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Encyclopedia > Chinese wine
Chinese wine
Simplified:
Traditional:
Hanyu Pinyin: jiǔ

Jiu (Chinese: ; pinyin: jiǔ) is the Chinese word that refers to all alcoholic beverages. This word has often been translated into English as "wine", although the meaning is closer to "alcoholic beverage" or "liquor." The same Chinese character is also used in Japanese, where it is pronounced sake or shu, and in Korean, where it is pronounced "ju." This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Traditional Chinese (Traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字, Simplified Chinese: 正体字/繁体字) refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), commonly called Pinyin, is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), commonly called Pinyin, is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Bottles of cachaça, a Brazilian alcoholic beverage. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... A glass of red wine This article is about the alcoholic beverage. ... Bottles of cachaça, a Brazilian alcoholic beverage. ... Spirits redirects here. ... 漢字 / 汉字 Chinese character in Hànzì, Kanji, Hanja, Hán Tá»±. Red in Simplified Chinese. ... Sake barrels at Itsukushima Shrine. ...


The two main varieties of Chinese wines are fermented wines (Chinese: 黃酒; pinyin: huáng jiǔ; literally "yellow liquor"), which may be clear, beige, or reddish-brown in color; and distilled liquors (Chinese: 白酒; pinyin: bái jiǔ; literally "white liquor"), which are usually clear liquids. Although not a traditional product, grape wine (Chinese: 葡萄酒; pinyin: pútáo jiǔ; literally "grape liquor") was first mentioned in classical Chinese poems around 1,000 years ago in the Tang Dynasty. It has been increasingly produced and consumed in China since 1900 as a result of increased Western influences. Shaoxing jiu, a famous huangjiu Huangjiu (黄酒; pinyin: huáng jiÇ”, lit. ... Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), commonly called Pinyin, is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Baijiu (Chinese: 白酒; pinyin: ) or Shaojiu is potent Chinese alcohol. ... Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), commonly called Pinyin, is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Chinese grape wine (葡萄酒; pinyin: pútáo jiÇ”), as opposed to traditional wines made from millet or rice and native fruits such as lychee or plum, has become more and more common in China as Western tastes have become more popular within China. ... Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), commonly called Pinyin, is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Quatrain on Heavenly Mountain by Emperor Gaozong Hand-painted Chinese New Years duilian (對聯 couplet), a by-product of Chinese poetry, pasted on the sides of doors leading to peoples homes, at Lijiang City, Yunnan Traditionally, Chinese poetry are divided into shi (è©©), ci (è©ž) and qu (曲). There is also a... The Tang Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) (18 June 618 – 4 June 907), lasting about three centuries, preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by the Song Dynasty and the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period in China. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Western World. ...


Chinese wines are traditionally warmed before being consumed. The temperature to which the liquor may be warmed ranges between approximately 35 and 55 degrees Celsius, well below the boiling point of ethanol. Warming the liquor allows its aromas to be better appreciated by the drinker without losing too much alcohol. Optimal temperature for warming depends on the type of wine as well as the preference of the drinker. Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... ^ a b c d e f g h Eastman. ... Ethanol, also known as ethyl alcohol, drinking alcohol or grain alcohol, is a flammable, colorless, slightly toxic chemical compound with a distinctive perfume-like odor, and is the alcohol found in alcoholic beverages. ...

Contents

Varieties

Grain-based huangjiu and choujiu (fermented beverages)

Main article: Huangjiu
Main article: Choujiu

Chinese fermented wines, called huangjiu (Chinese: ; pinyin: huáng jiǔ, lit. "yellow wine" or "yellow liquor"), are brewed directly from grains such as rice or wheat. Such liquors contain less than 20% alcohol, due to the inhibition of ethanol fermentation at this concentration. These wine are traditionally pasteurized, aged, and filtered before their final bottling for sale to consumers. Huangjiu can also be distilled to produce baijiu (see below). Shaoxing jiu, a famous huangjiu Huangjiu (黄酒; pinyin: huáng jiÇ”, lit. ... Main article: Chinese wine Choujiu (chinese:稠酒) is a type of Chinese fermented alcoholic beverage brewed directly from glutinous rice. ... Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), commonly called Pinyin, is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Ethanol, also known as ethyl alcohol, drinking alcohol or grain alcohol, is a flammable, colorless, slightly toxic chemical compound with a distinctive perfume-like odor, and is the alcohol found in alcoholic beverages. ...


