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Encyclopedia > Chinese numerals
This article contains Chinese text.
Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Chinese characters.
Numeral systems by culture
Hindu-Arabic numerals
Western Arabic
Eastern Arabic
Khmer
Indian family
Brahmi
Thai
East Asian numerals
Chinese
Chinese counting rods
Korean
Japanese 
Alphabetic numerals
Abjad
Armenian
Cyrillic
Ge'ez
Hebrew
Ionian/Greek
Sanskrit
 
Other systems
Attic
Etruscan
Urnfield
Roman
Babylonian
Egyptian
Mayan
List of numeral system topics
Positional systems by base
Decimal (10)
2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64
3, 9, 12, 24, 30, 36, 60, more…
v  d  e

Chinese numerals are characters for writing numbers in Chinese. Today, speakers of Chinese use three numeral systems: the ubiquitous system of Hindu-Arabic numerals, along with two ancient Chinese numeral systems. The Suzhou numerals (Traditional Chinese: 蘇州碼子; Simplified Chinese: 苏州码子; Pinyin: Sūzhōu mǎzi) or huama (Traditional Chinese: 花碼; Simplified Chinese: 花码; Pinyin: huāmǎ; literally "flowery or fancy numbers") system has gradually been supplanted by the Hindu-Arabic system in writing numbers. The character system is still used and roughly analogous to writing out a number in text. The Chinese character system can be classified as part of the language, but it still counts as a number system. Most people in China now use the Hindu-Arabic system. Image File history File links Zhongwen. ... Japanese name Kanji: Kana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quoc Ngu: Hantu: A Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is a logogram used in writing Chinese, Japanese, sometimes Korean, and formerly Vietnamese. ... A numeral is a symbol or group of symbols, or a word in a natural language that represents a number. ... I like cream cheese, it tastes good on toast. ... Numerals sans-serif Arabic numerals, known formally as Hindu-Arabic numerals, and also as Indian numerals, Hindu numerals, Western Arabic numerals, European numerals, or Western numerals, are the most common symbolic representation of numbers around the world. ... The Eastern Arabic numerals (also called Eastern Arabic numerals, Arabic-Indic numerals, Arabic Eastern Numerals) are the symbols (glyphs) used to represent the Hindu-Arabic numeral system in conjunction with the Arabic alphabet in Egypt, Iran, Pakistan and parts of India, and also in the no longer used Ottoman Turkish... Khmer numerals are the numerals used in the Khmer language of Cambodia. ... India has produced many numeral systems. ... The Brahmi numerals are an indigenous Indian numeral system attested from the 3rd century BCE (somewhat later in the case of most of the tens). ... The counting rods (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: chou2) were used by ancient Chinese before the invention of the abacus. ... The Abjad numerals are a decimal numeral system which was used in the Arabic-speaking world prior to the use of the Hindu-Arabic numerals from the 8th century, and in parallel with the latter until Modern times. ... Cyrillic numerals was a numbering system derived from the Cyrillic alphabet, used by South and East Slavic peoples. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... The system of Hebrew numerals is a quasi-decimal alphabetic numeral system using the letters of the Hebrew alphabet. ... Greek numerals are a system of representing numbers using letters of the Greek alphabet. ... The Sanskrit alphabetic numerals were created in about A.D. 510 by Ä€ryabhaa. ... Attic numerals were used by ancient Greeks, possibly from the 7th century BC. They were also known as Herodianic numerals because they were first described in a 2nd century manuscript by Herodian. ... The Etruscan numerals were used by the ancient Etruscans. ... During the beginning of the Urnfield culture, around 1200 BC, a series of votive sickles of bronze with marks that have been interpreted as a numeral system, appeared in Central Europe. ... Roman numerals are a numeral system originating in ancient Rome, adapted from Etruscan numerals. ... Babylonian numerals were written in cuneiform, using a wedge-tipped reed stylus to make a mark on a soft clay tablet which would be exposed in the sun to harden to create a permanent record. ... Mayan numerals. ... This is a list of numeral system topics, by Wikipedia page. ... A positional notation or place-value notation system is a numeral system in which each position is related to the next by a constant multiplier, a common ratio, called the base or radix of that numeral system. ... The radix (Latin for root), also called base, is the number of various unique symbols (or digits or numerals) a positional numeral system uses to represent numbers. ... The decimal (base ten or occasionally denary) numeral system has ten as its base. ... The binary numeral system, or base-2 number system, is a numeral system that represents numeric values using two symbols, usually 0 and 1. ... Quaternary is the base four numeral system. ... The octal numeral system, or oct for short, is the base-8 number system, and uses the digits 0 to 7. ... In mathematics and computer science, hexadecimal, base-16, or simply hex, is a numeral system with a radix, or base, of 16, usually written using the symbols 0–9 and A–F, or a–f. ... Base32 is a derivation of Base64 with the following additional properties: The resulting character set is all uppercase, which can often be beneficial when using a case-sensitive filesystem. ... It has been suggested that Radix-64 be merged into this article or section. ... Ternary or trinary is the base-3 numeral system. ... Nonary is a base 9 numeral system, typically using the digits 0-8, but not the digit 9. ... The duodecimal (also known as base-12 or dozenal) system is a numeral system using twelve as its base. ... As there are 24 hours in a day a numbering system based upon 24, and as the base 12 is convenient here some examples of the base 24 (quadrovigesimal) system. ... Base 30 or trigesimal is a positional numeral system using 30 as the radix. ... Base 36 refers to a positional numeral system using 36 as the radix. ... The sexagesimal (base-sixty) is a numeral system with sixty as the base. ... A number is an abstract idea used in counting and measuring. ... A numeral is a symbol or group of symbols, or a word in a natural language that represents a number. ... I like cream cheese, it tastes good on toast. ... Suzhou (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; ancient name: 吳) is a city on the lower reaches of the Yangtze River and on the shores of Lake Taihu in the province of Jiangsu, China. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ...


