FACTOID # 15: A mere 0.8% of West Virginians were born in a foreign country.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Chinese nation

The Chinese nation (Traditional Chinese: 中華民族; Simplified Chinese: 中华民族; Hanyu Pinyin: Zhōnghuá mínzú; Wade-Giles: Chung-hua min-tsu), is a supra-ethnic term rooted in Chinese nationalism that refers to the notion of a Chinese nationality transcending ethnic divisions, with a central identity to China as a whole. It includes peoples who have historically interacted, contributed and assimilated to various extents with Chinese civilization. Traditional Chinese characters are one of two standard character sets. ... Simplified Chinese characters (Simplified Chinese: 简体字; Traditional Chinese: 簡體字; pinyin: jiÇŽntǐzì; also Simplified Chinese: 简化字; Traditional Chinese: 簡化字; pinyin: jiÇŽnhuàzì) are one of two standard character sets of printed contemporary Chinese written language. ... Pinyin (拼音, Pīnyīn) literally means join (together) sounds (a less literal translation being phoneticize, spell or transcription) in Chinese and usually refers to Hànyǔ Pīnyīn (汉语拼音, literal meaning: Han language pinyin), which is a system of romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration to roman script) for Standard Mandarin used in the... Wade-Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration) system for the Chinese language based on Mandarin. ... The May Fourth Movement in 1919 marked a turning point in the history of Chinese nationalism. ...

Contents


History

The immediate roots of the Chinese nationality lie in the Qing Empire, a multi-ethnic empire created in the 17th century by the Manchus. In the 19th century, a new Chinese identity was thought to be needed that would fit with Western concepts of ethnicity and nationality. Chinese nationalists such as Sun Yat-sen planned to overthrow the Qing Empire and establish a Chinese nation-state modelled closely after Germany and Japan. In the background was a fear that an overly restrictive view of the nation-state would have dissolved the Qing Empire into several different nations, which would almost definitely have allowed the Western powers to dominate China. The unifying and centralizing principles of Japan and Germany were considered examples China should follow, while the ethnically divided Ottoman Empire was seen as an example of what some Chinese nationalists feared. The Qing Dynasty (Manchu: daicing gurun; Chinese: 清朝; pinyin: qīng cháo; Wade-Giles: ching chao), sometimes known as the Manchu Dynasty, was founded by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro, in what is today northeast China expanded into China proper and the surrounding territories of Inner Asia, establishing the... One of the Qianlong Emperors Manchu bodyguards (1760), notice the distinctive hat The Manchu (Korean 만주, Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: 满族; Traditional Chinese: 滿族; pinyin: MÇŽnzú) are a Tungusic people who originated in Korea, an area known in English as Manchuria. ... Sun Yat-sen (November 12, 1866–March 12, 1925) was a Chinese revolutionary and political leader who had a significant role in the overthrow of the Qing Dynasty. ... The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ... Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (1683) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Söğüt (1299-1326), Bursa (1326-1365), Edirne (1365-1453), Constantinople (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanl...


The term was first used by President Yuan Shikai in 1912, shortly after the overthrow of the Qing Empire and the founding of the Republic of China. Facing the eminent independence of Outer Mongolia from China, Yuan Shikai stated, "Outer Mongolia is part of Zhonghua minzu [the Chinese nation] and has been of one family for centuries." Yuan Shikai in military uniform Yuan Shikai (Courtesy Weiting 慰亭; Pseudonym: Rongan 容庵 Traditional Chinese: 袁世凱; Simplified Chinese: 袁世凯; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Yüan Shih-kai) (September 16, 1859 – June 5, 1916) was a Chinese military official and politician during the late Qing Dynasty and the early Republic of China. ... The Qing Dynasty (Manchu: daicing gurun; Chinese: 清朝; pinyin: qīng cháo; Wade-Giles: ching chao), sometimes known as the Manchu Dynasty, was founded by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro, in what is today northeast China expanded into China proper and the surrounding territories of Inner Asia, establishing the... Motto: None Anthem: National Anthem of the Republic of China Capital Taipei City (de facto) Nanjing (de jure)1 Largest city Taipei City Official language(s) Mandarin (GuóyÇ”) Government Semi-presidential system  - President Chen Shui-bian  - Vice President Annette Lu  - Premier Su Tseng-chang Establishment Xinhai Revolution   - Declared October... Outer Mongolia makes up Mongolia (presently a sovereign state) and Tannu Uriankhai (the majority of which is the modern-day Tuva Republic, a federal subject of the Russian Federation), while Inner Mongolia (内蒙古; Nèi MÄ›nggÇ”) is an autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Sun Yat-sen also supported Yuan Shikai's viewpoint, and expanded upon its definitions by including all the ethnic groups within China. He wrote, "Some people say, after the overthrow of the Qing, we do not need nationalism anymore. Those words now are certainly wrong.... Right now we speak of the 'union of five nationalities' (Han, Manchu, Mongol, Hui and Tibetan), but how is it our country only has five nationalities? My stand is that we should incorporate all the peoples within China into one Chinese nation...and develop the Chinese nation into a very civilized nation, only then will we no longer need nationalism." Han Chinese (Simplified Chinese: 汉族; Traditional Chinese: 漢族; Pinyin: hànzú) is a term which refers to the majority ethnic group within China and the largest single human ethnic group in the world. ... One of the Qianlong Emperors Manchu bodyguards (1760), notice the distinctive hat The Manchu (Korean 만주, Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: 满族; Traditional Chinese: 滿族; pinyin: Mǎnzú) are a Tungusic people who originated in Korea, an area known in English as Manchuria. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... The Hui people (Chinese: 回族; Pinyin: ) are a Chinese ethnic group, typically distinguished by their practice of the Islamic religion. ... Ethnolinguistic Groups of Tibet, 1967 ( See entire map, which includes a key) Ethnic Tibetan autonomous entities set up by the Peoples Republic of China. ...


