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Encyclopedia > Chinese name
This article contains Chinese text.
Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Chinese characters.

Personal names in Chinese culture follow a number of conventions different from those of personal names in Western cultures. Most noticeably, a Chinese name is written with the family name (surname or last name) first and the given name next, therefore "John Smith" as a Chinese name would be "Smith John". For instance, the basketball player who is commonly called Yao Ming would be addressed as "Mr. Yao", not "Mr. Ming". Image File history File links Zhongwen. ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Hán tá»±: A Chinese character or Han character (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a logogram used in writing Chinese, Japanese, sometimes Korean, and formerly Vietnamese. ... For other uses, see Name (disambiguation). ... For contemporary culture after 1949, see Culture of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... A family name, surname, or last name is the part of a persons name indicating the family to which the person belongs. ... Look up Appendix:Most popular given names by country in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Yao (姚) Yao Ming (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) (born September 12, 1980, in Shanghai, China) is a Chinese professional basketball player and is arguably the best center in the National Basketball Association (NBA) today. ...


Some Chinese people who emigrate to, or do business with, Western countries sometimes adopt a Westernized name by simply reversing the "surname–given-name" order to "given-name–surname" ("Ming Yao", to follow the previous example), or with a Western first name together with their surname, which is then written in the usual Western order with the surname last ("Fred Yao"). Other Chinese people sometimes take a combined name, consisting of Western first name, surname, and Chinese given name, in that order ("Fred Yao Ming"), mostly in Hong Kong, or in the order of Western first name, Chinese given name, and surname ("Fred Ming Yao"). The term Chinese people may refer to any of the following: A person who resides in and holds citizenship of the Peoples Republic of China (including Hong Kong and Macau) or the Republic of China (Taiwan). ...


Traditional naming schemes often followed a pattern of using generation names as part of a two-character given name; however, this is less used today, especially in Mainland China, where many given names use only one character. However, it is still the norm among the Chinese populations of Singapore, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Malaysia. Generation name is half of the two-Chinese character given name given to newborns in the same generation of one surname lineage. ... ...


When generation names are used as part of a two-character given name, it is highly inappropriate and confusing to refer to someone by the first part of their given name only which will generally be their generation name. Instead, the entire given name should be used. This should be the case regardless of whether the surname is used. For instance, referring to Singaporean Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong as Hsien or Hsien Lee would be confusing as this could just as easily refer to his brother. However, this does commonly occur in Western societies where the first part of the given name is frequently mistakenly used as the first name when the given name is not hyphenated or adjoined. This is a Chinese name; the family name is 李 (Lee) Lee Hsien Loong (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; born February 10, 1952) is the third and current Prime Minister of Singapore. ...

Contents

Family names

Main article: Chinese surname

The Chinese name system is the original pattern of names in Eastern Asia. In fact, all countries in Eastern Asia have followed the Chinese name system. Today, there are over 700 different Chinese family names, but as few as twenty cover a majority of Chinese people. The variety in Chinese names therefore depends greatly on given names rather than family names. The great majority of Chinese family names have only one character, but there are a few with two; see Chinese compound surname for more information. A Chinese surname, family name (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) or clan name (氏; pinyin: shì), is one of the hundreds or thousands of family names that have been historically used by Han Chinese and Sinicized Chinese ethnic groups in mainland China, Taiwan, and among overseas Chinese communities. ... A Chinese surname, also called a clan name or family name (姓, pinyin: x ng; or 氏, shi), is one of the over seven hundred family names used by Han Chinese and Sinicized Chinese ethnic groups. ... A Chinese compound surname (Simplified Chinese: , Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: fùxìng) is a Chinese surname using more than one character. ...


Chinese family names are written first, something which often causes confusion among those from cultures where the family name usually comes last. Thus, the family name of Mao Zedong is Mao (毛), and his given name is Zedong (traditional: 澤東, simplified: 泽东). Mao redirects here. ...


