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Encyclopedia > Chives
iChives

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Subkingdom: Tracheobionta
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Liliopsida
Subclass: Liliidae
Order: Asparagales
Family: Alliaceae
Genus: Allium
Species: A. schoenoprasum
Binomial name
Allium schoenoprasum
L.
This article is about the plant Chives. For other uses, see Chives (disambiguation).

Chives (Allium schoenoprasum), is the smallest species of the onion family[1] Alliaceae, native to Europe, Asia and North America[2]. They are referred to only in the plural, because they grow in clumps rather than as individual plants. Allium schoenoprasum is also the only species of Allium native to both the New and the Old World. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1524x2388, 804 KB) Name Allium schoenoprasum Family Alliaceae Allium schoenoprasum and Allium cepa Original book source: Prof. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... Divisions Green algae Chlorophyta Charophyta Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta - liverworts Anthocerotophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) †Rhyniophyta - rhyniophytes †Zosterophyllophyta - zosterophylls Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses †Trimerophytophyta - trimerophytes Equisetophyta - horsetails Pteridophyta - true ferns Psilotophyta - whisk ferns Ophioglossophyta - adderstongues Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta... Divisions Non-seed-bearing plants Equisetophyta Lycopodiophyta Psilotophyta Pteridophyta Superdivision Spermatophyta Pinophyta Cycadophyta Ginkgophyta Gnetophyta Magnoliophyta The vascular plants are those plants that have specialized cells for conducting water and sap within their tissues, including the flowering plants, conifers and other gymnosperms, but not mosses, algae, and the like (nonvascular... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants (also called angiosperms) are the dominant and most familiar group of land plants. ... Liliopsida is the botanical name for a class. ... Families according to the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group Agapanthus Agavaceae Alliaceae Amaryllidaceae Aphyllanthaceae Asparagaceae Asphodelaceae Asteliaceae Blandfordiaceae Boryaceae Doryanthaceae Hemerocallidaceae Hyacinthaceae Hypoxidaceae Iridaceae Ixioliriaceae Lanariaceae Laxmanniaceae Orchidaceae Ruscaceae Tecophilaeaceae Themidaceae Xanthorrhoea Xeronema Asparagales is an order of monocots which includes a number of families of non-woody plants. ... Genera See text Alliaceae is a family of herbaceous perennial flowering plants. ... Species See List of Allium species Allium is the onion genus with about 1250 species, mostly classified in its own family Alliaceae. ... In biology, binomial nomenclature is the formal method of naming species. ... Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 23, 1707 – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[1] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Chives may refer to: Chives (Allium schoenoprasum), a member of the onion family (Alliaceae) grown for their leaves, which are used as an vegetable Chives, a commune in the Charente-Maritime département, in France Chive, a town in Bolivia Category: ... In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biodiversity. ... Binomial name Allium cepa L. Onion in the general sense can be used for any plant in the genus Allium but used without qualifiers usually means Allium cepa, also called the garden onion. ... Genera See text Alliaceae is a family of herbaceous perennial flowering plants. ... European redirects here. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, c. ... The Old World consists of those parts of Earth known to Europeans before the voyages of Christopher Columbus; it includes Europe, Asia, and Africa (collectively known as Africa-Eurasia), plus surrounding islands. ...


Its species name derives from the Greek [word]s skhoinos (sedge) and prason (onion).[3] Its English name, chive, derives from the French word cive, which was derived from cepa, being the Latin word for onion.[4] Genera See text The Family Cyperaceae, or the Sedge family, is a taxon of monocot flowering plants that superficially resemble grasses or rushes. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ...


