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Encyclopedia > Chinese literature
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Chinese literature spans back thousands of years, from the earliest recorded dynastic court archives to the matured fictional novel arising in the medieval period to entertain the masses of literate Chinese. Although the introduction of widespread woodblock printing during the Tang Dynasty (618-907) and the invention of movable type printing by Bi Sheng (990-1051) during the Song Dynasty (960-1279) did not extinguish the importance or emphasis laid upon written Chinese calligraphy, these two forms of printing rapidly spread written knowledge throughout China like never before. In more modern times, the author Lu Xun (1881-1936) would be considered the founder of modern baihua literature in China. // The origin of me pooping my pants and Asian theatre can be traced to over 3500 years ago, beginning with early 3000BC Main article: Sanskrit Plays Folk theatre and dramatics can be traced to the religious ritualism of the Vedic Aryans. ... This page indexes the individual year in literature pages. ... This article is about science fiction literature. ... The history of ideas is a field of research in history that deals with the expression, preservation, and change of human ideas over time. ... Intellectual history means either: the history of intellectuals, or: the history of the people who create, discuss, write about and in other ways propagate ideas. ... The epic is a broadly defined genre of narrative poetry, characterized by great length, multiple settings, large numbers of characters, or long span of time involved. ... As a literary genre, romance or chivalric romance refers to a style of heroic prose and verse narrative current in Europe from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance. ... This article is about the literary concept. ... Prose is writing distinguished from poetry by its greater variety of rhythm and its closer resemblance to everyday speech. ... This article is about the art form. ... This article is homosexual and should be burned the second in a series of The History of Literature. ... These are lists of books: List of books by title List of books by author Lists of authors List of anonymously published works (List of Hiberno-Saxon illustrated manuscripts) List of books by genre or type List of books by award or notoriety List of books by year of publication... The following are lists of authors and writers: By name A – B – C – D – E – F – G – H – I – J – K – L – M – N – O – P – Q – R – S – T &#8211... A list of famous prizes, medals and awards including cups, trophies, bowls, badges, state decorations etc. ... Literature is prose, written or oral, including fiction and non-fiction, drama and poetry. ... The following is a list of literary terms; that is, those words used in discussion, classification, criticism, and analysis of literature. ... Literary criticism is the study, discussion, evaluation, and interpretation of literature. ... Literary theory is the theory (or the philosophy) of the interpretation of literature and literary criticism. ... The History of literature begins with the history of writing, in Bronze Age Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt, although the oldest literary texts that have come down to us date to a full millennium after the invention of writing, to the late 3rd millennium BC. The earliest literary authors known by... Arabic literature (Arabic ,الأدب العربي ) Al-Adab Al-Arabi, is the writing produced, both prose and poetry, by speakers of the Arabic language. ... // Main article: Ancient Greek literature Ancient Greek literature refers to literature written in Ancient Greek from the oldest surviving written works in the Greek language until the 4th century and the rise of the Byzantine Empire. ... Latin literature, the body of written works in the Latin language, remains an enduring legacy of the culture of ancient Rome. ... Indian literature is generally acknowledged, but not wholly established, as the oldest in the world. ... The history of the Assamese literature may be broadly divided into three periods: // The Charyapadas are often cited as the earliest example of Assamese literature. ... The first evidence of Bengali literature is known as Charyapada or Charyageeti, which were Buddhist hymns from the 8th century. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Indian English Literature. ... The Gujarati language is spoken by a large number of people in India, especially Gujaratis. ... Hindi literature (Hindi: हिंदी साहित्य) Hindi poetry is divided into four prominent forms or styles, being Bhakti (devotional - Kabir, Raskhan); Shringar (beauty - Keshav, Bihari); Veer-Gatha (extolling brave warriors); and Adhunik (modern). ... Kannada literature refers to the literature in Kannada language spoken mainly in the Indian state of Karnataka. ... Kashmiri literature (Kashmiri: कॉशुर साहित्‍य) has a history of at least 2,500 years, going back to its glory days of Sanskrit. ... Literature written in Malayalam language. ... Marathi literature (मराठी साहित्य) is one of the most flourishing, progressive and popular elements of Indian literature. ... Nepali Literature (Nepali: ) refers to literature written in the Nepali language. ... // Rajasthani has a vast literature written in various genres starting from 1000 AD.But, it is generally agreed that modern Rajasthani literature began with the works of Suryamal Misran. ... Literature in Sanskrit, one of Indias two oldest languages, and the basis of several modern languages in India. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Tamil literature is literature in the Tamil language which most prominently includes the contributions of the Tamil country (or Tamizhagam) history, a large part of which constitutes the modern state of Tamil Nadu and Kerala as well as some parts of Karnataka and Andra pradesh. ... Telugu literature is the literature of the Telugu people, an ethnic group based in southern India. ... Urdu literature has a long and colorful history that is inextricably tied to the development of that very language, Urdu, in which it is written. ... Kelileh va Demneh Persian manuscript copy dated 1429, from Herat, depicts the Jackal trying to lead the Lion astray. