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Encyclopedia > Chinese nationalism
The May Fourth Movement in 1919 marked a turning point in the history of Chinese nationalism.
The May Fourth Movement in 1919 marked a turning point in the history of Chinese nationalism.

Chinese nationalism refers to cultural, historiographical, and political theories, movements and beliefs that assert the idea of a cohesive, unified Chinese people and culture under a unified country known as China. One difficulty in this definition is the wide variation and ambiguities in the definition of the term "Chinese." student protests at the May Fourth movement File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... student protests at the May Fourth movement File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Students in Beijing rallied during the May Fourth Movement. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Chinese culture has roots going back over five thousand years. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... A Chinese Tang Dynasty tri-color glazed porcelain horse (ca. ...

Contents

Ideological basis

Chinese tourists posing for photographs with Chinese flag on the Tibetan Plateau.

Chinese nationalism has drawn from extremely diverse ideological sources including traditional Chinese thinking, American progressivism, Marxism, and Russian ethnological thought. The ideology also presents itself in many different and often conflicting manifestations. These manifestations have included the Three Principles of the People, the Communist Party of China, the anti-government views of students in the Tiananmen protests of 1989, Fascist blueshirts, and Japanese collaborationism under Wang Jingwei. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (480x640, 114 KB) Summary Han Chinese tourists posing for photographs with Chinese flag on the Tibetan Plateau, December 2004. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (480x640, 114 KB) Summary Han Chinese tourists posing for photographs with Chinese flag on the Tibetan Plateau, December 2004. ... This is a list of current and historical flags used in the geographic area of China. ... Tibet Autonomous Region, Qinghai Province and Sichuan Province of China lie on the Tibetan Plateau. ... Progressivism is a term that refers to a broad school of international social and political philosophies. ... Marxism takes its name from the praxis (the synthesis of philosophy and political action) of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... Sun Yat-sen, who developed the Three Principles of the People. ... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China, a position guaranteed by the countrys constitution. ... The Unknown Rebel — This famous photo, taken by Associated Press photographer Jeff Widener, depicts a lone protester who single-handedly halted the progress of a column of advancing tanks for over half an hour. ... Blueshirt refers to two different political movements in the 1930s. ... Wang Jingwei * Courtesy name: Jixin (季新) * Alternate name: Zhaoming (兆銘). Wang Jingwei (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Wang Ching-wei) (May 4, 1883 – November 10, 1944), was a Chinese politician. ...


Although Chinese nationalists have agreed on the desirability of a centralized Chinese state, almost every other question has been the subject of intense and sometime bitter debate. Among the questions on which Chinese nationalists have disagreed is what policies would lead to a strong China, what is the structure of the state and its goal, what the relationship should be between China and foreign powers, and what should be the relationships between the majority Han Chinese, minority groups, and overseas Chinese. Languages Chinese languages, Indian languages, Hebrew Religions Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ... The Peoples Republic of China officially describes itself as a multinational unitary state and as such officially recognizes 56 nationalities or Mínzú (民族), within China: the Han being the majority (>92%), and the remaining 55 nationalities being the national minorities. ... Languages various Religions Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ...


The vast variation in how Chinese nationalism has been expressed has been noted by many commentators including Lucian Pye who argues that this reveals a lack of content in the Chinese identity. However, others have argued that the ability of Chinese nationalism to manifest itself in many forms is a positive trait in that it allows the ideology to transform itself in response to internal crises and external events. Lucian Pye Lucian Pye is Ford Professor of Political Science Emeritus, MIT, and a past President of the American Political Science Association, a former chairman of the National Committee on U.S.-China Relations, a one time advisor to the State Department and the National Security Council, and currently a...


Although the variations among conceptions of Chinese nationalism are great, Chinese nationalist groups maintain some similarities. Chinese nationalistic ideologies all regard Sun Yat-Sen very highly, and tend to claim to be ideological heirs of the Three Principles of the People. In addition, Chinese nationalistic ideologies tend to regard both democracy and science as positive forces, although they often have radically different notions of what democracy means. Sun Yat-sen (Chinese: ; November 12, 1866 – March 12, 1925) was a Chinese revolutionary and political leader often referred to as the “father of modern China”. Sun played an instrumental role in the eventual overthrow of the Qing Dynasty in 1911. ... Sun Yat-sen, who developed the Three Principles of the People. ... Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ...


