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Encyclopedia > Chinese yuan
Collection of Chinese yuan (renminbi) banknotes. 1⁄10 yuan to 10 yuan notes are of the fourth series of the renminbi. 20 to 100 yuan (red) are of the fifth series of the renminbi. The polymer note on the lower right commemorates the third millennium.
Collection of Chinese yuan (renminbi) banknotes. 110 yuan to 10 yuan notes are of the fourth series of the renminbi. 20 to 100 yuan (red) are of the fifth series of the renminbi. The polymer note on the lower right commemorates the third millennium.

The yuan (everyday use: 元; traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: yuán; Wade-Giles: yuen; literally "round") is, in the Chinese language, the base unit of a number of modern Chinese currencies. The same character is used to refer to the cognate currency units of Korea and Japan, and is used to translate the currency unit "dollar"; for example, the US dollar is called Meiyuan (美元), or "American yuan", in Chinese. When used in English in the context of the modern foreign exchange market, the "Yuan" or "Chinese yuan" most commonly refers to the renminbi (CNY). CNY and RMB redirect here. ... ISO 4217 Code TWD User(s) Republic of China Inflation 0. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1087x1483, 834 KB) Summary Collection of Chinese Yuan (Renminbi) paper notes. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1087x1483, 834 KB) Summary Collection of Chinese Yuan (Renminbi) paper notes. ... CNY and RMB redirect here. ... The forth series of the renminbi was the series introduced between 1987 and 1997, although the banknotes were dated 1980, 1990, or 1996. ... The fifth series of the renminbi is the current coin and banknote series of the Chinese currency, the renminbi. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Wade-Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration) system for the Chinese language based on Mandarin. ... Chinese (written) language (pinyin: zhōngw n) written in Chinese characters The Chinese language (汉语/漢語, 华语/華語, or 中文; Pinyin: H nyǔ, Hu yǔ, or Zhōngw n) is a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... This article is about the Korean civilization. ... USD redirects here. ... CNY and RMB redirect here. ...


One yuan is divided into 10 jiao (角) or colloquially "feathers" (mao) (毛). One jiao is divided into 10 fen (分). In Cantonese, widely spoken in Hong Kong and Macau, jiao and fen are called ho (毫) and sin (仙). "Sin" is a word borrowed into Cantonese from the English "cent". This article is on all of the Yue dialects. ...

Contents

Etymology and Characters

Yuan in Chinese literally means a "round object" or "round coin". During the Qing Dynasty, the yuan was a round, silver coin. Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ...


As with the Chinese numerals, the character for yuan has two forms — a less formal, 元, and a more formal, 圓 or 圆, the latter being used to prevent alterations and accounting mistakes. The Japanese yen was originally also written 圓, but is now represented by the simplified character 円 due to the promulgation of the Tōyō kanji in 1946. The Korean won used to be written 圓 some time after World War II and as 圜 from 1902 to 1910, but is now written as 원 in Hangul exclusively, in both North and South Korea. The Hong Kong dollar and Macanese pataca are also written as yuan in Chinese. Today, speakers of Chinese use three numeral systems: There is the ubiquitous system of Arabic digits and two ancient Chinese numeral systems. ... ISO 4217 Code JPY User(s) Japan Inflation -0. ... Japanese writing Kanji 漢字 Kana 仮名 Hiragana 平仮名 Katakana 片仮名 Uses Furigana 振り仮名 Okurigana 送り仮名 Rōmaji ローマ字 Category The tōyō kanji (当用漢字, kanji for general use) are the result of a reform of the characters of Chinese origin in the Japanese written language. ... This page provides the etymology and history of the currency prior to 1945. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Jamo redirects here. ... North Korea, officially the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (DPRK; Korean: Chosŏn Minjujuŭi Inmin Konghwaguk; Hangul: 조선민주주의인민공화국; Hanja: 朝鮮民主主義人民共和國), is a country in eastern Asia... ISO 4217 Code HKD User(s) Hong Kong Inflation 2. ... The pataca is the monetary unit of Macau (currency code MOP; Chinese: 澳門圓), made up of 100 avos. ...


Shop prices in mainland China and Taiwan are usually marked with 元 after the digits. In mainland China, Y or ¥ before the digits is also common as well as the use of RMB to denote the currency. ...