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Renaissance literature refers to European literature that began in Italy and spread throughout Europe during the seventeenth century. ... According to the mediæval poet Jean Bodel, the Matter of Rome was the literary cycle made up of Greek and Roman mythology, together with episodes from the history of classical antiquity, focusing on military heroes like Alexander the Great and Julius Caesar. ... The Matter of France, also known as the Carolingian cycle is a body of legendary history that springs from the Old French medieval literature of the chansons de geste. ... ‹ The template below is being considered for deletion. ... Medieval literature is a broad subject, encompassing essentially all written works available in Europe and beyond during the Middle Ages (encompassing the one thousand years from the fall of the Western Roman Empire ca. ... Structuralism as a term refers to various theories across the humanities, social sciences and economics many of which share the assumption that structural relationships between concepts vary between different cultures/languages and that these relationships can be usefully exposed and explored. ... Deconstruction is a term in contemporary philosophy, literary criticism, and the social sciences, denoting a process by which the texts and languages of Western philosophy (in particular) appear to shift and complicate in meaning when read in light of the assumptions and absences they reveal within themselves. ... Post-structuralism is a body of work that followed in the wake of structuralism, and sought to understand the Western world as a network of structures, as in structuralism, but in which such structures are ordered primarily by local, shifting differences (as in deconstruction) rather than grand binary oppositions and... Postmodernism is a term applied to a wide-ranging set of developments in critical theory, philosophy, architecture, art, literature, and culture, which are generally characterized as either emerging from, in reaction to, or superseding, modernism. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Hypertext fiction is a genre of electronic literature, characterized by the use of hypertext links which provides a new context for non-linearity in literature and reader interaction. ... For Christian theological modernism, see Liberal Christianity and Modernism (Roman Catholicism). ... American literature refers to written or literary work produced in the area of the United States and Colonial America. ... Jorge Luis Borges Argentine literature is placed among the most important in Spanish language, with world-famous writers such as José Hernández, Jorge Luis Borges, Manuel Puig, Julio Cortázar and Ernesto Sábato. ... Canadian literature may be divided into two parts, based on their separate roots: one stems from the culture and literature from France; the other from Britain. ... Mexican literature plays an important role in Mexican culture. ... This topic is considered to be an essential subject on Wikipedia. ... Australian literature in English began soon after the settlement of the country by Europeans. ... New Zealand claims as its own many writers, even those immigrants born overseas or those emigrants who have gone into exile. ... Asian literature is the literature produced in Asia. ... Japanese literature spans a period of almost two millennia. ... Pakistani literature, that is, the literature of Pakistan, as a distinct literature came into being when Pakistan gained its nationhooood as a sovereign state in 1947. ... Vietnamese literature is literature, both oral and written, created by Vietnamese-speaking people. ... Moroccan Folktales by Jilali El Koudia Moroccan literature is a literature written in (Moroccan) Arabic, Berber or French, and of course particularly by people of Morocco, but also of Al-Andalus. ... South Africa has a diverse literary history. ... Swahili literature is, generally speaking, literature written in the Swahili language particularly by Swahili people of the East African coast and the neighbouring islands. ... Archive of the AMVC An archive refers to a collection of historical records, and also refers to the location in which these records are kept. ... This article is about the literary concept. ... Yuan Dynasty woodblock edition of a Chinese play For the use of the technique in art, see Woodcut on the technique, and Old master print for the history in Europe and woodblock printing in Japan. ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... Events End of the Sui Dynasty and beginning of the Tang Dynasty in China. ... Events Oleg leads Kievan Rus in a campaign against Constantinople Yelü Abaoji establishes Liao (Khitan) dynasty Births Deaths Categories: 907 ... For the weblog software, see Movable Type. ... For other uses, see Print. ... Pì ShÄ“ng (Wade-Giles selling) (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ; died 1052) was the inventor of the first know movable type printing system. ... Events Construction of the Al-Hakim Mosque begins in Cairo. ... -1... Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Bianjing (汴京) (960–1127) Linan (臨安) (1127–1276) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 960–976 Emperor Taizu  - 1126–1127 Emperor Qinzong  - 1127–1162 Emperor Gaozong  - 1278–1279 Emperor Bing History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou... Events Edgar the Peaceable crowned King of England. ... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... Calligraphy is an art dating back to the earliest day of history, and widely practiced throughout China to this day. ... Lu Xun (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) or Lu Hsün (Wade-Giles), pen name of Zhou Shuren (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: Zhōu Shùrén; Wade-Giles: Chou Shu-jen) (September 25, 1881 – October 19, 1936) is one of the major Chinese writers of the 20th... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Vernacular Chinese (白话 [白話]; in pinyin: báihuà, literal meaning: Plain Language) is a style of written Chinese which is based on Standard Mandarin. ...

