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Encyclopedia > Chittagonian language
Chittagonian
Spoken in: Bangladesh, Myanmar 
Region: Eastern South Asia
Total speakers: 14 million
Language family: Indo-European
 Indo-Iranian
  Indic (Indo-Aryan)
   Magadhan Prakrit
    Apabhramsa Avahattha
     Bengali-Assamese
      Chittagonian
Language codes
ISO 639-1: none
ISO 639-2: cit
ISO/DIS 639-3: — 

Chittagonian is an Indo-European language spoken by the people of Chittagong in Bangladesh and the much of the southeast of the country. It is closely related to Bangla, but is normally considered by linguists to be a separate language and not a dialect of Bangla, as the two are not inherently mutually intelligible. It is estimated to have 14 million speakers, in Bangladesh as well as by expatriate and second generation Chittagonian Bengalis in the United Kingdom and other countries. Composite satellite image of South Asia Map of South Asia. ... Current distribution of Human Language Families Most languages are known to belong to language families. ... The Indo-European languages are a family of several hundred languages and dialects (443 according to the SIL estimate), including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many in West, Central and Southern Asia. ... The Indo-Iranian languages are the language links between India and Iran. ... The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, thus belonging to the Indo-European family of languages. ... The Eastern Indo-Aryan languages include some 210 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects spoken by about many people in Asia; this language family is a part of the Indo-Aryan language family. ... The Apabhramsa language was the next modification in the spoken language of North India after Prakrit, in a period broadly lasting from the 5th to the 10th century. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2:1998 Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 2: Alpha-3 code Twenty-two of the languages have two three-letter codes: a code for bibliographic use (ISO 639-2/B) a code for terminological use (ISO 639-2/T). ... ISO 639-3 is in process of development as an international standard for language codes. ... The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of phonetic notation devised by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) used in spoken human language. ... Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone = sound/voice) is the study of sounds (voice). ... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... This is a concise version of the International Phonetic Alphabet for English sounds. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Indo-European languages are a family of several hundred languages and dialects (443 according to the SIL estimate), including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many in West, Central and Southern Asia. ... Chittagong (Bengali: চট্টগ্রাম, Chaṭṭagrām) is the major sea-port and second largest city of Bangladesh. ... Bengali or Bangla (বাংলা ) is an Indo-Aryan language of South Asia that evolved as a successor to the Sanskrit, Pali, and Prakrit languages. ... A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος, dialektos) is a variety of a language used by people from a particular geographic area. ... In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a property exhibited by two or more distinct languages when speakers of one or more of the languages can readily understand at least one or more of the other language(s) without intentional study or extraordinary effort. ...

Contents


Classification

Chittagonian is a member of the Bengali-Assamese sub-branch of the Eastern group of Indo-Aryan languages, a branch of the wider and more vast Indo-European language family. Its sister languages include Sylheti (Silôţi), Bengali (Bangla), Assamese (Ôxômiya), the Bihari languages, and also less directly all other Indo-Aryan languages such as Hindi. Like other Indo-Aryan languages, it is derived from Sanskrit, and ultimately from Proto-Indo-European. The Eastern Indo-Aryan languages include some 210 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects spoken by about many people in Asia; this language family is a part of the Indo-Aryan language family. ... The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, thus belonging to the Indo-European family of languages. ... Sylheti is the language of Sylhet, the North Eastern region of Bangladesh and a few southern districts of Assam. ... Bengali or Bangla (বাংলা ) is an Indo-Aryan language of South Asia that evolved as a successor to the Sanskrit, Pali, and Prakrit languages. ... Assamese (অসমীয়া) or Asamiya or Oxomiya is the language spoken by some of the natives of the state of Assam in northeast India. ... Bihari is a name given to a group of Indo-Aryan languages spoken in Bihar and neighboring states in India. ... The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, thus belonging to the Indo-European family of languages. ... Hindi (हिन्दी) is a language spoken mainly in North and Central India. ... Sanskrit ( संस्कृतम्) is an Indo-European classical language of India and a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. ... The Proto-Indo-Europeans are the hypothetical speakers of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language, a prehistoric people of the late Neolithic and early Bronze Age. ...


Geographic distribution

Chittagonian is spoken in Southeastern Bangladesh throughout Chittagong Division but mainly in Chittagong District and Cox's Bazar District . It has an estimated number of around 14 million speakers in Bangladesh, and also in countries where many Chittagonians have migrated. It has no official status and is not taught at any level in schools. It is regarded by many Bangladeshis, including most Chittagonians, to be a crude form of Bangla, as all educated Chittagonians are schooled in Bangla. Chittagong Division is one of the six administrative divisions of Bangladesh. ... Chittagong District is a district located in the south-eastern region of Bangladesh. ... Coxs Bazar Coxs Bazar in Bangladesh is the worlds longest natural beach (120 km). ...