The Chinese pronunciation of yuan is one syllable. This is not to be confused with the Japanese pronunciation which is "en", with no y sound. Sometime in English yuan is incorrectly pronounced as /ju:'æn/ (two syllables). In many parts of China, it is colloquially known as the kuai (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: kuai; literally "piece"). Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ...


Connection with dollar

Originally, a silver yuan had the same specifications as a silver dollar. During the Republican era (1911 - 1949), the English translation "yuan" was often printed on the reverse of the first yuan banknotes but sometimes "dollar" was used instead.[1] ‹ The template below (History of China - BC) is being considered for deletion. ...


In the Republic of China, the common English name is the "New Taiwan dollar" but banknotes issued between 1949 to 1956 used "yuan" as the English translation [2] whilst more modern notes lack any English text. For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... ISO 4217 Code TWD User(s) Republic of China Inflation 0. ...


First yuan, 1889-1948

Two 5 yuan notes
Bank of China, 1926 (bottom row)
Central Bank of China, 1936 (top row)

The yuan was introduced at par with the Mexican peso, a silver coin deriving from the Spanish dollar which circulated widely in South East Asia since the 17th century. It was subdivided into 1000 wén (文, cash), 100 fen (分, cents) or 10 jiao (角, not given an English name, cf. dime). It replaced the wén and various silver ingots called sycee. The sycee were denominated in tael. The yuan was valued at 0.72 tael, (aka 7 mace and 2 candareens). Image File history File links Download high resolution version (4256x1914, 5715 KB) Summary Front and back side of 5 Yaun notes. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (4256x1914, 5715 KB) Summary Front and back side of 5 Yaun notes. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... ISO 4217 Code MXN User(s) Mexico Inflation 3. ... The Spanish dollar or peso (literally, weight) is a silver coin that was minted in the Spanish Empire after a Spanish currency reform in 1497. ... For other uses, see Dime. ... Various shapes of ancient Chinese cash coins. ... The tael (兩), PY: Liang, was part of the Chinese system of weights and currency. ...

1 yuan, 90% silver, commemorative; President Duan Qirui, minted in 1924
1 yuan, 90% silver, commemorative; President Duan Qirui, minted in 1924

The earliest issues were silver coins produced at the Kwangtung mint. Other regional mints were opened in the 1890s. The central government began issuing its own coins in the yuan currency system in 1903. Banknotes were issued in yuan denominations from the 1890s by several local and private banks, along with banks established by the Imperial government. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 619 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (940 × 910 pixel, file size: 192 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Silver Dollar: Minted 1924, President Tuan Chi Jui, Hanyu Pinyin: Duan Qirui .900 silver, 27 grams Republic of China period. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 619 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (940 × 910 pixel, file size: 192 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Silver Dollar: Minted 1924, President Tuan Chi Jui, Hanyu Pinyin: Duan Qirui .900 silver, 27 grams Republic of China period. ... Duan Qirui. ... Guangdong (Simplified Chinese: 广东; Traditional Chinese: 廣東; pinyin: Guǎngdōng; Wade-Giles: Kuang-tung; Kwangtung in older transliteration; Cantonese: gwong2 dung1), is a province on the south coast of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


After the revolution, a great many local, national and foreign banks issued currency. Although the provincial coinages mostly ended in the 1920s, the provincial banks continued issuing notes until 1949, including Communist issues from 1930. Most of the banknotes issued for use throughout the country bore the words "National Currency", as did some of the provincial banks. The remaining provincial banknotes bore the words "Local Currency". These circulated at varying exchange rates to the national currency issues.


