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Encyclopedia > Chkdsk

CHKDSK (8.3 command shortening of Checkdisk) is a command in DOS and Microsoft Windows systems which verifies a hard disk or a floppy disk for file system integrity. It is similar to the fsck command in Unix. Shortcut: WP:-( Vandalism is indisputable bad-faith addition, deletion, or change to content, made in a deliberate attempt to compromise the integrity of the encyclopedia. ... Shortcut: WP:-( Vandalism is indisputable bad-faith addition, deletion, or change to content, made in a deliberate attempt to compromise the integrity of the encyclopedia. ... A 8. ... Instructions on how to use the directory command. ... Microsoft Windows is the name of several families of proprietary software operating systems by Microsoft. ... Typical hard drives of the mid-1990s. ... A floppy disk is a data storage device that is composed of a disk of thin, flexible (floppy) magnetic storage medium encased in a square or rectangular plastic shell. ... It has been suggested that Crash counting be merged into this article or section. ... The system utility fsck (for file system check or file system consistency check) is a tool for checking the consistency of a file system in the Unix system and clones thereof. ... Filiation of Unix and Unix-like systems Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX®) is a computer operating system originally developed in the 1960s and 1970s by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie and Douglas McIlroy. ...

Contents

Usage

By default, CHKDSK neither fixes errors nor checks for bad sectors. In order to fix errors while using the command line interface, the /F parameter should be specified. In order to check for and mark bad sectors, the /R parameter should be specified. Other parameters can be listed by typing the command chkdsk /? This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Windows NT based

Under Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows 2003, Windows XP and Windows Vista, CHKDSK can also check the disk surface for bad sectors, a task previously done by SCANDISK. CHKDSK can also fix errors. Windows NT is a family of operating systems produced by Microsoft, the first version of which was released in July 1993. ... Windows 2000 (also referred to as Win2K) is a preemptive, interruptible, graphical and business-oriented operating system that was designed to work with either uniprocessor or symmetric multi-processor 32-bit Intel x86 computers. ... Windows Server 2003 Desktop The successor to Windows 2000 Server, Microsofts Windows Server 2003 (codename Whistler Server, also known as Windows NT 5. ... Windows XP is a line of proprietary operating systems developed by Microsoft for use on general-purpose computer systems, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, and media centers. ... Windows Vista is a line of graphical operating systems used on personal computers, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, Tablet PCs, and media centers. ... A bad sector is a sector on a computers disk drive that cannot be used due to permanent damage, such as physical damage to the disk particles. ... SCANDISK or Scandisk is a command in MS-DOS and Microsoft Windows systems which verifies hard disk or floppy disk for file system integrity. ...


Running CHKDSK

Under Windows, CHKDSK can be run both from a console window, as the chkdsk command with flags, and from My Computer using the graphical user interface. For the latter, A graphical user interface (GUI) is a type of user interface which allows people to interact with a computer and computer-controlled devices which employ graphical icons, visual indicators or special graphical elements called widgets, along with text labels or text navigation to represent the information and actions available to...

  • Open My Computer
  • Right-click with the mouse on the disk or diskette to scan
  • Click Properties
  • Click the Tools tab
  • Press the Check Now... button in the Error-checking box
  • In the box that opens, check boxes allow the same functionality as the command line's /R and /F parameters

When used under Windows with the /F or the /R parameter when there are open files on the disk (for instance if running it on the boot disk) CHKDSK suggests it be run on the next restart. If the user agrees, it will execute autochk.exe when the computer is restarted, which will run the CHKDSK code. Operating a mechanical 1: Pulling the mouse turns the ball. ... Checkboxes in Mac OS X. In computing, a check box is a graphical user interface element (widget) that indicates a two-way choice or state (true/false) which can be edited by the user. ...


Sometimes the check still fails, giving the error "Cannot open volume for direct access" on startup, due to an application (anti-virus, anti-spyware, firewall, and the like) that locks up the partition before CHKDSK can access it. This has been improved in Service Pack 2, but still happens occasionally. One fix is to set the "/SAFEBOOT" option in the boot.ini tab after running msconfig.[1] This puts the system in a minimal/low-resolution mode temporarily, though, which can be disconcerting but does not mean that anything has broken. Anti-virus software consists of computer programs that attempt to identify, thwart and eliminate computer viruses and other malicious software (malware). ... Anti spyware is a tool to detect and remove spyware. ... Firewall separating zones of trust A firewall is a hardware or software device which is configured to permit, deny or proxy data through a computer network which has different levels of trust. ... Windows XP is a line of operating systems developed by Microsoft for use on general-purpose computer systems, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, and media centers. ...


