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Encyclopedia > Chinese medicine
Alternative medical systems - edit
NCCAM classifications [1]

1. Alternative Medical Systems This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... Chiropractic is a complementary and alternative health care profession which focuses on diagnosing, treating, and preventing mechanical disorders of the musculoskeletal system, their effects on the nervous system, and on general health. ... It has been suggested that Herbal supplements be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that Classical homeopathy be merged into this article or section. ... Naturopathic medicine (also known as naturopathy) is a school of medical philosophy and practice that seeks to improve health and treat disease chiefly by assisting the bodys innate capacity to recover from illness and injury. ... See also: Osteopathic medicine Osteopathy is a system of healthcare that applies a unique philosophy to diagnosis and treatment. ... Traditional Chinese medicine shop in Tsim Sha Tsui, Hong Kong. ... Unaani (in Arabic, Hindustani, Persian, Pashtu, Urdu etc) means Greek. ... Terms and concepts in alternative medicine provides a glossary of quick and to the point definitions of important terms and concepts unique to alternative medicine (CAM). ...


2. Mind-Body Intervention


3. Biologically Based Therapy


4. Manipulative and body-based methods


5. Energy Therapy

See also
Alternative medicine
Traditional Chinese medicine shop in Tsim Sha Tsui, Hong Kong.
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Traditional Chinese medicine shop in Tsim Sha Tsui, Hong Kong.

Traditional Chinese medicine (also known as TCM or T.C.M., Simplified Chinese: 中医学, Traditional Chinese: 中醫學; pinyin: Zhōngyī xué) is a range of traditional medical practices used in China that developed over several thousand years. These practices include herbal medicine, acupuncture, and massage. TCM is a form of Oriental medicine, which includes other traditional East Asian medical systems such as Japanese and Korean medicine. TCM says processes of the human body are interrelated and constantly interact with the environment. Therefore the theory looks for the signs of disharmony in the external and internal environment of a person in order to understand, treat and prevent illness and disease. TCM theory is based on a number of philosophical frameworks including the Theory of Yin-yang, the Five Elements, the human body Meridian system, Zang Fu theory, and others. Diagnosis and treatment are conducted with reference to these concepts. TCM does not usually operate within a scientific paradigm but some practitioners make efforts to bring practices into an evidence-based medicine framework. Alternative medicine describes practices used in place of conventional medical treatments. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 2157 KB) Summary Traditional Chinese Medicine shop in Tsim Sha Tsui, Hong Kong. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 2157 KB) Summary Traditional Chinese Medicine shop in Tsim Sha Tsui, Hong Kong. ... The Clock Tower in Tsim Sha Tsui is a famous landmark of Hong Kong. ... Simplified Chinese characters (Simplified Chinese: 简体字; Traditional Chinese: 簡體字; pinyin: jiÇŽntǐzì; also Simplified Chinese: 简化字; Traditional Chinese: 簡化字; pinyin: jiÇŽnhuàzì) are one of two standard character sets of printed contemporary Chinese written language. ... Traditional Chinese characters are one of two standard character sets. ... Pinyin is a system of romanization (phonemic notation and transcription to Roman script) for Standard Mandarin, where pin means spell(ing) and yin means sound(s)). This article describes the most common variant called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: 汉语拼音; Traditional Chinese: 漢語拼音; pinyin: HànyÇ” PÄ«nyÄ«n), also known as scheme... The term traditional medicine is used with two main meanings. ... Herbology is the art of combining medicinal herbs. ... Acupuncture (from Lat. ... Tui na (推拏 or 推拿, both pronounced tÅ«i ná), is a form of Chinese manipulative therapy often used in conjunction with acupuncture, moxibustion, Chinese herbalism and qigong. ... East Asia is a subregion of Asia that can be defined in either geographical or cultural terms. ... See drugs, medication, and pharmacology for substances that are used to treat patients. ... Taoists Taijitu The concept of Yin Yang originates in ancient Chinese philosophy, most likely from the observations of day turning into night and night into day. ... Chinese Wood (木) | Fire (火) | Earth (土) | Metal (金) | Water (æ°´) Hinduism The Panchamahabhuta (five great elements) Prithvi/Bhumi (Earth) Ap/Jala (Water) Agni/Tejas (Fire) Vayu/Pavan (Air/Wind) Akasha (Aether) In traditional Chinese philosophy, natural phenomena can be classified into the Five Elements (Chinese: 五行; Pinyin: wÇ”xíng): wood, fire, earth, metal, and... The concept of meridians (Chinese: jing-luo) arises from the techniques and doctrines of traditional Chinese medicine including acupuncture and acupressure. ... To differentiate between western or eastern concepts of organs the first letter is capitalized (Liver, instead of liver, Spleen instead of spleen). ... Evidence-based medicine (EBM) applies the scientific method to medical practice. ...

Contents


History

Main article: History of traditional Chinese medicine

The Chinese had five Zangs, basically the most important organs. They used this knowledge to associate it with other parts of the body. Several different maladies that were attributed to a certain 'Zang'. Each 'Zang' is also given a corresponding element (fire, metal, water, wood, earth). The Brain is considered a 'particular Zang'. Much of the philosophy of traditional Chinese medicine derived from Taoist philosophy, and reflects the classical Chinese belief that individual human experiences express causative principles effective in the environment at all scales. ...


Originally fashioned over 4,000 years ago, the native inhabitants of modern day China would come to agree on the various pressure points and vulnerable locations on the body. It is currently believed that arrow wounds from battle were the cause for accupuncture and thus meridians. Allocating the five elements with organs of the body, yin and yang, that is, the inner and outer zones of the body were incorporated as well.


Uses

In the West, traditional Chinese medicine is often considered alternative medicine; however, in mainland China and Taiwan, TCM is widely considered to be an integral part of the health care system. The term "TCM" is sometimes used specifically within the field of modern Chinese medicine to refer to the standardized set of theories and practices introduced in the mid-20th century under the government of Mao, as distinguished from related traditional theories and practices preserved by people in Taiwan, Hong Kong and by the overseas Chinese. The more general sense is meant in this article. A compass rose with west highlighted This article refers to the cardinal direction; for other uses see West (disambiguation). ... Alternative medicine describes practices used in place of conventional medical treatments. ... The highlighted area in the map is what is commonly known as mainland China. Mainland China (Simplified Chinese: 中国大陆; Traditional Chinese: 中國大陸; pinyin: Zhōnggúo Dàlù; literally The Chinese Massive Landmass or Continental China) is an informal (disputed — see talk page) geographical term which is usually synonymous with the area... A healthcare system is the organization by which health care is provided. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Ỹ:Mao redirects here. ... Overseas Chinese (華僑 in Pinyin: Huáqiáo, or 華胞 huábāo, or 僑胞 qiáobāo, or 華裔 huáyì) are either ethnic Chinese or people of the Chinese nation (Zhonghua minzu) who live outside of China. ...