Married Chinese women, in modern times, usually retain their maiden names as their family name, rather than the adopted name of their husband — this is almost universal in the People's Republic of China (PRC) — and children usually inherit the father's family name. Historically, it was considered taboo to marry someone with the same family name — even if there is no direct relationship between those concerned--though in recent decades this has no longer been frowned upon. A family name, surname, or last name is the part of a persons name indicating the family to which the person belongs. ... This article is about cultural prohibitions in general, for other uses, see Taboo (disambiguation). ...


Given names

Main article: Chinese given name

Generally speaking, Chinese given names have one or two characters, and are written after the family name. When a baby is born, parents often give him or her a "milk name" or "little name," such as Little Gem (小寶/ 小宝) or two characters that repeat (明明). The given name is then usually chosen later and is often chosen with consultation of the grandparents. In China, parents have a month before having to register the child. The parents may continue to use the nickname. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


With a limited repertoire of family names, Chinese depend on using given names to introduce variety in naming. Almost any character with any meaning can be used. However, it is not considered appropriate to name a child after a famous figure and highly offensive after an older member among the family or even distant relatives.


Given names resonant of qualities which are perceived to be either masculine or feminine are frequently given, with males being linked with strength and firmness, and females with beauty and flowers. Females sometimes have names which repeat a character, for example Xiuxiu (秀秀) or Lili (麗麗, 丽丽). This is less common in males, although Yo-Yo Ma (馬友友 Mǎ Yǒuyǒu, 马友友) is a well-known exception. This is a Chinese name; the family name is Ma Yo-Yo Ma (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) (b. ...


In some families, uno of the dos characters in the personal name is shared by all members of a generation and these generational names are worked out long in advance, historically in a poem listing the names[1]. Also, siblings' names are frequently related, for example, a boy may be named pine (松, considered masculine) while his sister may be named plum (梅, considered feminine), both being primary elements of the traditional Chinese system of naturally symbolizing moral imperatives. Generation name is half of the two-Chinese character given name. ... Poetry (ancient Greek: poieo = create) is an art form in which human language is used for its aesthetic qualities in addition to, or instead of, its notional and semantic content. ...


Chinese personal names also may reflect periods of history. For example, many Chinese born during the Cultural Revolution have "revolutionary names" such as strong country (強國, 强国) or eastern wind (東風, 东风). In Taiwan, it used to be common to incorporate one of the four characters of the name "Republic of China" (中華民國) into masculine names. The history of China is told in traditional historical records that refer as far back as the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors about 5,000 years ago, supplemented by archaeological records dating to the 16th century BC. China is one of the worlds oldest continuous civilizations. ... This article is about the Peoples Republic of China. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ...


People from the rural areas may have "rural" names due to their uneducated parents, for example, large ox (大牛) and big pillar (大柱), though, these names are much less common today.


Also, some decades ago, due to the traditional Confucianism, when a family gives birth to a female baby, the parents may name her comes a little brother (來弟), invites a little brother (招弟) or hopes for a little brother (盼弟). Some other female names of this sort includes: 望弟 (hopes for a little brother), 牽弟 (brings along a little brother), 帶弟 (brings a little brother), 引弟 (attracts or leads along a little brother), 領弟 (receives a little brother), and even 也好 (it's all right, too (to have a girl first then a boy later)). The parents may feminize the character '弟' (younger brother) to '娣' with the same pronunciation, but different in meaning (it literally means "wife of a younger brother," but more recently it is used to transliterate the western female names). These names show the traditional sexism or male chauvinism in the older Chinese society where having a boy (who can inherit the family name and continue the family line, which is an honour to the ancestors) is better than having a girl (who can only be other family's daughter-in-law to carry on other's family name). A Confucian temple in Wuwei, Peoples Republic of China. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Chauvinism. ...