This term has continued to be invoked and remains a powerful concept in China into the 21st century. It continues to hold use as the leaders of China need to unify into one political entity a highly diverse set of ethnic and social groups as well as to mobilize the support of overseas Chinese in developing China. The 21st century is the present century of the Gregorian calendar. ... Overseas Chinese (華僑 in Pinyin: Huáqiáo, or 華胞 huábāo, or 僑胞 qiáobāo, or 華裔 huáyì) are either ethnic Chinese or people of the Chinese nation (Zhonghua minzu) who live outside of China. ...


Definitions

The boundaries of Zhonghua minzu are fuzzy but most Chinese today use the term to include all peoples within the territorial boundaries of China along with overseas Chinese integrated as one national, political, cultural and perhaps even ideological-moral group. Overseas Chinese (華僑 in Pinyin: Huáqiáo, or 華胞 huábāo, or 僑胞 qiáobāo, or 華裔 huáyì) are either ethnic Chinese or people of the Chinese nation (Zhonghua minzu) who live outside of China. ... One of the most influential doctrines in history is that all humans are divided into groups called nations. ... Politics is the process and method of decision-making for groups of human beings. ... The word culture, from the Latin colo, -ere, with its root meaning to cultivate, generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ...


Zhonghua refers to the concept of "Chinese" independently of ethnic concepts such as the Han ethnic group and is the term for "China" used in the formal names for both the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China. Minzu can be translated as either "nation" or "people." In theory, the Chinese nation includes not only the Han but also other minority ethnic groups within China, such as the Mongols, Manchus, Hmong, Tibetans that have historically and to various degrees interacted, contributed and assimilated with the Han. However, some of these minority ethnic groups (or indeed individuals within the majority Han ethnicity) do not necessarily accept that they belong to the Zhonghua minzu and may not regard themselves as Chinese in any sense other than in the legal and political. The history of these nations often reflects a high degree of independence, and while some have politically been a part of China for many centuries, others have only recently been integrated. In any case, their current political status does not necessarily reflect cultural and ethnic identities. Han Chinese (Simplified Chinese: 汉族; Traditional Chinese: 漢族; Pinyin: hànzú) is a term which refers to the majority ethnic group within China and the largest single human ethnic group in the world. ... Motto: None Anthem: National Anthem of the Republic of China Capital Taipei City (de facto) Nanjing (de jure)1 Largest city Taipei City Official language(s) Mandarin (GuóyÇ”) Government Semi-presidential system  - President Chen Shui-bian  - Vice President Annette Lu  - Premier Su Tseng-chang Establishment Xinhai Revolution   - Declared October... Ethnolinguistic map of China The Peoples Republic of China (PRC) is a multi-ethnic unitary state and, as such, officially recognizes 56 nationalities or mínzú (民族), within China: the Han being the majority (>92%), and the remaining 55 nationalities being the national minorities. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... One of the Qianlong Emperors Manchu bodyguards (1760), notice the distinctive hat The Manchu (Korean 만주, Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: 满族; Traditional Chinese: 滿族; pinyin: MÇŽnzú) are a Tungusic people who originated in Korea, an area known in English as Manchuria. ... The Hmong, also known as Miao (considered derogatory by some: see below) (Chinese: è‹—pinyin: Miáo; Vietnamese: Mèo or HMông; Thai: แม้ว (Maew) or ม้ง (Mong); Burmese: mun lumyo), are an Asian ethnic group speaking the Hmong language, whose homeland is in the mountainous regions of southern China (especially... A Tibetan pilgrim The Tibetans speak the Tibetan language natively and form one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), although in anthropological terms they include more than one ethnic group. ...