TCM developed as a form of noninvasive therapeutic intervention (also described as folk medicine or traditional medicine) rooted in ancient belief systems, including traditional religious concepts. Chinese medical practitioners before the 19th century relied on observation, trial and error, which incorporated certain mystical concepts. Like their Western counterparts, doctors of TCM had a limited understanding of infection, which predated the discovery of bacteria, viruses (germ theory of disease) and an understanding of cellular structures and organic chemistry. Instead they relied mainly on observation and description on the nature of infections for creating remedies. Based on theories formulated through three millennia of observation and practical experience, a system of procedure was formed as to guide a TCM practitioner in courses of treatment and diagnosis. A traditional healer in Côte dIvoire Folk medicine refers collectively to procedures traditionally used for treatment of illness and injury, aid to childbirth, and maintenance of wellness. ... The term traditional medicine is used with two main meanings. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Groups I: dsDNA viruses II: ssDNA viruses III: dsRNA viruses IV: (+)ssRNA viruses V: (-)ssRNA viruses VI: ssRNA-RT viruses VII: dsDNA-RT viruses A virus (Latin, poison) is a microscopic particle that can infect the cells of a biological organism. ... The germ theory of disease, also called the pathogenic theory of medicine, is a theory that proposes that microorganisms are the cause of many diseases. ... Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green). ... Organic chemistry is a specific discipline within the subject of chemistry. ...


Unlike other forms of traditional medicine which have largely become extinct, traditional Chinese medicine continues as a distinct branch of modern medical practice, and within China, it is an important part of the public health care system. In recent decades there has been an effort to integrate the discoveries made by traditional Chinese medicine with the discoveries made by workers in the Western medical traditions. One important component of this work is to use the instrumentation and the methodological tools available via Western medicine to investigate observations made and hypotheses raised by the Chinese tradition. Public health is concerned with threats to the overall health of a community based on population health analysis. ...


That this effort has occurred is surprising to many for a number of reasons. In most of the world, indigenous medical practices have been supplanted by practices brought from the West, while in Chinese societies, this has not occurred and shows no sign of occurring. Furthermore, many have found it peculiar that Chinese medicine remains a distinct branch of medicine separate from Western medicine, while the same has not happened with other intellectual fields. There is, for example, no longer a distinct branch of Chinese physics or Chinese biology. The term traditional medicine is used with two main meanings. ... The first few hydrogen atom electron orbitals shown as cross-sections with color-coded probability density. ... Biology (from Greek βίος λόγος, see below) is the branch of science dealing with the study of life. ...


TCM is used by some to treat the side effects of chemotherapy, treating the cravings and withdrawal symptoms of drug addicts and treating a variety of chronic conditions that conventional medicine is claimed to be sometimes ineffective in treating. It has also been used to treat antibiotic-resistant infection.[citation needed] Chemotherapy is the use of chemical substances to treat disease. ... Drug addiction, or dependency is the compulsive use of drugs, to the point where the user has no effective choice but to continue use. ... In medicine, a chronic disease is a disease which has developed slowly or gradually. ... This article is about the field of medical practice and health care. ... An antibiotic is a drug that kills or slows the growth of bacteria. ...


A report issued by the Victorian state government in Australia describes TCM education in China: Emblems: Pink heath (floral)Weedy Seadragon (Aquatic) helmeted honeyeater (bird) Leadbeaters possum (faunal) Motto: Peace and Prosperity Slogan or Nickname: Garden State, The Place To Be, On The Move Other Australian states and territories Capital Melbourne Government Const. ...

Graduates from TCM university courses are able to diagnose in Western medical terms, prescribe Western pharmaceuticals, and undertake minor surgical procedures. In effect, they practise TCM as a specialty within the broader organisation of Chinese health care. [2]

In other countries it is not necessarily the case that traditional Chinese and Western medicine are practiced concurrently by the same practitioner. TCM education in Australia, for example, does not qualify a practitioner to prescribe scheduled pharmaceuticals, nor to undertake surgical procedures or diagnose in Western medical terms.[3]


TCM theory

The foundation principles of Chinese medicine are not necessarily uniform, and are based on several schools of thought. Received TCM can be shown to be most influenced by Taoism, Buddhism, and Neo-Confucianism.[citation needed] Taoism (sometimes written as Daoism) is the English name for: (a) a philosophical school based on the texts the Tao Te Ching (ascribed to Laozi and alternately spelled Dào Dé JÄ«ng) and the Zhuangzi. ... A replica of an ancient statue of Gautama Buddha, found from Sarnath, near Varanasi. ... Neo-Confucianism (理學 Pinyin: Lǐxué) is a term for a form of Confucianism that was primarily developed during the Song dynasty, but which can be traced back to Han Yu and Li Ao in the Tang dynasty. ...


For over 3000 years (1200 BC - present), Chinese academics of various schools have focused on the observable natural laws of the universe and their implications for the practical characterisation of humanity's place in the universe. In the I Ching and other[citation needed] Chinese literary and philosophical classics, they have described some general principles and their applications to health and healing: (Redirected from 1200 BC) Centuries: 14th century BC - 13th century BC - 12th century BC Decades: 1250s BC 1240s BC 1230s BC 1220s BC 1210s BC - 1200s BC - 1190s BC 1180s BC 1170s BC 1160s BC 1150s BC Events and Trends 1204 BC - Theseus, legendary King of Athens is deposed after... Alternative meaning: I Ching (monk) The I Ching (Traditional Chinese: 易經, pinyin y jīng; Cantonese IPA: jɪk6gɪŋ1; Cantonese Jyutping: jik6ging1; alternative romanizations include I Jing, Yi Ching, Yi King) is the oldest of the Chinese classic texts. ...

  • There are observable principles of constant change by which the Universe is maintained. Humans are part of the universe and cannot be separated from the universal process of change.
  • As a result of these apparently inescapable primordial principles, the Universe (and every process therein) tends to eventually balance itself. Optimum health results from living harmoniously, allowing the spontaneous process of change to bring one closer to balance. If there is no change (stagnation), or too much change (catastrophism), balance is lost and illnesses can result.
  • Everything is ultimately interconnected. Always use a holistic ("systemic" or "system-wide") approach when addressing imbalances.