Huangjiu are classified based on several factors. Among them are the liquor's dryness, the starter used in its production, and its production method. A bread starter, also called a sponge, consists of a simple mixture of flour, water, and a leavening agent (typically yeast or yogurt), and is added to bread dough before the kneading and baking process as a substitute for yeast. ...


The term huangjiu is often used as a generic term for all the Chinese fermented alcoholic beverages, but some varieties of Chinese fermented beverage are named separately, and not considered to be varieties of huangjiu; these include choujiu (made from glutinous rice) and Qingke jiu (made from Tibetan highland barley). Main article: Chinese wine Choujiu (chinese:稠酒) is a type of Chinese fermented alcoholic beverage brewed directly from glutinous rice. ...


While the primary ingredient used to produce huangjiu is rice, the main ingredient of choujiu is glutinous rice. Species Oryza glaberrima Oryza sativa The planting of rice is often a labour-intensive process Terrace of rice paddies in Yunnan Province, southern China. ... Main article: Chinese wine Choujiu (chinese:稠酒) is a type of Chinese fermented alcoholic beverage brewed directly from glutinous rice. ... Glutinous rice ( or Oryza glutinosa; also called sticky rice, sweet rice, waxy rice, botan rice, mochi rice, and pearl rice) is a type of short-grained Asian rice that is especially sticky when cooked. ...


Grain-based baijiu (distilled beverages)

Main article: Baijiu
Main article: Rice Fragrance Baijiu

Chinese distilled liquors are classified under the general heading baijiu (Chinese: ; pinyin: báijiǔ, lit. "white liquor" or "white wine"). White liquors are also commonly called shaojiu (酒; pinyin: shāojiǔ; lit. "hot liquor" or "burned liquor"), either because of the burning sensation in the mouth during consumption, the fact that they are usually warmed before being consumed, or because of the heating required for distillation. Liquors of this type typically contain more than 30% alcohol in volume since they have undergone distillation. There are a great many varieties of distilled liquors, both unflavored and flavored. Baijiu (Chinese: 白酒; pinyin: ) or Shaojiu is potent Chinese alcohol. ... Rice Fragrance Baijiu (Chinese: zh:米香型白酒) is one kind of distilled beverage popular in China. ... Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), commonly called Pinyin, is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ...


While yellow liquors have a wide variety of classification methods, white liquors are grouped primarily by their type of fragrance. Baijiu (Chinese: 白酒; pinyin: ) or Shaojiu is potent Chinese alcohol. ...


While the primary ingredient of baijiu is usually sorghum, the primary ingredient of Rice Fragrance Baijiu is rice. Species About 30 species, see text Sorghum is a genus of about 30 species of grasses raised for grain, native to tropical and subtropical regions of Eastern Africa, with one species native to Mexico. ... Rice Fragrance Baijiu (Chinese: zh:米香型白酒) is one kind of distilled beverage popular in China. ... Species Oryza glaberrima Oryza sativa The planting of rice is often a labour-intensive process Terrace of rice paddies in Yunnan Province, southern China. ...


Fruit-based wines

Main article: Chinese grape wine
Main article: Gouqi jiu

Chinese grape wine (葡萄酒; pinyin: pútáo jiǔ), as opposed to traditional wines made from millet or rice and native fruits such as lychee or plum, has become more and more common in China as Western tastes have become more popular within China. ... Main article: Chinese wine Gouqi jiu(zh:枸杞酒) is one kind of fruit alcoholic beverage made from Gouqi. ...

Production

Ingredients

The three main ingredients that contribute to the unique characters of various Chinese wines are the grains, the water, and the liquor starter. Other ingredients that alter the colour or taste of the final product may also be added.