A recent trend has swept through greater China to let fortune tellers change people's names years after they have been given. These fortune tellers claim that the name leads to a better future in the child according to principles such as Five elements (五行 wǔ xíng). Chinese Wood (木) | Fire (火) Earth (土) | Metal (金) | Water (æ°´) Japanese Earth (地) | Water (æ°´) | Fire (火) | Air / Wind (風) | Void / Sky / Heaven (空) Hinduism and Buddhism Vayu / Pavan — Air / Wind Agni / Tejas — Fire Akasha — Aether Prithvi / Bhumi — Earth Ap / Jala — Water In traditional Chinese philosophy, natural phenomena can be classified into the Five Elements (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ): wood, fire...


Regional variations

Taiwan

Family names in Taiwan of the Han Chinese heritage are similar to those in southeast China, as most families maintain family trees that are traceable to their origins in places such as Fujian and Guangdong. Taiwanese aborigines have also adopted Chinese names in the process of assimilation (see also Taiwanese name). The popularity distribution of family names in Taiwan as a whole differs somewhat from the distribution of names among all Han Chinese, with the family name Chen (陳) particularly common (generally about 11%). Local variations also exist. Language(s) Chinese languages Religion(s) Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ... A family tree is generally the totality of ones ancestors represented as a tree structure, or more specifically, a chart used in genealogy. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Fu-chien; Postal map spelling: Fukien, Foukien; local transliteration Hokkien from Min Nan Hok-kiàn) is one of the provinces on the southeast coast of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Not to be confused with the former Kwantung Leased Territory in north-eastern China. ... Total population 2006: 458,000 (CIP 2006) 2004: 454,600 (CIP 2004) Homelands in Taiwan Mountainous terrain running in five ranges from the northern to the southern tip of the island Narrow eastern plains Orchid Island (Lán YÇ”) Languages 14 living Formosan languages. ... Prior to contact with Han Chinese, the Taiwanese aborigines named themselves according to each tribes tradition. ...


The top ten most frequent family names in Taiwan, ranking in China, and common romanizations.

Top Ten in Taiwan Rank in China Pe̍h-ōe-jī Common romanizations
5 Tân Chen, Chan
16 Lîm Lin, Lam
8 n̂g Huang, Wong, Hwang
1 Li, Lee, Le
3 Tiuⁿ Zhang, Cheung, Chang
2 Ông Wang, Wong
10 Ngô͘ Wu, Ng
4 Lâu Liu, Lau, Liou,
32 Chhòa Cai, Choi, Tsai, Choy
6 Iûⁿ Yang, Yeung

Among the Taiwanese Presbyterian Christians, the family name 偕 (Chieh, or Jie in Hanyu Pinyin) is of particular interest as an example of a Chinese-like surname with a non-Chinese root. According to the clan's tradition, the name was adopted to honor the Canadian missionary George Leslie Mackay, also known as Má-Chieh (馬偕). This family name is actually rarely seen even among Presbyterian Christians. Taiwanese Christians of other sects do not carry this tradition. Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... An issue of the Taiwan Church News, first published by Presbyterian missionaries in 1885. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Etymologies redirects here. ... For other uses, see Missionary (disambiguation). ... Reverend Doctor George Leslie Mackay (偕叡理; POJ: Kai SÅ«i-lí, or 馬偕; POJ: Má-kai), D. D., the first modern missionary to northern Taiwan, was born in Zorra Township, Oxford County, Canada West (now Ontario), Canada, on 21 March 1844. ... Presbyterianism is a tradition shared by a large number of Christian denominations which is most prevalent within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity. ...


(See: Top 10 Taiwanese family names and Top family names in China (1988), List of common Chinese surnames) This is a list of the top 100 most common Chinese surnames according to a study published in 2006. ...


Given names that consist of one character are much less common on Taiwan than in mainland China. ...