Holism (from holon, a Greek word meaning entity) is the idea that the properties of a system cannot be determined or explained by the sum of its components alone. ...

Model of the body

Main article: TCM model of the body

Traditional Chinese medicine is largely based on the philosophical concept that the human body is a small universe with a set of complete and sophisticated interconnected systems, and that those systems usually work in balance to maintain the healthy function of the human body. The balance of yin and yang is considered with respect to qi ("breath", "life force", or "spiritual energy"), blood, jing ("kidney essence" or "semen"), other bodily fluids, the Five elements, emotions, and the soul or spirit (shen). TCM has a unique model of the body, notably concerned with the meridian system. Unlike the Western anatomical model which divides the physical body into parts, the Chinese model is more concerned with function. Thus, the TCM Spleen is not a specific piece of flesh, but an aspect of function related to transformation and transportation within the body, and of the mental functions of thinking and studying. The TCM (traditional Chinese medicine) model of the body is a culturally based philosophy of how the human body works. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Taijitu, the traditional symbol representing the forces of Yin and Yang The concepts of yin and yang originate in ancient Chinese philosophy and metaphysics, which describes two primal opposing but complementary forces found in all things in the universe. ... QI, standing for Quite Interesting, is a comedy panel game television show shown on BBC Two and BBC Four and hosted by Stephen Fry. ... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ... Jīng (Chinese: 精; Wade-Giles: ching1) is the Chinese word for essence, specifically kidney essence, or semen. ... Bodily fluids listed below are found in the bodies of men and/or women. ... Chinese Wood (木) | Fire (火) | Earth (土) | Metal (金) | Water (水) Hinduism The Panchamahabhuta (five great elements) Prithvi/Bhumi (Earth) Ap/Jala (Water) Agni/Tejas (Fire) Vayu/Pavan (Air/Wind) Akasha (Aether) In traditional Chinese philosophy, natural phenomena can be classified into the Five Elements (Chinese: 五行; Pinyin: wǔxíng): wood, fire, earth, metal, and... It has been suggested that Feeling be merged into this article or section. ... The soul, according to many religious and philosophical traditions, is a self-aware ethereal substance particular to a unique living being. ... The English word spirit comes from the Latin spiritus, meaning breath. ... The TCM (traditional Chinese medicine) model of the body is a culturally based philosophy of how the human body works. ... The concept of meridians (Chinese: jing-luo) arises from the techniques and doctrines of traditional Chinese medicine including acupuncture and acupressure. ...


There are significant regional and philosophical differences between practitioners and schools which in turn can lead to differences in practice and theory.


Macro approach to disease

Traditional Chinese medicine has a "macro" or holistic view of disease. For example, one modern interpretation is that well-balanced human bodies can resist most everyday bacteria and viruses, which are ubiquitous and quickly changing. Infection, while having a proximal cause of a microorganism, would have an underlying cause of an imbalance of some kind. The traditional treatment would target the imbalance, not the infectious organism.[citation needed] Subgroups Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Groups I: dsDNA viruses II: ssDNA viruses III: dsRNA viruses IV: (+)ssRNA viruses V: (-)ssRNA viruses VI: ssRNA-RT viruses VII: dsDNA-RT viruses A virus (Latin, poison) is a microscopic particle that can infect the cells of a biological organism. ...


A practitioner might give very different herbal prescriptions to patients affected by the same type of infection, because the different symptoms reported by the patients would indicate a different type of imbalance, in a traditional diagnostic system.


Western medicine treats infections by targeting the microorganisms directly, whether preventively (through sterilization of instruments, handwashing, and covering bandages), with antibiotics, or making use of the immune system through vaccines. Conventional medicine does recognize the importance of nutrition and exercise and reducing stress in maintaining a healthy immune system (and thus preventing infection). It also faces problems with antibiotic resistance caused by overuse of chemical agents and the high mutation rate of microorganisms. Pharmaceutical treatments also sometimes have side effects, the most severe of which are seen in regimens used to treat otherwise fatal illnesses, such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy for cancer, and antiretroviral drugs for HIV/AIDS. An antibiotic is a drug that kills or slows the growth of bacteria. ... The immune system is composed of a complex constellation of cells, organs and tissues, arranged in an elaborate and dynamic communications network and equipped to optimize the response against invasion by pathogenic organisms. ... A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to produce active immunity to a disease, in order to prevent or ameliorate the effects of infection by any natural or wild strain of the organism. ... It has been suggested that Diet (nutrition) be merged into this article or section. ... (for options, see option exercise) U.S. marine emerges from the water upon completing the swimming portion of the triathlon. ... Stress has different meanings in different fields: Look up stress in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Antibiotic resistance is the ability of a microorganism to withstand the effects of an antibiotic. ... An adverse drug reaction (abbreviated ADR) is a term to describe the unwanted, negative consequences sometimes associated with the use of medications. ... Chemotherapy is the use of chemical substances to treat disease. ... Radiation therapy (or radiotherapy) is the medical use of ionizing radiation as part of cancer treatment to control malignant cells (not to be confused with radiology, the use of radiation in medical imaging and diagnosis). ... Antiretroviral drugs are medications for the treatment of infection by retroviruses, primarily HIV. Different classes of antiretroviral drugs act at different stages of the HIV life cycle. ... Human immunodeficiency virus (commonly known as HIV, and formerly known as HTLV-III and lymphadenopathy-associated virus[1][2]) is a retrovirus that is the cause of the disease known as AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome), a syndrome where the immune system begins to fail, leading to many life-threatening opportunistic... Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS or Aids) is a collection of symptoms and infections in humans resulting from the specific damage to the immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). ...


The holistic approach of traditional Chinese medicine makes all practitioners generalists. Western medicine has general practitioners who dispense primary care, but increasing reliance is placed on specialists who have expertise in treating only certain types of diseases. Primary care physicians often refer patients to specialists. Emergency departments are located in large hospitals where many specialists are available. A general practitioner (GP) or family physician (FP) is a physician/medical doctor who provides primary care. ... For the Italian comics character with this name, see Lo Sconosciuto Most general, a specialist is a person which are able to solve some predefined class of problems. ... The emergency department entrance at Mayo Clinics Saint Marys HospitalThe red-and-white emergency sign is very noticeable. ...