Self-consciousness

There has been a self-conscious Chinese state for more than two thousand years, since the Han Dynasty, hence the term Han Chinese; before then loyalty and identity was largely due to each kingdom. The Chinese concept of the world was largely a division between the civilized world and the barbarian world and there was little concept of the belief that Chinese interests were served by a powerful Chinese state. Some authors such as Lucian Pye have argued that the modern "nation state" is fundamentally different from a traditional empire, although some have controversially argued that dynamics of the current People's Republic of China (PRC) share an essential similarity with the Ming and Qing Empires. There were only a few periods in Chinese history when China fought total wars against foreigners (most notably the Mongols, Manchus, and Japanese), whereas all other conflicts were mainly civil wars that led to dynastic changes. However, attacks and sinicization of foreigners or "barbarians" (such as the Thais, Ryukyuans, Tibetans, Vietnamese, and Koreans) who wanted to maintain a separate cultural identity had been going on for millennia. This particular trait of Chinese history was not conducive to realizing a Chinese nation-state, until contact with Western countries in the 19th century. Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 AD - 24 AD  - Abdication to Cao... Languages Chinese languages, Indian languages, Hebrew Religions Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ... Lucian Pye Lucian Pye is Ford Professor of Political Science Emeritus, MIT, and a past President of the American Political Science Association, a former chairman of the National Committee on U.S.-China Relations, a one time advisor to the State Department and the National Security Council, and currently a... A nation-state is a specific form of state, which exists to provide a sovereign territory for a particular nation, and which derives its legitimacy from that function. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... The Qing Dynasty (Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ching chao; Manchu: daicing gurun; Mongolian: Манж Чин), occasionally known as the Manchu Dynasty, was the ruling Chinese Dynasties. ... The name Mongols (Mongolian: Mongol) specifies one or several ethnic groups. ... The Manchu (manju in Manchu; 滿族 (pinyin: mǎnzú) in Chinese, often shortened to 滿 (pinyin: mǎn) are an ethnic group who originated in northeastern Manchuria. ... ... Sinicization, or Sinification, is to make things Chinese. ... Ryukyuan people (Japanese: 琉球民族) are the indigenous people of the Ryukyu Islands of Japan between the islands of KyÅ«shÅ« and Taiwan. ... A Tibetan pilgrim The Tibetans speak the Tibetan language natively and form one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), although in anthropological terms they include more than one ethnic group. ...


Ethnicity

Defining the relationship between ethnicity and the Chinese identity has been a very complex issue throughout Chinese history. In the 17th century, with the help of Ming Chinese rebels, the Manchus invaded the Chinese heartland and set up the Qing dynasty. Over the next centuries they would incorporate groups such as the Tibetans, the Mongols, and the Uyghurs into territories which they controlled. The Manchus were faced with the issue of maintaining loyalty among the people they ruled while at the same time maintaining a distinctive identity. The main method by which they accomplished this was by portraying themselves as enlightened Confucian sages part of whose goal was to preserve and advance Chinese civilization. Over the course of centuries the Manchus were gradually assimilated into the Chinese culture and eventually many Manchus identified themselves as a people of China. China is the worlds oldest continuous major civilization, with written records dating back about 3,500 years and with 5,000 years being commonly used by Chinese as the age of their civilization. ... The Manchu (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeast China). ... The Tibetan people are a people indigenous to Tibet and surrounding areas stretching from Central Asia in the West to Myanmar and China in the East. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... Confucianism (儒家 Pinyin: rújiā The School of the Scholars), sometimes translated as the School of Literati, is an East Asian ethical, religious and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of Confucius. ... Chinese culture has roots going back over five thousand years. ...