More common in the past when life was much more difficult, Taiwanese given names are sometimes unofficially re-assigned based on the recommendation of fortune-tellers, in order to ward off bad omens and evil spirits. For example, a sick boy may be renamed "Ti-sái" (豬屎), or "Hog Manure", to indicate to the evil spirits that he is not worth their trouble. Similarly, a girl from a poor family may have the name "Bóng-chhī" (罔市), or translated loosely, "Keeping (her) Only Reluctantly". Categories: Stub ... Examples of omens from the Nuremberg Chronicle (1493): natural phenomena and strange births. ... For other uses, see Pig (disambiguation). ... Animal manure is often a mixture of animals feces and bedding straw, as in this example from a stable. ...


Nicknames (also known as "child names", gín-á-miâ, 囝仔名) derives from the practice common to Fujian of being constructed by attaching the prefix "A-" (阿) to the last syllable. Unlike the situation in Mainland China, this construction is used for Hakka names as well. Nicknames are often used by friends to refer to each other, but are rarely used in formal contexts. However, one major exception to this is Chen Shui-bian (陳水扁, Tân Chúi-píⁿ) who refers to himself as A-píⁿ--a (阿扁) in public, which appears endearing to his supporters. The use of nicknames in public contexts is however unusual, and very few other public figures (such as the singer A-mei) are known by their nicknames. EXAMPLE:Laughbox,Blondie,BamBam,Pinkie,etc. ... Chen Shui-bian, President of the Republic of China Chen Shui-bian (ch. ... A-mei (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; born August 9, 1972), also known by her birth name Zhang Huimei or as Chang Hui-mei (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ), is an aboriginal Taiwanese pop singer and occasional songwriter. ...


Examples of names of prominent Taiwanese born in Taiwan, mostly after World War II.

  • One-character family name + two-character given name (mainstream)
    • 王永慶 = 王 + 永慶 (billionaire)
    • 陳長文 = 陳 + 長文 (lawyer)
    • 張榮發 = 張 + 榮發 (billionaire)
    • 林懷民 = 林 + 懷民 (dancer)
    • 陳宜暉 = 陳 + 宜暉 (ethnic dance choreographer)
    • 梁國平 = 梁 + 國平 (linguist)
    • 古金水 = 古 + 金水 (aboriginal athlete who adopted Chinese name)
  • One-character family name + one-character given name (few)
    • 蔡琴 = 蔡 + 琴 (folk singer)
    • 蕭薔 = 蕭 + 薔 (actress; stage name)
  • Two-character family name + one- or two-character given name (even fewer)
    • 歐陽龍 = 歐陽 + 龍 (actor, local politician)
  • Compound family name + one- or two-character given name (rare)
    • 鄭余鎮 = 鄭‧余 + 鎮 (former politician involved in a sex scandal)
    • 郭李建夫 = 郭‧李 + 建夫 (retired professional baseball player)
  • Husband's family name + one-character family name + two-character given name (some women)

A stage name, also called a screen name, is a pseudonym used by performers and entertainers such as actors, comedians, musicians, djs, clowns, and professional wrestlers. ... The Taiwan Solidarity Union (TSU) (Traditional Chinese: 台灣團結聯盟, pinyin: Táiwān túanjíe líanméng) is a political party in Taiwan (Republic of China) which advocates Taiwan independence. ...