The degree and nature of the independence held to by the Tibetan people is relatively clear cut. Other groups, such as those of South-Central and Southwest China, including the Miao, Zhuang, and Yi, may not consider themselves as Han, yet it would be difficult to consider them politically or geographically independent from China. Even greater difficulty arises when considering groups like the Manchus, whose cultural identity was originally quite distinct from the Han but have become tightly intertwined with the Chinese state and nation, to the extent that they have lost their ancestral language and customs, and the Han have also reciprocally adopted Manchu clothing and customs. Finally, there is also the matter that individuals within these groups will construct their own identities. The South Central region of the Peoples Republic of China South Central China (Chinese: 中南; pinyin: Zhōngnán) is a region of the Peoples Republic of China defined by governmental bureaus that includes the provinces of Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Guangdong and Hainan, and the Guangxi Zhuang autonomous region. ... The southwestern Peoples Republic of China region. ... The Hmong, also known as Miao (considered derogatory by some: see below) (Chinese: 苗; Pinyin: Miáo; Vietnamese: Mèo or HMông; Thai: แม้ว (Maew) or ม้ง (Mong); Burmese: mun lu-myo), Hmong: Hmoob, are an Asian ethnic group speaking the Hmong language, whose homeland is in the mountainous regions of... The Zhuang (Simplified Chinese: 壮族; Traditional Chinese: 壯族; Hanyu Pinyin: ; own name: Bouчcueŋь/Bouxcuengh) are an ethnic group of people who mostly live in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in southern China. ... The Yi people (own name in the Cool Mountain dialect: ꆈꌠ, official transcription: Nuosu, IPA: [nɔ̄sū]; Chinese: 彝族, Pinyin: Yìzú; the older name Lolo is now considered derogatory in China, though used officially in Vietnam as Lô Lô) are a modern ethnic group in China and Vietnam. ... Han Chinese (Simplified Chinese: 汉族; Traditional Chinese: 漢族; Pinyin: hànzú) is a term which refers to the majority ethnic group within China and the largest single human ethnic group in the world. ... One of the Qianlong Emperors Manchu bodyguards (1760), notice the distinctive hat The Manchu (Korean 만주, Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: 满族; Traditional Chinese: 滿族; pinyin: Mǎnzú) are a Tungusic people who originated in Korea, an area known in English as Manchuria. ...


The boundaries of who is or is not a member of the Chinese nation have always been rather inconsistent. For example, whether overseas Chinese are considered part of this Chinese nationality depends on the speaker and the context. The logic often stems from geographic location and political status--a Mongol living in the Chinese region of Inner Mongolia would be considered by most to be part of Zhonghua minzu, while a Mongol living in the independent state of Mongolia may not; likewise there is even a Russian minority in China who are Chinese citizens politically, and many Chinese nationalists would want them to be considered Chinese in an ideological-moral sense as well. Overseas Chinese (華僑 in Pinyin: Huáqiáo, or 華胞 huábāo, or 僑胞 qiáobāo, or 華裔 huáyì) are either ethnic Chinese or people of the Chinese nation (Zhonghua minzu) who live outside of China. ... Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N i Měnggǔ Z qū) is an Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Controversy

The concept has implications with regard to history. Now independent nation-states such as Mongolia and Korea complicate the conceptual boundaries of the Chinese nation with their differing interpretations of historical peoples and states. For instance, Genghis Khan is claimed to be a "Chinese" by China (because the Mongol nationality is part of the "Chinese nation") and a "Mongolian" by Mongolia. A dispute of a similar nature has arisen over the status of the state of Koguryo in ancient history, with the Chinese claiming it as Chinese on the grounds that much of it existed within the historical borders of China and the Koreans claiming that it was Korean on ethnic grounds. Such views can result in conflicts when the claims are seen as exclusive (as the Koguryo case sometimes is), but may not when these claims are not seen as mutually exclusive as is the case with Genghis Khan. Korea (Korean: (조선 or 한국, see below) is a geographic area, civilization, and former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. ... , (c. ... This article needs cleanup. ... , (c. ...


See also

Ethnolinguistic map of China The Peoples Republic of China (PRC) is a multi-ethnic unitary state and, as such, officially recognizes 56 nationalities or mínzú (民族), within China: the Han being the majority (>92%), and the remaining 55 nationalities being the national minorities. ... The May Fourth Movement in 1919 marked a turning point in the history of Chinese nationalism. ... Han chauvinism (大汉族主义, 大汉沙文主义) or Hanism (汉本位) is a term which is used in the Mainland China, Taiwan, and Japan, referring to people carrying ethnocentric viewpoints that favor the Han Chinese majority ethnic group in China at the expense of the other minority ethnic groups, often under the assumption of cultural or racial... The Peoples Republic of China officially describes itself as a multinational unitary state and as such officially recognizes 56 nationalities or Mínzú (民族), within China: the Han being the majority (>92%), and the remaining 55 nationalities being the national minorities. ... The Sinocentric World: The area of usage of Chinese characters at its maximum extent (to a considerable extent following the borders of the Qing dynasty). ...

External links

  • The War of Words Between South Korea and China Over An Ancient Kingdom: Why Both Sides Are Misguided Zhonghua minzu and the Sino-Korean controversy over the 'ownership' of ancient Koguryo.

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m