The complexity of the relationship between ethnicity and the Chinese identity can be seen during the Taiping rebellion in which the rebels fought fiercely against the Manchus on the ground that they were barbarian foreigners while at the same time others fought just as fiercely on behalf of the Manchus on the grounds that they were the preservers of traditional Chinese values. It was during this time that the concept of Han Chinese came into existence as a means of describing the majority Chinese ethnicity. Combatants Qing Empire United Kingdom France(United Kingdom and France join the war later) Taiping Heavenly Kingdom Commanders Xianfeng Emperor, Tongzhi Emperor, Empress Dowager Cixi, Charles George Gordon, Frederick Townsend Ward Hong Xiuquan, Yang Xiuqing, Xiao Chaogui, Feng Yunshan, Wei Changhui, Shi Dakai, Li Xiucheng The Taiping Rebellion (or Rebellion... Languages Chinese languages, Indian languages, Hebrew Religions Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ...


In the late 19th century, Chinese nationalism identified Han with Chinese and argued for the overthrow of the Manchus who were considered outside the realm of the Chinese nation. This led to many rebellions by Han Chinese. Sun Yat-sen once declared: "In order to restore our national independence, we must first restore the Chinese nation. In order to restore the Chinese nation, we must drive the barbarian Manchus back to the Changbai Mountains. In order to get rid of the barbarians, we must first overthrow the present tyrannical, dictatorial, ugly, and corrupt Qing government. Fellow countrymen, a revolution is the only means to overthrow the Qing government!" The Manchu (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeast China). ... Languages Chinese languages, Indian languages, Hebrew Religions Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ... Sun Yat-sen (Chinese: ; November 12, 1866 – March 12, 1925) was a Chinese revolutionary and political leader often referred to as the “father of modern China”. Sun played an instrumental role in the eventual overthrow of the Qing Dynasty in 1911. ... The Manchu (manju in Manchu; 滿族 (pinyin: mǎnzú) in Chinese, often shortened to 滿 (pinyin: mǎn) are an ethnic group who originated in northeastern Manchuria. ... Image:Http://dicimg. ... The Qing Dynasty (Manchu: daicing gurun; Chinese: 清朝; pinyin: qīng cháo; Wade-Giles: ching chao), sometimes known as the Manchu Dynasty, was founded by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro, in what is today northeast China expanded into China proper and the surrounding territories of...


After the 1911 Revolution, the official definition of "Chinese" was expanded to include non-Han ethnicities as part of a comprehensive Chinese nation (Zhonghua Minzu), although some historians argue that this was due mainly to the realization that a narrow definition of "Chinese" would result in a loss of Chinese territory, and that the Manchus were too sinicized to be considered an outside group. The Xinhai Revolution (or Hsinhai Revolution, Chinese: 辛亥革命; pinyin: Xīnh ng), named for the Chinese year of Xinhai (1911), was the overthrow (October 10, 1911-February 12, 1912) of Chinas ruling Qing Dynasty and the establishment of the Republic of China. ... This Zhonghua Minzu does not cite its references or sources. ... Sinicization, or less commonly Sinification, is to make things Chinese. ...


The official Chinese nationalistic view in the 1920s and 1930s was heavily influenced by modernism and social Darwinism, and included advocacy of the cultural assimilation of ethnic groups dominated by the Han state into the "culturally advanced" Han state, to become in name as well as in fact members of the Chinese nation. Furthermore, it was also influenced by the fate of multi-ethnic states such as Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire. For Modernism in an American context, see American modernism. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (İstanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish (official); spoken languages include Abkhazian, Adyghe, Albanian, Arabic, Aramaic, Armenian, Azerbaijani...


Over the next decades Chinese nationalism was influenced strongly by Russian ethnographic thinking, and the official ideology of the PRC asserts that China is a multi-ethnic state, and Han Chinese are one of many ethnic groups of China, each of whose culture and language should be respected. However, many critics argue that despite this official view, assimilationist attitudes remain deeply entrenched, and popular views and actual power relationships create a situation in which Chinese nationalism has in practice meant Han dominance of minority areas and peoples and assimilation of those groups. Anthem YìyÇ’ngjÅ«n JìnxíngqÇ”   (义勇军进行曲/義勇軍進行曲) March of the Volunteers Capital Beijing Largest city Shanghai Official languages Mandarin Chinese1 Government Socialist republic2  -  Chairman Hu Jintao  -  Premier Wen Jiabao Establishment  -  Peoples Republic declared October 1, 1949  Area  -  Total 9,596,960 km² (3rd / 4th4) 3,704,4273 sq...