During the 1930s, several new currencies came into being in China due to the activities of the invading Japanese. The pre-existing, national currency yuan came to be associated only with the Nationalist, Kuomintang government. In 1935, the Kuomintang Government enacted currency reforms to limit currency issuance to four major government controlled banks: the Bank of China, Central Bank of China, Bank of Communications and later the Farmers Bank of China. The circulation of silver yuan coins was prohibited and private ownership of silver was banned. The banknotes issued in its place were known as 法幣 (Pinyin: fǎbì) or "Legal Tender". A new series of base metal coins began production in 1936 following the reforms. Bank of China Limited (BOC) SEHK: 3988 (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; often abbreviated as 中行) is one of the big four state-owned commercial banks of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Central Bank of China (中央銀行) is the central bank of the Republic of China (on Taiwan). ... Bank of Communications HKEx: 3328 (Simplified Chinese: 交通银行, traditional Chinese: 交通銀行) Founded in 1908 (the 34th year of the Guangxu reign period, Qing Dynasty), the Bank of Communications emerged as one of the first few major national and note-issuing banks in China in the early days, and was chartered as the... The Farmers Bank of China (中國農民銀行, pinyin: Zhōngguó nóngmín yínháng) was one of the largest banks in China and later in Taiwan. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Legal tender or forced tender is payment that cannot be refused in settlement of a debt denominated in the same currency by virtue of law. ...


Between 1930 and 1948, banknotes were also issued by the Central Bank of China denominated in customs gold units. These circulated as normal currency in the 1940s alongside the yuan. User(s) Republic of China Subunit 1/100 cent (分, Fen) Coins None Banknotes 100, 500, 1000, 2000, 2500, 5000, 10 000, 25 000, 50 000, 250 000 CGUs Central bank Central Bank of China Website www. ...


In the aftermath of the Second World War and during the civil war which followed, Nationalist China suffered from hyperinflation, leading to the introduction of a new currency in 1948, the gold yuan. Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ...


Coins

The earliest issues were silver coins produced at the Guangdong (Canton) mint in denominations of 5 fen, 1, 2 and 5 jiao and 1 yuan. Other regional mints were opened in the 1890s producing similar silver coins along with copper coins in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10 and 20 wén. Not to be confused with the former Kwantung Leased Territory in north-eastern China. ...

Provincial Coinage for the First Yuan
Province Dates of Coin Production
Start Finish
Anhui (Anhwei) 1897 1909
Zhejiang (Chekiang) 1897 1924
Hebei (Chihli) 1896 1908
Liaoning (Fengtien) 1897 1929
Fujian (Fukien) 1896 1932
Henan (Honan) 1905 1931
Hunan 1897 1926
Hubei (Hupeh) 1895 1920
Gansu (Kansu) 1914 1928
Jiangnan (Kiangnan) 1898 1911
Jiangxi (Kiangsi) 1901 1912
Jiangsu (Kiangsu) 1898 1906
Jilin (Kirin) 1899 1909
Guangxi (Kwangsi) 1919 1949
Guangdong (Kwangtung) 1889 1929
Guizhou (Kweichow) 1928 1949
Shanxi (Shansi) 1913 1913
Shandong (Shantung) 1904 1906
Shaanxi (Shensi) 1928 1928
Xinjiang (Sinkiang) 1901 1949
Sichuan (Szechuan) 1898 1930
Taiwan 1893 1894
Yunnan 1906 1949