The huama system, the only surviving variation of the rod numeral system, was once popular in use only in Chinese markets (e.g. in Hong Kong, before 1990). The character writing system is still in use when writing numbers in long form, such as on cheques to hinder forgery. The counting rods (籌 chou2) were used by ancient Chinese before the invention of the abacus. ...


Individual Chinese characters in this article link to their dictionary entries. Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ...

Contents

Written numbers

The Chinese character numeral system consists of the Chinese characters used by the Chinese written language to write spoken numerals. Similarly to spelled-out numbers in English (e.g., "one thousand nine hundred [and] forty-five"), it is not an independent system per se. And since it reflects spoken language, it does not use the positional system as is done in Hindu-Arabic numerals, in the same way that spelling out numbers in English does not. Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... Various styles of Chinese calligraphy. ... Numerals sans-serif Arabic numerals, known formally as Hindu-Arabic numerals, and also as Indian numerals, Hindu numerals, Western Arabic numerals, European numerals, or Western numerals, are the most common symbolic representation of numbers around the world. ...


Numeral characters

There are characters representing the numbers zero through nine, and other characters representing larger numbers such as tens, hundreds, thousands and so on. There are two sets of characters for Chinese numerals: one for everyday writing and one for use in commercial or financial contexts known as dàxiě (大寫 in traditional Chinese, 大写 in simplified Chinese). The latter arose because the characters used for writing numerals are geometrically simple, so simply using those numerals cannot prevent forgeries in the same way spelling numbers out in English would. Traditional Chinese (Traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字, Simplified Chinese: 正体字/繁体字) refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


S denotes Simplified, T denotes Traditional

Pinyin Financial Normal Value Notes
líng 0 〇 is an informal way to represent zero, but 零 is more commonly used, especially in schools.
1 also 弌 (obsolete)
also 么(T) or 幺(S) yāo when used in phone numbers etc., see footnote 1.
èr (T) or
贰(S)
2 also 弍 (obsolete)
also 兩(T) or 两(S) liǎng when used when placed before a measure word.
sān (T) or
叁(S)
3 also 弎 (obsolete)
also 參(T) or 参(S) sān.
4  
5  
liù (T) or
陆(S)
6  
7  
8  
jiǔ 9  
 
shí 10 Although some people use 什, It is not acceptable because it can be written over into 伍.
niàn 念 or
貳拾
廿 or
20 卄 was rarely used, but still frequently used in spoken Chinese
both used mostly on calendars (二十 is used).
see constructing numbers below.
叄拾 30 卅 was rarely used, but still frequently used in spoken Chinese
used mostly on calendars (三十 is used).
肆拾 40 卌 was hardly used (四十 is used).
bǎi 100  
qiān 1,000  
wàn 萬(T) or
万(S)
104 Chinese numbers group by ten-thousands
see constructing numbers below.
 
