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Encyclopedia > Chinook Jargon

Chinook Jargon was a trade language (or pidgin) of the Pacific Northwest, which spread quickly up the West Coast from Oregon, through Washington, British Columbia, and as far as Alaska. It is related to, but not the same as the indigenous language of the Chinook people, upon which much of its vocabulary is based. A pidgin, or contact language, is the name given to any language created, usually spontaneously, out of two or more languages as a means of communication between speakers of different tongues, and usually a simplified form of one of the languages. ... The Pacific Northwest from space This page is about the region that includes parts of Canada and the United States. ... Official language(s) (none)[1] Capital Salem Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 9th  - Total 98,466 sq mi (255,026 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) English Capital Olympia Largest city Seattle Area  Ranked 18th  - Total 71,342 sq mi (184,827 km²)  - Width 240 miles (385 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 6. ... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo - Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 36 - Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area Ranked 4th - Total 944,735 km... Official language(s) none Capital Juneau Largest city Anchorage Area  Ranked 1st  - Total 663,267 sq mi (1,717,855 km²)  - Width 808 miles (1,300 km)  - Length 1,479 miles (2,380 km)  - % water 13. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Jargon was originally derived from a great variety of indigenous words as a contact language for the relatively isolated native tribes of the Pacific Northwest, many of whom had distinct local languages. After European contact, it also accumulated English language and French language words, as well as some from other languages brought to the area by immigrants from other parts of the world. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ...


Many of the words from Chinook Jargon remain in common use in the Western United States and Canada. The total number of Jargon words in published lexicons only numbered in the hundreds, and so it was easy to learn. It has its own grammatical system, but a very simple one that, like its word list, was easy to learn. In the Diocese of Kamloops, British Columbia hundreds of speakers also learned to read and write the Jargon (Wawa) using the Duployan Shorthand. As a result, the Jargon also had its own literature, mostly translated scripture and classical works, and some local and episcopal news, community gossip and events, and diaries. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Kamloops is a city in south central British Columbia, Canada, at the confluence of the two branches of the Thompson River and near Kamloops Lake. ... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo - Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 36 - Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area Ranked 4th - Total 944,735 km... Shorthand is an abbreviated, symbolic writing method that improves speed of writing or brevity as compared to a normal method of writing a language. ...

Contents

Name

Most books written in English still use the term Chinook Jargon, but some linguists working with the preservation of a creolized form of the language used in Grand Ronde, Oregon prefer the term Chinook Wawa. Historical speakers did not use the name Chinook Wawa, however, but rather "the Wawa" or "Lelang" (from Fr. la langue, the language, or tongue). Creolization is a process through which a simplified contact language becomes a fully developed native language, that is, a pidgin language becomes a creole language. ... Grand Ronde is a census-designated place located in Polk County, Oregon. ...


The name for the Jargon varied throughout the territory in which it was used. For example: "skokum hiyu" in the Boston Bar-Lytton area of the Fraser Canyon, or in many areas simply just "the old trade language". Boston Bar is a town in the Fraser Canyon of the Canadian province of British Columbia. ... Lytton in British Columbia sits at the confluence of the Thompson River and Fraser River on the east side of the Fraser. ... View of Fraser Canyon near Fountain, BC View of Fraser Canyon looking upstream from Fountain, B.C. The Fraser Canyon is a stretch of the Fraser River where it descends rapidly through narrow rock gorges in the Coast Mountains enroute from the Interior Plateau of British Columbia to the Fraser...


ISO language code

According to the ISO 639-2 standard, the alpha-3 code "chn" denominates the Chinook Jargon. (See Library of Congress search results page.)


Origins and Evolution

There is some controversy about the origin of the Jargon, but all agree that its glory days were during the 19th Century. During this era many dictionaries were published in order to help settlers interact with the First Nations people already living there. The old settler families' heirs in the Pacific Northwest sent communiques to each other, stylishly composed entirely in "the Chinook". Many residents of the British Columbia city of Vancouver chose to speak Chinook Jargon as their first language, even using it at home in preference to English. Among the first Europeans to use Chinook Jargon were traders, trappers, voyageurs and Catholic missionaries. Hawaiians and Chinese in the region made much use of it as well; in some places Kanakas married into the First Nations and non-native families and their particular mode of the Jargon is believed to have contained Hawaiian words, or Hawaiian styles of pronunciation; similarly the Jargon as spoken by a Chinese person or a Norwegian or a Scot will have been influenced by those individuals' native-speaker terms and accents; and in some areas the adoption of further non-aboriginal words has been observed. The Chinook Jargon naturally became the first language in mixed-blood households, and also in multi-ethnic work environments such as canneries and lumberyards and ranches where it remained the language of the workplace well into the middle of the 20th Century. During the Gold Rush, Chinook Jargon was used in British Columbia by gold prospectors and Royal Engineers. As industry developed, Chinook Jargon was often used by cannery workers and hop pickers of diverse ethnic background. Loggers, fishermen and ranchers incorporated it in their jargon. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... First Nations is a term of ethnicity used in Canada. ... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo - Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 36 - Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area Ranked 4th - Total 944,735 km... Vancouver (pronounced: ) is a city in south-western British Columbia, Canada. ... “Native Language” redirects here. ... Traders was a Canadian television drama series, which aired on Global Television Network from 1995 to 2000. ... The human activity of trapping consists of hunting for animals to obtain their furs, which are then used for clothes and other artifacts, or sold / bartered (see fur trade). ... The coureurs des bois (runners of the woods) or voyageurs (travellers) is the name given to the men who engaged in the fur trade directly with the Amerindians in North America from the time of New France up through the 19th century, when much of the continent was still mostly... Roman Catholic missionaries traveled through the New World in hopes of many saved and convert souls. ... The Kanakas were workers brought from the Pacific Islands as indentured servants to cover serious labor shortages in various European colonies, such as Fiji, Australia and British Columbia, Canada. ... A California Gold Rush handbill A gold rush is a period of feverish migration of workers into the area of a dramatic discovery of commercial quantities of gold. ... The Corps of Royal Engineers, usually just called the Royal Engineers (RE), and commonly known as the Sappers, is one of the corps of the British Army. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