Culinary uses for chives involve shredding its leaves (straws) for use as condiment for fish, potatoes and soups. Because of this, it is a common household herb, frequent in gardens as well as in grocery stores. It also has insect-repelling properties which can be used in gardens to control pests.[5] The Guppy (Poecilia reticulata) is one of the most popular freshwater aquarium fish species in the world. ... Binomial name Solanum tuberosum L. The potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a perennial plant of the Solanaceae, or nightshade, family, commonly grown for its starchy tuber. ... Soup is a savoury liquid food that is made by combining ingredients, such as meat, vegetables and beans in stock or hot water, until the flavor is extracted, forming a broth. ... Herbs: basil Herbs (IPA: hə(ɹ)b, or əɹb; see pronunciation differences) are plants grown for culinary, medicinal, or in some cases even spiritual value. ...

Contents

Biology

The chive is a bulb-forming herbaceous perennial plant, growing to 30-50 cm tall. The bulbs are slender conical, 2-3 cm long and 1 cm broad, and grow in dense clusters from the roots. The leaves are hollow tubular, up to 50 cm long, and 2-3 mm in diameter, with a soft texture, although, prior to the emergence of a flower from a leaf, it may appear stiffer than usual. The flowers are pale purple, star-shaped with six tepals, 1-2 cm wide, and produced in a dense inflorescence of 10-30 together; before opening, the inflorescence is surrounded by a papery bract. The seeds are produced in a small three-valved capsule, maturing in summer. The herb flowers from April to May in the southern parts of its habitat zones and in June in the northern parts.[6][7] Shallot bulbs A bulb is an underground vertical shoot that has modified leaves (or thickened leaf bases) that are used as food storage organs by a dormant plant. ... This article is about the plants used in cooking and medicine. ... Red Valerian, a perennial plant. ... A centimetre (American spelling centimeter, symbol cm) is a unit of length that is equal to one hundredth of a metre, the current SI base unit of length. ... ROOT is an object-oriented software package developed by CERN. It was originally designed for particle physics data analysis and contains several features specific to this field, but it is also commonly used in other applications such as astronomy and data mining. ... The leaves of a Beech tree A leaf with laminar structure and pinnate venation In botany, a leaf is an above-ground plant organ specialized for photosynthesis. ... Diameter is an AAA (authentication, authorization and accounting) protocol for applications such as network access or IP mobility. ... Clivia miniata A cluster of flowers (Clivia miniata) A Blue Summer Flower. ... Look up perianth in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An inflorescence is a group or cluster of flowers on a branch of a plant. ... Toothed bracts on Rhinanthus minor In botany, a bract is a modified or specialized leaf, from the axil of which a flower or flower stalk arises; or a bract may be any leaf associated with an inflorescence. ... A ripe red jalapeno cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ...


Chives are the only species of Allium native to both the Old World and New; however, some argue that the race found in North America should be classified as A. schoenoprasum Var. sibiricum, although this is disputed. There have, however, been significant differences among type specimens: one example was found in northern Maine growing solitary, instead of in clumps, also exhibiting dingy grey flowers.[8] The Old World consists of those parts of Earth known to Europeans before the voyages of Christopher Columbus; it includes Europe, Asia, and Africa (collectively known as Africa-Eurasia), plus surrounding islands. ... Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, c. ... RACE, 5 RACE or Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends, is a molecular biology technique used to amplify the 5 ends of cDNA by a special PCR reaction. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... Official language(s) None (English de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ...


Albeit repulsive to insects in general, due to its sulfur compounds, its flowers are attractive to bees, and it is sometimes kept to increase desired insect life.[9] General Name, Symbol, Number sulfur, S, 16 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16, 3, p Appearance lemon yellow Atomic mass 32. ... Families Andrenidae Apidae Colletidae Halictidae Megachilidae Melittidae Stenotritidae Bee collecting pollen Bees (a monophyletic lineage within the superfamily Apoidea, presently classified by the unranked taxon name Anthophila) are flying insects, closely related to wasps and ants. ...


Uses

Culinary

Scallions are often mistaken for chives. In this photo, they serve as a garnish for Japanese soup misoshiru.