During the 1960s and 1970s, Chinese nationalism within mainland China became mixed with the rhetoric of Marxism, and nationalistic rhetoric become in large part subsumed into internationalist rhetoric. On the other hand, Chinese nationalism in Taiwan was primarily about preserving the ideals and lineage of Sun Yat-sen, the party he founded, the Kuomintang (KMT) , and anti-Communism. While the definition of Chinese nationalism differed in ROC and PRC, both were adamant in claiming Chinese territories such as Diaoyutai Islands. ... Marxism takes its name from the praxis (the synthesis of philosophy and political action) of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chung1-kuo2 Kuo2-min2-tang3)[1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China, now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in... Chinese Pinyin Diaoyutai Islands Diaoyu Islands Senkaku Islands see also Senkaku Categories: China-related stubs ...


In the 1990s, rising economic standards, the fall of the Soviet Union, and the lack of any other legitimizing ideology has led to what most observers see as a resurgence of nationalism within China.


Overseas Chinese

Chinese nationalism has had mutable relationships with Chinese living outside of Mainland China and Taiwan. Overseas Chinese were strong supporters of the 1911 revolution. ... Combatants Qing Dynasty Chinese Revolutionary Alliance Commanders Feng Guozhang, Yuan Shikai, and local Qing governors. ...


After decolonization, overseas Chinese were encouraged to regard themselves as citizens of their own nations rather than as part of the Chinese nationality. As a result ethnic Chinese in Singapore and Malaysia have sharply divided the concept of ethnic Chinese from the concept of "political Chinese" and have explicitly rejected being part of the Chinese nationality. Colonialism in 1945 Decolonization refers to the achievement of independence by the various Western colonies and protectorates in Asia and Africa following World War II. This conforms with an intellectual movement known as Post-Colonialism. ... The word citizen may refer to: A person with a citizenship Citizen Watch Co. ... Languages various Religions Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ... Han Chinese (Simplified: 汉; Traditional: 漢; Pinyin: hàn) is a term which refers to the majority ethnic group within China and the largest single human ethnic group in the world. ...


During the 1960s the People's Republic of China and Republic of China (ROC) maintained different attitudes toward overseas Chinese. In the eyes of the PRC government overseas Chinese were considered capitalist agents, and maintaining good relations with southeast Asian governments was more important than maintaining the support of overseas Chinese. By contrast, the ROC desired good relations with overseas Chinese as part of an overall strategy to avoid diplomatic isolation and maintain its claim to be the sole legitimate government of China. Motto Three Principles of the People (三民主義 San-min Chu-i) Anthem National Anthem of the Republic of China Capital Taipei (de facto)  Nanking (de jure)1  Largest city Taipei Official languages Mandarin (GuóyÇ”) Government Semi-presidential system  -  President Chen Shui-bian  -  Vice President Annette Lu  -  Premier Chang Chun-hsiung... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... This article is about the foreign relations of the Republic of China on Taiwan. ...


With the reforms under Deng Xiaoping the attitude of the PRC toward overseas Chinese became much more favorable, and overseas Chinese were seen as a source of capital and expertise. In the 1990s, the PRC's efforts toward overseas Chinese became mostly focused on maintaining the loyalty of "newly departed overseas Chinese", which consisted of mostly graduate students having emigrated, mostly to the United States. Now, there are summer camps in which overseas Chinese youths may attend to learn first-hand about Chinese culture. Textbooks for Chinese schools are distributed by the government of the People's Republc of China. Deng Xiaoping   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Teng Hsiao-ping; August 22, 1904–February 19, 1997) was a leader in the Communist Party of China (CCP). ... In Western countries like the United States, Canada, Australia and the UK, a Chinese school is a school established explicitly for the purpose of teaching the Chinese language (of the various Chinese dialects, nowadays Mandarin Chinese is almost always the one taught) to American-born Chinese (ABC), Canadian-born Chinese...


Taiwan

Anti-independence protesters in Washington, D.C. wait for Lee Teng-Hui to come out of a hotel.
Anti-independence protesters in Washington, D.C. wait for Lee Teng-Hui to come out of a hotel.