Diagnostics

Following the macro philosophy of disease, traditional Chinese diagnostics are based on overall observation of human symptoms rather than "micro" level laboratory tests. There are four types of TCM diagnostic methods: observe (望 wàng), hear and smell (聞 wén), ask about background (問 wèn) and read the pulse (切 qiè).[citation needed]


Systems of diagnosis include:

Modern practitioners in China often use a traditional system in combination with Western methods.[citation needed] Taoists Taijitu The concept of Yin Yang originates in ancient Chinese philosophy, most likely from the observations of day turning into night and night into day. ... Chinese Wood (木) | Fire (火) | Earth (土) | Metal (金) | Water (æ°´) Hinduism The Panchamahabhuta (five great elements) Prithvi/Bhumi (Earth) Ap/Jala (Water) Agni/Tejas (Fire) Vayu/Pavan (Air/Wind) Akasha (Aether) In traditional Chinese philosophy, natural phenomena can be classified into the Five Elements (Chinese: 五行; Pinyin: wÇ”xíng): wood, fire, earth, metal, and... The Eight Principles are one of the basic ways Chinese medicine has to diagnose. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The concept of meridians (Chinese: jing-luo) arises from the techniques and doctrines of traditional Chinese medicine including acupuncture and acupressure. ... The Six Levels are first heard of from Zhang Zhong-Jing in the Shang Han Lun from about 220 AD or about 1700 years ago. ... The four stages are from the book the Discussion of Warm Diseases by Ye Tian Shi in the years 1667-1746 A.D. The stages are Wei level Qi level Ying level Blood level Categories: Traditional Chinese medicine ... The identification of disease according to the Three Burners (San Jiao) was first described by Wu Ju Tong (吳鞠通, 1758-1836) in his book A Systematic Identification of Febrile Diseases. The system is often combined with Four Stages theory when diagnosing and treating an externally contracted disease caused by a wind...


Traditional Chinese medicine is considered to require considerable diagnostic skill. This often depends on the ability to observe what are described as subtle differences. This may be contrasted with a straightforward laboratory test which indicates an unambiguous cause. A training period of years or decades is said to be necessary for TCM practitioners to understand the full complexity of symptoms and dynamic balances. According to one Chinese saying, A good (TCM) doctor is also qualified to be a good prime minister in a country.


Diagnostic techniques

  • Palpation of the patient's radial artery pulse in six positions
  • Observation of the appearance of the patient's tongue
  • Observation of the patient's face
  • Palpation of the patient's body (especially the abdomen) for tenderness
  • Observation of the sound of the patient's voice
  • Observation of the surface of the ear
  • Observation of the vein on the index finger on small children
  • Comparisons of the relative warmth or coolness of different parts of the body
  • Anything else that can be observed without instruments and without harming the patient

Arteries of the right forearm - anterior view. ... In medicine, a persons pulse is the throbbing of their arteries as an effect of the heart beat. ... Tongue The tongue is the large bundle of muscles on the floor of the mouth that manipulates food for chewing and swallowing. ... The face of Leonardo da Vincis Mona Lisa, one of the most recognized faces in the world A human face The face is the front part of the head, in humans from forehead to chin including the head, hair, forehead, eyebrow, eyes, nose, cheek, mouth, lips, teeth, skin, and... The abdomen is a part of the body. ... Human voice consists of sound made by a person using the vocal folds for talking, singing, laughing, screaming or crying. ... A human ear (also called auricle or pinna) The ear is the sense organ that detects sound. ... In biology, a vein is a blood vessel which carries blood toward the heart. ... The Index finger The index finger, pointer finger or forefinger is the second digit of a human hand, located between the thumb and the middle finger. ...

Treatment techniques

Historically, eight branches comprised Chinese medicine treatment:

  1. Tui na (推拿) - massage therapy
  2. Acupuncture and Moxibustion (針灸)
  3. Chinese herbal medicine(中药)
  4. Chinese food therapy (食 疗)
  5. Qigong (氣功) and related breathing and meditation exercise
  6. T'ai Chi Ch'uan (太極拳) and other Chinese martial arts
  7. Feng shui (风水)
  8. Chinese astrology(dubious assertion)

Today, all of the above except Feng shui and Chinese astrology are routinely used as part of TCM treatments.[citation needed] Tui na (推拏 or 推拿, both pronounced tÅ«i ná), is a form of Chinese manipulative therapy often used in conjunction with acupuncture, moxibustion, Chinese herbalism and qigong. ... Acupuncture (from Lat. ... Moxibustion Moxibustion (Chinese: ; pinyin: jiÅ­) is an oriental medicine therapy utilizing moxa, or mugwort herb. ... Herbology is the art of combining medicinal herbs. ... Chinese food therapy (Simplified Chinese: 食疗; Traditional Chinese: 食療; pinyin: Shí Liáo) is a practice of healing using natural foods instead of medications. ... Qigong (Simplified Chinese: 气功; Traditional Chinese: 氣功; pinyin: qìgōng; Wade-Giles: chi4 kung1; Thai: ) or Vapor-Achievement, is an aspect of Chinese medicine involving the coordination of different breathing patterns with various physical postures and motions of the body. ... Tai Chi Chuan or Taijiquan (Chinese: 太極拳; pinyin: ; literally supreme ultimate fist), commonly known as Tai Chi, Tai Chi, or Taiji, is a nei chia (internal) Chinese martial art which is known for the claims of health and longevity benefits made by its practitioners and... This article provides a general overview of Chinese martial arts. ... Fēng Shuǐ (風水 – literally, wind and water pronounced fung shuway), which may be more than 3000 years old, is the ancient practice of placement to achieve harmony with the environment. ... Chinese astrology as it is known today is the divination of the future from the Chinese calendar, particularly its 12-year cycle of animals, referred to as the Chinese Zodiac. ...


Specific treatment methods are grouped into these branches. Cupping and Gua Sha (刮痧) are part of Tui Na. Auriculotherapy (耳燭療法) comes under the heading of Acupuncture and Moxibustion. Die-da or Tieh Ta (跌打) are practitioners who specialize in healing trauma injury such as bone fractures, sprains, and bruises. Some of these specialists may also use or recommend other disciplines of Chinese medical therapies (or Western medicine in modern times) if serious injury is involved. Such practice of bone-setting is not common in the West. Cupping is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) therapy involving the placement of glass, plastic, or bamboo cups on the skin with a vacuum. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Auriculotherapy - not to be confused with auricular therapy using needles (ear acupuncture) - is a form of alternative medicine based on the idea that the ear is a microsystem, meaning that the entire body is represented on the auricle (or auricula, or pinna - the outer portion of the ear) in a... In medicine, a trauma patient has suffered serious and life-threatening physical injury resulting in secondary complications such as shock, respiratory failure and death. ...