億(T) or
亿(S)
108 (Ancient Chinese) Also: 105.

see large number systems below. Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... 0 (zero) is both a number and a numerical digit used to represent that number in numerals. ... Look up one in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In the Chinese languages, measure words or classifiers (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Cantonese (Yale): leung4 chi4) are used along with numerals to define the quantity of a given object or objects, or with this/that to identify specific objects. ... Look up three in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article discusses the number Four. ... Look up five in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up six in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Seven Days of Creation - 1765 book, title page 7 (seven) is the natural number following 6 and preceding 8. ... Look up eight in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up nine in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 10 (ten) is an even natural number following 9 and preceding 11. ... 20 (twenty) is the natural number following 19 and preceding 21. ... 30 (thirty) is the natural number following 29 and preceding 31. ... 40 (forty) is the natural number following 39 and preceding 41. ... 100 (one hundred) (the Roman numeral is C for centum) is the natural number following 99 and preceding 101. ... Look up one thousand in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up ten thousand in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Hundred million (100 000 000) is hundred thousand thousand, or 108. ... To help compare orders of magnitude this page lists dimensionless numbers between 100,000 (one hundred thousand) and 1,000,000 (one million. ...

zhào   1012 (Ancient Chinese) Also: 106, 1016.

Its usage has a dispute, see SI prefixes below. To help compare orders of magnitude this page lists dimensionless numbers between 1012 and 1015: See also Orders of magnitude (numbers) Categories: Stub | Orders of magnitude (numbers) ... (Redirected from 1 E6) One million (1000000), one thousand thousand, is the natural number following 999999 and preceding 1000001. ...

jīng   1016 (Ancient Chinese) Also: 107, 1024, 1032.

also 經(T) or 经(S) jīng. Ten million (10 000 000) is ten thousand thousand, or 107. ...

gāi   1020 (Ancient Chinese) Also: 108, 1032, 1064.
  1024 (Ancient Chinese) Also: 109, 1040, 10128.

also 杼 zhù.
佑 yòu(T) or 尧 yáo(S) corresponds the SI prefix yotta. Hundred million (100 000 000) is hundred thousand thousand, or 108. ... 1 E24 (1024) is the scientific notation for a quadrillion in traditional European usage. ... To help compare orders of magnitude this page lists dimensionless numbers between 109 and 1012. ... Yotta (symbol Y) is a SI prefix in the SI (system of units) denoting 1024 or 1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000. ...

ráng   1028 (Ancient Chinese) Also: 1010, 1048, 10256.

also 壤 rǎng.

gōu 溝(T) or
沟(S)
  1032 (Ancient Chinese) Also: 1011, 1056, 10512.
jiàn 澗(T) or
涧(S)
  1036 (Ancient Chinese) Also: 1012, 1064, 101024.
zhēng   1040 (Ancient Chinese) Also: 1013, 1072, 102048.
zài 載(T) or
载(S)
  1044 (Ancient Chinese) Also: 1014, 1080, 104096.
極(T) or
极(S)
  1048 (Ancient Chinese)
hénghéshā 恒河沙   1052 (Buddhism) The 3-character expression means roughly "Sand of the Ganges" and also appears in a Buddhist sutra; it is used in that context to convey a quantity equal to the number of grains of sand in the said river.
āsēngqí 阿僧祇   1056 (Buddhism)
nèyóutè or nàyóutuō 那由他   1060 (Buddhism)
bùkěsīyì 不可思議(T) or
不可思议(S)
  1064 (Buddhism) Literally translated as "unfathomable" or "unthinkable".
wúliàng 無量(T) or
无量(S)
  1068 (Buddhism) Literally translated "without limit"
dàshù 大數(T) or
大数(S)
  1072 (Buddhism) Literally translated "big number"