Contents

Classical texts

Main article: Chinese classic texts

China has a wealth of classical literature, both poetry and prose, dating from the Eastern Zhou Dynasty (770-256 BCE) and including the Classics, whose compilation is attributed to Confucius. Among the most important classics in Chinese literature are I Ching or Yi Jing 易經 (Book of Changes or Classic of Changes), a manual of divination based on eight trigrams attributed to the mythical emperor Fu Xi . (By Confucius' time these eight trigrams had been multiplied to sixty-four hexagrams.) The I Ching is still used by adherents of folk religion. The Shijing 詩經 (Classic of Poetry) is made up of 305 poems divided into 160 folk songs; 74 minor festal songs, traditionally sung at court festivities; 31 major festal songs, sung at more solemn court ceremonies; and 40 hymns and eulogies, sung at sacrifices to gods and ancestral spirits of the royal house. The Shujing 書經 (Classic of History or Classic of Documents) is a collection of documents and speeches alleged to have been written by rulers and officials of the early Zhou period and before. It contains the best examples of early Chinese prose. The Liji 禮記 (Record of Rites), a restoration of the original Lijing 禮經 (Classic of Rites), lost in the third century B.C., describes ancient rites and court ceremonies. The Chun Qiu 春秋 (Spring and Autumn Annals) is a historical record of the principality of Lu, Confucius' native state, from 722 to 479 B.C.. It is a log of concise entries probably compiled by Confucius himself. The Lunyu 論語 (Analects of Confucius) is a book of pithy sayings attributed to Confucius and recorded by his disciples. There were also important Daoist classics that were written in later periods, such as the Huainanzi written by Liu An in the 2nd century BC, during the Han Dynasty. The Huainanzi was also one of the earliest Chinese texts to cover topics of Chinese geography and topography. Chinese classic texts or Chinese canonical texts are the classical literature in Chinese culture that are considered to be the best or the most valuable. ... This article is about the art form. ... Prose is writing distinguished from poetry by its greater variety of rhythm and its closer resemblance to everyday speech. ... This article is about the ancient Chinese dynasty. ... ... (Redirected from 256 BCE) Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC - 250s BC - 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC Years: 261 BC 260 BC 259 BC 258 BC 257 BC - 256 BC... Confucius (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kung-fu-tzu), lit. ... Alternative meaning: I Ching (monk) The I Ching (Traditional Chinese: 易經, pinyin y jīng; Cantonese IPA: jɪk6gɪŋ1; Cantonese Jyutping: jik6ging1; alternative romanizations include I Jing, Yi Ching, Yi King) is the oldest of the Chinese classic texts. ... For other uses, see Divination (disambiguation). ... Definition Trigrams and digrams (also called bigrams) and are ordered triplets and pairs of letters respectively. ... An ancient painting of Nuwa and Fuxi unearthed in Xinjiang. ... Folk religion consists of beliefs, superstitions and rituals transmitted from generation to generation of a specific culture. ... Shī Jīng (詩經), translated variously as the Classic of Poetry, the Book of Songs or the Book of Odes, is the first major collection of Chinese poems. ... The Classic of History (書經/书经 Shū Jīng) is a collection of documents and speeches alleged to have been written by rulers and officials of the early Zhou period and before. ... Classic of Rites The Classic of Rites (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) was one of the Five Classics of the Confucian canon. ... The Spring and Autumn Annals (春秋 ChÅ«n QiÅ«, also known as 麟經 Lín JÄ«ng) is the official chronicle of the state of Lu covering the period from 722 BCE to 481 BCE. It is the earliest surviving Chinese historical text to be arranged on annalistic principles. ... Lu or LU may stand for: Lehigh University, prestigious private 4-year university in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. ... Engraving of Confucius. ... For other uses of the words tao and dao, see Dao (disambiguation). ... The Huainanzi (淮南子) is a Chinese classic from the 2nd century BC written under the patronage of the Han dynasty nobleman Liu An. ... Liu An (劉安, 179-122 BC) was an advisor to Emperor Wu of Han China and the inventor of tofu. ... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication to Cao Wei 220... For discussion of land surfaces themselves, see Terrain. ...