Modern TCM treatments consist of herbal medicine or acupuncture as the primary method, with other methods such as massage, qi gong, or food therapy playing a secondary role. Illness in TCM is seen as a lack of harmony, and the goal of all traditional treatment is to assist the body to regain balance and achieve homeostasis.


The modern practice of traditional Chinese medicine is increasingly incorporating techniques and theories of Western medicine in its praxis.


TCM and science

The question of efficacy

Much scientific research about TCM has focused on acupuncture. There is no scientific consensus as to whether acupuncture is effective or only has value as a placebo. Reviews of existing clinical trials have been conducted by the Cochrane Collaboration and Bandolier according to the protocols of evidence-based medicine; some reviews have found efficacy for headache[4][5] and nausea[6][7], but for most conditions have concluded a lack of effectiveness or lack of well-conducted clinical trials. The World Health Organisation (WHO), the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and the American Medical Association (AMA) have also commented on acupuncture[8][9]. These groups disagree on what is acceptable evidence and on how to interpret it, but generally agree that acupuncture is relatively safe (even if not effective) and that further investigation is warranted. The 1997 NIH Consensus Statement on Acupuncture summarized research and made a prediction as follows: A scientific method or process is considered fundamental to the scientific investigation and acquisition of new knowledge based upon physical evidence. ... Acupuncture (from Lat. ... A placebo, from the Latin for I will please, is a medical treatment (operation, therapy, chemical solution, pill, etc. ... The Cochrane Collaboration developed in response to Archie Cochranes call for systematic, up-to-date reviews (currently known as systematic reviews) of all relevant randomized clinical trials of health care. ... Bandolier is an independent online electronic journal about evidence-based healthcare, written by Oxford scientists. ... Evidence-based medicine (EBM) applies the scientific method to medical practice. ... A headache (medically known as cephalalgia) is a condition of pain in the head; sometimes neck or upper back pain may also be interpreted as a headache. ... For other uses, see Nausea (disambiguation). ... For other meanings of the acronym WHO, see WHO (disambiguation) WHO flag Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the World Health Organization (WHO) is an agency of the United Nations, acting as a coordinating authority on international public health. ... The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for medical research. ... The American Medical Association (AMA) is the largest association of medical doctors in the United States. ...

...promising results have emerged, for example, efficacy of acupuncture in adult post-operative and chemotherapy nausea and vomiting and in postoperative dental pain. There are other situations such as addiction, stroke rehabilitation, headache, menstrual cramps, tennis elbow, fibromyalgia, myofascial pain, osteoarthritis, low back pain, carpal tunnel syndrome, and asthma for which acupuncture may be useful as an adjunct treatment or an acceptable alternative or be included in a comprehensive management program. Further research is likely to uncover additional areas where acupuncture interventions will be useful.

Much less work in the West has been done on Chinese herbal medicines, which comprise much of TCM. Traditional practitioners usually have no philosophical objections to scientific studies on the effectiveness of treatments.[citation needed]


Some herbs have known active ingredients which are also used in Western pharmaceuticals. For example, ma huang, or ephedra, contains ephedrine and pseudoephedrine. (Due to the risk of adverse impact on the cardiovascular system and some deaths due to consumption of extracts in high doses, the use of ephedra is restricted in the United States.) Chinese wormwood (qinghao) was the source for the discovery of artemisinin, which is now used worldwide to treat multi-drug resistant strains of falciparum malaria. It is also under investigation as an anti-cancer agent. Species of Ephedra have traditionally been used by indigenous people for a variety of medicinal purposes, and are a likely candidate for the Soma plant of Indo-Iranian religion. ... Ephedrine (EPH) is a sympathomimetic amine almost identical in structure to the synthetic derivatives amphetamine and methamphetamine. ... Pseudoephedrine is a sympathomimetic amine commonly used as a decongestant. ... The circulatory system or cardiovascular system is the organ system which circulates blood around the body of most animals. ... Binomial name Artemisia annua L. Artemisia annua, also known as Sweet Wormwood, Sweet Annie, or Chinese wormwood (Chinese: ; pinyin: qīnghāo), is a common type of wormwood that grows throughout the world. ... Artemisinin is a drug used to treat multi-drug resistant strains of falciparum malaria. ... Malaria (from Medieval Italian: mala aria — bad air; formerly called ague or marsh fever) is an infectious disease that is widespread in many tropical and subtropical regions. ...


In the West, many Chinese herbal medicines have been marketed as dietary supplements and there has been considerable controversy over the effectiveness, safety, and regulatory status of these substances. One barrier to scientific research on traditional remedies is the large amount of money and expertise requied to conduct a double-blind clinical trial, and the lack of financial incentive from the ability to obtain patents. It has been suggested that Biologically active dietary supplement be merged into this article or section. ... Double-blind describes an especially stringent way of conducting an experiment, usually on living, conscious, human subjects. ... In medicine, a clinical trial (synonyms: clinical studies, research protocols, medical research) is a research study. ... A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a state to a person for a fixed period of time in exchange for the regulated, public disclosure of certain details of a device, method, process or composition of matter (substance) (known as an invention) which is new, inventive, and...


There are a priori doubts about the efficacy of many TCM treatments that appear to have their basis in magical thinking — for example that plants with heart-shaped leaves will help the heart, or that ground bones of the tiger can function as a stimulant because tigers are energetic animals. Such doubts, however, do not invalidate the efficacy of the medicines themselves. While the doctrine of signatures does underlie the selection of many of the ingredients of herbal medicines, this does not mean the substances do not (perhaps by coincidence) possess the attributed properties. Given the thousand-year evolution of Chinese materia medica, it is possible that while herbs were originally selected on erroneous grounds, only those that actually proven effective have remained in use. In any case, clinical trials of Chinese herbal medicines will need to be conducted before the question can be considered resolved. A priori is a Latin phrase meaning from the former or less literally before experience. In much of the modern Western tradition, the term a priori is considered to mean propositional knowledge that can be had without, or prior to, experience. ... Magical thinking is a term used by historians of religion to describe one kind of non-scientific causal reasoning. ... Binomial name Panthera tigris (Linnaeus, 1758) Synonyms Felis tigris Linnaeus, 1758 Tigris striatus Severtzov, 1858 Tigris regalis Gray, 1867 Tigers (Panthera tigris) are mammals of the Felidae family and one of four big cats in the Panthera genus. ... The doctrine of signatures refers to two separate concepts. ...