么(T) or 幺(S) yāo, "the smallest", is used widely in mainland China as a replacement for yī in series of digits such as phone numbers, room numbers, etc. to prevent confusion between similar sounding words. It is never used in counting, nor is it used in Taiwan (except for soldiers in the ROC military, the police force, and the emergency telephone number 119 for calling a fire department or requesting an ambulance) or Hong Kong and Macau (except when communicating in Standard Mandarin). To help compare orders of magnitude this page lists dimensionless numbers between 1012 and 1015: See also Orders of magnitude (numbers) Categories: Stub | Orders of magnitude (numbers) ... ... This article is about a military rank. ... The Republic of China (ROC) maintains a large military establishment, which will account for 16. ... Firefighter with an axe A firefighter, sometimes still called a fireman though women have increasingly joined firefighting units, is a person who is trained and equipped to put out fires, rescue people and in some areas provide emergency medical services. ... An ambulance in San Jose del Cabo, Mexico A Helicopter used as an Ambulance. ... Standard Mandarin, also known as Standard Chinese, Modern Standard Chinese or Standard spoken Chinese, is the official modern Chinese spoken language used by the Peoples Republic of China, the Republic of China (Taiwan), and Singapore. ...

Pinyin Financial Normal Value Notes
  10-12 (Ancient Chinese)

皮 pí corresponds the SI prefix pico. Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... For other meanings of Pico see Pico (disambiguation) Pico (symbol p) is a prefix in the SI system of units denoting a factor of 10-12. ...

miǎo   10-11 (Ancient Chinese)
āi   10-10 (Ancient Chinese)
chén   10-9 (Ancient Chinese)

奈 nài(T) or 纳 nà(S) corresponds the SI prefix nano. Look up nano in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

shā   10-8 (Ancient Chinese)
xiān   10-7 (Ancient Chinese)
wēi   10-6 still in use, corresponds the SI prefix micro.
  10-5 (Ancient Chinese)
  10-4 (Ancient Chinese)
háo   1/1,000 also 毛 máo.

still in use, corresponds the SI prefix milli. Look up micro- in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Milli (symbol m) is an SI prefix in the SI system of units denoting a factor of 10-3, or 1/1,000. ...

  1/100 also 釐 lí.

still in use, corresponds the SI prefix centi. In mathematics or arithmetic, a hundredth is one part of a unit or one divided equally into one hundred parts. ... Centi (symbol c) is a SI prefix in the SI system of units denoting a factor of 10-2, or 1/100. ...

fēn   1/10 still in use, corresponds the SI prefix deci. also being used

In mathematics, arithmetic or plain old numbers a tenth is one part of a unit or one divided equally into ten parts. ... deci- (symbol d) is a prefix in the SI system of units denoting a factor of 10−1 (1/10). ...

Constructing numbers

Multiple-digit numbers are constructed using a multiplicative principle; first the digit itself (from 1 to 9), then the place (such as 10 or 100); then the next digit.


In Mandarin, the multiplier 兩 (liǎng) is used rather than 二 (èr) for all numbers greater than 200 with the "2" numeral. Use of both 兩 (liǎng) or 二 (èr) are acceptable for the number 200. When writing in the Cantonese dialect, 二 (yi6) is used to represent the "2" numeral for all numbers. In the southern Min dialect of Chaozhou (Teochew), 兩 (no6) is used to represent the "2" numeral in all numbers from 200 onwards. Thus:

Number Structure Characters
Mandarin Cantonese Chaozhou Shanghainese
60 [6] [10] 六十 六十 六十 六十
20 [2] [10] or [20] 二十 二十 or 廿 二十 廿
200 [2] (èr) or (liǎng) [100] 二百 or 兩百 二百 兩百 兩百
2000 [2] (liǎng) [1000] 兩千 二千 兩千 兩千
45 [4] [10] [5] 四十五 四十五 四十五 四十五
2,362 [2] [1,000] [3] [100] [6] [10] [2] 兩千三百六十二 二千三百六十二 兩千三百六十二 兩千三百六十二

For the numbers 11 through 19, the leading "one" (一) is usually omitted. In some dialects, like Shanghainese, when there are only two significant digits in the number, the leading "one" and the trailing zeroes are omitted. Sometimes, the one before "ten" in the middle of a number, such as 213, is omitted. Thus: This article is on all of the Northern Chinese dialects. ... This article is on all of the Yue dialects. ... The Teochew dialect (Diō-jiu-oē, Chinese:潮州话, Hanyu Pinyin: Cháozhōuhuà, Teochiu or Tiuchiu), is a Chinese language and dialect of Minnan spoken in a region of eastern Guangdong refered to as Chaoshan. ... Shanghainese (上海言话 [] in Shanghainese), sometimes referred to as the Shanghai dialect, is a dialect of Wu Chinese spoken in the city of Shanghai. ... Shanghainese (上海言话 [] in Shanghainese), sometimes referred to as the Shanghai dialect, is a dialect of Wu Chinese spoken in the city of Shanghai. ...

