more often causes sore throat, hoarse voice, and sinusitis than other causes of pneumonia; however, because many other causes of pneumonia results in these symptoms, differentiation is not possible. Likewise, a physical examination by a health provider does not typically provide information which allows for a definite diagnosis. Hyperthermia: Characterized on the left. ... Dyspnea (Latin dyspnoea, Greek dyspnoia from dyspnoos - short of breath) or shortness of breath (SOB) is perceived difficulty breathing or pain on breathing. ... A sore throat, otherwise known as pharyngitis, is a painful inflammation of the throat. ... Sinusitis is inflammation, either bacterial, viral, allergic or autoimmune, of the paranasal sinuses. ... In medicine, physical examination, or clinical examination, is the process by which the physician investigates the body of a patient for signs of disease . ... Diagnosis (from the Greek words dia = by and gnosis = knowledge) is the process of identifying a disease by its signs, symptoms and results of various diagnostic procedures. ...


Diagnosis of Chlamydophila pneumoniae may be confounded by prior infections with this microorganism. Examination of sputum or the secretions of the respiratory tract may reveal signs of the bacteria. Otherwise, examination of the blood may reveal antibodies against the bacteria. If there has been a prior infection, this may have resulting in pre-existing antibodies. Therefore, interpretation may require a period of six weeks in order to reanalyze the antibodies and to determine whether the infection was new or old. Examination of the blood may also show proteins (antigens) from Chlamydophila pneumoniae, either through direct fluorescent antibody testing, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), or polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A microorganism or microbe is an organism that is so small that it is microscopic (invisible to the naked eye). ... Sputum is matter that is coughed up from the respiratory tract, such as mucus or phlegm, mixed with saliva and then expectorated from the mouth. ... In humans the respiratory tract is the part of the anatomy that has to do with the process of respiration or breathing. ... Schematic of antibody binding to an antigen An antibody is a protein used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects like bacteria and viruses. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... An antigen is a molecule that stimulates the production of antibodies. ... Direct fluorescent antibody technique is a laboratory tool. ... The Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA or EIA for short) is a biochemical technique used in immunology to detect the presence of an antibody or an antigen in a sample. ... Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a molecular biological technique for amplifying (creating multiple copies of) DNA without using a living organism, such as E. coli or yeast. ...


Chest x-rays of lungs infected with Chlamydophila pneumoniae often show a small patch of increased shadow (opacity). However, many different patterns are common and there is no appearance which allows for a definite diagnosis.


Treatment and prognosis

Typically, treatment for pneumonia is begun before the causative microorganism is identified. This empiric therapy includes an antibiotic active against the atypical bacteria, including Chlamydophila pneumoniae. The most common type of antibiotic used is a macrolide such as azithromycin or clarithromycin. If testing reveals that Chlamydophila pneumoniae is the causative agent, therapy may be switched to doxycycline, which is slightly more effective against the bacteria. Sometimes a quinolone antibiotic such as levofloxacin may be started empirically. This group is not as effective against Chlamydophila pneumoniae. Treatment is typically continued for ten to fourteen days for known infections. Empiric therapy is a medical term referring to the initiation of treatment prior to determination of a firm diagnosis. ... An antibiotic is a drug that kills or slows the growth of bacteria. ... The most commonly-prescribed macrolide antibiotics are: erythromycin clarithromycin azithromycin roxithromycin Others are: spiramycin (used for treating toxoplasmosis), ansamycin, oleandomycin, carbomycin and tylocine. ... Azithromycin is the first macrolide antibiotic belonging to the azalide group. ... Clarithromycin is a macrolide antibiotic used to treat pharyngitis, tonsillitis, acute maxillary sinusitis, acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis, pneumonia (especially atypical pneumonias associated with Chlamydia pneumoniae or TWAR), skin and skin structure infections, and, in HIV and AIDS patients to prevent, and to treat, disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex or... Doxycycline is a tetracycline antibiotic that is commonly prescribed by medical doctors for infections and to treat acne. ... Quinolones and fluoroquinolones form a group of broad-spectrum antibiotics. ... Levofloxacin is relatively new fluoroquinolone antibiotic, marketed by Ortho-McNeil under the brand name Levaquin. ...