Grains

Chinese wines are traditionally made from grains. Wines from southern China are typically made only from glutinous rice, while those from northern China are made of predominantly of wheat, barley, millet, sorghum, or occasionally Job's tears. Most famous northern Chinese wines are made using a mixture of rice and other grains. Glutinous rice ( or Oryza glutinosa; also called sticky rice, sweet rice, waxy rice, botan rice, mochi rice, and pearl rice) is a type of short-grained Asian rice that is especially sticky when cooked. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 For the indie rock group see: Wheat (band). ... Binomial name Hordeum vulgare L. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is a major food and animal feed crop, a member of the grass family Poaceae. ... Pearl millet in the field The millets are a group of small-seeded species of cereal crops, widely grown around the world for food and fodder. ... Species About 30 species, see text Sorghum is a genus of about 30 species of grasses raised for grain, native to tropical and subtropical regions of Eastern Africa, with one species native to Mexico. ... Binomial name Coix lacryma-jobi L. Synonyms Jobs Tears (Coix lacryma-jobi), also known as Chinese pearl barley, is a tall tropical plant of the family Poaceae (grass family) native to East Asia and Malaya but elsewhere cultivated in gardens as an annual. ...


Grains used in brewing are degermed and polished of their bran. The grains are then soaked and acidfied with the aid of lactobaccilus or through the addition of lactic acid into the soaking liquid. Acidification is done to discourage the growth of other microbes on the grains, which can spoil the resulting liquor by creating off flavours in it or rendering it poisonous. This process also gives many Chinese wines a taste and mouth-feel unique to most other types of rice wines. wheat bran Bran is the hard outer layer of cereal grains, and consists of combined aleurone and pericarp. ... Lactic acid (IUPAC systematic name: 2-hydroxypropanoic acid), also known as milk acid, is a chemical compound that plays a role in several biochemical processes. ...


Water

Water is also an important component in Chinese wine making. This is not only because it hydrates the grains and enables fermentation to occur, but also because it contributes to the flavour and quality of the liquor, depending on its pH and mineral content. Many Chinese wine making regions are famous not only for their wines but also the flavour and quality of their water sources. The correct title of this article is . ...


Emphasis is placed on gathering the cleanest water directly from springs or streams, or from the center of lakes where the water has been exposed to the least amount of pollutants. Water used for making Chinese wines should be low in iron and sodium, with a higher proportion of magnesium and calcium ions as part of its total mineral content. General Name, Symbol, Number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Atomic mass 55. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sodium, Na, 11 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 3, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 22. ... General Name, Symbol, Number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 24. ... General Name, Symbol, Number calcium, Ca, 20 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 4, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 40. ...


Liquor starter

Also known as a "starter cake" (麴餅; pinyin: qū bǐng) or "liquor medicine" (酒药; pinyin: jiǔ yaò), the liquor starters for Chinese wine are cakes or pastes containing a complex mixture of various yeasts, molds, and bacteria, which are used to inoculate the grains. The starter converts the grain starches to sugars, and sugars to ethanol. Certain starters also acidify the grain mixture. Each brewery uses a different type of starter cake that was made at their facilities from previous starter cultures, which are handed down from generation to generation. Larger factories often use pure cultures of each organism in a starter instead of the actual cakes themselves. Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), commonly called Pinyin, is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), commonly called Pinyin, is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... A bread starter, also called a sponge, consists of a simple mixture of flour, water, and a leavening agent (typically yeast or yogurt), and is added to bread dough before the kneading and baking process as a substitute for yeast. ... Typical divisions Ascomycota Saccharomycotina (true yeasts) Taphrinomycotina Schizosaccharomycetes (fission yeasts) Basidiomycota Basidiomycotina (club fungi) Urediniomycetes Sporidiales Yeasts are unicellular, eukaryotic microorganisms classified in the kingdom Fungi. ... It has been suggested that Toxic mold be merged into this article or section. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Ethanol, also known as ethyl alcohol, drinking alcohol or grain alcohol, is a flammable, colorless, slightly toxic chemical compound with a distinctive perfume-like odor, and is the alcohol found in alcoholic beverages. ...


There are three main types of starters:

  • Small starter (Chinese: 小麴, 小曲; pinyin: xiǎo qū): Rice that had been cultured predominantly by molds of the Rhizopus (Chinese: 小麴菌, pinyin: xiǎo qū jùn or 根霉菌, pinyin: gēn meí jùn) and Mucor (Chinese: 毛霉菌, pinyin: maó meí jùn) genus, as well as yeast and other bacteria. The mixture generates less heat, so they are mostly used in the tropical South of China.
  • Large starter (Chinese: 酒麴, 酒曲; pinyin: jiǔ qū, or 麥麴, 麦曲; pinyin: maì qū): Rice that had been cultured predominantly by Aspergillus oryzae (Chinese: 麴菌, 麴霉菌, 曲霉菌, pinyin: qū meí jùn, Japanese: 麹菌, koji-kin) , other molds, yeast, and bacteria. Almost all famous alcoholic drinks in China belong to this type. Wine made from a small starter is usually finished using large starters for flavor.
  • Red starter (Chinese: 紅麴, 红曲; pinyin: hóng qū): Rice that had been cultured with yeast and Monascus purpureus (Chinese: 紅曲菌, pinyin: hóng qū jùn) or other red rice molds of the Monascus genus. This starter gives the wine a purple red colour and is used to give wines a unique colour and flavour.

