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Encyclopedia > Chitin
Structure of the chitin molecule, showing two of the N-Acetylglucosamine units that repeat to form long chains in beta-1,4 linkage.

Chitin (C8H13O5N)n (IPA: [ˈkaɪtn̩]) is a long-chain polymeric polysaccharide of beta-glucose that forms a hard, semitransparent material found throughout the natural world. It is the main component of the cell walls of fungi, the exoskeletons of arthropods, such as crustaceans (e.g. crab, lobster and shrimp) and insects (e.g. ants, beetles and butterflies), the radula of molluscs and the beaks of cephalopods (e.g. squid, and octopuses). Chitin has also proven useful for several medical and industrial purposes. Image File history File links Chitin_fixed. ... Image File history File links Chitin_fixed. ... In science, a molecule is a group of atoms in a definite arrangement held together by chemical bonds. ... N-Acetylglucosamine (N-Acetyl-D-Glucosamine, or GlcNAc, or NAG) is a monosaccharide derivative of glucose. ... General Name, Symbol, Number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Standard atomic weight 12. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... General Name, Symbol, Number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... A polymer is a substance composed of molecules with large molecular mass composed of repeating structural units, or monomers, connected by covalent chemical bonds. ... Polysaccharides (sometimes called glycans) are relatively complex carbohydrates. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is the most important carbohydrate in biology. ... A cell wall is a fairly rigid layer surrounding a cell, located external to the cell membrane, that provides the cell with structural support, protection, and a filtering mechanism. ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ... An exoskeleton is an external anatomical feature that supports and protects an animals body. ... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - spiders,scorpions, etc. ... Classes & Subclasses Branchiopoda Phyllopoda Sarsostraca Remipedia Cephalocarida Maxillopoda Thecostraca Tantulocarida Branchiura Pentastomida Mystacocarida Copepoda Ostracoda Myodocopa Podocopa Malacostraca Phyllocarida Hoplocarida Eumalacostraca The nauplius larva of a dendrobranchiate Porcellio scaber, the common rough woodlouse, a terrestrial crustacean Pollicipes polymerus, the gooseneck barnacle Glyphea pseudastacus, a fossil glypheoid The crustaceans (Crustacea) are... Superfamilies Dromiacea Homolodromioidea Dromioidea Homoloidea Eubrachyura Raninoidea Cyclodorippoidea Dorippoidea Calappoidea Leucosioidea Majoidea Hymenosomatoidea Parthenopoidea Retroplumoidea Cancroidea Portunoidea Bythograeoidea Xanthoidea Bellioidea Potamoidea Pseudothelphusoidea Gecarcinucoidea Cryptochiroidea Pinnotheroidea * Ocypodoidea * Grapsoidea * An asterisk (*) marks the crabs included in the clade Thoracotremata. ... Subfamilies and Genera Neophoberinae Acanthacaris Thymopinae Nephropsis Nephropides Thymops Thymopsis Nephropinae Homarus Nephrops Homarinus Metanephrops Eunephrops Thymopides Clawed lobsters comprise a family (Nephropidae, sometimes also Homaridae) of large marine crustaceans. ... Superfamilies Alpheoidea Atyoidea Bresilioidea Campylonotoidea Crangonoidea Galatheacaridoidea Nematocarcinoidea Oplophoroidea Palaemonoidea Pandaloidea Pasiphaeoidea Procaridoidea Processoidea Psalidopodoidea Stylodactyloidea True shrimp are swimming, decapod crustaceans classified in the infraorder Caridea, found widely around the world in both fresh and salt water. ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Monura - extinct Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (may be paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Palaeodictyoptera - extinct Megasecoptera - extinct Archodonata - extinct Diaphanopterodea - extinct Protodonata - extinct Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Caloneurodea - extinct Titanoptera - extinct Protorthoptera - extinct Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Beetle (disambiguation). ... For other uses of the term butterfly, see butterfly (disambiguation). ... Transverse view of the buccal cavity with the radula Radula types chart. ... Classes Caudofoveata Aplacophora Polyplacophora - Chitons Monoplacophora Bivalvia - Bivalves Scaphopoda - Tusk shells Gastropoda - Snails and Slugs Cephalopoda - Squids, Octopuses, etc. ... Orders Sepiida Sepiolida Spirulida Teuthida Octopoda Vampyromorphida Nautilida The Cephalopods (head-foot) are the mollusc class Cephalopoda characterized by bilateral body symmetry, a prominent head, and a modification of the mollusc foot into the form of arms or tentacles. ... Suborders †Plesioteuthididae (incertae sedis) Myopsina Oegopsina Squid are a large, diverse group of marine cephalopods. ... Families 14 in two suborders, see text The octopus is a cephalopod of the order Octopoda that inhabits many diverse regions of the ocean, especially coral reefs. ...