In the realm of martial classics, the Art of War (孫子兵法) by Sun Tzu in the 6th century BC marks the first milestone in the tradition of Chinese military treatises written in following ages, such as the Wujing Zongyao (武經總要; 1044 AD) and the Huolongjing (火龍神器陣法; written before 1375 when Liu Ji died, preface in 1412 AD). Furthermore, the Art of War is perhaps the first to outline guidelines for effective international diplomacy. The other two works, the Wujing Zongyao and Huolongjing, are invaluable written works for the understanding of the gradual development of early Chinese gunpowder warfare. For other uses, see The Art of War (disambiguation). ... Sun Tzu (孫子 also commonly written in pinyin: Sūn Zǐ) was the author of The Art of War, an influential ancient Chinese book on military strategy (for the most part not dealing directly with tactics). ... A Chinese Song Dynasty naval river ship with a Xuanfeng traction-trebuchet catapult on its top deck, taken from an illustration of the Wujing Zongyao. ... Ming Dynasty musketeers in drill formation. ... Liu Ji (Chinese: 刘基, courtesy name Bowen (伯温)) (1311-1375) was a Chinese military strategist and statesman in the Ming dynasty. ... This article is about negotiations. ... Gunpowder warfare is associated with the start of the widespread use of gunpowder and the development of suitable weapons to use the explosive. ...


Historical texts and encyclopedias

Further information: Category:Chinese encyclopedias
Sima Qian, he laid the ground for professional Chinese historiography more than 2,000 years ago.
Sima Qian, he laid the ground for professional Chinese historiography more than 2,000 years ago.

The Chinese wrote consistent and accurate records at court after the year 841 BC, with the beginning of the Gonghe regency of the Western Zhou Dynasty. The earliest known narrative history of China was the Zuo Zhuan, which was compiled no later than 389 BC, and attributed to the blind 5th century BC historian Zuo Qiuming. There was also the Bamboo Annals found in 281 AD in the tomb of the King of Wei, who was interred in 296 BC. However, unlike the Zuo Zhuan, the authenticity of the early date of the Bamboo Annals is doubtful. There is also the Classic of History, compiled sometime during the 5th century BC, and which included early information on geography in the chapter of the Yu Gong.[1] Another early text was the political strategy book of the Zhan Guo Ce, compiled between the 3rd and 1st centuries BC, with partial amounts of the text found amongst the 2nd century BC Mawangdui Silk Texts. Chinese historiography refers to the study of methods and assumptions made in studying Chinese history. ... Image File history File links Si_maqian. ... Image File history File links Si_maqian. ... Sima Qian Si Ma Qian (司馬遷) (c. ... Chinese historiography refers to the study of methods and assumptions made in studying Chinese history. ... Centuries: 10th century BC - 9th century BC - 8th century BC Decades: 890s BC 880s BC 870s BC 860s BC 850s BC - 840s BC - 830s BC 820s BC 810s BC 800s BC 790s BC Events and Trends 845 BC - Pherecles, King of Athens dies after a reign of 19 years and... The Goughe regency ruled China from 841 BC to 828 BC. Categories: China-related stubs ... Alternative meaning: Zhou Dynasty (690 CE - 705 CE) The Zhou Dynasty (周朝; Wade-Giles: Chou Dynasty) (late 10th century BC to late 9th century BC - 256 BC) followed the Shang (Yin) Dynasty and preceded the Qin Dynasty in China. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... The Zuo Zhuan (Chinese: ; Wade-Giles: Tso Chuan) is the earliest Chinese work of narrative history and covers the period from 722 BCE to 468 BCE. It was traditionally attributed to Zuo Qiuming, as a commentary to the Spring and Autumn Annals, although many scholars believe it was an independent... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC - 380s BC - 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 394 BC 393 BC 392 BC 391 BC 390 BC 389 BC 388 BC 387 BC 386... ZÇ”o QÄ«umíng (Chinese: ; Wade-Giles: Tso Chiuming, fl. ... The Bamboo Annals (Zhushu jinian) is a chronicle of ancient China. ... The Classic of History (書經/书经 Shū Jīng) is a collection of documents and speeches alleged to have been written by rulers and officials of the early Zhou period and before. ... This article explores the history of geography. ... King Yu of Xia of China, in chinese: 禹, (2070 BC-2061 BC),born Si Wen Ming, in chinese: 姒文命 , often called Da Yu (大禹,who mean Yu the Great). Yu was the legendary first Chinese monarch of the Xia Dynasty, considered as the founder of the dynasty. ... Zhanguoce (simplified Chinese: 战国策, traditional Chinese: 戰國策, pinyin: Zhànguócè) (ZGC) was a renowned ancient Chinese historical work on the Warring States Period compiled in late Western Han Dynasty by Liu Xiang (劉向). It is an important literature in the research of Warring States... The Mawangdui Silk Texts (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) are texts of Chinese philosophical and medical works written on silk and found at Mawangdui in China in 1973. ...