Number Strict Putonghua Colloquial or dialect usage
Structure Characters Structure Characters
14 [10] [4] 十四    
12000 [1] [10000] [2] [1000] 一萬二千 [1] [10000] [2] or
[10000] [2]
一萬二 or 萬二
114 [1] [100] [1] [10] [4] 一百一十四 [1] [100] [10] [4] 一百十四
1158 [1] [1000] [1] [100] [5] [10] [8] 一千一百五十八 See note 1 below

Notes:

  1. Nothing is ever omitted in large and more complicated numbers such as this.

In certain older texts like the Protestant Bible or in poetic usage, numbers such as 114 may be written as [100] [10] [4] (百十四). Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ...


For numbers larger than a myriad, the same grouping system used in English applies, except in groups of four places (myriads) rather than in groups of three (thousands). Hence it is more convenient to think of numbers here as in groups of four, thus 1,234,567,890 is regrouped here as 12,3456,7890. Larger than a myriad, each number is therefore four zeroes longer than the one before it, thus 10000 × wàn (萬) = yì (億), 10000 × yì (億) = zhào (兆). If one of the numbers is between 10 and 19, the leading "one" is omitted as per the above point. Hence (numbers in parentheses indicate that the number has been written as one number rather than expanded): Look up myriad in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Number Structure Characters
12,345,678,902,345
(12,3456,7890,2345)
(12) [1,0000,0000,0000] (3456) [1,0000,0000] (7890) [10,000] (2345) 十二兆三千四百五十六億七千八百九十萬兩千三百四十五

Interior zeroes before the unit position (as in 1002) must be spelt explicitly. The reason for this is that trailing zeroes (as in 1200) are often omitted as shorthand, so ambiguity occurs. One zero is sufficient to resolve the ambiguity. Where the zero is before a digit other than the units digit, the explicit zero is not ambiguous and is therefore optional, but preferred. Thus:

Number Structure Characters
205 [2] [100] [0] [5] 二百〇五
100,004
(10,0004)
[10] [10,000] [0] [4] 十萬〇四
10,050,026
(1005,0026)
(1005) [10,000] (26) or
(1005) [10,000] (026)
一千〇五萬〇二十六 or
一千〇五萬二十六

Large number systems

For numeral characters greater than (wàn), there have been four systems in ancient and modern usage:

System

zhào

jīng

gāi


ráng

gōu

jiàn

zhēng

zài
Factor of increase
1 105 106 107 108 109 1010 1011 1012 1013 1014 Each numeral is 10 (十 shí) times the previous.
2 108 1012 1016 1020 1024 1028 1032 1036 1040 1044 Each numeral is 10,000 (萬 wàn) times the previous.
3 108 1016 1024 1032 1040 1048 1056 1064 1072 1080 Each numeral is 108 (萬萬 wànwàn) times the previous.
4 108 1016 1032 1064 10128 10256 10512 101024 102048 104096 Each numeral is the square of the previous.

In modern Chinese, only the second system is used in expressing numbers[citation needed]. Although there is some dispute on the value of 兆 zhào, the usage (representing 1012) is still consistent through Chinese communities, as well as Japan, Korea[citation needed]. However, most people do not recognize numerals beyond 億 yì (108) and dictionary definitions on the words of larger number may not be consistent. The numerals beyond 極 jí come from Buddhist texts in Hindu, but these "Buddhist numerals" have become "ancient usage". y=x², for all integer values of 1≤x≤25. ... Korean language has two regularly used sets of numerals, Sino-Korean and native Korean For both native and Sino-Korean numerals, the teens (11 through 19) are represented by a combination of tens and the ones places. ... There are a great variety of Buddhist texts. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ...