Chives are grown for their leaves, which are used for culinary purposes as condiment, which provide a somewhat milder flavour than its neighbouring Allium species. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 404 KB) Summary Chives(GreenOnion) for Japanese soup Misoshiru photographed at the Pacific Beach Hotel of Waikiki on Feb 11, 2006 Author: me Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Chives Metadata This file contains additional information... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 404 KB) Summary Chives(GreenOnion) for Japanese soup Misoshiru photographed at the Pacific Beach Hotel of Waikiki on Feb 11, 2006 Author: me Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Chives Metadata This file contains additional information... Chopped up Spring Onion The common name scallion is associated with various members of the genus Allium that lack a fully-developed bulb. ... Miso soup (味噌汁, misoshiru in Japanese) is a traditional Japanese soup consisting of a stock called dashi into which is dissolved softened miso. ... The leaves of a Beech tree A leaf with laminar structure and pinnate venation In botany, a leaf is an above-ground plant organ specialized for photosynthesis. ...


Chives have a wide variety of culinary uses, such as in traditional dishes in France[10] and Sweden[11], among others. In his 1806 book Attempt at a Flora (Försök til en flora), Retzius describes how chives are used with pancakes, soups, fish and sandwiches.[11] It is also an ingredient of the gräddfil sauce served with the traditional herring dish served at Swedish midsummer celebrations. The flowers may also be used to garnish dishes. [12] Species Clupea alba Clupea bentincki Clupea caspiopontica Clupea chrysotaenia Clupea elongata Clupea halec Clupea harengus Clupea inermis Clupea leachii Clupea lineolata Clupea minima Clupea mirabilis Clupea pallasii Clupea sardinacaroli Clupea sulcata Herrings are small oily fish of the genus Clupea found in the temperate, shallow waters of the North Atlantic... Midsummer celebration, Ã…mmeberg, Sweden Midsummer, or Litha as it was known by the ancient Germanic peoples, refers the period of time centered upon the summer solstice and the religious celebrations that accompany it. ...


Chives are one of the "fines herbes" of French cuisine, which also include tarragon, chervil and/or parsley. Fines herbes is a French culinary staple consisting of chervil, parsley, tarragon, and chives. ... Binomial name Artemisia dracunculus L. Tarragon or dragon (Artemisia dracunculus) is a perennial herb, a member of the daisy family (Asteraceae) and a close relative of wormwood. ... Binomial name Anthriscus cerefolium (L.) Hoffm. ... Species Percentages are relative to US RDI values for adults. ...


Chives can be found fresh at most markets year-round, making it a readily available spice herb; it can also be dry-frozen without much impairment to its taste, giving home-growers the opportunity to store large quantities harvested from their own garden.[4]


In cultivation

Retzius also describes how farmers would plant chives between the rocks making up the borders of their flowerbeds, to keep the plants free from pests (such as Japanese beetles[13]).[11]. While the growing plant repels unwanted insect life, the juice of the leaves can be used for the same purpose, as well as fighting fungal infections, mildew and scab. [14][15][16] Binomial name Popillia japonica Newman, 1841 The Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica) is a beetle about 1. ... toes infection brown with white markings ... Mildew is a grey, mold-like growth caused by one of two different types of micro-organisms. ... Fusarium ear blight (also called FEB, Fusarium head blight , FHB or Scab), is a fungal disease in plants. ...


As mentioned before, its flowers are attractive to bees, which are important for gardens with an abundance of plants in need of pollination. A flower-fly pollinating a Common Daisy (Bellis perennis) Pollination is an important step in the reproduction of seed plants: the transfer of pollen grains (male gametes) to the plant carpel, the structure that contains the ovule (female gamete). ...