Although court records and other independent records existed beforehand, the definitive work in early Chinese historical writing was the Shiji (史記/史记), written by the Han Dynasty court historian Sima Qian (145 BC-90 BC). This groundbreaking text laid the foundation for Chinese historiography and the many official Chinese historical texts compiled for each dynasty thereafter. He is often compared to the Greek Herodotus in scope and method, as he covered Chinese history from the mythical Xia Dynasty up until the contemporary reign of Emperor Wu of Han, while pertaining an objective and non-biased standpoint (which is often difficult for the official dynastic histories who used historical works to justify the reign of the current dynasty). His influence was far and wide and impacted the written works of many Chinese historians, including the works of Ban Gu and Ban Zhao in the 1st and 2nd centuries, or even Sima Guang in the 11th century with his enormous compilation of the Zizhi Tongjian (資治通鑒/资治通鉴) presented to Emperor Shenzong of Song in 1084 AD. The overall scope of the historiographical tradition in China is termed the Twenty-Four Histories, created for each successive Chinese dynasty up until the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), as China's last dynasty, the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911), is not included. The Records of the Grand Historian or the Records of the Grand Historian of China was the magnum opus of Sima Qian, in which he recounted Chinese history from the time of the mythical Yellow Emperor until his own time. ... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication to Cao Wei 220... Sima Qian Si Ma Qian (司馬遷) (c. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC - 140s BC - 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC Years: 150 BC 149 BC 148 BC 147 BC 146 BC - 145 BC - 144 BC 143 BC... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC - 90s BC - 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC Years: 95 BC 94 BC 93 BC 92 BC 91 BC - 90 BC - 89 BC 88 BC 87... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: HÄ“rodotos Halikarnāsseus) was a Greek historian from Ionia who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... For the Sixteen Kingdoms Period state, see Xia (Sixteen Kingdoms). ... Emperor Wu of Han (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), (156 BC[1]–March 29, 87 BC), personal name Liu Che (劉徹), was the seventh emperor of the Han Dynasty in China, ruling from 141 BC to 87 BC. Emperor Wu is best remembered for the vast territorial expansion that occurred under... For the Chinese deity, see Pangu. ... Ban Zhao (Chinese:班昭; Wade-Giles:Pan Chao, c. ... Sima Guang (Chinese:司马光; Wade-Giles:Szuma Kuang, 1019-1086) was a Chinese historian, scholar and statesman of the Song Dynasty. ... Zizhi Tongjian (traditional Chinese character: 資治通鑑; simplified Chinese character: 资治通鉴; pinyin Zīzhì Tōngjìan, Wade-Giles Tzu-chih tung-chien) is known to be a important Chinese history text of annual chronology. ... Emperor Shenzong (May 25, 1048 – April 1, 1085) was the sixth emperor of Song Dynasty China. ... The Twenty-Four Histories is a collection of historical books covering a period of history from 3000 B.C. to the Ming Dynasty in the 17th century. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... Events Timur ascends throne of Samarkand. ... // Events February to August - Explorer Abel Tasmans second expedition for the Dutch East India Company maps the north coast of Australia. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... // Events February to August - Explorer Abel Tasmans second expedition for the Dutch East India Company maps the north coast of Australia. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