SI prefixes

The translations for the SI prefixes in earlier days were different from those used today. The larger (兆, 京, 垓, 秭, 穰), and smaller Chinese numerals (微, 纖, 沙, 塵, 渺) were defined as translations for the SI prefixes. For instance, 京 jīng was defined as giga, and 纖 xiān was defined as nano. This resulted in the creation of more values for each numeral. An SI prefix (also known as a metric prefix) is a name or associated symbol that precedes a unit of measure (or its symbol) to form a decimal multiple or submultiple. ...


By the time of "early translation", a dispute had arisen over the value of 兆 . The government of the PRC used a part of this translation, and defined zhào as the translation for the SI prefix mega (106). (Perhaps the government was not aware of the common usage of 兆, and thus did not consider an alternative single Chinese character, such as 巨, to represent mega.) Because of this, the translation has caused much confusion. mega- (symbol M) is an SI prefix in the SI system of units denoting a factor of 106, i. ...


In addition, the Taiwanese government defined 百萬 as the translation for mega. This translation is widely used in official documents, academic communities, informational industries, etc. However, the civil broadcasting industries sometimes use 兆赫 to represent "mega-Hertz".


Today, both the governments of the People's Republic of China (Mainland China, Hong Kong and Macau) and Republic of China (Taiwan) use phonetic transliterations for the SI prefixes. However, the governments have each chosen different Chinese characters for certain prefixes. The following table lists the two different standards together with the early translation. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ...

SI Prefixes
Value Symbol English Early translation PRC standard ROC standard
1024 Y yotta   尧 yáo 佑 yòu
1021 Z zetta   泽 zé 皆 jiē
1018 E exa 穰 ráng 艾 ài 艾 ài
1015 P peta 秭 zǐ 拍 pāi 拍 pāi
1012 T tera 垓 gāi 太 tài 兆 zhào
109 G giga 京 jīng 吉 jí 吉 jí
106 M mega 兆 zhào 兆 zhào 百萬 bǎiwàn
103 k kilo 千 qiān 千 qiān 千 qiān
102 h hecta 百 bǎi 百 bǎi 百 bǎi
101 da deca 十 shí 十 shí 十 shí
10-1 d deci 分 fēn 分 fēn 分 fēn
10-2 c centi 厘 lí 厘 lí 厘 lí
10-3 m milli 毫 háo 毫 háo 毫 háo
10-6 µ micro 微 wēi 微 wēi 微 wēi
10-9 n nano 纖 xiān 纳 nà 奈 nài
10-12 p pico 沙 shā 皮 pí 皮 pí
10-15 f femto 塵 chén 飞 fēi 飛 fēi
10-18 a atto 渺 miǎo 阿 à 阿 à
10-21 z zepto   仄 zè 介 jiè
10-24 y yocto   幺 yāo 攸 yōu

For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... Yotta (symbol Y) is a SI prefix in the SI (system of units) denoting 1024 or 1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000. ... Zetta (symbol Z) is a SI prefix in the SI (system of units) denoting 1021 or 1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000. ... In the X Window System, in the X.Org Server, EXA is a graphics acceleration architecture to make the XRender extension more usable, with only minor changes needed to adapt XFree86 video drivers written to use XAA (the XFree86 Acceleration Architecture). ... In physics and mathematics, peta- (symbol: P) is a prefix in the SI (system of units) denoting 1015, or 1 000 000 000 000 000. ... tera- (symbol: T) is a prefix in the SI system of units denoting 1012, or 1 000 000 000 000. ... Look up giga- in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... mega- (symbol M) is an SI prefix in the SI system of units denoting a factor of 106, i. ... Kilo (symbol: k) is a prefix in the SI system denoting 103 or 1000. ... Hecta- is a Greek (language) prefix meaning one hundred. ... Look up deca- in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... deci- (symbol d) is a prefix in the SI system of units denoting a factor of 10−1 (1/10). ... Centi (symbol c) is a SI prefix in the SI system of units denoting a factor of 10-2, or 1/100. ... Milli (symbol m) is an SI prefix in the SI system of units denoting a factor of 10-3, or 1/1,000. ... Look up micro- in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up nano in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other meanings of Pico see Pico (disambiguation) Pico (symbol p) is a prefix in the SI system of units denoting a factor of 10-12. ... Femto is an SI prefix (symbol f) in the SI system of units denoting a factor of 10−15 or 0. ... Atto- (symbol a) is an SI prefix to a unit and means that it is 10-18 times this unit. ... Zepto (symbol z) is a prefix in the SI system of units denoting a factor of 10-21. ... Yocto (symbol y) is a SI prefix in the SI system of units denoting a factor of 10-24. ...