A heavily creolized form of Chinook Jargon (Chinuk Wawa or Tsinuk wawa) is still spoken as a first language by some residents of Oregon State, much as the Métis language Michif is still spoken in Canada. Hence, the Wawa as it is known in Oregon is now a creole language, distinct from the widespread and widely-varied pronunciation of the Chinook Jargon as it spread beyond the Chinookan homeland. There is evidence that in some communities (e.g. around Fort Vancouver) the Jargon had become creolized by the early 1800s, but that would have been among the mixed French/Metis, Algonkian, Scots and Hawaiian population there as well as among the natives around the Fort. At Grand Ronde, the resettlement of tribes from all over Oregon in a multi-tribal agency required the development of an intertribal language, and so the Wawa was augmented by the addition of Klickitat and Wasco words and sounds and "more Indian" modifications of the pronunciation and vocabulary. Official language(s) (none)[1] Capital Salem Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 9th  - Total 98,466 sq mi (255,026 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 2. ... The Métis (pronounced MAY tee, IPA: , in French or , in Michif ), also historically known as Bois Brule, mixed-bloods, Countryborn (or Anglo-Métis), are one of three recognized Aboriginal peoples in Canada. ... Michif is the indigenous language of the Métis people of Canada. ... A creole language, or simply a creole, is stable language that originated from a non-trivial combination of two or more languages, typically with many features that are not inherited from any parent. ... Fort Vancouver Fort Vancouver was a 19th century fur trading outpost along the Columbia River that served as the headquarters of the Hudsons Bay Company in the companys Columbia District (known to Americans as the Oregon Country). ...


No studies of British Columbia versions of the Jargon have demonstrated creolization and the range of varying usages and vocabulary in different regions suggests that localization did occur, although not on the pattern of Grand Ronde where Wasco, Klickitat and other peoples adopted and added to the version of the Jargon that developed in Grand Ronde. First-language speakers of the Chinook Jargon were common in BC, both native and non-native, until mid-20th Century, and it is a truism that while after 1850 the Wawa was mostly a native language in the United States portion of the Chinook-speaking world, it remained in wide use among non-natives north of the border for another century, especially in wilderness areas and working environments.. Local creolizations probably did occur in British Columbia, but recorded materials have not been studied since they were made due to the focus on the traditional aboriginal languages. Most Chinookology ignores non-native use of the Jargon, and there is a current in Jargon studies to purge or otherwise creolize the English and French words out of it, to "Indianize" it. Duane Pasco, an important figure in Chinookology but of an older generation and also of "skookum tillikums" origin, cites a dialogue "between a Chinaman and a Swede" that, he says, was some of the best-spoken Jargon, i.e. the most idiomatic and most articulate, he'd ever heard. He also noted the adoption in the Puget Sound area's local usage of the Jargon of the Dano-Norwegian glemde, the past participle of "forget" and huske from husker - "remember" (Scandinavians, Irish, French and Hawaiians, commonly fraternized and drank and married among the native peoples, and of course worked alongside native men in the mills and woods).


Some believe that something similar to the Jargon existed prior to European contact, but without European words in its vocabulary. There is some evidence for a Chinookan-Nuu-chah-nulth interlingua in the writings of John Jewitt and also in what is known as the Barclay Sound word-list, from the area of Ucluelet and Alberni. Others believe that the Jargon was formed within the great cultural cauldron of the time of Contact, and cannot be discussed separately from that context, with an appreciation for the full range of the Jargon-speaking community and its history. Interlingua is an international auxiliary language (IAL) published in 1951 by the International Auxiliary Language Association (IALA). ... Cities of Vancouver Island Ucluelet is a village (population about 1,700) on the west coast of Vancouver Island in British Columbia, Canada. ... Port Alberni, British Columbia is a city located in the province of British Columbia in Canada. ...


Current scholarly opinion holds that a trade language of some kind probably existed prior to European contact, which began "morphing" into the more familiar Chinook Jargon in the late 1790s, notably at a dinner party at Nootka Sound where Capts Vancouver and Bodega y Quadra were entertained by Chief Maquinna and his brother Callicum performing a theatrical using mock-English and mock-Spanish words and mimickry of European dress and mannerisms. There evidently was a Jargon of some kind in use in the Queen Charlotte, but this "Haida Jargon" is not known to have shared anything in common with Chinook Jargon, or with the Nooktan-Chinookan "proto-jargon" which is its main foundation.


Many words in Chinook Jargon clearly had different meanings and pronunciations at various points in history, and continued to evolve into interesting regional variants. A few scholars have tried to improve the spelling, but since it was mostly a spoken language this is difficult (and many users tend to prefer the sort of spelling they use in English).


Use

Pacific Northwest historians are well acquainted with the Chinook Jargon, in name if not in the ability to understand it as mention of it, and sometimes phrases of it, were found in nearly every piece of historical source material before 1900. For everyone else, the fact that Chinook Jargon ever existed is relatively unknown, perhaps due to the great influx of newcomers into the influential urban areas. However, the memory of this language is not likely to fade entirely. Many words are still used and enjoyed throughout Washington, British Columbia, and Alaska. Old-timers still dimly remember it, although in their youth, speaking this language was discouraged as slang. Nonetheless, it was the working language in many towns and workplaces, notably in ranching country and in canneries on the British Columbia Coast where it was necessary in the strongly multiethnic workforce. Place names throughout this region bear Jargon names (see List of Chinook Jargon placenames) and words are preserved in various rural industries such as logging and fishing. The Pacific Northwest from space This page is about the region that includes parts of Canada and the United States. ... Official language(s) English Capital Olympia Largest city Seattle Area  Ranked 18th  - Total 71,342 sq mi (184,827 km²)  - Width 240 miles (385 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 6. ... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo - Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 36 - Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area Ranked 4th - Total 944,735 km... Official language(s) none Capital Juneau Largest city Anchorage Area  Ranked 1st  - Total 663,267 sq mi (1,717,855 km²)  - Width 808 miles (1,300 km)  - Length 1,479 miles (2,380 km)  - % water 13. ... Slang is the use of highly informal words and expressions that are not considered standard in the speakers dialect or language. ... The British Columbia Coast is one of Canadas two continental coastlines; the other being the coastline from the Beaufort Sea of the Arctic Ocean via the Northwest Passage and Hudson Bay to the Ungava Peninsula and Labrador and the Gulf of St. ... List of Chinook Jargon placenames The following is a listing of placenames from the Chinook Jargon, generally from the Canadian provinces of British Columbia, Alberta, the Yukon Territory and the American states of Alaska, Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and Montana. ...