The starter is either mixed in water using only the filtrate of the mixture, or the starter is dried, ground, and applied directly in the form of a dry powder. Although the manufacturing process requires only one type of starter for fermentation, many Chinese wines are brewed their liquors from two of more types of starters. Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), commonly called Pinyin, is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Species Rhizopus nigricans Rhizopus stolonifer Rhizopus arrhizus Rhizopus azygosporus Rhizopus microsporus Rhizopus oligosporus Rhizopus oryzae Rhizopus schipperae and others Schematic diagram of Rhizopus is a genus of molds. ... Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), commonly called Pinyin, is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), commonly called Pinyin, is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Species See section. ... Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), commonly called Pinyin, is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), commonly called Pinyin, is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), commonly called Pinyin, is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Aspergillus oryzae (Japanese: kōji 麹) is a fungus used in Japanese cuisine. ... Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), commonly called Pinyin, is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), commonly called Pinyin, is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Binomial name Monascus purpureus (Went, 1895) Monascus purpureus (syn. ... Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), commonly called Pinyin, is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Monascus is a genus of mold. ...


Flavourings

Chinese wines may occasionally be made or flavoured with fruits, but this is rather rare (it is more common in Korean wines). Medicinal herbs and spices are more commonly added to Chinese wine. These additives not only impart a reddish, brown, or green colour, but also modify the taste and flavour of the liquor itself. Some production processes also create wines that are dark tan in colour without the addition of herbs. A decorative bottle of bokbunjaju (Korean black raspberry wine) Korean culture has a great variety of traditional alcoholic beverages, most of which are called by the Sino-Korean term ju (hangul: 주; hanja: 酒). // Origin The origin of Korean wines has an interesting and historical story. ... dvdsvdxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Herbs: basil Herbs (IPA: hə()b, or əb; see pronunciation differences) are plants grown for any purpose other than food, wood or beauty. ... Screen shot of Spice OPUS, a fork of Berkeley SPICE SPICE (Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis) is a general purpose analog circuit simulator. ...


Preparing the seed mash

Prior to the actual brewing of the liquor, a small batch of grain is prepared to produce the seed mash (酒母; pinyin: jiǔ mǔ). Seed mash is produced by soaking and acidifying the glutinous rice as well as other grains and steaming them on frames or screens for several minutes. This cooks the grains and converts the starch to a gelatinized form that is more easily utilized by the starter culture.


The inoculation temperature of the steamed grains is tightly controlled as it alters the flavour character of the wine. This is usually done when the grain has been doused with cold water and cooled to between 23 and 28 degrees Celsius, which is considered the optimal initial fermentation temperature for the seed mash. The small starter is first added and allowed around two days to begin the saccharification, acidification, and fermentation of the grains. In many northern breweries, the large starter is often used instead. Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ...


Inoculation with the first starter partially liquifies the steamed grains, which is the signal to add the large starter as well as more water to form a thick slurry. This slurry is carefully stirred by a brewmaster to aerate and maintain an optimal level of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the mixture, as well as to maintain an even temperature throughout the fermenting mass. The slurry is periodically stirred over the course of a week. The stirred slurry is then allowed to go through a more thorough fermentation for approximately one month, following which the pH of the mixture will have dropped to around 3.4, and the concentration of alcohol will have reached approximately 15%. This is the seed mash that will be used to brew the main mash. A slurry may be: Look up slurry in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of one carbon and two oxygen atoms. ... The correct title of this article is . ...


Other than for brewing liquor, the seed mash is often made by Chinese families to be eaten or drunk as a sweet dessert.


Brewing the main mash

More soaked and acidified rice is prepared in the same fashion as in the seed mash, however, depending on the type of yellow liquor being produced, the rice is then either doused with cold water or spread out on a flat surface to cool down. Large factories usually employ air blowers to accomplish this. The cooling method alters the flavour and mouthfeel of the rice wine.