Medical uses

The medical properties of chives are similar to those of garlic, albeit weaker; the faint effects in comparison with garlic are probably the main reason for its limited use as a medicinal herb. Containing numerous organisulplide compounds such as allyl sulfides[17] and alkyl sulfoxides, chives have a beneficial effect on the circulatory system, acting upon it by lowering the blood pressure.[18] As chives are usually served in small amounts and never as the main dish, negative effects are rarely encountered, albeit digestive problems may occur following over-consumption.[18] Binomial name Allium sativum L. Percentages are relative to US RDI values for adults. ... It has been suggested that Medical herbalism be merged into this article or section. ... The Circulatory System is a Psychedelic Rock musical ensemble formed by musician/painter Will Cullen Hart, and featuring Hannah Jones , Derek Almstead , Peter Erchick , John Fernandes , and Heather McIntosh. ... For the Physics term GUT, please refer to Grand unification theory The gastrointestinal or digestive tract, also referred to as the GI tract or the alimentary canal or the gut, is the system of organs within multicellular animals which takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and...


Chives are also rich in vitamin A and C, as well as trace amounts of sulfur and iron, both needed by the body.[19] Retinol, the dietary form of vitamin A, is a fat-soluble, antioxidant vitamin important in vision and bone growth. ... 3D representation of vitamin C Chemical structure of vitamin C Vitamin C is a water-soluble nutrient and human vitamin essential for life and for maintaining optimal health, used by the body for many purposes. ... General Name, Symbol, Number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Atomic mass 55. ...


Cultivation

Chives are cultivated both for its culinary uses as well as its ornamental value; the violet flowers are popular to dry to make ornamental dry bouquets.[20]


Chives thrive in well drained soil, rich in organic matter, with a pH of 6-7 and full sun.[2] pH is a measure of the acidity of a solution in terms of activity of hydrogen (H+). For dilute solutions, however, it is convenient to substitute the activity of the hydrogen ions with the molarity (mol/L) of the hydrogen ions (however, this is not necessarily accurate at higher concentrations...


Chives can be grown from seed when mature in summer, or early the following spring. Typically, chives need to be germinated at a temperature of 15 °C to 20 °C and kept moist. They can also be planted under a cloche or germinated indoors in cooler climates, then planted out later. After at least four weeks, the young shoots should be ready to be planted out. Some prefer to replant the small clump of chives available in plastic pots at some markets, thus avoiding unnecessary work with sowing seeds and cloche cultivation. Sunflower seedlings, just three days after germination Germination is the process where growth emerges from a resting stage. ... Cloche (French language for bell) may refer to the following: Bell (instrument), especially in music directions A glass covering for protecting plants from cold temperatures A close-fitting womens hat with a deep rounded crown and narrow rim A restaurants bell-shaped cover for a plate of food...


In the winter, chives die back to the underground bulbs, with the new leaves appearing in early spring. Chives starting to look old can be cut back to about 2-5 cm; this length is also preferred when harvesting, making the unattractive yellowing appear close to the ground, so that the plant can retain its aesthetic value.


History and cultural importance

Chives have been cultivated in Europe since the Middle Ages, although signs of its usage date back to 5000 years ago,[4] used by the Chinese.[citation needed] European redirects here. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...


The Romans believed chives could relieve the pain from sunburn or a sore throat. They believed that eating chives would increase blood pressure and acted as a diuretic.[citation needed] A sphygmomanometer, a device used for measuring blood pressure. ... A diuretic (colloquially called a water pill) is any drug or herb that elevates the rate of bodily urine excretion (diuresis). ...


Romanian Gypsies have used chives in fortune telling.[19]


It was believed that bunches of dried chives hung around a house would ward off disease and evil.[19]


Gallery

See also

Garlic chives, also known as Chinese chives, Chinese leek, Ku chai or Nira is a relatively new vegetable in the English-speaking world. ...