The Chinook Jargon was multicultural and functional. There was no Official Chinook Jargon, although the past (and present) publishers of dictionaries would have had you believe otherwise. To those familiar with it, Chinook Jargon is often considered a wonderful cultural inheritance. For this reason, and because Jargon has not quite died, enthusiasts actively promote the revival of the language in everyday western speech. Multiculturalism or cultural pluralism is a policy, ideal, or reality that emphasizes the unique characteristics of different cultures in the world, especially as they relate to one another in immigrant receiving nations. ...


An art installation featuring Chinook Jargon ("Welcome to the Land of Light" by Henry Tsang, translated into Chinook by Duane Pasco) can be viewed on the Seawall along False Creek in Yaletown, in Vancouver, British Columbia (at the foot of Drake Street). Seawall protecting homes from storm waves and beach erosion. ... False Creek is a short inlet in the heart of Vancouver. ... Yaletown is an area of downtown Vancouver approximately bordered by False Creek, Smithe, Davie and Homer Streets. ... Vancouver (pronounced: ) is a city in south-western British Columbia, Canada. ... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo - Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 36 - Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area Ranked 4th - Total 944,735 km...


by English language speakers

Pacific Northwest English and British Columbian English have several words still in current use which are loanwords from the Chinook Jargon. Skookum, potlatch, muckamuck, saltchuck, and other Chinook Jargon words are widely used by people who do not speak Chinook Jargon. This article, image, template or category should belong in one or more categories. ... Pacific Northwest English is a dialect of the English language spoken in the Pacific Northwest. ... The West/Central Canadian English dialect is one of the largest and the most homogenous dialect areas in North America. ... A Chinook jargon word that has come into general use in British Columbia, Yukon Territory, and the U.S. Pacific Northwest. ... The Kwakwakawakw continue the practice of potlatch. ...


Vocabulary

Jargon placenames are found throughout the Pacific Northwest and Mountain States, although the source language for a given place name is difficult, since Chinook Jargon borrowed many of its words from the Salishan languages. The Pacific Northwest from space This page is about the region that includes parts of Canada and the United States. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... The Salishan languages are a group of languages of western Canada and the Pacific Northwest of the United States. ...


A small collection of Jargon words:

  • nika or naika — I, mine or anything first-person (spellings are optional, pronunciation is the same. In Grand Ronde Chinuk-Wawa the 'k' is unaspirated, unlike in British Columbia versions of the Jargon.
  • hyak — fast, swift. This word, in its variant spelling hyack, is the nickname for the New Westminter regiment of the Canadian Forces, who annually set off a 21-anvil salute during the Victoria Day weekend every year. It was also the name of one of the Vancouver Aquarium's killer whales.
  • hyas — big, important.
    • hyas tyee — king, high chief (see tyee below).
  • cultus — bad, worthless, inconsequential, unimportant. Or just "ordinary" or "nothing special", and also "idle". Cultus Lake is the name of a large and popular resort lake near Chilliwack, British Columbia; the meaning comes from the bad spirits native tradition says live in the lake.
    • cultus klatawa — going for a walk, ambling about, wandering.
    • cultus mitlite — not doing much, hanging out (e.g. in response to watcha doin?).
    • cultus ikta
    • cultus iktas — junk, "common stuff", garbage, offal/feces, something broken or useless.
    • cultus potlatch — just a trifle, a gift (i.e. with no debt of prestige or obligation attached, as with some potlatch give-outs).
  • kloshe or kloosh — good, correct, right.
    • kloshe nanitch — a byword meaning "watch yourself", "take care", literally "watch well". It was the official motto of the Kamloops-based militia regiment the Rocky Mountain Rangers during World Wars I and II.
    • kloshe mamook — to fix, to mend, to heal, to become healed, to get better, and a host of other potential meanings. If followed by another noun or verb which makes mamook into an auxiliary, kloshe in that case gives the sense of the conditional or obligational - "you should do this....". Kloshe mamook klatawa - "you'd better go". Kloshe serves the same function with other verbs as well: Kloshe chako — "please come", "it'd be good if you come".
  • mahsh — send, throw, put, eject, get on with it, get out (command). Thought to be from the French marcher via an expression used by the voyageurs to move goods on and off their boats and in and out of storehouses, but the meaning of the verb was misconstrued and is used in the Jargon with the altered meanings listed. It can also be used to mean sell, especially when used in combination with mahkook which means to trade.
  • hui-hui — a sealed bargain or a done deal (from Fr. oui-oui). NB difference from mahkook, which is to sell (or buy, depending on context).
  • memaloose — dead, corpse, or death.
    • memaloose illahee — graveyard, cemetery ("death land").
    • mamook memaloose — kill.
  • puss-puss — cat, house cat. In the Puget Sound area puss-puss was rendered "pish-pish".
  • kamuks or comox — dog. This would have originally referred to a now-extinct species of domestic dog once common in the region, which was raised for its wool and meat. This breed is often depicted in drawings and paintings from the earliest eras.
  • talapus — coyote. In Grand Ronde Chinuk-Wawa the initial t is plosive.
    • hyas talapus — wolf, "big coyote"
  • leloo or lelu — wolf.
    • hyas leloo — timberwolf, "big wolf", (also hyas talapus).
  • lemolo — wild, dangerous, from the backcountry. From Fr. le marron, a runaway slave or renegade (as in French, accent on last syllable). Lemolo infers savagery as well as rebellion, but an animal may also be lemolo, with the sense leaning towards loco as well as dangerous.
  • cayuse — a horse or pony, in some areas also a coyote; the variant cayoosh is found in British Columbia and has special meaning there as a bloodline of Indian mountain pony. Originally from the Spanish caballo. The more usual word for horse was kiuatan:
  • kiuatan — horse. This was the more usual word for horse than cayuse, and is also an adaptation (via Sahaptian) of the Spanish caballo.
    • stone kiuatan — stallion ("horse with testicles")
    • klootchman kiuatan — mare ("female horse")
    • burdash kiuatan — gelding ("neutered horse")
    • tenas kiuatan — colt, pony ("young horse")
    • lemolo stone kiuatan — stallion gone loco (i.e. not just a mustang, which was lemolo kiuatan or, in west-central BC, lemolo cayoosh).
  • moos-moos — cattle. This word may be a corruption of the Cree Mistah' moostoos for buffalo (it is not believed to be onomatopaeic).
    • tenas moos-mooscalf ("young cattle")
    • klootchman moos-moos or tatoosh moos-mooscow ("female cattle" or "milk cow")
    • tenas klootchman moos-moosheiffer ("young female cattle")
    • man moos-moos or man stone moos-moosbull ("male cattle" or "male testicle cattle")
    • burdash moos-moossteer ("neutered cattle")