The central government began issuing its own coins in the yuan currency system in 1903. These were brass 1 wén, copper 2, 5, 10 and 20 wén, and silver 1, 2 and 5 jiao and 1 yuan. After the revolution, although the designs changed, the sizes and metals used in the coinage remained mostly unchanged until the 1930s. From 1936, the central government issued nickel (later cupronickel) 5, 10 and 20 fen and ½ yuan coins. Aluminium 1 and 5 fen pieces were issued in 1940. Anhui (Chinese: 安徽; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: An-hui; Postal System Pinyin: Ngan-hui, Anhwei or An-hwei) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Zhejiang (also spelled Chehkiang or Chekiang) is an eastern coastal province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Hebei (Chinese: 河北; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-pei; Postal System Pinyin: Hopeh) is a northern province of the Peoples Republic of China. ...   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Liáoníng) is a northeastern province of the Peoples Republic of China. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Fu-chien; Postal map spelling: Fukien, Foukien; local transliteration Hokkien from Min Nan Hok-kiàn) is one of the provinces on the southeast coast of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Henan (Chinese: 河南; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-nan), is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located in the central part of the country. ... Not to be confused with the unrelated provinces of Hainan, Henan, and Yunnan. ... Hubei (Chinese: 湖北; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hu-pei; Postal System Pinyin: Hupeh) is a central province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Gansu (Simplified Chinese: 甘肃; Traditional Chinese: 甘肅; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kan-su, Kansu, or Kan-suh) is a province located in the northwest of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Village in Jiangnan Jiangnan or Jiang Nan (Chinese: ; Pinyin: Jiāngnán; Wade-Giles: Chiang nan; sometimes spelled Kiang-nan) is a geographic area referring to lands immediately to the south of the lowest reaches of the Yangtze River, including the southern part of the Yangtze Delta. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chiang-hsi; Postal map spelling: Kiangsi) is a southern province of the Peoples Republic of China, spanning from the banks of the Yangtze River in the north into hillier areas in the south. ...   (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chiang-su; Postal map spelling: Kiangsu) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located along the east coast of the country. ... For the city, see Jilin City. ... Guangxi (Zhuang: Gvangjsih; old orthography: ; Simplified Chinese: 广西; Traditional Chinese: 廣西; Pinyin: GuÇŽngxÄ«; Wade-Giles: Kuang-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Kwangsi), full name Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (Zhuang: Gvangjsih Bouxcuengh Swcigih; old orthography: ; Simplified Chinese: 广西壮族自治区; Traditional Chinese: 廣西壯族自治區; Pinyin: GuÇŽngxÄ« Zhuàngzú ZìzhìqÅ«) is a Zhuang autonomous region of... Not to be confused with the former Kwantung Leased Territory in north-eastern China. ... (Simplified Chinese: 贵州; Traditional Chinese: è²´å·ž; pinyin: Gùizhōu; Wade-Giles: Kuei-chou; also spelled Kweichow) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China located in the southwestern part of the country. ... Shanxi (Chinese: 山西; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shan-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Shansi) is a province in the northern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ...   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shan-tung) is a coastal province of eastern Peoples Republic of China. ...   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ShÇŽnxÄ«; Wade-Giles: Shan-hsi; Postal map spelling: Shensi) is a north-central province of the Peoples Republic of China, and includes portions of the Loess Plateau on the middle reaches of the Yellow River as well as the Qinling Mountains across the... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: SzÅ­4-chuan1; Postal map spelling: Szechwan and Szechuan) is a province in the central-western China with its capital at Chengdu. ... Yunan redirects here. ... Cupronickel is an alloy of copper, nickel and strengthening impurities, such as iron and manganese. ...


Banknotes

Banknotes were issued in yuan denominations from the 1890s by several local and private banks, along with the "Imperial Bank of China" and the "Hu Pu Bank" (later the "Ta-Ch'ing Government Bank"), established by the Imperial government. During the Imperial period, banknotes were issued in denominations of 1, 2 and 5 jiao, 1, 2, 5, 10, 50 and 100 yuan, although notes below 1 yuan were uncommon.


The number of banks issuing paper money increased after the revolution. Significant national issuers included the "Commercial Bank of China" (the former Imperial Bank), the "Bank of China" (the former Ta-Ch'ing Government Bank), the "Bank of Communications", the "Ningpo Commercial Bank", the "Central Bank of China" and the "Farmers Bank of China". Of these, only the Central Bank of China issued notes beyond 1943. An exceptionally large number of banknotes were issued during the Republican era (1911-1949) by provincial banks (both Nationalist and Communist). Combatants  Qing Dynasty Chinese Revolutionary Alliance Commanders Feng Guozhang, Yuan Shikai, and local Qing governors. ... ‹ The template below (History of China - BC) is being considered for deletion. ...


After the revolution, in addition to the denominations already in circulation, "small money" notes proliferated, with 1, 2 and 5 fen denominations appearing. Many notes were issued denominated in English in "copper coins", meaning wén.


In the 1940s, larger denominations of notes appeared due to the high inflation. 500 yuan notes were introduced in 1941, followed by 1000 and 2000 yuan in 1942, 2500 and 5000 yuan in 1945 and 10,000 yuan in 1947.


Second (Gold) yuan, 1948-1949

Banknotes of the first yuan suffered from hyperinflation following the Second World War and were replaced in August 1948 by notes denominated in gold yuan, worth 3 million old yuan. There was no link between the gold yuan and gold metal or coins and this yuan also suffered from hyperinflation. Certain figures in this article use scientific notation for readability. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ...