One common goal of current Chinese nationalists is the reunification of mainland China and Taiwan. While this was the common stated goal of both the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China before 1991, both sides differed sharply on the form of reunification. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 999 KB)Anti-Taiwan independence protestors wait for Lee Teng-hui to come out of a hotel. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 999 KB)Anti-Taiwan independence protestors wait for Lee Teng-hui to come out of a hotel. ... Nickname: Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location of Washington, D.C., in relation to the states Maryland and Virginia Coordinates: Country United States Federal District District of Columbia Government  - Mayor Adrian M. Fenty (D)  - City Council Chairperson: Vincent C. Gray (D) Ward 1: Jim Graham (D) Ward 2: Jack... This is a Chinese name; the family name is 李 (Li). ... Chinese (re)unification (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a goal of Chinese nationalism that refers to the reunification of all of Greater China under a single political entity. ...


After 1991, the ROC unofficially moved away from supporting eventual reunification to a more ambiguous position. One reason for the ambiguity is the stated threat that the PRC will take military action if a "Republic of Taiwan" is declared. Another reason is that the ROC itself remains split between supporters of Chinese nationalism, who support eventual reunification, and supporters of Taiwan independence, who believe that Taiwan should be an independent republic separate from either the ROC or the PRC. A flag for the proposed independent Taiwan designed in the mid-1990s. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Taiwan independence movement (Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: , Pe̍h-oē-jī: Tâi-oân To̍k-li̍p ūn-tōng; abbreviated to 台獨, Táidú, Tâi-to̍k) is a right-wing political movement whose goal is primarily to create an independent and sovereign Republic of Taiwan. ...


Much of the dispute in Taiwan has been muted because there is a general consensus to temporarily support the status quo. Despite this, the relationship between Chinese nationalism and Taiwan remains controversial, involving symbolic issues such as the use of "The Republic of China" as the official name of the government on Taiwan. Broadly speaking, there is little support on Taiwan for immediate reunification; the argument is over culture and how Taiwanese should see themselves. The pan-blue coalition views mainland China as an economic and cultural opportunity, seeks greater links between Taiwan and mainland China, and believes in a common Chinese identity. The pan-green coalition sees Taiwan as an independent nation and desires independence. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... The Pan-Blue Coalition (Traditional Chinese: 泛藍聯盟; Simplified Chinese: 泛蓝联盟; Hanyu Pinyin: ), or Pan-Blue Force (Traditional Chinese: 泛藍軍; Simplified Chinese: 泛蓝军; Hanyu Pinyin: ), is a political coalition in Taiwan, consisting of the Kuomintang (KMT), the People First Party (PFP), and the smaller New Party (CNP). ... ... The Pan-Green Coalition (Traditional Chinese: 泛綠聯盟; Simplified Chinese: 泛绿联盟; pinyin: ) or Pan-Green Force (Traditional Chinese: 泛綠軍; Simplified Chinese: 泛绿军; pinyin: ), is an informal political alliance in early 21st century Taiwan, consisting of the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP), Taiwan Solidarity Union (TSU), and the minor Taiwan Independence Party (TAIP). ...


Opposition

In addition to the Taiwan independence movement, there are a number of ideologies which exist in opposition to Chinese nationalism.


Some opponents have asserted that Chinese nationalism is inherently backward and dictatorial and incompatible with a modern state. Others have asserted that Chinese nationalism is fundamentally an imperialist and racist ideology which in practice has led to oppression of minority groups such as Tibetans and Uyghurs. On the other hand, Chinese nationalists assert that Chinese nationalism was in many ways a result of Western imperialism, and is fundamental to the founding of the modern Chinese state that is free from foreign domination. The Tibetan people are a people indigenous to Tibet and surrounding areas stretching from Central Asia in the West to Myanmar and China in the East. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Northern and southern

Edward Friedman has controversially argued that there is a northern governmental, political, bureaucratic Chinese nationalism that is at odds with a southern, commercial Chinese nationalism. This division is rejected by most Chinese and many non-Chinese scholars, who believe that Friedman has overstated the differences between the north and the south, and point out that the divisions within Chinese society do not fall neatly into "north-south" divisions.

See also: Northern and southern China

Alternative meaning: In geology, North China (continent) and South China (continent) were two ancient landmasses that correspond to modern northern and southern China. ...