Diaspora

Among Chinese Americans, it is common practice to be referred to primarily by the Western name and to use the Chinese given name as a middle name; for instance, Soong would have "James Chu-yu Soong". In a more recent effort to combine Western names for those with native Chinese names, the Western name is placed directly in front of the Chinese name so that both the Chinese and Western names can be easily identified. The relative order of family name-given name is also preserved. Using this scheme, Soong Chu-yu would be James Soong Chu-yu. A Chinese American is an American who is of ethnic Chinese descent. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In Malaysia and Singapore, it is equally acceptable for Western names to appear before or after the Chinese given name, thus Tan Keng Yam Tony may also be written as Tony Tan Keng Yam, and individuals are free to indicate their official names in either format on their identity cards. General usage tend to prefer placing the Western name first due to the popularity of referring to individuals simply as "Tony Tan" and dropping the given Chinese name entirely. For administrative purposes, however, government agencies tend to place the Western name behind so as to standardise namelists sorted by family names. In some cases, therefore, agencies may choose to include a comma behind the Chinese name to indicate such amendments made, for instance, "Tan Keng Yam, Tony". Tony Tan Dr Tan Keng Yam Tony (Chinese: 陈庆炎博士, born 7 February 1940, Singapore, Tân Khèng-iām) is the former Deputy Prime Minister and Co-ordinating Minister for Security and Defence of Singapore. ... The National Registration Identity Card (abbreviation: NRIC, or colloquially IC; Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ) is the identity document in use in Singapore. ... The government of Singapore consists of several departments, known as ministries and statutory boards in Singapore. ... For other uses, see Comma. ...


The Hong Kong printed media tends to adopt a presentation style similar to American usage, for instance, Donald Tsang Yam-kuen. On official records such as the Hong Kong Identity Cards, however, family names are always printed first, capitalised, and followed with a comma for all names, including non-Chinese names. Therefore the name would be printed as either TSANG, Yam Kuen Donald or TSANG, Donald Yam Kuen, according to the person's, or the person's parents' own preference at time of application. A non-Chinese name would be printed in the style of "BUSH, George Walker". Some people do not have the transliterations of their Chinese given names in their names in English record, such as Henry Lee or Peter Vincent Cheng. In Macau, ethnic Chinese individuals who have Portuguese given names may have their names written in the Portuguese name order, such as Carlos do Rosário Tchiang. German identity card with a KINEGRAM® A piece of identification (ID) is a document designed to verify aspects of a persons identity. ... Transliteration is the practice of transcribing a word or text written in one writing system into another writing system. ...


The use of a comma between a surname and given name is acceptable if the name is in isolation (such as part of an alphabetized list or on a field of a government document), but not as part of a sentence. For example, the sentence "My student Wang, Ming-Sheng gradated in 2006" would be wrong.


Romanization

In mainland China, Han names are romanized in pinyin, usually without tone marks. Chinese from Mainland China are generally recognizable from the "x", "zh" and "q" that exist in Hanyu Pinyin orthography, and by the combination of the two syllables in a two character given name into one romanized word (e.g. Chen Xianglin). Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... ... Pinyin (拼音, Pīnyīn) literally means join (together) sounds (a less literal translation being phoneticize, spell or transcription) in Chinese and usually refers to Hànyǔ Pīnyīn (汉语拼音, literal meaning: Han language pinyin), which is a system of...


In Taiwan, the vast majority of Taiwanese today romanize their names in Mandarin pronunciation using Wades-Giles or a similar system, which can be easily distinguished from the Hanyu Pinyin used for romanization in Mainland China and Singapore by the lack of the use of "q", "zh", and "x", by the use of "hs" and by the inclusion of hyphens. Unlike Mainland China, romanization of names in Taiwan is not standardized and one can often find idiosyncratic variants such as Lee or Soong, and others. This article is on all of the Northern and Southwestern Chinese dialects. ... Wade-Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration) system for the Chinese language based on Mandarin. ... Pinyin (拼音, Pīnyīn) literally means join (together) sounds (a less literal translation being phoneticize, spell or transcription) in Chinese and usually refers to Hànyǔ Pīnyīn (汉语拼音, literal meaning: Han language pinyin), which is a system of... ... ...