Suzhou (蘇州) or huāmǎ (花碼) numerals

In the same way that Roman numerals were standard in ancient and medieval Europe for mathematics and commerce, the Chinese formerly used the rod numerals, which is a positional system. The huāmǎ system is a variation of the rod numeral system. Rod numerals are closely related to the counting rods and the abacus, which is why the numeric symbols for 1, 2, 3, 6, 7 and 8 in the huāmǎ system are represented in a similar way as on the abacus. Roman numerals are a numeral system originating in ancient Rome, adapted from Etruscan numerals. ... The counting rods (籌 chou2) were used by ancient Chinese before the invention of the abacus. ... The counting rods (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: chou2) were used by ancient Chinese before the invention of the abacus. ... Chinese abacus or suanpan The suanpan (Simplified Chinese: 算盘; Traditional Chinese: 算盤; Pinyin: suànpán) of the Chinese dates from the Han Dynasty (202 BCE - 184 CE). ...


Nowadays, the huāmǎ system is only used for displaying prices in Chinese markets or on traditional handwritten invoices. According to the Unicode standard version 3.0, these characters are called Hangzhou style numerals. This indicates that it is not used only by Cantonese in Hong Kong. In the Unicode standard 4.0, an erratum was added which stated: Unicode is an industry standard allowing computers to consistently represent and manipulate text expressed in any of the worlds writing systems. ...   (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Postal map spelling: Hangchow) is a sub-provincial city located in the Yangtze River Delta in the Peoples Republic of China, and the capital of Zhejiang province. ...

The Suzhou numerals (Traditional Chinese: 蘇州碼子; Simplified Chinese: 苏州码子; Pinyin: Sūzhōu mǎzi) are special numeric forms used by traders to display the prices of goods. The use of "HANGZHOU" in the names is a misnomer.

All references to "Hangzhou" in the Unicode standard have been corrected to "Suzhou" except for the character names themselves, which cannot be changed once assigned, according to the Unicode Stability Policy.[1] (This policy allows software to use the names as unique identifiers.) Suzhou (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; ancient name: 吳) is a city on the lower reaches of the Yangtze River and on the shores of Lake Taihu in the province of Jiangsu, China. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ...


In the huāmǎ system, special symbols are used for digits instead of the Chinese characters. The digits are positional. When written horizontally, the numerical value is written in two rows. For example:

〤〇〢二
拾元

The top row contains the numeric symbols, for example, 〤〇〢二 stands for 4022. The bottom row consists of one or more Chinese characters that represents the unit of the first digit in the first row. The first part in the bottom row indicates the order of the first digit in the top row, e.g. qian1 (千) for thousand, bái () for hundred, shí () for ten, blank for one etc. The second part denotes the unit of measurement, such as yuán ( for dollar) or máo ( or for 10 cents) or xiān ( for 1 cent) or lǐ ( for the Chinese mill) or any other measurement unit. If the characters shí yuán (, "10 dollars") are below the digits 〤〇〢二, it is then read as forty dollars and twenty two cents. Notice that the decimal point is implicit when the first digit '4' is set at the 'ten' position. This is very similar to the modern scientific notation for floating point numbers where the significant digits are represented in the mantissa and the order of magnitude is specified in the exponent. Also, the unit of mesurement, with the first digit indicater, is usually aligned to the middle of the "numbers" row. Scientific notation, also known as standard form, is a notation for writing numbers that is often used by scientists and mathematicians to make it easier to write large and small numbers. ... A floating-point number is a digital representation for a number in a certain subset of the rational numbers, and is often used to approximate an arbitrary real number on a computer. ...


When written vertically, the above example is written thus:

拾〇
元〢

The digits of the Suzhou numerals are defined between U+3021 and U+3029 in Unicode. Unicode is an industry standard allowing computers to consistently represent and manipulate text expressed in any of the worlds writing systems. ...


Zero is represented by a circle, probably the numeral '0', letter 'O' or character may work well. Leading and trailing zeros are unnecessary in this system. Additional characters representing 10, 20, 30 and 40 exist: , , , .