Mechanism of action

The basic mechanism of TCM is akin to treating the body as a black box, recording and classifying changes and observations of the patient using a traditional philosophy. In contrast to many alternative and complementary medicines such as homeopathy, practically all techniques of TCM have explanations for why they may be more effective than a placebo, which Western medicine can find plausible. Most doctors of Western medicine would not find implausible claims that qigong preserves health by encouraging relaxation and movement, that acupuncture relieves pain by stimulating the production of neurotransmitters, or that Chinese herbal medicines may contain powerful biochemical agents. However, the largest barriers to describing the mechanisms of TCM in scientific terms are the difference of language and lack of research. TCM concepts such as qi and yin and yang are used to describe specific biological processes but are difficult to translate into scientific terms. Some research is now beginning to emerge explaining possible scientific mechanisms behind these TCM concepts. Black box is technical jargon for a device or system or object when it is viewed primarily in terms of its input and output characteristics. ... Alternative medicine describes practices used in place of conventional medical treatments. ... It has been suggested that Classical homeopathy be merged into this article or section. ... A placebo, from the Latin for I will please, is a medical treatment (operation, therapy, chemical solution, pill, etc. ... Qigong (Simplified Chinese: 气功; Traditional Chinese: 氣功; pinyin: qìgōng; Wade-Giles: chi4 kung1; Thai: ) or Vapor-Achievement, is an aspect of Chinese medicine involving the coordination of different breathing patterns with various physical postures and motions of the body. ... Acupuncture (from Lat. ... Chemical structure of D-Aspartic Acid, a common Amino Acid neurotransmitter. ... Herbology is the art of combining medicinal herbs. ... Biochemistry is the chemistry of life. ... QI, standing for Quite Interesting, is a comedy panel game television show shown on BBC Two and BBC Four and hosted by Stephen Fry. ... Taijitu, the traditional symbol representing the forces of Yin and Yang The concepts of yin and yang originate in ancient Chinese philosophy and metaphysics, which describes two primal opposing but complementary forces found in all things in the universe. ...


Safety of Chinese medicines

Acupressure and acupuncture are largely accepted to be safe from results gained through medical studies. Several cases of pneumothorax, nerve damage and infection have been reported as resulting from acupuncture treatments. These adverse events are extremely rare especially when compared to other medical interventions, and were found to be due to practitioner negligence. Dizziness and bruising will sometimes result from acupuncture treatment.


Certain Chinese herbal medicines involve a risk of allergic reaction and in rare cases involve a risk of poisoning. Cases of acute and chronic poisoning due to treatment through ingested Chinese medicines are found in China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan, with a few deaths occurring each year. Many of these deaths do occur however, when patients self prescribe herbs or take unprocessed versions of toxic herbs. The raw and unprocessed form of aconite, or fuzi is the most common cause of poisoning. The use of aconite in Chinese herbal medicine is usually limited to processed aconite, in which the toxicity is denatured by heat treatment. An allergy can refer to several kinds of immune reactions including Type I hypersensitivity in which a persons body is hypersensitised and develops IgE type antibodies to typical proteins. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Furthermore, potentially toxic and carcinogenic compounds such as arsenic and cinnabar are sometimes prescribed as part of a medicinal mixture or used on the basis of "using poison to cure poison". Unprocessed herbals are sometimes adulterated with chemicals that may alter the intended effect of a herbal preparation or prescription. Much of these are being prevented with more empirical studies of Chinese herbals and tighter regulation regarding the growing, processing, and prescription of various herbals. In pathology, a carcinogen is any substance or agent that promotes cancer. ... General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 4, p Appearance metallic gray Atomic mass 74. ... Cinnabar, sometimes written cinnabarite, is a name applied to red mercury(II) sulfide (HgS), or native vermilion, the common ore of mercury. ...


In the United States, the Chinese herb má huáng (麻黄; lit. "flax yellow") — known commonly in the West by its Latin name Ephedra — was banned in 2004 by the FDA, although, the FDA's final ruling exempted traditional Asian preparations of Ephedra from the ban. The Ephedra ban was meant to combat the use of this herb in Western weight loss products, a usage that directly conflicts with traditional Asian uses of the herb. There were no cases of Ephedra based fatalities with patients using traditional Asian preparations of the herb for its traditionally intended uses. This ban was ordered lifted in April 2005 by a Utah federal court judge. Species of Ephedra have traditionally been used by indigenous people for a variety of medicinal purposes, and are a likely candidate for the Soma plant of Indo-Iranian religion. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Many Chinese medicines have different names for the same ingredient depending on location and time, but worse yet, ingredients with vastly different medical properties have shared similar or even same names. For example, there was a report that mirabilite/sodium sulphate decahydrate (芒硝) was misrecognized as sodium nitrite (牙硝)[10], resulting a poisoned victim[11][12]. In some Chinese medical texts, both names are interchangeable[13]. Unless the Chinese herbal medicine authorities start to adopt unique names for different medicines, this situation is unlikely to improve. Mirabilite, also known as Glaubers salt, is a hydrous sodium sulfate mineral: Na2SO4·10H2O. It is a vitreous, colorless to white monoclinic mineral which forms as an evaporite from sodium sulfate bearing brines. ... Glaubers salt, also sal mirabilis, is the name of sodium sulfate decahydrate, Na2SO4•10H2O. It is named after Johann Glauber, who discovered it in the 17th century. ... Sodium nitrite, with chemical formula NaNO2, also called nitrous acid, sodium salt, is used as a color fixative and preservative in meats and fish. ...


TCM and Western medicine

Within China, there has been a great deal of cooperation between TCM practitioners and Western medicine, especially in the field of ethnomedicine. Chinese herbal medicine includes many compounds which are unused by Western medicine, and there is great interest in those compounds as well as the theories which TCM practitioners use to determine which compound to prescribe. For their part, advanced TCM practitioners in China are interested in statistical and experimental techniques which can better distinguish medicines that work from those that do not. One result of this collaboration has been the creation of peer reviewed scientific journals and medical databases on traditional Chinese medicine. Ethnomedicine is a sub-field of medical anthropology and deals with the studies of traditional medicines: not only those that have relevant written sources (e. ...