Contents

Detailed description

Chitin is a polysaccharide; it is biosynthesized from units of N-acetylglucosamine (more completely, N-acetyl-D-glucos-2-amine). These units form covalent β-1,4 linkages (similar to the linkages between glucose units forming cellulose). Chitin may therefore be described as cellulose with one hydroxyl group on each monomer substituted with an acetylamine group. This allows for increased hydrogen bonding between adjacent polymers, giving the chitin-polymer matrix increased strength. Polysaccharides (sometimes called glycans) are relatively complex carbohydrates. ... N-Acetylglucosamine (N-Acetyl-D-Glucosamine, or GlcNAc, or NAG) is a monosaccharide derivative of glucose. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is the most important carbohydrate in biology. ... Cellulose as polymer of β-D-glucose Cellulose in 3D Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a polysaccharide of beta-glucose. ... Cellulose as polymer of β-D-glucose Cellulose in 3D Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a polysaccharide of beta-glucose. ... // Hydroxyl group The term hydroxyl group is used to describe the functional group -OH when it is a substituent in an organic compound. ... In chemistry, a monomer (from Greek mono one and meros part) is a small molecule that may become chemically bonded to other monomers to form a polymer. ... Acetyl is the radical of acetic acid. ... The general structure of an amine Amines are organic compounds and a type of functional group that contain nitrogen as the key atom. ... In chemistry, a hydrogen bond is a type of attractive intermolecular force that exists between two partial electric charges of opposite polarity. ... A polymer is a long, repeating chain of atoms, formed through the linkage of many molecules called monomers. ...

A butterfly's head and chest are covered with plates of hard chitin, while the abdomen is covered with soft chitin. The wings also are a chitinous membrane.

In its unmodified form, chitin is translucent, pliable, resilient and quite tough. In arthropods, however, it is often modified, by being embedded in a hardened proteinaceous matrix, which forms much of the exoskeleton. The difference between the unmodified and modified forms can be seen by comparing the body wall of a caterpillar (unmodified) to a beetle (modified). Image File history File links Description: Celastrina argiolus (ルリシジミ) Source: photo taken by Kropsoq Date: July 2005 Author: Kropsoq Permission: GFDL,cc-by-sa-2. ... Image File history File links Description: Celastrina argiolus (ルリシジミ) Source: photo taken by Kropsoq Date: July 2005 Author: Kropsoq Permission: GFDL,cc-by-sa-2. ... Superfamilies and families Superfamily Hedyloidea: Hedylidae Superfamily Hesperioidea: Hesperiidae Superfamily Papilionoidea: Papilionidae Pieridae Nymphalidae Lycaenidae Riodinidae A butterfly is an insect of the order Lepidoptora. ... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - spiders,scorpions, etc. ... An exoskeleton is an external anatomical feature that supports and protects an animals body. ... Caterpillar of the Emperor Gum Moth A caterpillar is the larval form of a member of the order Lepidoptera (the insect order comprising butterflies and moths). ... Suborders Adephaga Archostemata Myxophaga Polyphaga See subgroups of the order Coleoptera Beetles are the most diverse group of insects. ...


Chitin is one of many naturally occurring polymers. Its breakdown may be catalyzed by enzymes called chitinases, secreted by microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi, and produced by some plants. Some of these microorganisms have receptors to simple sugars from the decomposition of chitin. If chitin is detected, they then produce enzymes to digest it by reducing it to simple sugars and ammonia. A polymer is a long, repeating chain of atoms, formed through the linkage of many molecules called monomers. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... Chitinase (barley seed chitinase: PDB 1CNS, EC 3. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ... A Chemosensor, also known as chemoreceptor, is a cell or group of cells that transduce a chemical signal into an action potential. ... This article deals with sugar as food and as an important, widely traded commodity; the word also has other uses; see Sugar (disambiguation) A sugar is a form of carbohydrate; the most commonly used sugar is a white crystalline solid, sucrose; used to alter the flavor and properties (mouthfeel, perservation... Ammonia is a compound with the formula NH3. ...


Chemically, chitin is closely related to chitosan (a more water-soluble derivative of chitin). It is also closely related to cellulose in that it is a long unbranched chain of glucose derivatives. Both materials contribute structure and strength, protecting the organism. Chitosan is a linear polysaccharide composed of randomly distributed ß-(1-4)-linked D-glucosamine (deacetylated unit) and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (acetylated unit). ... Cellulose as polymer of β-D-glucose Cellulose in 3D Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a polysaccharide of beta-glucose. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is the most important carbohydrate in biology. ...