Many equestrian terms are from French: Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo - Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 36 - Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area Ranked 4th - Total 944,735 km... Queen Elizabeth II in Canada for her official birthday, Victoria Day 2005, Edmonton, Alberta Victoria Day (French: Fête de la Reine) is a Canadian statutory holiday celebrated on the last Monday before or on May 24 in honor of both Queen Victorias birthday and the current reigning Canadian... Chilliwack is a Canadian city in the Province of British Columbia. ... Locator map for Kamloops, BC Kamloops is a city in central British Columbia, Canada at the confluence of the two branches of the Thompson River. ... The Rocky Mountain Rangers is a reserve infantry regiment of the Canadian Forces. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The coureurs des bois (runners of the woods) or voyageurs (travellers) is the name given to the men who engaged in the fur trade directly with the Amerindians in North America from the time of New France up through the 19th century, when much of the continent was still mostly... Puget Sound For the liberal arts university located in this region, see University of Puget Sound. ... Binomial name Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771) Cougar range map Synonyms Felis concolor The Cougar (Puma concolor), also known by many names including the Puma and the Mountain lion, is a New World mammal of the Felidae family. ... The Beachcombers was a popular Canadian television program broadcast on CBC. The series ran from 1972 to 1989 and is the longest-running dramatic series ever made for Canadian television. ... Binomial name Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771) Cougar range map Synonyms Felis concolor The Cougar (Puma concolor), also known by many names including the Puma and the Mountain lion, is a New World mammal of the Felidae family. ... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo - Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 36 - Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area Ranked 4th - Total 944,735 km... Statimcets (also Lillooet, Lilloet, St’át’imcets) is an interior Salishan language spoken in southern British Columbia, Canada around the middle Fraser and Lillooet rivers by the Statimc people. ... The Nlakapamux (commonly called the Thompson, and also Thompson River Salish, Thompson Salish, Thompson River Indians or Thompson River people) are an indigenous First Nations/Native American people of Salish ethnicity in southern British Columbia and northern Washington. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... A Shetland Pony A pony is any of several horse breeds with a specific conformation and temperament. ... Binomial name Canis latrans Say, 1823 Coyote range The coyote (Canis latrans, meaning barking dog) also prairie wolf [2]) is a member of the Canidae (dog) family and a close relative of the Gray Wolf. ... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo - Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 36 - Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area Ranked 4th - Total 944,735 km... Sahaptian is a group of languages of the Plateau Penutian family spoken by Native American peoples in the Columbia Plateau region of Washington, Oregon, and Idaho in the northwestern United States. ... Mustang can refer to: The word mustang, from Mexican Spanish mestengo, from Spanish mesteño, ultimately from Latin animalus mixtus, mixed breed animal: Mustang (horse), a feral horse living on the western or southwestern plains of the US. P-51 Mustang, a World War II military aircraft P-82 Twin... Cattle calf A Calf (plural calves) is the young of an animal. ... COW is an acronym for a number of things: Can of worms The COW programming language, an esoteric programming language. ... The word heifer can mean:- A young cow (as in cattle) before she has had her first calf. ... Binomial name Bos taurus Linnaeus, 1758 Cattle (often called cows in vernacular and contemporary usage, or kye as the Scots plural of cou) are domesticated ungulates, a member of the subfamily Bovinae of the family Bovidae. ... Example EU engergy label According to an EU Directive most white goods and light bulb packaging must have an EU Energy Label clearly displayed when offered for sale or rent. ...

  • lasell — saddle; from Fr. la selle
  • lagley — a grey horse. from Fr. le gris (the grey [horse])
  • lekay or lekay — a piebald or appaloosa horse, from Fr. la caille (the quail).
  • leblow or leblau — from fR. le bleu a chestnut-coloured or sorrel horse. Such a horse may also be a pil cayoosh or pil kiuatan - a red horse.
  • sandelie or sandalee — a roan-coloured horse, either from Fr. cendre - ash - or from Engl. sandy.
  • lableed — bridle, from French "la bride"
  • Leseeblo — spurs, from French
  • Sitlay or sitliay — stirrups, from French "l'étrier"
  • Sitlay, sitliay - stirrups
  • lamelmule (but note burdash kiuatan).
  • burdash — neuter. From Fr. berdache, this word specifically refers to accidental or incidental hermaphroditism or lack of gender, such as by castration or unusual birth. In Chinook, it is not known to have referred to effeminacy, transsexuality or homosexual tendencies as other adaptations of berdache did in other aboriginal languages in North America, or the original French.
    • burdash kiuatanmule, "neuter horse".
    • burdash cayooshgelding, "neuter horse".
    • burdash moos-moossteer, "neuter cow".