Populism

During the 1990s, Chinese intellectuals have vigorously debated the political meaning and significance of the rising nationalism in China. From their debates has emerged a multifarious populist nationalism which argues that anti-imperialist nationalism in China has provided a valuable public space for popular participation outside the country's political institutions and that nationalist sentiments under the postcolonial condition represent a democratic form of civic activity. Advocates of this theory promote nationalism as an ideal of populist politics and as an embodiment of the democratic legitimacy that resides in the will of the people.


Detractors, however, disparage populist nationalism in China today, especially that expressed on the Internet, as a "hooligan culture" in which "Internet Red Guards" hurl obscenities not only against foreign "devils," but also against moderates and liberals who warn of the excesses and dangers that nationalism could pose to China's modernization. Chinese nationalism has recently found an outlet in anti-Japanese sentiment. Anti-Japanese sentiment in China is an issue with old roots. ...


Populist nationalism is a comparatively late development in Chinese nationalism of the 1990s. It began to take recognizable shape after 1996, as a joint result of the evolving nationalist thinking of the early 1990s and the ongoing debates on modernity, postmodernism, postcolonialism, and their political implications -- debates that have engaged many Chinese intellectuals since early 1995.


Modern times

The end of the Cold War has seen the revival throughout the world of nationalist sentiments and aspirations. In China, the rapid decay of communist ideology had led the CPC to emphasize its role as the paramount patriotic force and the guardian of the national pride in order to find a new basis to sustain its role. However, nationalist sentiment is not the sole province of the CPC. One truly remarkable phenomenon in the post-Cold War upsurge of Chinese nationalism is that Chinese intellectuals became one of the driving forces. Many well-educated people--social scientists, humanities scholars, writers and other professionals -- have given voice to and even become articulators for rising nationalistic discourse in the 1990s. For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Defense of the homeland is a commonplace of military patriotism: The statue in the courtyard of École polytechnique, Paris, commemorating the students involvement in defending France against the 1814 invasion of the Coalition. ...


As an indication of the popular, or market origins of recent Chinese nationalist sentiment, all coauthors of China Can Say No, the first in a string of defiant rebuttals to American imperialism, are college educated, and most are self-employed (a freelancer, a fruit-stand owner, a poet, and journalists working in the partly market-driven field of Chinese newspapers, periodicals, and television stations). China Can Say No is a non-fiction bestseller written and published in the Peoples Republic of China that expresses nationalist ideology. ... At its start, the United States was a collection of small colonies on the eastern seaboard with little international import. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ...