There were also large encyclopedias produced in China throughout the ages. In the Song Dynasty alone, the compilation of the Four Great Books of Song (10th century - 11th century) begun by Li Fang and finalized by Cefu Yuangui represented a massive undertaking of written material covering a wide range of different subjects. This included the Extensive Records of the Taiping Era (978), the Imperial Readings of the Taiping Era (983), the Finest Blossoms in the Garden of Literature (986), and the Prime Tortoise of the Record Bureau (1013). Although these Song Dynasty Chinese encyclopedias featured millions of written Chinese characters each, they paled in comparison to the later Qing Dynasty encyclopedia printed in 1726, the Gujin Tushu Jicheng. This compilation featured over 100 million written Chinese characters in over 800,000 pages, printed in 60 different copies using copper-metal Chinese movable type printing. Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Bianjing (汴京) (960–1127) Linan (臨安) (1127–1276) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 960–976 Emperor Taizu  - 1126–1127 Emperor Qinzong  - 1127–1162 Emperor Gaozong  - 1278–1279 Emperor Bing History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou... The Four Great Books of Song (Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) was compiled by Li Fang and others during the Song Dynasty (960-1279). ... Lǐ FÇŽng (Chinese: , 925-996) was a scholar, compiler and prime minister from the Song Dynasty known for his leading in the compilation for the three of the Four Great Books of Song. ... The Extensive Records of the Taiping Era (Chinese: ; pinyin: Tàipíng GuÇŽngjì) is a collection of stories compiled under the editorship of Li Fang, first published in 978. ... The Imperial Readings of the Taiping Era (Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is a massive encyclopedia compiled by a number of officers commissioned by the imperial court of the Song Dynasty with the lead editor being Li Fang from 977 to 983 during the era of Taiping Xingguo. ... The Finest Blossoms in the Garden of Literature (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is an anthology of poetry, odes, songs and writings from the Liang Dynasty to the Five Dynasties era. ... The Prime Tortoise of the Record Bureau (Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) was the largest encyclopedia compiled during the Chinese Song Dynasty (960-1279 AD). ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... The Gujin tushu jicheng (古今圖書集成, Complete Collection of Illustrations and Writings from the Earliest to Current Times) is a vast encyclopaedic work written in China during the reigns of Qing emperors Kangxi and Yongzheng, completed in 1725. ... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... Copper has played a significant part in the history of mankind, which has used the easily accessible uncompounded metal for nearly 10,000 years. ... For the weblog software, see Movable Type. ...


Classical Poetry

Main article: Chinese poetry
Su Shi (1037-1101), a famous Song Dynasty poet and statesman.
Su Shi (1037-1101), a famous Song Dynasty poet and statesman.

Among the earliest and most influential poetic anthologies was the Chuci 楚辭 (Songs of Chu), made up primarily of poems ascribed to the semilegendary Qu Yuan 屈原 (ca. 340-278 B.C.) and his follower Song Yu 宋玉 (fourth century B.C.). The songs in this collection are more lyrical and romantic and represent a different tradition from the earlier Shijing. During the Han Dynasty (206 B.C.-A.D. 220), this form evolved into the fu 賦 , a poem usually in rhymed verse except for introductory and concluding passages that are in prose, often in the form of questions and answers. The era of disunity that followed the Han period saw the rise of romantic nature poetry heavily influenced by Taoism. The Han Chinese astronomer, mathematician, and inventor Zhang Heng (78-139 AD) was also largely responsible for the early development of Shi (詩) poetry. Quatrain on Heavenly Mountain by Emperor Gaozong Hand-painted Chinese New Years duilian (對聯 couplet), a by-product of Chinese poetry, pasted on the sides of doors leading to peoples homes, at Lijiang City, Yunnan Poetry is the most highly regarded literary genre in ancient China. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Su Shi (蘇軾) (1037-1101) was a writer, poet, artist, calligrapher and statesman of the Song Dynasty, one of the major poets of the Song era. ... // Events Construction of the church of Saint Sophia Cathedral is started in Kyiv. ... Events A second wave of crusaders arrives in the newly established Kingdom of Jerusalem, after being heavily defeated by Kilij Arslan I at Heraclia. ... Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Bianjing (汴京) (960–1127) Linan (臨安) (1127–1276) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 960–976 Emperor Taizu  - 1126–1127 Emperor Qinzong  - 1127–1162 Emperor Gaozong  - 1278–1279 Emperor Bing History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou... Portrait of Qu Yuan, the central figure of Chu Ci, by Australian Chinese artist Zhang Cuiying Chu Ci (Simplified Chinese: 楚辞; Traditional Chinese: 楚辞; Pinyin chÇ” cí), also known as Songs of the South or Songs of Chu, is an anthology of Chinese poems by Qu Yuan and Song Yu from the... Qu Yuan (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) (ca. ... Song Yu (Simplified Chinese: 宋玉) was a well-known Chinese poet in the State of Chu during the third century BCE. He is commonly said to be a nephew of Qu Yuan, but no reliable biographical information is available (He is also said to be a student of Qu Yuan). ... Shī Jīng (詩經), translated variously as the Classic of Poetry, the Book of Songs or the Book of Odes, is the first major collection of Chinese poems. ... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication to Cao Wei 220... Look up FU in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Taoism (or Daoism) is the English name referring to a variety of related Chinese philosophical traditions and concepts. ... For other uses, see Zhang Heng (disambiguation). ... Shi (è©©) is the Chinese word for poem; it can also be used to mean Chinese poetry other than lyrics, or (most commonly) the classical form of poetry developed in the late Han dynasty and which reached its zenith in the Tang dynasty. ...