There is a wide variety of methods used to produce Chinese rice wine. Chinese wines can be made using a process where saccharification and fermentation of the rice occur in separate phases, similar to the way Japanese sake is produced, or a concurrent process where saccharification and fermentation happens in the same mash. The latter method is the typical process for brewing Chinese wines. In either case, the alcoholic liquid produced is then is allowed to continue to mature in earthenware jars for several months to several decades. The matured alcoholic liquid is then bottled and sold as "yellow liquor." Sake barrels at Itsukushima Shrine. ...


Concurrent

In traditional Chinese huangjiu production, the main mash is made by mixing the seed mash, additional large starter, and fresh water into newly cooked steamed glutinous rice that has been cooled into large glazed earthenware pots (up to 2 meters in diameter and height). The mixtured is mounded on the sides of the pots and allowed to ferment. The seed mash and the starter will saccharify, ferment, and liquify the cooked rice in the main mash.


Separate

If the process where separate saccharification and fermentation occurs is desired, the seed mash is typically not used as a main mash is never actually produced. A mash of water, steamed glutinous rice, and other grains is inoculated with rice that has already been cultivated with the mold Aspergillus oryzae or molds of the Rhizopus genus and certain strains of Lactobacillus. When mixed into the mash the molds cultivate the mixture and convert the starch in the grains into sugars and lactic acid, respectively. This sweet and slightly sour liquid is drained and reserved, while additional water (and sometimes also malt) is added to the mixture. The process is repeated until the grains are exhausted. Inoculation, originally Variolation, is a method of purposefully infecting a person with smallpox (Variola) in a controlled manner so as to minimise the severity of the infection and also to induce immunity against further infection. ... Aspergillus oryzae (Japanese: kōji 麹) is a fungus used in Japanese cuisine. ... Species Rhizopus nigricans Rhizopus stolonifer Rhizopus arrhizus Rhizopus azygosporus Rhizopus microsporus Rhizopus oligosporus Rhizopus oryzae Rhizopus schipperae and others Schematic diagram of Rhizopus is a genus of molds. ... Species L. acidophilus L. brevis L. delbrueckii subsp. ... Starch (CAS# 9005-25-8) is a complex carbohydrate which is soluble in water; it is used by plants as a way to store excess glucose. ... Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Lactic acid (IUPAC systematic name: 2-hydroxypropanoic acid), also known as milk acid, is a chemical compound that plays a role in several biochemical processes. ... Malted barley Malting is a process applied to cereal grains, in which the grains are made to germinate and then are quickly dried before the plant develops. ...


Yeast is then added to this liquid in order to convert the sugars in the liquid to alcohol. Ethanol, also known as ethyl alcohol, drinking alcohol or grain alcohol, is a flammable, colorless, slightly toxic chemical compound with a distinctive perfume-like odor, and is the alcohol found in alcoholic beverages. ...


Distillation

Chinese "yellow liquor" is sometimes distilled for a more potent alcoholic drink called baijiu (白酒; pinyin: bái jiǔ; lit. "white liquor"), which can sometimes be as high as 70-80% alcohol. Distillation is a means of separating liquids through differences in their boiling points. ... Baijiu (Chinese: 白酒; pinyin: ) or Shaojiu is potent Chinese alcohol. ...


The production of baijiu is so similar in color and mouthfeel to vodka that some foreigners refer to it as "Chinese vodka" or "Chinese white vodka." However, unlike vodka, baijiu is generally distilled only once (as opposed to five or more times for some vodkas) and less thoroughly filtered, which gives each liquor its own unique and sometimes penetrating (or even somewhat harsh) flavour and fragrance. In many areas related to the testing and evaluating of foodstuffs,such as wine-tasting and rheology, mouthfeel is a product’s physical and chemical interaction in the mouth from initial perception on the palate, to first bite, through mastication to swallowing. ... Vodka bottling machine, Shatskaya Vodka Shatsk, Russia Vodka is one of the worlds most consumed distilled beverages. ...