Chinese in southeast Asia, Hong Kong, Macau, and other old diaspora communities are likely to romanize in their own dialect, such as "吳" becomes Ng in languages such as Cantonese, while the same character would be Wu in Mandarin. In particular, Cantonese, Min Nan, Hakka are prevalent. Although not a Chinese dialect, ethnic Chinese in Vietnam romanize their names in Vietnamese pronunciation using quoc ngu, making them almost indistinguishable from Vietnamese names. In Singapore, individuals, or their parents, are free to choose to romanize their Chinese names in Mandarin, in any Chinese dialect, or in any other form as deemed fit. In general, however, the romanized name in dialect and in Mandarin (in pinyin) are both depicted on the person's NRIC, unless the bearer chooses to drop either of them. In Macau, Chinese names are usually transliterated based on Portuguese orthography. This article is about all of the Cantonese (Yue) dialects. ... Mǐn N n (Chinese: 閩南語), also spelt as Minnan or Min-nan; native name B ; literally means Southern Min or Southern Fujian and refers to the local language/dialect of southern Fujian province, China. ... For other uses, see Hakka (disambiguation). ... For the community association, see Homeowners association. ... The Vietnamese alphabet has the following 29 letters, in collating order: Vietnamese also uses the 10 digraphs and 1 trigraph below. ... Vietnamese names generally consist of three parts: a family name, a middle name, and a given name, used in that order. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Transliteration is the practice of transcribing a word or text written in one writing system into another writing system. ... The orthography of a language specifies the correct way of using a specific writing system to write the language. ...


Chinese from diaspora communities in Malaysia and Singapore can also be identified by the inclusion of spaces in their first names, as well. (e.g. Tan Cheng Lock) Tun Dato Sir Tan Cheng Lock (Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; 1883–1960; born in Malacca), Malaysian Chinese, was the founder and first president of the Malayan Chinese Association (MCA), which represents the Malaysian Chinese population. ...


Alternative names

Nicknames are usually an alteration of the given name, sometimes based on the person's physical attributes, speaking style or even their first word. A nickname may consist of the diminutive ā (阿) or xiăo (小), followed by part of the given name (usually the last character or occasionally the surname -- but see Forms of address, below). The ā (阿) diminutive is more commonly found in the southern regions of China than in the north, where xiăo (小) is more common. Nicknames are rarely used in formal or semi-formal settings. One exception to this is Chen Shui-bian, who is commonly known as A-bian (阿扁) even by himself and in newspaper articles. EXAMPLE:Laughbox,Blondie,BamBam,Pinkie,etc. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Chen Shui-bian, President of the Republic of China Chen Shui-bian (ch. ...


In former times, it was common for educated males to acquire courtesy names. The two most common forms were a (字), given upon reaching maturity, and a hào (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ), usually self-selected and often somewhat whimsical. Although this tradition has lapsed, authors' use of pen names is still a common phenomenon. For more information, see Chinese style name. A Chinese style name, sometimes also known as a courtesy name, is an extra name that could be used in place of the given name. ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... A pen name or nom de plume is a pseudonym adopted by an author. ... A Chinese style name, sometimes also known as a courtesy name, is an extra name that could be used in place of the given name. ...


For prominent people, posthumous names (simplified Chinese: 谥号; traditional Chinese: 諡號; pinyin: shìhào) have often been given, although this is uncommon now. Sun Yat-sen was given the posthumous name of Guófù (simplified Chinese: 国父; traditional Chinese: 國父, Father of the Nation), the name by which he is most frequently known in Taiwan. Emperors were also ascribed temple names (simplified Chinese: 庙号; traditional Chinese: 廟號; pinyin: miàohào), and in certain situations, an Era name as well. Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Hán tá»±: A posthumous name (諡號) is an honorary name given to royalty, nobles, and sometimes others, in some cultures after the persons death. ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Dr. Sun Yat-sen Traditional Chinese: 孫中山; Pinyin: SÅ«n Zhōngshān; or Sun Yixian (Pinyin: SÅ«n Yìxiān) (November 12, 1866 – March 12, 1925) was a Chinese revolutionary and political leader often referred to as the father of modern China. Sun played an instrumental role in the... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Mongolian name Mongolian: Номын Нэр Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Temple names are commonly used when naming most Chinese, Korean (Goryeo and Joseon periods), and Vietnamese (such dynasties as Ly, Tran, and Le) royalty. ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... An era name was assigned as the name of each year by the leader (emperor or king) of the East Asian countries of China, Korea, Japan, and Vietnam during some portion of their history. ...