For those who cannot see the Unicode glyphs in the web browser, here is an image with the appearance of these digits:

Note: 9 is a dot on top of a variant of the 〤 (4) symbol (,not represented in the image); this symbol looks like the Chinese character for "jiǔ ()", compare to the formal character '9' "jiǔ ()". (Some web browsers, e.g. IE 5.5, display this character incorrectly as the "fǎn wén", or reverse "wén" radical (夂 & 攵 & 夊 & 文), click here to see the correct graphic glyph.) Image File history File links HuāmÇŽ_numerals. ... Windows Internet Explorer (formerly Microsoft Internet Explorer, abbreviated MSIE), commonly abbreviated to IE, is a series of proprietary graphical web browsers developed by Microsoft and included as part of the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems starting in 1995. ...


The digits 1 to 3 come in the vertical and horizontal version so that they can alternate if these digits are next to each other. The first digit usually use the vertical version. e.g. 21 is written as 〢一 instead of 〢〡 which can be confused with 3 (〣).


Hand gestures

There is a common method of using of one hand to signify the numbers one to ten. While the five digits on one hand can express the numbers one to five, six to ten have special signs that can be used in commerce or day-to-day communication. Chinese number gestures refers to the Chinese method of using one hand to signify the natural numbers one through ten. ...


Cultural influences

During Ming and Qing dynasties (when Arabic numerals were first introduced into China), some Chinese mathematicians used Chinese numeral characters as positional system digits. After Qing dynasty, both the Chinese numeral characters and the Suzhou numerals were replaced by Arabic numerals in mathematical writings. Ming China under the Yongle Emperor Capital Nanjing (1368-1421) Beijing (1421-1644) Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1368-1398 Hongwu Emperor  - 1627-1644 Chongzhen Emperor History  - Established in Nanjing January 23, 1368  - Fall of Beijing 1644  - End of the Southern Ming April, 1662 Population  - 1393 est. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Territory of Qing China in 1892 Capital Shengjing (1636-1644) Beijing (1644-1912) Language(s) Chinese Manchu Mongolian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1636-1643 Huang Taiji  - 1908-1912 Xuantong Emperor Prime Minister  - 1911 Yikuang  - 1911-1912 Yuan Shikai History  - Establishment of the Late... Numerals sans-serif Arabic numerals, known formally as Hindu-Arabic numerals, and also as Indian numerals, Hindu numerals, Western Arabic numerals, European numerals, or Western numerals, are the most common symbolic representation of numbers around the world. ... Numerals sans-serif Arabic numerals, known formally as Hindu-Arabic numerals, and also as Indian numerals, Hindu numerals, Western Arabic numerals, European numerals, or Western numerals, are the most common symbolic representation of numbers around the world. ...


Traditional Chinese numeric characters are also used in Japan and Korea. In vertical text (that is, read top to bottom), using characters for numbers is the norm, while in horizontal text, Arabic numerals are most common. Chinese numeric characters are also used in much the same formal or decorative fashion that Roman numerals are in Western cultures. Chinese numerals may appear together with Arabic numbers on the same sign or document. This article is about the Korean peninsula and civilization. ...


See also

The system of Japanese numerals is the system of number names used in the Japanese language. ... In Chinese culture, certain numbers are believed by some to be lucky or unlucky based on the Chinese word that the number name sounds similar to. ... The Chinese units (Chinese: 市制; Hanyu Pinyin: ; literally market system) are the customary and traditional units of measure used in China. ...

External links

Notes

  1. ^ Stability Policy for the Unicode Standard

  Results from FactBites:
 
Chinese numerals (1321 words)
Again the symbol for 1000 is a 'man' so perhaps the word for 'thousand' in ancient Chinese was close to the sound of the word for 'man'.
However a second form of Chinese numerals began to be used from the 4
Now the Chinese counting board numbers were not just used on a counting board, although this is clearly their origin.
Chinese numerals Information (1940 words)
The larger Chinese numerals (兆, 京, 垓, 秭, 穰), and the smaller Chinese numerals (微, 纖, 沙, 塵, 渺) were defined as the translation for the SI prefixes.
Rod numerals are closely related to the counting rods and the abacus, which is why the numeric symbols for 1, 2, 3, 6, 7 and 8 in the huāmǎ system are represented in a similar way as on the abacus.
Chinese numeric characters are also used in much the same formal or decorative fashion that Roman numerals are in Western cultures.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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