History

The origins of the alcoholic beverage from fermented grain in China cannot be traced definitively. It is believed to have 4000 years history. A legend said that Yidi, the wife of the first dynasty's king Yu (about 2100 BC) invented the method. At that time millet was the main grain, the so-called "yellow wine", then rice became more popular. It was not until the 19th century that distilled drinks become more popular. King Yu of Xia of China, in chinese: 禹, (2070 BC-2061 BC),born Si Wen Ming, in chinese: 姒文命 , often called Da Yu (大禹,who mean Yu the Great). Yu was the legendary first Chinese monarch of the Xia Dynasty, considered as the founder of the dynasty. ... Pearl millet in the field The millets are a group of small-seeded species of cereal crops, widely grown around the world for food and fodder. ... Species Oryza glaberrima Oryza sativa The planting of rice is often a labour-intensive process Terrace of rice paddies in Yunnan Province, southern China. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Traditionally, Chinese distilled liquors are consumed together with food rather than drunk on their own.


The market for wine is growing and the Chinese people are open to trying wines from around the world. "Most French people are quite conservative and tend to stick to local production. Asians are more open-minded and willing to try new things" says Thomas Percillier, export director for Asia Pacific for CVBG, one of Bordeaux's principal exporters. The carrier battle group (CVBG or CARBATGRU) or carrier strike group (CVSG) is a fleet of ships in support of an aircraft carrier. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


See also

Shaoxing jiu, a famous huangjiu Huangjiu (黄酒; pinyin: huáng jiǔ, lit. ... Baijiu (Chinese: 白酒; pinyin: ) or Shaojiu is potent Chinese alcohol. ... Rice wine refers to alcoholic beverages made from rice. ... Maotai (Chinese: 茅台酒; pinyin: ) is a famous Chinese liquor, distilled from fermented sorghum. ... Kaoliang (Chinese: 高梁酒; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: kao-liang-chiu; Taiwanese POJ: kau-liâng-chiú) is a strong distilled liquor, made from fermented sorghum (the name is Chinese for “sorghum”). It is made in the and primarily sold in Taiwan. ... Chinese grape wine (葡萄酒; pinyin: pútáo jiǔ), as opposed to traditional wines made from millet or rice and native fruits such as lychee or plum, has become more and more common in China as Western tastes have become more popular within China. ... A glass of red wine This article is about the alcoholic beverage. ... The globalization of wine is largely a post-1976 phenomenon. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Chinese beer (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: Zhōnggúo píjǐu), mostly made in imitation of Western pilsner varieties, has become increasingly popular, first in China in the last century, and then internationally in the last few decades. ... It has been suggested that Pickled snakes be merged into this article or section. ... The Eight Immortals of the Wine Cup or Eight Immortals Indulged in Wine (Chinese: 酒中八仙; Pinyin: jiǔzhōng bāxīan) were a group of Tang Dynasty scholars who liked to drink alcoholic beverages. ... A decorative bottle of bokbunjaju (Korean black raspberry wine) Korean culture has a great variety of traditional alcoholic beverages, most of which are called by the Sino-Korean term ju (hangul: 주; hanja: 酒). // Origin The origin of Korean wines has an interesting and historical story. ... Soju is an alcoholic beverage with origins in Korea. ... Shochu ) is a distilled alcoholic beverage popular in Japan. ... Sake barrels at Itsukushima Shrine. ...

References

  • "Orient Express." Decanter, June 2006, p. 103.

External links

  • China Wines Information
  • Shrine to Spirits: Chiew and soju
  • Chinese wine photos
  • Chinese wines page
  • Types of Huangjiu
  • Snake wine
  • Chinese wine and Culture
  • Grandiose Survey of Chinese Alcoholic Drinks and Beverages

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Grape wine were popular among poests and mandarins in the 11th century, but in the 14th century, an emperor destroyed the local vines and relaced them with cereal crops.
Some grape wines continued to be made (Marco Polo enjoyed some), but they never commanded the agricultural importance of wine-making as it developed in France and Italy.
This Chinese invention dates from the 3rd century B.C., and it also contunues to be popular today, under a number of different brand names, such as Chia Fan, Hua Tiao, Yen Hung, and Hsiahg Huseh.
Chinese Wine, Chinese liquor, Chinese alcohol and Chinese Culture (1250 words)
Chinese yellow liquors, are fermented wines that are brewed directly from grains such as rice or wheat.
This wine is made famous to the western world when the Chinese government served this in state banquets entertaining the US presidents.
This wine is made of sorghum and wheat by fermenting in a unique process for a long period in the cellar.
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