The relationship between TCM and Western medicine is more contentious. While more and more medical schools are including classes on alternative medicine in their curricula, older Western doctors and scientists are far more likely than their Chinese counterparts to skeptically view TCM as archaic pseudoscience and superstition. This skepticism can come from a number of sources. For one, TCM in the West tends to be advocated either by Chinese immigrants or by those that have lost faith in conventional medicine. Many people in the West have a stereotype of the East as mystical and unscientific, which attracts those in the West who have lost hope in science and repels those who believe in scientific explanations. There have also been experiences in the West with unscrupulous or well-meaning but improperly-trained "TCM practitioners" who have done people more harm than good in many instances. See drugs, medication, and pharmacology for substances that treat patients. ...


As an example of the different roles of TCM in China and the West, a person with a broken bone in the West (i.e. a routine, "straightforward" condition) would almost never see a Chinese medicine practitioner or visit a martial arts school to get the bone set, whereas this is routine in China. As another example, most TCM hospitals in China have electron microscopes and many TCM practitioners know how to use one. Hawaiian State Grappling Championships. ... It has been suggested that Selected area diffraction be merged into this article or section. ...


This is not to say that TCM techniques are considered worthless in the West. In fact, Western pharmaceutical companies have recognized the value of traditional medicines and are employing teams of scientists in many parts of the world to gather knowledge from traditional healers and medical practitioners. After all, the active ingredients of most modern medicines were discovered in plants or animals.[citation needed] The particular contribution of Western medicine is that it strictly applies the scientific method to promising traditional treatments, separating those that work from those that do not. As another example, most Western hospitals and increasing numbers of other clinics now offer T'ai Chi Ch'uan or qigong classes as part of their inpatient and community health programs. Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena and acquiring new knowledge, as well as for correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... Tai Chi Chuan or Taijiquan (Chinese: 太極拳; pinyin: ; literally supreme ultimate fist), commonly known as Tai Chi, Tai Chi, or Taiji, is a nei chia (internal) Chinese martial art which is known for the claims of health and longevity benefits made by its practitioners and... Qigong (Simplified Chinese: 气功; Traditional Chinese: 氣功; pinyin: qìgōng; Wade-Giles: chi4 kung1; Thai: ) or Vapor-Achievement, is an aspect of Chinese medicine involving the coordination of different breathing patterns with various physical postures and motions of the body. ... A hospital today is an institution for professional health care provided by physicians and nurses. ... Community Health Community health is a discipline that concerns itself with the study and betterment of the health characteristics of a given community. ...


Most Chinese in China do not see traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine as being in conflict. In cases of emergency and crisis situations, there is generally no reluctance in using conventional Western medicine. At the same time, belief in Chinese medicine remains strong in the area of maintaining health. To put it simply, you see a Western doctor if you have acute appendicitis, but you do exercises or take Chinese herbs to keep your body healthy enough to prevent appendicitis, or to recover more quickly from the surgery. Very few practitioners of Western medicine in China reject traditional Chinese medicine, and most doctors in China will use some elements of Chinese medicine in their own practice. Appendicitis, or epityphlitis, is a condition characterised by inflammation of the appendix. ...


A degree of integration between Chinese and Western medicine also exists in China. For instance, at the Shanghai cancer hospital, a patient may be seen by a multidisciplinary team and be treated concurrently with radiation surgery, Western drugs and a traditional herbal formula.


It is worth noting that the practice of Western medicine in China is somewhat different from that in the West. In contrast to the West, there are relatively few allied health professionals to perform routine medical procedures or to undertake procedures such as massage or physical therapy. The Allied health professions are those clinical health professions distinct from the medical profession and nursing profession. ... Massage is the practice of applying structured pressure, tension, motion, or vibration — manually or with mechanical aids — to the soft tissues of the body, including muscles, connective tissue, tendons, ligaments, joints and lymphatic vessels, to achieve a beneficial response. ... This article concerns itself with the health profession. ...


In addition, Chinese practitioners of Western medicine have been less impacted by trends in the West that encourage patient empowerment, to see the patient as an individual rather than a collection of parts, and to do nothing when medically appropriate. Chinese practitioners of Western medicine have been widely criticized for over-prescribing drugs such as corticosteroids or antibiotics for common viral infections. It is likely that these medicines, which are generally known to be useless against viral infections, would provide less relief to the patient than traditional Chinese herbal remedies. In physiology, corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex. ... An antibiotic is a drug that kills or slows the growth of bacteria. ... Groups I: dsDNA viruses II: ssDNA viruses III: dsRNA viruses IV: (+)ssRNA viruses V: (-)ssRNA viruses VI: ssRNA-RT viruses VII: dsDNA-RT viruses A virus (Latin, poison) is a microscopic particle that can infect the cells of a biological organism. ...


Traditional Chinese diagnostics and treatments are often much cheaper than Western methods which require high-tech equipment or extensive chemical manipulation.


TCM doctors often criticize Western doctors for paying too much attention to laboratory tests and showing insufficient concern for the overall feelings of patients.


Modern TCM practitioners will refer patients to Western medical facilities if a medical condition is deemed to have put the body to far out of "balance" for traditional methods to remedy.


TCM and animals

Dried sea horses in a chinese pharmacy
Dried sea horses in a chinese pharmacy
Dried deer penis in a chinese pharmacy
Dried deer penis in a chinese pharmacy

Animal products are used in certain Chinese formulas, which may present a problem for vegans and vegetarians. If informed of such restrictions, practitioners can often use alternative substances. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2592x1477, 698 KB) Dried sea horses. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2592x1477, 698 KB) Dried sea horses. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1714x2173, 650 KB) Chinese Medicine in a chinese pharmacy in Yokohama, Japan. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1714x2173, 650 KB) Chinese Medicine in a chinese pharmacy in Yokohama, Japan. ... Hens kept in cramped conditions — the avoidance of animal suffering is the primary motivation of people who become vegans A vegan is a person who avoids the ingestion or use of animal products. ... For animals adapted to eat primarily plants, sometimes referred to as vegetarian animals, see Herbivore. ...


The use of endangered species is controversial within TCM. In particular, the belief that tiger penis and rhinoceros horn are aphrodisiacs has been blamed for depleting these species in the wild. Medicinal use is also having a major impact on the populations of sea horses.[14] The endangered Sea Otter An endangered species is a population of organisms (usually a taxonomic species), which because it is either (a) few in number or (b) threatened by changing environmental or predation parameters, it is at risk of becoming extinct. ... Binomial name Panthera tigris (Linnaeus, 1758) Synonyms Felis tigris Linnaeus, 1758 Tigris striatus Severtzov, 1858 Tigris regalis Gray, 1867 Tigers (Panthera tigris) are mammals of the Felidae family and one of four big cats in the Panthera genus. ... Genera Ceratotherium Dicerorhinus Diceros Rhinoceros Coelodonta (extinct) Elasmotherium (extinct) The rhinoceros (commonly called rhino for short; plural can be either rhinoceros or rhinoceroses) is any of five surviving species of odd-toed ungulates in the family Rhinocerotidae. ... An aphrodisiac is an agent which acts on the mind and causes the arousal of the mood of sexual desire. ... Species See text. ...