Many religious terms are from French: An Appaloosa horse The Appaloosa is a horse breed with a color preference. ... A barren of mules. ... Berdache (from French, from Arabic bardajo meaning kept boy) is a generic term used by some for a third gender (woman-living-man) among many, if not most, Native American tribes. ... A barren of mules. ... A gelding is a castrated animal—in English, a castrated male horse. ... Example EU engergy label According to an EU Directive most white goods and light bulb packaging must have an EU Energy Label clearly displayed when offered for sale or rent. ...

  • leplet — priest, also used for non-Catholic preacher or parson
  • lekleese — church

  • malakwa — mosquito, from Fr. maringouin (accent on first syllable)
  • hooch — homemade liquor. Not found in the Columbia and Grand Ronde versions of the jargon, this is a northern word ascribed to the Tlingit village group the Xootsnoowu which was current throughout northern and upper coastal usages of the Jargon, and of course has become part of standard English vocabularies, at least throughout Canada and the US.
  • lapishemo — saddle-blanket and trappings of a horse. Not from French, but believed to be from Ojibway, apparently brought to the Northwest via the voyageurs or other fur company employees.
  • eena or ina — beaver
  • suwellel — the mountain beaver or "boomer". This word for this animal is current in English (for those who know of its existence).
  • nenamooks — otter (but not the sea otter), also a term of endearment or exasperation for rambunctious children.
  • hum opootsskunk (lit. "stinky butt"), also an insult, the same as "you skunk" in English.
  • piu-piu — very stinky (from Fr. piu).
  • mowitch — deer, game. Mowitch is extremely common throughout the Plateau and the Coast in use by natives as well as non-natives, and is found as far southeast as Shoshone territory and up into Alaska.
    • hyas mowitch — "big game", can be a moose or an elk, although elk is usually moolack or moolock.
  • moolack or moolock — elk or wapiti. Like mowitch, the word moolack is fairly well-known, but not to the same degree.
  • lemooto or lemoto — sheep, mutton.
    • tenas lemooto — lamb ("young sheep").
    • man lemooto — ram ("male sheep").
    • klootchman lemooto — ewe ("female sheep").
  • cosho or lecosho — pig or swine, also pork. From Fr. le cochon (accent on second syllable).
    • tenas cosho — piglet.
    • klootchman cosho — sow.
    • siwash coshoseal (lit. "Indian pig", i.e. as much a staple of Indian life as pork was to Europeans and Britons. Note also olehiyu.
  • olehiyu or olhyiuseal.
  • olallie — berry. Olalla, Washington and the Okanagan town of Olalla, British Columbia get their name from this word. The prevalent common name in British Columbia for the berry-bearing bush Shepherdia canadensis is soopolallie, Chinook for 'soap berry' (see Wikipedia entry under prairie provinces common name for the same plant, Canada Buffaloberry).
  • laboos or labush — mouth (from Fr. la bouche). This is origin of the name of La Push, Washington
  • illahee, illahie, illahe (GR Chinuk Wawa ili'i) — land, earth, ground.
    • kloshe illahee — good land, bottom land pasture. Can be used to mean a plot of land, a farm or a ranch.
  • tatoosh — milk, butter. Also means breasts, or the chest.
  • tupso — grass, greenery.
    • tupso illahee — pasture (grass land).
    • tsee tupso — sweet grass (good grazing grass for horses)
  • yakso — hair.
  • lapel — a fur, from Fr. la pelle
  • labooti — bottle, from Fr. la bouteille (pron labooTAI, not laBOOtee)
  • lapool — chicken, fowl, poultry
  • lacock, lekok — rooster, cock
  • lezep, lesap — eggs
  • lasac or lazack — sac, bag
  • itliwillie — flesh, meat, muscle
  • lakalatcarrot;
  • lamonti — mountain, from Fr. la montaigne (pron lamonTAI).
    • hyas lamonti — the high mountains
    • hyas hyas lamonti — the deep mountains, remote faraway mountain country.

Note hyas hyas stone illahee, meaning the "greatest and biggest land of stones", or "the great barren high country" in Paul St. Pierre's novella Breaking Smith Quarter Horse. The context of the title is the vast and diverse inland alpine areas of the Coast Mountains, flanking the Chilcotin district where the action of the novella takes place. The possible subreference stone, "testicles", may be to the power and ruggedness of the lands described by the phrase. The Grande Ronde River is a tributary of the Snake River, approximately 180 mi (290 km) long, in northeastern Oregon and southeastern Washington in the United States. ... A Tlingit totem pole in Ketchikan ca. ... For other uses of Chippewa, see Chippewa (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Aplodontia rufa Richardson, 1829 The Mountain Beaver (Aplodontia rufa) is a rodent unrelated to beavers and that is not usually found in mountainous areas. ... Binomial name Aplodontia rufa Richardson, 1829 The Mountain Beaver (Aplodontia rufa) is a rodent unrelated to beavers and that is not usually found in mountainous areas. ... Genera Conepatus Mydaus Mephitis Spilogale Skunks are mammals, usually with black-and-white fur, belonging to the family Mephitidae and to the order Carnivora. ... Binomial name Alces alces (Linnaeus, 1758) Moose range map The moose (so named in North America, derived from Eastern Abenaki moz)[1] or elk (in Europe), Alces alces, is the largest member of the deer family Cervidae, distinguished from the others by the palmate antlers of its males. ... Binomial name Cervus canadensis New species designate Siberian and American Elk (Cervus canadensis), are the second largest species of deer in the world, after the Moose (Alces alces). ... Genera Monachus (Monk Seals) Mirounga (Elephant Seal) Lobodon (Crabeater Seals) Leptonychotes Hydrurga (Leopard Seals) Ommatophoca Erignathus (Bearded Seals) Phoca Halichoerus (Grey Seals) Cystophora (Hooded Seals) The true seals or earless seals are one of the three main groups of mammals within the seal suborder, Pinnipedia. ... Genera Monachus (Monk Seals) Mirounga (Elephant Seal) Lobodon (Crabeater Seals) Leptonychotes Hydrurga (Leopard Seals) Ommatophoca Erignathus (Bearded Seals) Phoca Halichoerus (Grey Seals) Cystophora (Hooded Seals) The true seals or earless seals are one of the three main groups of mammals within the seal suborder, Pinnipedia. ... Olalla is a small unincorporated community in Kitsap County, Washington. ... A view overlooking Skaha Lake in the Okanagan Valley The regional districts that comprise the Okanagan are shown in red. ... Binomial name Shepherdia canadensis (L.) Nutt. ... La Push is a small unincorporated community in Clallam County, Washington. ... Tatoosh Lighthouse from offshore Tatoosh Island is an island about a half mile off Cape Flattery on the Olympic Peninsula in Washington. ... Binomial name Daucus carota L. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Paul Saint Pierre (born October 14, 1923) is a well-known journalist and author in British Columbia, Canada. ... The Coast Mountains are the westernmost range of the Pacific Cordillera, running along the south western shore of the North American continent, extending south from the Alaska Panhandle and covering most of coastal British Columbia. ... Tsilhqotin, an Athabaskan First Nations people town of west-central British Columbia, usually known in English spelling as Chilcotin. ...