Etymology

The English word "chitin" comes from the French word "chitine", which first appeared in 1836. These words were derived from the Latin word "chitōn", meaning mollusk. That is either influenced by, or related to the Greek word khitōn, meaning "tunic" or "frock", the Central Semitic word "*kittan", the Akkadian words "kitû" or "kita’um", meaning flax or linen, and the Sumerian word "gada" or "gida".[1] Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Classes Caudofoveata Aplacophora Polyplacophora Monoplacophora Bivalvia Scaphopoda Gastropoda Cephalopoda † Rostroconchia The mollusks or molluscs are the large and diverse phylum Mollusca, which includes a variety of familiar creatures well-known for their decorative shells or as seafood. ... A Danaid, wearing a low-girded chiton A chiton was a piece of clothing in the Ancient Greek world. ... Tupa Inca tunic The tunic was the common masculine garment of Roman civilization. ... A skirt is a traditionally feminine tube- or cone-shaped garment which is worn from the waist and covers the legs. ... In linguistics and ethnology, Semitic (from the Biblical Shem, Hebrew: שם, translated as name, Arabic: سام) was first used to refer to a language family of largely Middle Eastern origin, now called the Semitic languages. ... Akkadian (lišānum akkadÄ«tum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ... Binomial name Linum usitatissimum Linnaeus. ... Torn linen cloth, recovered from the Dead Sea Linen is a material made from the fibers of the flax plant. ... Sumerian ( native tongue) was the language of ancient Sumer, spoken in Southern Mesopotamia from at least the 4th millennium BCE. It was gradually replaced by Akkadian as a spoken language in the beginning of the 2nd millenium BCE, but continued to be used as a sacred, ceremonial, literary and scientific...

The entire exterior of a grasshopper is chitin.

A similar word, "chiton", refers to a marine animal with a protective shell (also known as a "sea cradle"). Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1067x1600, 270 KB) A young grasshopper (approx 17mm) on a grass stalk. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1067x1600, 270 KB) A young grasshopper (approx 17mm) on a grass stalk. ... Families Superfamily: Tridactyloidea Cylindrachaetidae Ripipterygidae Tridactylidae Superfamily: Tetrigoidea Tetrigidae Superfamily: Eumastacoidea Chorotypidae Episactidae Eumastacidae Euschmidtiidae Mastacideidae Morabidae Proscopiidae Thericleidae Superfamily: Pneumoroidea Pneumoridae Superfamily: Pyrgomorphoidea Pyrgomorphidae Superfamily: Acridoidea Acrididae Catantopidae Charilaidae Dericorythidae Lathiceridae Lentulidae Lithidiidae Ommexechidae Pamphagidae Pyrgacrididae Romaleidae Tristiridae Superfamily: Tanaoceroidea Tanaoceridae Superfamily: Trigonopterygoidea Trigonopterygidae Xyronotidae Grasshoppers are herbivorous insects... Families See text. ...


Uses

Industrial

Chitin is used industrially in many processes. It is used in water purification, and as an additive to thicken and stabilize foods and pharmaceuticals. It also acts as a binder in dyes, fabrics, and adhesives. Industrial separation membranes and ion-exchange resins can be made from chitin. Processes to size and strengthen paper employ chitin. Control room and schematics of the water purification plant to Bret lake. ...


Medicine

Chitin's properties as a tough, and strong material make it favourable as surgical thread. Its biodegradibility means it wears away with time as the wound heals. Moreover, chitin has some unusual properties that accelerate healing of wounds in humans. Chitin has even been used as a stand-alone wound-healing agent. [2] Chitin is used to make Chitosan, a product with numerous commercial and possible biomedical uses. It's most famous use is as a weight loss product. In materials science and metallurgy, toughness is the resistance to fracture of a material when suddenly stressed. ... Strength can mean: Physical strength of organisms means (especially the muscles of most metazoa) of locomotion and movement Strength of materials in physics, engineering and materials science Strength is a rap compilation presented by Asiatic Warriors The word strengths is one of the longest English words with one syllable. ... It has been suggested that suture material be merged into this article or section. ... Biodegradation is the decomposition of organic material by microorganisms. ... Trinomial name Homo sapiens sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Humans, or human beings, are bipedal primates belonging to the mammalian species Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man or knowing man) in the family Hominidae (the great apes). ... Chitosan is a linear polysaccharide composed of randomly distributed ß-(1-4)-linked D-glucosamine (deacetylated unit) and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (acetylated unit). ...


Agriculture

Most recent studies point out that chitin is a good inductor for defense mechanisms in plants. It was recently tested as a fertilizer that can help plants develop healthy immune responses, and have a much better yield and life expectancy. Spreading manure, an organic fertilizer Fertilizers (also spelled fertilisers) are compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either via the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. ... A request has been made on Wikipedia for this article to be deleted in accordance with the deletion policy. ...


References

  1. ^ American Heritage dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition. 2000. entry for chiton
  2. ^ http://www.halosource.com/licoppstechnology.asp

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Chitin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (316 words)
Chitin (IPA: [ˈkaɪtɪn]) is one of the main components in the cell walls of fungi, the exoskeletons of insects and other arthropods, and in some other animals.
In effect chitin may be described as cellulose with one hydroxyl group on each monomer replaced by an acetylamine group.
Chitin is a unusual substance as it is a natually occuring polymer.
Horseshoe Crab Chitin Research (823 words)
Chitin was first investigated in 1811 by Professor Henri Braconnott, who discovered it in the cell walls of mushrooms.
Chitosan, a derivative of chitin, was produced in 1859, and since then, research has been conducted to learn about the properties of chitin and chitosan and develop commercial applications for their use.
Chitin can be processed into many derivatives, the most readily available being chitosan, which is formed when chitin is heated with a chemical solution.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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