Prognosis of pneumonia caused by Chlamydophila pneumoniae is excellent. Hospitalization is uncommon, complications are rare, and most people have no residual deficits. In fact, Chlamydophila pneumoniae is a common cause of walking pneumonia, so named because most people are able to continue to walk and participate in reduced activity during infection. A physician visiting the sick in a hospital. ... Several fields refer to compliations: Complication (medicine) - a unfavorable evolution of a disease, a health condition or a medical treatment Complication (horology) - a special feature in a mechanical clock that causes the design of the movement to become more complicated This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that...


Epidemiology and prevention

Chlamydophila pneumoniae affects all age groups and is most common among the 60-79 year old age group. Reinfection is common after a short period of immunity. The incidence is one case in one thousand people per year and causes ten percent of community-acquired pneumonias treated without hospitalization. As of 2005, there are no vaccines or other ways to prevent infection other than good hygiene. 2005 (MMV) is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to produce active immunity to a disease, in order to prevent or ameliorate the effects of infection by any natural or wild strain of the organism. ... Hygiene is the maintenance of healthy practices. ...


Other illnesses caused by Chlamydophila pneumoniae

In addition to pneumonia, Chlamydophila pneumoniae less commonly causes several other illnesses. Among these are meningoencephalitis (infection and inflammation of the brain and spinal cord), arthritis, myocarditis (inflammation of the heart), and Guillain-Barré syndrome (inflammation of the nerves). Encephalitis is an acute inflammation of the brain, commonly caused by a viral infection. ... Inflammation is the first response of the immune system to infection or irritation and may be referred to as the innate cascade. ... Please help to figure out license type for the image Comparative brain sizes. For other articles about other subjects named brain see brain (disambiguation). ... The spinal cord is a part of the vertebrate nervous system that is enclosed in and protected by the vertebral column (it passes through the spinal canal). ... Arthritis (from Greek arthro-, joint + -itis, inflammation) is a group of conditions that affect the health of the bone joints in the body. ... In medicine (cardiology), myocarditis is inflammation of the myocardium, the muscular part of the heart. ... The heart and lungs (from an older edition of Grays Anatomy) The heart (Latin cor) is a hollow, muscular organ that pumps blood through the blood vessels by repeated, rhythmic contractions. ... Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), is an acquired immune-mediated inflammatory disorder of the peripheral nervous system (i. ...


Links between Chlamydophila pneumoniae and chronic inflammatory diseases

In addition to acute infections already covered, Chlamydophila pneumoniae has been implicated in several chronic diseases. There is evidence that the onset of asthma, a chronic inflammatory disease of the lungs, is associated with infection with Chlamydophila pneumoniae. However, a definite link has not been established and, as of 2005, investigation is ongoing. 2005 (MMV) is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Links between infection with Chlamydophila pneumoniae heart attacks (myocardial infarction) and atherosclerosis have also been found. In fact, Chlamydophila pneumoniae has been found within plaques in the walls of coronary arteries supplying the heart. Antibody levels against Chlamydophila pneumoniae are also higher in people with heart problems. Unfortunately, as of 2005, no treatment of infection has not been shown to decrease incidence of myocardial infarction. A myocardial infarction occurs when an atherosclerotic plaque slowly builds up in the inner lining of a coronary artery and then suddenly ruptures, totally occluding the artery and preventing blood flow downstream. ... The coronary circulation consists of the blood vessels that supply blood to, and remove blood from, the heart. ... 2005 (MMV) is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


References

  • Kalman, S et al. 1999. Comparative genomes of Chlamydia pneumoniae and C. trachomatis. Nature Genetics 21:385-389 PMID 10192388
  • O'Connor S, et al. Potential Infectious Etiologies of Atherosclerosis: A Multifactorial Perspective. Emerging Infectious Diseases, Vol 7, Sept-Oct 2001
  • Hahn DL, Dodge RW, Golubjatnikov R. Association of Chlamydia pneumoniae (TWAR) infection with wheezing, asthmatic bronchitis and adult-onset asthma. JAMA 1991,266:225-30.
  • Cannon CP, Braunwald E, McCabe CH, Grayston JT, Muhlestein B, Giugliano RP, Cairns R, Skene AM; Pravastatin or Atorvastatin Evaluation and Infection Therapy-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 22 Investigators. Antibiotic treatment of Chlamydia pneumoniae after acute coronary syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2005 Apr 21;352(16):1646-54. PMID 15843667

External link

  • http://fpnotebook.com/LUN24.htm "Family Practice Notebook" page on Chlamydia pneumoniae

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