  • stone — in orthodox Chinook Jargon is usually "testicles"

Speakers from Grand Ronde consider stone a rude word, unless in combination forms like stone kiuatan - "stallion" (horse still with its testicles, i.e. not a burdash kiuatan, which is a gelding). In British Columbia usages, stone can also simply mean rock, or stony country.

  • pepah — paper, book, something written
  • law — the law, authority, judges. Law man is not a policeman, but a lawyer or judge.
  • sojer — one of several adaptations of the English word soldier;

The term sojer was mostly used on the American side of the border, as troops in BC were known (in English) as Marines and Voltigeurs, and military deployments to quell native populations were virtually unknown (the Lamalcha War of 1863 being one of the exceptions, and it involved marines and sailors, not soldiers).

  • skookum — big/strong, powerful, awe-inspiring; monster or monstrous (obsolete). Opposite of cultus. Used as a verb auxiliary for "can" (to be able) or "powerful at". In names for individuals skookum is sometimes shortened to skook, as in Mount Skook Jim in the Lillooet Ranges, or Mount Skook Davidson west of Lake Williston.
    • skookum house — prison, jail ("the strong house").
    • skookum lakasett — strongbox.
    • skookum tumtum — brave, strong-hearted, loyal.
    • skookumchuck — rapids, whitewater, rough water.
    • skokomish — compounded from skookum ish, "brave people" (known in their original language as the Twana).

The word skookum remains a common component of English for long-time residents, for whom it means something strongly-built, or someone genuine, honest, reliable. It can also simply mean "impressive", as in "That's a pretty skookum bicycle you've got there!" (British Columbia). Also "I think that this rope isn't quite skookum." A Chinook jargon word that has come into general use in British Columbia, Yukon Territory, and the U.S. Pacific Northwest. ... The Lillooet Ranges are the southeasternmost subdivision of the Coast Mountains of British Columbia. ... Major Lakes of British Columbia. ... A Chinook jargon word that has come into general use in British Columbia, Yukon Territory, and the U.S. Pacific Northwest. ... A Chinook jargon word that has come into general use in British Columbia, Yukon Territory, and the U.S. Pacific Northwest. ... A Chinook jargon word that has come into general use in British Columbia, Yukon Territory, and the U.S. Pacific Northwest. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Skokomish can refer to: Skokomish (tribe) Native American tribe Skokomish River This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... A Chinook jargon word that has come into general use in British Columbia, Yukon Territory, and the U.S. Pacific Northwest. ... Skokomish is a Native American tribe in western Washington state in the United States. ... A Chinook jargon word that has come into general use in British Columbia, Yukon Territory, and the U.S. Pacific Northwest. ... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo - Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 36 - Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area Ranked 4th - Total 944,735 km...

  • hyas muckamuck(s) — the chief, the big boss, management (modern usage). In modern blue-collar usage, this word is one of many mildly sarcastic slang terms used to refer to bosses and upper management (British Columbia). Var. "High Mucketymuck".
  • chuck — water or river. This word is still well remembered, though less frequently used (except by weathermen giving sailing reports and marine forecasts).
    • saltchuck — "salt water", ocean, fijord, inlet.
    • skookumchuck — rapids, whitewater, rough water.
  • mitwhit — to stand erect.
  • stick — stick, wood, firewood, tree.
    • hyas stick — big tree or log, big/great woods/forest.
    • mitwhit stick — ship's mast, spar ("standing tree/timber")

Some have suggested the North American phrase "out in the sticks" may have originated in Chinook Jargon usages, adopted by Klondike-era travellers and transmitted to other parts of the continent, as were hooch and hyas muckamuck (or high muckamuck; usually high mucketymuck if heard outside the Northwest, however). Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo - Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 36 - Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area Ranked 4th - Total 944,735 km... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Pacific Northwest from space This page is about the region that includes parts of Canada and the United States. ...

  • mitlite — to be, to exist, to rest. Cultus mitlite — jes' hanging out.
  • tillikum — friend; also means people, kin (emphasis on first syllable), sometimes pluralized but not required.
    • Skookum tillikums — hard to translate efficiently, but a certain "grand old man" of the high frontier and great old days, someone capable of hiking from northeastern BC to Wyoming if they wanted to, and able to defend himself in the bar, or in the bush. Used in Paul Saint Pierre's novella Breaking Smith's Quarter Horse.

Tillikum, sometimes spelled Tilikum, is a bull orca whale that lives in SeaWorld Orlando. ... Paul Saint Pierre (born October 14, 1923) is a well-known journalist and author in British Columbia, Canada. ...

  • tyee — leader, chief, a really big chinook salmon (Campbell River) (emphasis on second syllable).
    • hyas tyee — king, big boss, important ruler. e.g. "He was the undisputed hyas tyee of all the country between the Johnstone Strait and Comox" This was also the common title used for the famous chiefs of the early era, such as Maquinna.
    • Hyas Klootchman Tyee — "Great Woman Ruler", roughly "Her Majesty".