Banknotes

In 1948, the Central Bank of China issued notes (some dated 1945 and 1946) in denominations of 1, 2 and 5 jiao, 1, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 yuan. In 1949, higher denominations of 500, 1000, 5000, 10,000, 50,000, 100,000, 500,000, 1,000,000 and 5,000,000 yuan were issued.


Third (Silver) yuan, 1949

In July 1949, the Nationalist Government introduced the silver yuan, which was initially worth 500 million gold yuan (Silver yuan on Chinese wikipedia). It circulated for a few months on the mainland before the end of the civil war. This silver yuan remained the de jure official currency of the Republic government on Taiwan until 2000.


Banknotes

The Central Bank of China issued notes in denominations of 1 and 5 fen, 1, 2 and 5 jiao, 1, 5 and 10 yuan.


Manchurian (Fengtien) yuan, 1917-1932

In 1917, the warlord in control of Manchuria, Zhang Zuolin, introduced a new currency, known as the Fengtien yuan or dollar, for use in the Three Eastern Provinces. It was valued at 1.2 yuan in the earlier (and still circulating) "small money" banknotes and was initially set equal to the Japanese yen. It maintained its value (at times being worth a little more than the yen) until 1925, when Zhang Zuolin's military involvement in the rest of China lead to an increase in banknote production and a fall in the currency's value. The currency lost most of its value in 1928 as a consequence of the disturbance following Zhang Zuolin's assassination. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Chang Tso-Lin (WG) (Chinese: 張作霖, pinyin: Zhāng Zuòlín) (1873 – June 4, 1928), nicknamed the Old Marshall or Mukden Tiger, was a Chinese warlord in Manchuria in the early 20th century. ... Major districts of Shenyang. ... ISO 4217 Code JPY User(s) Japan Inflation -0. ...


Banknotes

The Fengtien yuan was only issued in banknote form, with 1, 5 and 10 yuan notes issued in 1917, followed by 50 and 100 yuan notes in 1924. The last notes were issued in 1928.


Japanese Occupation yuan, 1937-1945

The Japanese occupiers issued coins and banknotes denominated in li (釐, 1/1000 of a yuan), fen, jiao and yuan. Issuers included a variety of banks, including the Central Reserve Bank of China (for the puppet government in Nanking) and the Federal Reserve Bank of China (for the puppet government in Beijing). The Japanese decreed the exchange rates between the various banks' issues and those of the Nationalists but the banknotes circulated with varying degrees of acceptance among the Chinese population. Between 1932 and 1945, the puppet state of Manchukuo issued its own yuan. Nanjing (南京, Pinyin: Nánjīng, Wade-Giles: Nan-ching; Postal System Pinyin: Nanking, formerly Jinling 金陵, Jiangning 江宁, and Tianjing 天京) is the central city of downstream Yangtze Basin and is a renowned historical and cultural city. ... Peking redirects here. ... Flag Anthem National Anthem of Manchukuo Map of Manchukuo Capital Hsinking Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1932 - 1934 Datong (Chief Executive) (Aisingioro Puyi)  - 1934 - 1945 Kangde-Emperor (Aisingioro Puyi) Prime Minister  - 1932 - 1935 Zheng Xiaoxu  - 1935 - 1945 Zhang Jinghui Historical era World War II  - Established 1932  - Disestablished 1945 Manchukuo (, State of... Notice of the issuance of provisional Manchukuo yuan notes, 1932 The Manchukuo yuan (圓) was a unit of currency created by Japanese economists and military thinkers in June 1932. ...


The Japanese established two collaborationist regimes during their occupation in China. In the north, the "Provisional Government of the Republic of China" (中華民國臨時政府) based in Beijing established the Federal Reserve Bank of China (中國聯合準備銀行, pinyin: Zhōngguó liánhé zhǔnbèi yínháng). The FRB issued notes in 1938 at par with Kuomintang yuan. Although initially equivalent, the Japanese banned the use of Nationalist currency in 1939 and set arbitrary exchange rates in favour of the FRB yuan. The FRB yuan was replaced by the Nationalist yuan in 1945 at 1 FRB yuan = 0.2 Nationalist yuan. Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Peking redirects here. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China (ROC), now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in terms of seats in the Legislative Yuan, and the oldest political party in the...