If the check does not occur and does not provide any error messages, this may be due to a corrupt copy of autochk.exe. A clean copy can be copied from C:i386 to C:WINDOWSSYSTEM32 or from your Windows Installation CD.


Using the Recovery Console

When using the Windows Recovery Console, the CHKDSK command can use the following options:

The Windows 2000 Recovery Console selection, login, and command prompts. ...


/f : Does an exhaustive check of the drive and corrects any errors.
/r : Locates bad sectors and recovers readable information.


Note: If you specify the /r option, the /f option is implied. When you specify the chkdsk command without arguments, the command checks the current drive with no options in effect.


Viewing results

Conducting a CHKDSK can take some time, especially if using the /R parameter, and the results are often not visible, for various reasons. In order to view the results of a CHKDSK conducted on restart using Windows XP or Windows 2000,

  • Open the Control Panel
  • Double click on Administrative Tools
  • Double click on Event Viewer
  • Click on Application (Windows XP) or Application Log (Windows 2000) from the left hand side of the window
  • Find items labeled Winlogon under the Source column (clicking the Source column heading sorts the entries alphabetically)
  • Results of CHKDSKs on restart can be found in the Winlogon entries. They can be viewed by double-clicking. Look for one with the correct date and time.

A typical result:

 Checking file system on C: The type of the file system is NTFS. A disk check has been scheduled. Windows will now check the disk. Cleaning up minor inconsistencies on the drive. Cleaning up 318 unused index entries from index $SII of file 0x9. Cleaning up 318 unused index entries from index $SDH of file 0x9. Cleaning up 318 unused security descriptors. CHKDSK is verifying file data (stage 4 of 5)... File data verification completed. CHKDSK is verifying free space (stage 5 of 5)... Free space verification is complete. 14996645 KB total disk space. 10187752 KB in 88054 files. 30784 KB in 5774 indexes. 0 KB in bad sectors. 164341 KB in use by the system. 65536 KB occupied by the log file. 4613768 KB available on disk. 4096 bytes in each allocation unit. 3749161 total allocation units on disk. 1153442 allocation units available on disk. 

The MS-DOS 5 Bug

The version of CHKDSK (and Undelete) supplied with MS-DOS 5.0 has a serious bug which can corrupt data. This applies to CHKDSK.EXE and UNDELETE.EXE with a date of 04/09/91. If the file allocation table of a disk uses 256 sectors, running CHKDSK /F can cause data loss and running UNDELETE can cause unpredictable results. This normally affects disks with a capacity of approximately a multiple of 128 MB. This bug was fixed in MS-DOS 5.0a. A Microsoft Knowledge Base article[1] gives more details on this. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Microsofts disk operating system, MS-DOS, was Microsofts implementation of DOS, which was the first popular operating system for the IBM PC, and until recently, was widely used on the PC compatible platform. ... File Allocation Table (FAT) is a partially patented file system developed by Microsoft for MS-DOS and was the primary file system for consumer versions of Microsoft Windows up to and including Windows Me. ...


See also

DeFRaG is a free modification (mod) for id Softwares seminal first-person shooter computer game Quake 3 Arena (Q3A). ... The system utility fsck (for file system check or file system consistency check) is a tool for checking the consistency of a file system in the Unix system and clones thereof. ...

External links

  • Official help page about this command
  • Beginners guide to this command

References

  1. ^ Microsoft Knowledge Base article about the MS-DOS 5.0 CHKDSK bug

  Results from FactBites:
 
MS-DOS chkdsk command help (419 words)
Chkdsk is a utility which checks the computer's hard disk drives' status for any cross-linked or any additional errors with the hard disk drive.
The chkdsk command is an external command and is available in the below Microsoft Operating Systems.
Chkdsk may be used without any parameters, in which case the current drive is checked with no switches.
chkdsk (745 words)
To issue chkdsk on a hard drive you must be a member of the Administrators group.
If you use chkdsk /f on a very large disk or a disk with a very large number of files (millions), chkdsk may take a long time to complete.
Chkdsk times are determined by the number of files on the volume and by the number of files in the largest folder.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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