The word tyee was commonly used and still occurs in some local English usages meaning "boss" or someone in charge. Business and local political and community figures of a certain stature from some areas are sometimes referred to in the British Columbia papers and histories by the old chiefly name worn by Maquinna and Concomly and Nicola. A man called hyas tyee would have been a senator, a longtime MP or MLA, or a business magnate with a strong local powerbase, long-time connections, and wealth from and because of the area. Binomial name Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum, 1792) The Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) (derived from Russian чавыча), is a species of anadromous fish in the salmon family. ... Categories: Stub | British Columbia communities | Coastal towns of Canada ... Johnstone Strait is a 110 km (68 mi) long strait between the north east coast of Vancouver Island in British Columbia, Canada and, running north to south, Hanson Island, West Cracroft Island, the mainland British Columbia coast, Hardwicke Island, West Thurlow Island and East Thurlow Island where it meets Discovery... The Comox are a group of Salishan speaking people in British Columbia. ... Maquinna is the usual spelling of the name of the chief of the Nuu-chah-nulth people of Nootka Sound, during the heyday of the maritime fur trade in the 1780s and 1790s on the Pacific Northwest Coast. ... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo - Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 36 - Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area Ranked 4th - Total 944,735 km... Chief Comcomly or Concomly (1754? - 1830) was a Native American chief of the Chinookan people. ... Nicola (1780/1785 — ~1865) (Spokane Hwistesmetxeqen, Walking Grizzly Bear), was an important First Nations political figure in the fur trade era of the British Columbia Interior (early 1800s to 1858) as well as into the colonial period (1858-1871). ...


The title Hyas Klootchman Tyee was used to refer to Queen Victoria in public proclamations during her reign. In theory, this title also applies to Queen Elizabeth II but it is no longer used by the BC government. Conceivably, Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo may be styled that way, since she speaks Chinook Jargon, but the proper form of address in English for a Lieutenant-Governor is "Your Honour". A possible Chinook equivalent might be Hyas Chutch (great judge/authority), or in Campagnolo's case, Hyas klootchman chutch. Victoria Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria) (24 May 1819–22 January 1901) was a Queen of the United Kingdom, reigning from 20 June 1837 until her death. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo - Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 36 - Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area Ranked 4th - Total 944,735 km... Categories: Lieutenant Governors of British Columbia | Lists of office-holders ... Official Portrait of the Hon. ...

  • tenas or tenass — child, small, little, young. In Grand Ronde Chinuk-Wawa, the distinction between ten'-ass and dun'-uss (not GR spellings, just approximations of pronunciations) is between small/little and child/young. Klootchman tenas — little girl, young woman. Tenaschuck — lake, pond.
  • cheechako — newcomer (emphasis on second syllable). This word is relatively common, especially in frontier regions and historically throughout (Alaska, Yukon and northwestern B.C. in particular. Chee means "new" and chako means "come". Ko means "arrive" (although when doubled it means "knock"). An example comes from Fairbanks hostess Eva McGown: "I never had any children of my own, but as someone once said, I am the mother of all the cheechakoos."[1]
  • saghalie — up, high place, above.
    • saghalie tyee — God. This term was coined by evangelists and as a result of its use saghalie also came to mean "sacred" and "holy".
    • saghalie illahee — sacred ground, but not a graveyard, which is memaloose illahee.
  • potlatch — in ordinary Jargon usage this means "to give", or anything given, a present. It became the standard word used to describe the great gift-feasts which underlay the Pacific Northwest Coast people's economic and political systems. Potlatches were ceremonials of giving away or destroying one's possessions to gain social status, often accompanied by lavish theatricals and conspicuous consumption (and destruction, to show more wealth could always be acquired). The goal was to earn prestige, as well as humiliate one's rivals into poverty by forcing them to spend more on a feast to outshow your own. In Chinook Jargon, the word potlatch simply meant "give" or "a gift", although a gift with no reciprocal obligation expected at all is a cultus potlatch - just an ordinary gift.
  • alki — (rhymes with "pie) "someday", "whenever", "In the by and by", i.e. the future or near future. Alki is the state motto of Washington and a neighborhood in West Seattle. In ordinary use somewhat equivalent to the Mexican mañana, meaning sometime in the near future, or an indeterminate time away, perhaps never. It can be used as a verb auxiliary indicating the indefinite future tense.

The present, the here-and-now, is alta, the past ahnkuttie or ankate (emphasis on first syllable in all these words). Another, perhaps in a more immediate sense, word for "soon" is winapie. Ahknuttie and alki can all be changed in meaning by the lengthening of the initial vowel, and by the addition of the auxiliary laly (LAH-ly) and the lengthening of its initial vowel, e.g. laly ahnkuttie, meaning "long ago" becomes laaaaa-ly ahnkuttie, the ancient past, mythical times. Aaaahnkuttie would mean more something like "a considerable while ago", either by hours, days, weeks, or months, i.e. as in a recent or relatively recent event, or perhaps in response to Klatawa latleh elip? (has the train gone already?) Aaaahnkuttie - "yep, it's long gone". Laly by itself can also mean "soon", and tenas laly means "in just a little while", if not quite "right away", which would be alta (said with emphasis to add the exclamation point). Official language(s) none Capital Juneau Largest city Anchorage Area  Ranked 1st  - Total 663,267 sq mi (1,717,855 km²)  - Width 808 miles (1,300 km)  - Length 1,479 miles (2,380 km)  - % water 13. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo - Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 36 - Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area Ranked 4th - Total 944,735 km... Fairbanks (IPA: ) is a Home Rule City in Fairbanks North Star Borough, Alaska, United States. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The Kwakwakawakw continue the practice of potlatch. ... Alki Point is the westernmost point in West Seattle, Washington; Alki is the peninsular neighborhood surrounding it. ... Official language(s) English Capital Olympia Largest city Seattle Area  Ranked 18th  - Total 71,342 sq mi (184,827 km²)  - Width 240 miles (385 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 6. ... Alki Point is the westernmost point in West Seattle, Washington; Alki is the peninsular neighborhood surrounding it. ...