Further reading

  • Harumi Befu, Cultural Nationalism in East Asia: Representation and Identity (1993). Berkeley, Calif.: Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California.
  • Terence Billeter, L’empereur jaune: Une tradition politique chinoise (2005).
  • Maria Hsia Chang, Return of the Dragon: China's Wounded Nationalism, Westview Press (2001), paperback, 256 pp, ISBN 0-8133-3856-5
  • Kai-Wing Chow, "Narrating Nation, Race and National Culture: Imagining the Hanzu Identity in Modern China," in Chow Kai-Wing, Kevin M. Doak, and Poshek Fu, eds., Constructing nationhood in modern East Asia (2001). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, pp. 47-84.
  • Peter Hays Gries, China's New Nationalism: Pride, Politics, and Diplomacy, University of California Press (January, 2004), hardcover, 224 pages, ISBN 0-520-23297-6
  • DUARA, PRASENJIT (a): De-constructing the Chinese nation, in: The Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs (Juli 1993, Nr. 30, S. 1-26).
  • DUARA, PRASENJIT (b): Rescuing History from the Nation (1995). Chicago und London: University of Chicago Press.
  • FANG WEIGUI [方維規]: Lun jindai sixiangshi shang de minzu, Nation yu Zhongguo [論近代思想史上的「民族」,「Nation」与中國], in: Ershiyi shiji [二十一世紀] (April 2002, Vol. 70, S. 33-43).
  • FITZGERALD, JOHN: Awakening China – Politics, Culture and Class in the Nationalist Revolution (1996). Stanford/California: Stanford University Press.
  • HARRELL, PAULA: Sowing the Seeds of Change – Chinese Students, Japanese Teachers, 1895-1905 (1992). Stanford/California: Stanford University Press.
  • HARRISON, HENRIETTA: The making of the Republican citizen : political ceremonies and symbols in China, 1911-1929 (2000). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • HARRISON, HENRIETTA: Inventing the Nation – China (2001). London: Arnold.
  • HOSTON, GERMAINE A.: The State, Identity, and the National Question in China and Japan (1994). Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • JUDGE, JOAN: Talent, Virtue and Nation: Chinese Nationalism and Female Subjectivities in the Early Twentieth Century, in: The American Historical Review (Vol. 106, Nr. 3, Juni 2001, S. 765-803).
  • KARL, REBECCA E.: Staging the World – Chinese Nationalism at the Turn of the Twentieth Century (2002). Durham and London: Duke University Press.
  • LIU QINGFENG [劉青峰] (Hg.): Minzuzhuyi yu Zhongguo xiandaihua [民族主義與中國現代化] (1994). Hong Kong: The Chinese University of Hong Kong.
  • LUST, JOHN: The Su-pao Case: An Episode in the Early Chinese Nationalist Movement, in: Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. XXVII, Part 2, S. 408-429.
  • SCHUBERT, GUNTER: Chinas Kampf um die Nation – Dimensionen nationalistischen Denkens in der VR China, Taiwan und Hongkong an der Jahrtausendwende (2002). Hamburg: Mitteilungen des Instituts für Asienkunde.
  • SHEN SUNG-CHIAO [沈松僑] (a): Wo yi wo xue jian Xuanyuan – Huangdi shenhua yu wan Qing de guozu jiangou [我以我血薦軒轅─ 黃帝神話與晚清的國族建構], in: Taiwan shehui yanjiu jikan, Ausgabe 28, Dezember 1997, S. 1-77.
  • SHEN SUNG-CHIAO (together with QIAN YONGXIANG [錢永祥]): Delimiting China: Discourses of 'Guomin' (國民) and the Construction of Chinese Nationality in Late Qing, paper presented at the Conference on Nationalism: The East Asia Experience, May 25-27, 1999, ISSP, Academia Sinica, Taipei, 20pp.(沈松僑/中研院近代史所助理研究員).
  • SAKAMOTO HIROKO [坂元ひろ子]: Chūgoku minzokushugi no shinwa: jinshu – shintai – jendā [中国民族主義の神話 : 人種・身体・ジェンダー] (2004). Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten.
  • SPAKOWSKI, NICOLA: Helden, Monumente, Traditionen – Nationale Identität und historisches Bewußtsein in der VR China [Diss.] (1997). Hamburg: Lit-Verlag.
  • TØNNESSON, STEIN und ANTLÖV, HANS: Asian Forms of the Nation (1996). Richmond/Surrey: Curzon Press.
  • UNGER, JONATHAN (Hg.): Chinese Nationalism (1996). Armonk, New York und London, England: M.E. Sharpe.
  • WANG GUNGWU: The Revival of Chinese Nationalism (1996). Leiden: International Institute for Asian Studies.

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Nationalism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (7159 words)
Nations have national symbols, a national culture, a national music and national literature; national folklore, a national mythology and - in some cases - even a national religion.
While internationalism in the cosmopolitanist context by definition implies cooperation among nations, and therefore the existence of nations, proletarian internationalism is different, in that it calls for the international working class to follow its bretheren in other countries irrespective of the activities or pressures of the national government of a particular sector of that class.
Hechter attributes nationalism in the "Celtic fringe" of Britain and Ireland to the reinforcing divisions of culture and the division of labour.
Chinese nationalism - definition of Chinese nationalism in Encyclopedia (1600 words)
Chinese nationalism refers to cultural, historiographical, and political theories, movements and beliefs that assert the idea of a cohesive, unified Chinese people and culture under state(s) that are primarily Chinese.
In the late 19th century, Chinese nationalism identified Han with Chinese and argued for the overthrow of the Manchus who were considered outside the realm of the Chinese nation.
The official Chinese nationalistic view in the 1920s and 1930s was heavily influenced by modernism and social darwinism, and included advocacy of the cultural assimilation of ethnic groups dominated by the Han state into the "culturally advanced" Han state, to become in name as well as in fact members of the "Zhonghua Nationality".
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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