Essentially, Chittagonian has no standard form and is rather a continuum of different dialects, varying with location from north to south and also by religion between Muslims (professed by most Chittagonians) and Hindus. Variation between Muslims and Hindus is strictly in terms of vocabulary, whereas by location, grammar is varied as well as vocabulary. The Rohingyas are a community of ethnically Bengali Muslims who spoke the Muslim dialect of Chittagonian Bengali and migrated to Arakan centuries ago. Rohingyas are a minority muslim ethnic group in Northern Arakan, Western Burma. ... Arakan is a state in the North Western part of Myanmar, formerly Burma. ...


Sounds/Phonology

Chittagonian is distinguished from Bangla by its large inventory of fricatives, which often correspond to stops in Bangla. For example, the Chittagonian voiceless velar fricative [x] (like the Arabic "kh" or German "ch") in [xabar] corresponds to the Bangla voiceless aspirated velar stop [kʰ], and the Chittagonian voiceless labiodental fricative [f] corresponds to the Bangla voiceless aspirated bilabial stop [pʰ]. Some of these pronunciations are used in eastern dialects of Bangla as well. Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... A stop or plosive or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... Phoneticians define phonation as use of the laryngeal system to generate an audible source of acoustic energy, i. ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of air that accompanies the release of some stop consonants. ... In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lips and the upper teeth, or viceversa. ... In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips. ...


Grammar

Chittagonian grammar is similar to that of Bangla, with significant variations in inflectional morphology (prefixes, suffixes, particles, etc.), and some variation in word order. Look up prefix in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Suffix has meanings in linguistics, nomenclature and computer science. ...


Like related languages of the eastern Subcontinent, Chittagonian is a head-final language, with Subject-Object-Verb basic word order. Like Assamese (Ôxômiya) but unlike Bengali (Bangla), Chittagonian has preverbal negation. This means that the negative particle will precede the verb in Chittagonian, where the corresponding Bangla version would have a negative particle following the verb. Composite satellite image of the Indian subcontinent Map of South Asia. ... OV languages are primarily left-branching, or head-final, i. ... In linguistic typology, Subject Object Verb (SOV) is the type of languages in which the subject, object, and verb of a sentence appear (usually) in that order. ...


Vocabulary/Lexis

Most of the vocabulary of Chittagonian, like Bangla is derived from Sanskrit. It also, like Bengali, includes a significant number of imported words from Arabic, Persian, and Turkish, as well as, to a lesser extent, Portuguese. In addition, English words are widely used in spoken Chittagonian, just as it is in almost all other Indian languages, as a result of the legacy of the British Empire. Although much of the vocabulary of Chittagonian Bengali is the same as standard Bangla, there are several distinguishing features. The contribution of Arabic, Persian, and Turkish words to Chittagonian Bengali is far greater than that to standard. This is due to the fact that Chittagong was a port city that was open to traders from Arabia, Persia and Turkey since ancient times, naturally absorbing their words. This is also meant that Chittagonians were amongst the first to convert to Islam and consequently, as Muslims, they were further influenced by Arabic, Persian, and Turkish vocabulary, as these were the languages spoken by the Muslims of the time, especially the traders. In more recent times, the Portuguese colonists were amongst the first to reach Bengal, and Chittagong as a port city, was for a time under the administration of the Portuguese. This has meant that there is a larger proportion of Portuguese loanwords in the usage of Chittagonian speakers than that of standard Bengali speakers. Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Persian may refer to more than one article: the Western name for Iranian (see Iran/Persia naming controversy) Persian, an Iranian language the Persians, an ethnic group a Persian, a breed of cat Persian, a Pokémon character Etymology English Persian < Old English, < Latin *Persianus, < Latin Persia, < ancient Greek Persis... Look up English in Wiktionary, the free dictionary As an adjective, English refers to anything from or pertaining to England. ...


Writing system

Chittagonian is an unwritten language. Most literate Chittagonians read and write in Bengali using the Bengali script. In the past, Chittagonian has been written in the Arabic script. The Rohingya dialect of Chittagonian is sometimes written using the Roman alphabet, in a variant known as Rohingyalish. Rohingya, too, was once written with the Arabic alphabet. The Bengali script is an Abugida system of writing belonging to the Brahmic family of scripts whose use is associated with the Bangla, Assamese, Manipuri and Sylheti languages. ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing the Arabic language, which is the language of the Quran, the holy book of Islam. ... Rohingyalish, as named for Rohingya language, is a modern writing system of Rohingyas, the most oppressed Muslim people of Arakan, Burma (Myanmar). ...


See also


 
 

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