  • klahanie — Outside, outdoors. This became the name of a longtime popular program on the CBC's TV service.
  • konaway — everything, all, the whole shebang
  • kunamoxt or konamoxt — both, together. Contracted from konaway moxt (all two).
    • hiyu konamoxt — a big gathering, as does big hiyu or hyas hiyu, though those tend to infer a party as opposed to a conference or other parley or rendezvous, which may be the case with chako kunamoxt and hiyu kunamoxt. Tenas hiyu means "several, a few", and in BC may also mean a small party or gathering. Both "big hiyu" and "tenas hiyu" were common in frontier English, as were many other Chinook borrowings.
  • kumtux — "think" in the sense of to understand, know, comprehend. Apposite to tumtum.
  • tumtum — heartbeat, or heart. Tumtum also means to think, but more in the sense of finding out how you feel about it, or what you believe.
  • cooley — "run" spelled that way to distinguish it from "coolie", but pronounced the same way. Used in the construction kiuatan yaka kumtux cooley, most easily translated "fast horse", but literally "that horse he really knows how to run well", "that horse he understands running"
  • klahowya — the common and universal greeting, identical in sound to "I'm hungry", which for differentitation in print is klahowyum. Klahowya sikhs - "hello, friend"; Klahowya tillikums (Hello, people; greetings, my friends/family).
  • kopa — nearly all-purpose preposition meaning in, at, of, to, from, by way of. Generally used only when not implied.
  • ikt — "one"; while ikta is "it, that thing, this", and iktas is "stuff" or belongings, as in "my stuff", naika iktas.
  • tumwater — a waterfall, "heartbeat-water" (tum is shortened from tumtum, q.v. above). Note that this would be expected to be tumchuck instead, and indeed that form is found in Grand Ronde Wawa.
  • house — a room or any building (from Eng. house).
  • smoke — could mean fog or cloud, as well as smoke (from Eng.).

The English plural form was sometimes applied in Jargon formations, hiyu tillikums but also cultus Boston mans or cultus Bostons (rough translation: "Damned Yankees"), or hiyu whitemans. The use of the plural form is, however, not mandatory or regular. Klahanie could refer to: Klahanie, a long-running Canadian TV series Klahanie, a large housing development in Issaquah/Sammamish, Washington State with over 10,000 residents. ... The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), a Canadian crown corporation, is the country’s national public radio and television broadcaster. ... The City of Tumwater is located at the southern tip of Puget Sound. ...

  • man — can mean a man, of any origin, but also indicates the male of anything — tenas man lemooto, baby ram.
  • klootchman — woman or female, long common throughout the Northwest to mean a native woman, but without the derisive sense of "squaw".
    • tenas klootchman — girl, "young woman".
    • klootchman mowitch — female deer, doe.
    • klootchman itswoot — female (sow) bear.
  • chittam stick — laxative tree, cascara, "shit tree"
  • chitticum — laxative, cascara, ("shit come")

Cascara, Bearberry, or chitticum is a type of tree whose aged bark is used as a laxative and modern laxative ingredient. Binomial name Rhamnus purshiana DC. Rhamnus purshiana (Cascara Buckthorn, Cascara, Bearberry, and in the Chinook Jargon, Chittam or Chitticum; syn. ... Binomial name Rhamnus purshiana DC. Rhamnus purshiana (Cascara Buckthorn, Cascara, Bearberry, and in the Chinook Jargon, Chittam or Chitticum; syn. ... Binomial name Rhamnus purshiana DC. Rhamnus purshiana (Cascara Buckthorn, Cascara, Bearberry, and in the Chinook Jargon, Chittam or Chitticum; syn. ...


See also

List of Chinook Jargon placenames The following is a listing of placenames from the Chinook Jargon, generally from the Canadian provinces of British Columbia, Alberta, the Yukon Territory and the American states of Alaska, Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and Montana. ... This article, image, template or category should belong in one or more categories. ... Introduction to Kamloops Wawa shorthand found in each issue The Kamloops Wawa was a publication of the Catholic Diocese of Kamloops in British Columbia, Canada in the 1890s and 1900s. ... Like nouns in many Native American languages, the Tlingit noun is easily conceptualized but difficult to formally define. ... The Pacific Northwest from space This page is about the region that includes parts of Canada and the United States. ... British Columbia is the western-most province in Canada. ... An endangered language is a language with so few surviving speakers that it is in danger of falling out of use. ... A pidgin, or contact language, is the name given to any language created, usually spontaneously, out of two or more languages as a means of communication between speakers of different tongues, and usually a simplified form of one of the languages. ... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

External links

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Note: The Incubator link at right is not
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you to the Chinook Jargon test-Wikipedia: [2] Image File history File links Incubator-notext. ... Wikipedia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Incubator logo The Wikimedia Incubator is a wiki run by Wikimedia Foundation. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Chinook Jargon - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4021 words)
Chinook Jargon was a trade language (or pidgin) of the Pacific Northwest, which spread quickly up the West Coast from Oregon, through Washington, British Columbia, and as far as Alaska.
Jargon was originally derived from a great variety of indigenous words as a contact language for the relatively isolated native tribes of the Pacific Northwest, many of whom had very distinct local languages.
Jargon placenames are found throughout the Pacific Northwest and Mountain States, although the source language for a given place name is difficult, since Chinook Jargon borrowed a most of its native words from the Salishan languages.
Chinook Jargon (783 words)
Chinook Jargon is a trade language that was used extensively in the nineteenth century and first part of the twentieth century for communication between Europeans and First Nations people in much of the Pacific Northwest, including British Columbia.
Chinook Jargon should not be confused with Chinook, which is the native language, now extinct, of the Chinook people, whose traditional territory is around the lower reaches of the Columbia River, near Portland, Oregon.
Chinook Jargon is a language with a simplified grammar that draws its vocabulary from several languages.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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