Classical poetry reached its zenith during the Tang Dynasty (A.D. 618-907). The early Tang period was best known for its lushi (regulated verse), an eight-line poem with five or seven words in each line; zi (verse following strict rules of prosody); and jueju (truncated verse), a four-line poem with five or seven words in each line. The two best-known poets of the period were Li Bai (701-762) and Du Fu (712-770). Li Bai was known for the romanticism of his poetry; Du Fu was seen as a Confucian moralist with a strict sense of duty toward society. Later Tang poets developed greater realism and social criticism and refined the art of narration. One of the best known of the later Tang poets was Bai Juyi (772-846), whose poems were an inspired and critical comment on the society of his time. For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... Li Po redirects here. ... Du Fu (Chinese: ; Wade-Giles: Tu Fu, 712–770) was a prominent Chinese poet of the Tang Dynasty. ... Romantics redirects here. ... Literary realism most often refers to the trend, in early 19th century French literature, towards depictions of contemporary life and society as it is, in the spirit of general Realism, instead of a romanticized or similarly stylized presentation. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Bai. ...


Subsequent writers of classical poetry lived under the shadow of their great Tang predecessors, and although there were many fine poets in subsequent dynasties, none reached the level of this period. As the classical style of poetry became more stultified, a more flexible poetic medium, the 詞 ci, arrived on the scene. The ci, a poetic form based on the tunes of popular songs, some of Central Asian origin, was developed to its fullest by the poets of the Song Dynasty (960-1279 AD). The Song era poet Su Shi (1037-1101 AD) mastered ci, shi, and fu forms of poetry, as well as prose, calligraphy, and painting. Ci poetry (è©ž, interchangeable with è¾­ pinyin cí) is a kind of lyric Chinese poetry. ... Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Bianjing (汴京) (960–1127) Linan (臨安) (1127–1276) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 960–976 Emperor Taizu  - 1126–1127 Emperor Qinzong  - 1127–1162 Emperor Gaozong  - 1278–1279 Emperor Bing History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou... Su Shi (蘇軾) (1037-1101) was a writer, poet, artist, calligrapher and statesman of the Song Dynasty, one of the major poets of the Song era. ... // Events Construction of the church of Saint Sophia Cathedral is started in Kyiv. ... Events A second wave of crusaders arrives in the newly established Kingdom of Jerusalem, after being heavily defeated by Kilij Arslan I at Heraclia. ... Prose is writing distinguished from poetry by its greater variety of rhythm and its closer resemblance to everyday speech. ... Contemporary Western Calligraphy. ... For other uses , see Painting (disambiguation). ...


As the ci gradually became more literary and artificial after Song times, Chinese Sanqu poetry , a freer form, based on dramatic arias, developed. The use of sanqu songs in drama marked an important step in the development of vernacular literature. Chinese Sanqu poetry (Chinese: 散曲) or San-ch’ü poetry. ...

Poets who wrote or write much of their poetry in the Chinese language. ...

Classical Prose

Early prose

Mencius, an important philosopher from the Warring States period.