The Wang Jingwei government in Nanjing established the collaborationist Reformed Government of the Republic of China (南京維新政府) in 1938. This was later reorganised into the Wang Jingwei Government (南京國民政府) in 1940. They established the Central Reserve Bank of China (中央儲備銀行, pinyin: Zhōngyāng chǔbèi yínháng) which began issuing CRB yuan in 1941. Although initially set at par with the Nationalist yuan, it was also arbitrarily changed to equal 0.18 Japanese Military yen. In 1945, it was also replaced by the Nationalist yuan at 1 CRB yuan = 0.005 Nationalist yuan. Wang Jingwei * Courtesy name: Jixin (季新) * Alternate name: Zhaoming (兆銘). Wang Jingwei (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Wang Ching-wei) (May 4, 1883 – November 10, 1944), was a Chinese politician. ... For other uses, see Nanjing (disambiguation). ... This article needs copyediting (checking for proper English spelling, grammar, usage, etc. ... The Wang Jingwei was a government under the leadership of Wang Jingwei in the Republic of China, set up by the Empire of Japan in March 1940. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ...


Coins

In 1937, the Chi Tung Bank issued copper 5 li and 1 fen, and cupronickel 5 fen and 1 and 2 jiao in East Hebei. The Mengchiang Bank issued cupronickel 5 jiao in northern China in 1938. The Hua Hsing Commercial Bank issued coins (dated 1940) in Shanghai in 1941. These were bronze 1 fen and cupronickel 10 fen. The Federal Reserve Bank issued aluminium 1 and 5 fen and 1 jiao between 1941 and 1943 from Beijing. Hebei (Chinese: 河北; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-pei; Postal System Pinyin: Hopeh) is a northern province of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Banknotes

Five banks, the Central Reserve Bank of China, Federal Reserve Bank of China, Hua Hsing Commercial Bank, Mengchiang Bank and Chi Tung Bank, issued notes for use in the Japanese occupied areas. Denominations included ½, 1 and 5 fen, 1, 2 and 5 jiao, 1, 5, 10, 100, 200, 500, 1000, 5000, 10,000 and 100,000 yuan, with the denominations above 100 yuan only appearing in 1944 and 1945.


Northeastern yuan, 1945-1948

After the defeat of Japan in 1945, the Central Bank of China issued a separate currency in the northeast to replace those issued by the puppet banks. Termed "東北九省流通券" (pinyin:Dōngběi jiǔ shěng liútōngquàn), it was worth 20 of the yuan which circulated in the rest of the country. It was replaced in 1948 by the gold yuan at a rate of 150,000 northeastern yuan = 1 gold yuan. Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ...


Banknotes

In 1945, notes were introduced in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 50 and 100 yuan. 500 yuan notes were added in 1946, followed by 1000 and 2000 yuan in 1947 and 5000 and 10,000 yuan in 1948.


First Communist yuan, 1930-1949

The various Soviets under the control of China's communists issued coins between 1931 and 1935, and banknotes between 1930 and 1949. Some of the banknotes were denominated in ch'uan, strings of wén coins. The People's Bank was founded in 1948 and began issuing currency that year, but some of the regional banks continued to issue their own notes in to 1949.


Coins

Various, mostly crude coins were produced by the Soviets. Some only issued silver 1 yuan coins (Hunan, Hupeh-Honan-Anhwei, Min-Che-Kan, North Shensi and P'ing Chiang) whilst the Hsiang-O-Hsi Soviet only issued copper 1 fen coins and the Wan-Hsi-Pei Soviet issued only copper 50 wén coins. The Chinese Soviet Republic issued copper 1 and 5 fen and silver 2 jiao and 1 yuan coins. The Szechuan-Shensi Soviet issued copper 200 and 500 wén and silver 1 yuan coins.