The animal rights movement notes that a few traditional Chinese medicinal solutions use bear bile. To extract maximum amounts of the bile, the bears are often fitted with a sort of permanent catheter. The treatment itself and especially the extraction of the bile is very painful, causes damage to the intestines of the bear, and often even kills the bears. However, due to international attention on the issues surrounding its harvesting, bile is now rarely used by practitioners outside of China.[citation needed] The logo of the Great Ape Project, which is campaigning for a Declaration on Great Apes. ... Bile (or gall) is a bitter, greenish-yellow alkaline fluid secreted by the liver of most vertebrates. ... Catheter disassembled In medicine, a catheter is a tube that can be inserted into a body cavity duct or vessel. ...


TCM and the Internet

With the popularity of the Internet, an increasing number of TCM doctors are seeking new approaches to diagnose and treat diseases using remote, non-contact methods, such as creating online symptom questionnaires and uploading photos. Some TCM advocates have even established web sites to provide free herb prescriptions to patients. These sites are putting in question the traditional importance placed on direct visual examination and palpation of the patient.


See also

Pharmacognosy is the study of medicinal products in their crude, or unprepared, form. ... Much of the philosophy of traditional Chinese medicine derived from Taoist philosophy, and reflects the classical Chinese belief that individual human experiences express causative principles effective in the environment at all scales. ... The Compendium of Materia Medica (Chinese: 本草綱目; pinyin: BÄ›ncÇŽo Gāngmù) is a pharmaceutical text written by Li Shizhen (1518-1593 AD) during the Ming Dynasty of China. ... Yellow Emperor The Yellow Emperor (黄帝 Hu ng D ) is a Chinese mythical character, a culture hero said in legend to be the ancestor of all Chinese people. ... Huà Tuó was a famous Chinese physician during the Eastern Han and Three Kingdoms era. ... Since the founding of the Peoples Republic of China, the goal of health programs has been to provide care to every member of the population and to make maximum use of limited health-care personnel, equipment, and financial resources. ... Herbology is the art of combining medicinal herbs. ... Kampō (or Kanpō , 漢方) medicine is the Japanese study and adaptation of Chinese medicine. ... Traditional Korean medicine (Hangul: 한의학, Hanja: 韓醫學) developed with the influence of Chinese medical techniques and procedures. ... This article is about the field of medical practice and health care. ... Qigong (Simplified Chinese: 气功; Traditional Chinese: 氣功; pinyin: qìgōng; Wade-Giles: chi4 kung1; Thai: ) or Vapor-Achievement, is an aspect of Chinese medicine involving the coordination of different breathing patterns with various physical postures and motions of the body. ... Li Shizhen(李時珍), (1518 - 1593 CE, Ming dynasty), was one of the greatest physicians and pharmacologists in Chinese history. ...

Quotes and Proverbs

  • A single untried popular remedy often throws the scientific doctor into hysterics. -Chinese proverb
  • A young doctor makes a full graveyard. -Chinese proverb
  • An ignorant doctor is no better than a murderer. -Chinese proverb
  • The superior doctor prevents sickness; The mediocre doctor attends to impending sickness; The inferior doctor treats actual sickness. -Chinese proverb

References

  • Chang, Stephen T. The Great Tao; Tao Longevity; ISBN 0-942196-01-5 Stephen T. Chang
  • Kaptchuck, Ted J., The Web That Has No Weaver; Congdon & Weed; ISBN 0-8092-2933-1Z
  • Jin, Guanyuan, Xiang, Jia-Jia and Jin, Lei: Clinical Reflexology of Acupuncture and Moxibustion; Beijing Science and Technology Press, Beijing, 2004. ISBN 7-5304-2862-4
  • Maciocia, Giovanni, The Foundations of Chinese Medicine: A Comprehensive Text for Acupuncturists and Herbalists; Churchill Livingstone; ISBN 0-443-03980-1
  • Ni, Mao-Shing, The Yellow Emperor's Classic of Medicine : A New Translation of the Neijing Suwen with Commentary; Shambhala, 1995; ISBN 1-57062-080-6
  • Holland, Alex Voices of Qi: An Introductory Guide to Traditional Chinese Medicine; North Atlantic Books, 2000; ISBN 1-55643-326-3
  • Unschuld, Paul U., Medicine in China: A History of Ideas; University of California Press, 1985; ISBN 0-520-05023-1
  • Scheid, Volker, Chinese Medicine in Contemporary China: Plurality and Synthesis; Duke University Press, 2002; ISBN 0-8223-2972-0
  • Qu, Jiecheng, When Chinese Medicine Meets Western Medicine - History and Ideas (in Chinese); Joint Publishing (H.K.), 2004; ISBN 962-04-2336-4
  • Chan, T.Y. (2002). Incidence of herb-induced aconitine poisoning in Hong Kong: impact of publicity measures to promote awareness among the herbalists and the public. Drug Saf. 25:823–828.
  • Benowitz, Neal L. (2000) Review of adverse reaction reports involving ephedrine-containing herbal products. Submitted to U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Jan. 17.
  • Porkert, Manfred The Theoretical Foundations of Chinese Medicine MIT Press, 1974 ISBN 0-262-16058-7
  • Hongyi, L., Hua, T., Jiming, H., Lianxin, C., Nai, L., Weiya, X., Wentao, M. (2003) Perivascular Space: Possible anatomical substrate for the meridian. Journal of Complimentary and Alternative Medicine. 9:6 (2003) pp851-859

This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Traditional Chinese medicine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2891 words)
The term TCM is sometimes used specifically within the field of Chinese medicine to refer to the standardized set of theories and practices introduced in the mid-20th century under the government of Mao, as distinguished from related traditional theories and practices preserved by people in Taiwan, Hong Kong and by the overseas Chinese.
Unlike other forms of traditional medicine which have largely become extinct, traditional Chinese medicine continues as a distinct branch of modern medical practice, and within China, it is an important part of the public health care system.
Chinese herbal medicine includes many compounds which are unused by Western medicine, and there is great interest in those compounds as well as the theories which TCM practitioners use to determine which compound to prescribe.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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