Forms of address

Within families, adults are rarely referred to by their given names. Rather, the relationship is stressed, so each member is known by this connection. Thus, there is big sister, second sister, third sister and so on. These connections are also distinguished by what side of the family they are on. Generally speaking though, the family title is only used when the relative being called is older than caller. It is considered highly inappropriate and sometimes extremely offensive if a person from a younger generation calls someone from an older generation by his/her given name. Younger relatives are normally only called by their relational title in formal situations. Children can be called by their given name, or their parents may use their nickname.


When speaking of non-family social acquaintances, people are generally referred to by a title, for example Mother Li (simplified Chinese: 李妈妈; traditional Chinese: 李媽媽; pinyin: lĭ māma) or Mrs. Zhu (朱太太, pinyin: zhū tàitai). Personal names are used when referring to adult friends or to children, although, unlike in the west, referring to somebody by their full name (including surname) is common even among friends, especially if the person's full name is only two syllables. It is common to refer to a person as lăo (老, old) or xiăo (小, young) followed by their family name, thus Lăo Wáng (老王) or Xiăo Zhāng (小張, 小张). Xiăo is also frequently used as a diminutive, when it is typically paired with the second or only character in a person's name, rather than the surname. Note that because old people are well respected in Chinese society, lăo (old) does not carry disrespect, offense or any negative implications even if it's used to refer to an older woman. Despite this, it is advisable for non-Chinese to avoid calling a person xiăo-something or lăo-something unless they are so-called by other Chinese people and it is clear that the appellation is acceptable and widely used. Otherwise, the use of the person's full name, or alternatively, their surname followed by xiānshēng (Chinese: 先生, mister) or nǚshì (Chinese: 女士, madam) is relatively neutral and unlikely to cause offence. Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ...


Should the person being addressed be the head of a company (or simply the middle manager of another company to whom you would like to give face), one might equally address them by affixing zŏng (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ) to their surname, as in Lĭ zŏng (simplified Chinese: 李总; traditional Chinese: 李總), or, if they are slightly lower down on the corporate food-chain but nonetheless a manager, by affixing jīnglĭ (simplified Chinese: 经理; traditional Chinese: 經理, manager). How people address each other is of incredible importance in Chinese culture, and can reflect a good deal about the relationship between two people, especially in corporate settings. Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ...


References

  1. ^ Michener, James A. [1959]. "IV: From the starving village", Hawaii, Fawcett Crest Book. New York: Ballantine Books, pp.480-485. ISBN 0-449-21335-8. 

James Albert Michener (February 3, 1907? - October 16, 1997) was the American author of such books as Tales of the South Pacific (for which he won the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction in 1948), Hawaii, The Drifters, Centennial, The Source, The Fires of Spring, Chesapeake, Caribbean, Caravans, Alaska, Texas, and Poland. ... Hawaii was a novel written by James Michener in 1959. ... Fawcett Publications was an American publishing company founded in 1919 in Robbinsdale, Minnesota by Wilford Hamilton Captain Billy Fawcett (1883-1940). ... Ballantine Books, founded in 1952 by Ian Ballantine, is a major book publisher and is currently owned by Random House. ...

See also

A Chinese clan is a group of related Chinese people with a common surname and sharing a common ancestor and ancestral village (see clan). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Generation name is half of the two-Chinese character given name given to newborns in the same generation of one surname lineage. ... This is a list of the top 100 most common Chinese surnames according to a study published in 2006. ... Yamada Tarō (), a typical Japanese name (male), equivalent to John Smith in English. ... A Korean personal name consists of a family name followed by a given name. ... Vietnamese names generally consist of three parts: a family name, a middle name, and a given name, used in that order. ... A family name, surname, or last name is the part of a persons name indicating the family to which the person belongs. ...

External links


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