References

  1. ^ LaFray, Joyce (1987). Tropic Cooking: The New Cuisine from Florida and the Islands of the Caribbean. Oakland: Ten Speed Press, 292. 0898152348.
  2. ^ a b Allium schoenoprasum factsheet, from Kemper center for home gardening, retrieved on June 13, 2006
  3. ^ Gräslök, from Den virtuella floran, retrieved on June 13, 2006
  4. ^ a b c Chives, from homecooking.about.com, accessed on June 13, 2006
  5. ^ Kaufman, Peter B, Thomas J Carlson, Kaufman B Kaufman, Harry L Brielmann, Sara Warber, Leland J Cseke, James A Duke (1999). Natural Products from Plants. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 261. 084933134X.
  6. ^ Allium schoenoprasum factsheet, from Kemper center for home gardening, retrieved on June 13, 2006, based on the position of the botanical Garden (Missouri)
  7. ^ Gräslök, from Den virtuella floran, retrieved on June 13, 2006, The facts mentioned on the site applies to Sweden, which is in the northern part of thehabitat zone.
  8. ^ McGary, Mary Jane (2001). Bulbs of North America: North American Rock Garden Society. Portland: Timber Press, 28-29. 088192511X.
  9. ^ Baines. C. Making a Wildlife Garden. 0
  10. ^ [1]
  11. ^ a b c Försök til en Flora Oeconomica Sveciæ by A. J. Retzius (1806)
  12. ^ Allium schoenoprasum, from Mountain valley growers, accessed on June 13, 2006
  13. ^ http://www.selfsufficientish.com/pests.htm
  14. ^ Holtom. J. and Hylton. W. Complete Guide to Herbs. Rodale Press 1979 ISBN 0-87857-262-7
  15. ^ Riotte. L. Companion Planting for Successful Gardening. Garden Way, Vermont, USA. 1978 ISBN 0-88266-064-0
  16. ^ Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
  17. ^ Burdock, George A (1996). Encyclopedia of Food & Color Additives. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 87, 95-96. 0849394120.
  18. ^ a b Talkin' Chive, by Winston J. Craig, Ph. D, from Vibrantlife.com, accessed on June 13, 2006
  19. ^ a b c Chives, from "Sally's place", accessed on June 13, 2006
  20. ^ Flower & Garden Magazine, June-July 1996, The lazy gardener's guide to potpourri

2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Boca Raton is a city located in Palm Beach County, Florida. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikibooks
Wikibooks Cookbook has an article on
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Herbs and spices
Herbs Basil · Bay leaf · Boldo · Borage · Chervil · Chives · Coriander leaf (cilantro) · Curry leaf · Dill · Epazote · Eryngium foetidum (long coriander) · Fennel · Holy basil · Houttuynia cordata · Lavender · Lemon grass · Limnophila aromatica (rice paddy herb) · Lovage · Marjoram · Mint · Oregano · Parsley · Perilla · Rosemary · Rue · Sage · Savory · Sorrel · Stevia · Tarragon · Thyme · Vietnamese coriander (rau ram)
Spices African pepper · Ajwain (bishop's weed) · Allspice · Amchur (mango powder) · Anise · Asafoetida · Caraway · Cardamom · Cardamom, black · Cassia · Celery seed · Chili · Cinnamon · Clove · Coriander seed · Cubeb · Cumin · Cumin, black · Dill seed · Fenugreek · Galangal · Garlic · Ginger · Grains of paradise · Horseradish · Juniper berry · Liquorice · Mace · Mahlab · Mustard, black · Mustard, white · Nigella (kalonji) · Nutmeg · Paprika · Pepper, black · Pepper, green · Pepper, pink · Pepper, white · Pomegranate seed (anardana) · Poppy seed · Saffron · Sarsaparilla · Sassafras · Sesame · Sichuan pepper · Star anise · Sumac · Tamarind · Turmeric · Wasabi · Zedoary

  Results from FactBites:
 
Chives - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (537 words)
Chives (Allium schoenoprasum) are a species of flowering plant in the onion family Alliaceae, native to Europe and Asia.
Chives are grown for their leaves, which are used as herbs; they have a somewhat milder flavour than onions, green onions, or garlic.
Chinese chives (also referred as garlic chives) are used in Chinese cuisine as a garnish in a number of stir fry dishes, tossed in after cooking is complete to add color and mild flavor.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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