Banknotes

Notes were produced by many different banks. There were two phases of note production. The first, up until 1936, involved banks in a total of seven areas, most of which were organized as Soviets. These were:

Area Dates Denominations
Chinese Soviet Republic 1933-1936 1, 5 fen, 1, 2, 5 jiao, 1, 2, 3 yuan
Hunan-Hubei-Jiangsi 1931-1933 1, 2, 3, 5 jiao, 1 yuan
Northwest Anwei 1932 2, 5 jiao, 1, 5 yuan
Fujian-Chekiang-Kiangsi 1932-1934 10 wén, 1, 2, 5 jiao, 1, 10 yuan
Hubei 1930-1932 1, 2, 10 ch'uan, 1, 2, 5 jiao, 1 yuan
P'ing Chiang 1931 1, 2 jiao
Sichuan-Shensi 1932-1933 1, 2, 3, 5 and 10 ch'uan

Production of banknotes by communist forces ceased in 1936 but resumed in 1938 and continued through to the centralization of money production in 1948. A great many regional banks and other entities issued notes. Before 1942, denominations up to 100 yuan were issued. That year, the first notes up to 1000 yuan appeared. Notes up to 5000 yuan appeared in 1943, with 10,000 yuan notes appearing in 1947, 50,000 yuan in 1948 and 100,000 yuan in 1949.


Second Communist yuan, 1948-1955

Main article: Renminbi

As the communist forces took control of most of China, they introduced a new currency, in banknote form only, denominated in yuan. This became the sole currency of mainland China at the end of the civil war. CNY and RMB redirect here. ... Combatants Kuomintang of China Communist Party of China Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949) 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) The Chinese Civil War (traditional...


Renminbi yuan, 1955-

Main article: Renminbi

A new yuan was introduced in 1955 at a rate of 10,000 old yuan = 1 new yuan. It is known as the renminbi yuan. CNY and RMB redirect here. ... 100 Renminbi Yuan issued in 1999 The renminbi (Simplified Chinese: 人民币; Traditional Chinese: 人民幣; Hanyu Pinyin: ; literally peoples currency) is the official currency in the mainland of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ...


First Taiwanese yuan

Main article: Old Taiwan dollar

In 1946, a new currency was introduced for circulation in Taiwan, replacing the Japanese issued Taiwan yen. It was not directly related to the mainland yuan. The Old Taiwan Dollar (舊臺幣 or 舊台幣; ISO 4217 code TWN), sometimes called Old Taiwan yuan, was the currency of the Taiwan, Republic of China from 1946 to 1949. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 note worth one Taiwan yen The Taiwan yen is a former unit of currency which was on a par with the Japanese yen. ...


Second Taiwanese yuan

Main article: New Taiwan dollar

In 1949, a second yuan was introduced in Taiwan, replacing the first at a rate of 40,000 to 1. This is the currency of Taiwan today. ISO 4217 Code TWD User(s) Republic of China Inflation 0. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


See also

Look up Yuan in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... User(s) Republic of China Subunit 1/100 cent (分, Fen) Coins None Banknotes 100, 500, 1000, 2000, 2500, 5000, 10 000, 25 000, 50 000, 250 000 CGUs Central bank Central Bank of China Website www. ... Won is the currency of both North and South Korea. ...

References

  1. ^ Ronald Wise. Banknote images of China, 1914 - 1949. Retrieved on 2006-11-23.
  2. ^ sinobanknote.com. Table of New Taiwan dollar. Retrieved on 2006-11-23.
  • Krause, Chester L. and Clifford Mishler (1991). Standard Catalog of World Coins: 1801-1991, 18th ed., Krause Publications. ISBN 0-87341-150-1. 
  • Pick, Albert (1990). Standard Catalog of World Paper Money: Specialized Issues, Colin R. Bruce II and Neil Shafer (editors), 6th ed., Krause Publications. ISBN 0-87341-149-8. 
  • Pick, Albert (1994). Standard Catalog of World Paper Money: General Issues, Colin R. Bruce II and Neil Shafer (editors), 7th ed., Krause Publications. ISBN 0-87341-207-9. 

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Standard Catalog of World Coins is a series of numismatic catalogues that is commonly known as the Krause catalogues in the numismatic trade. ... The Standard Catalog of World Paper Money is a very well-known catalogue of banknotes that is published by Krause Publications in three volumes. ... The Standard Catalog of World Paper Money is a very well-known catalogue of banknotes that is published by Krause Publications in three volumes. ...

External links


 
 

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