The proponents of the Hundred Schools of Thought in the Warring States Period and Spring and Autumn periods made important contributions to Chinese prose style. The writings of Mo Zi 墨子 (Mo Di, 470-390 B.C.), Mencius 孟子 (Meng Zi; 372-289 B.C.), and Zhuang Zi 莊子 (369-286 B.C.) contain well-reasoned, carefully developed discourses and show a marked improvement in organization and style over what went before. Mo Zi is known for extensively and effectively using methodological reasoning in his polemic prose. Mencius contributed elegant diction and, along with Zhuang Zi, is known for his extensive use of comparisons, anecdotes, and allegories. By the third century B.C., these writers had developed a simple, concise prose noted for its economy of words, which served as a model of literary form for over 2,000 years. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Mencius (Romanization; 孟子, pinyin: Mèng Zǐ; Wade-Giles: Meng Tzu; most accepted dates: 372 – 289 BCE; other possible dates: 385 – 303/302 BCE) was a Chinese philosopher who was arguably the most famous Confucian after Confucius himself. ... The Hundred Schools of Thought (諸子百家 Pinyin: zhÅ« zǐ bÇŽi jiā) was an era of great cultural and intellectual expansion in China that lasted from 770 BCE to 222 BCE. Coinciding with the Spring and Autumn and Warring States periods, and also known as the Golden Age of Chinese thought... Alternative meaning: Warring States Period (Japan) The Warring States Period (traditional Chinese: 戰國時代, simplified Chinese: 战国时代 pinyin Zhànguó Shídài) takes place from sometime in the 5th century BC to the unification of China by Qin in 221 BC. It is nominally... The Spring and Autumn Period (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) was a period in Chinese history, which roughly corresponds to the first half of the Eastern Zhou dynasty (from the second half of the 8th century BC to the first half of the 5th century). ... Mozi (ca. ... Mencius (Romanization; 孟子, pinyin: Mèng Zǐ; Wade-Giles: Meng Tzu; most accepted dates: 372 – 289 BCE; other possible dates: 385 – 303/302 BCE) was a Chinese philosopher who was arguably the most famous Confucian after Confucius himself. ... // The Person Zhuāng Zǐ (pinyin), Chuang Tzu (W-G), or Chuang Tse (Chinese 莊子, literally meaning Master Zhuang) was a famous philosopher in ancient China who lived around the 4th century BC during the Warring States Period, corresponding to the Hundred Schools of Thought philosophical summit of Chinese thought. ...


Later prose

The Tang period also saw a rejection of the ornate, artificial style of prose developed in the previous period and the emergence of a simple, direct, and forceful prose based on Han and pre-Han writing. The primary proponent of this neoclassical style of prose, which heavily influenced prose writing for the next 800 years, was Han Yu 韓愈 (768-824), a master essayist and strong advocate of a return to Confucian orthodoxy. The literary category of 'travel record literature' that became popular during the Song Dynasty employed the use of prose (as well as diary and narrative format), and included such seasoned veterans of travel experience as Fan Chengda (1126-1193) and Xu Xiake (1587-1641). A great literary example of this would also be Su Shi's Record of Stone Bell Mountain from the 11th century. For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication to Cao Wei 220... Hán Yù (韓愈) (768 - 824), was a precursor of Neo-Confucianism as well as an essayist and poet. ... Confucianism (儒家 Pinyin: rújiā The School of the Scholars), sometimes translated as the School of Literati, is an East Asian ethical, religious and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of Confucius. ... Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Bianjing (汴京) (960–1127) Linan (臨安) (1127–1276) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 960–976 Emperor Taizu  - 1126–1127 Emperor Qinzong  - 1127–1162 Emperor Gaozong  - 1278–1279 Emperor Bing History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou... == c programming[[a--203. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Fan Chengda (1126-1193) was one of the best-known Chinese poets of the twelfth century. ... Events Rutherglen becomes one of the first Royal Burghs in Scotland. ... // Saladin dies, and the lands of the Kurdish Ayyubid dynasty of Egypt and Syria are split among his descendants. ... Xu Xiake (徐霞客, py. ... 1587 was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Events The Long Parliament passes a series of legislation designed to contain Charles Is absolutist tendencies. ... Su Shi (蘇軾) (1037-1101) was a writer, poet, artist, calligrapher and statesman of the Song Dynasty, one of the major poets of the Song era. ... Su Shi (蘇軾) (1037-1101) was a writer, poet, artist, calligrapher and statesman of the Song Dynasty, one of the major poets of the Song era. ...


Vernacular fiction became popular after the fourteenth century, although it was never esteemed in court circles. Covering a broader range of subject matter and longer and less highly structured than literary fiction, vernacular fiction includes a number of masterpieces. The greatest is the eighteenth-century domestic novel Hong Lou Meng 紅樓夢 (Dream of the Red Chamber). A semiautobiographical work by a scion of a declining gentry family, Hong Lou Meng has been acknowledged by students of Chinese fiction to be the masterwork of its type. Look up Vernacular in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... “The Story of the Stone” redirects here. ...


List of some of the contributors

For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Bianjing (汴京) (960–1127) Linan (臨安) (1127–1276) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 960–976 Emperor Taizu  - 1126–1127 Emperor Qinzong  - 1127–1162 Emperor Gaozong  - 1278–1279 Emperor Bing History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou... Hán Yù (韓愈) (768 - 824), was a precursor of Neo-Confucianism as well as an essayist and poet. ... Liu Zongyuan (柳宗元) (773 - 819) was a Chinese writer who lived in Changan in the Tang dynasty. ... Ouyang Xiu (Ou-Yang Hsiu) (歐陽修; 欧阳修 style name: Yongshu 永叔; also known as Zuiweng 醉翁 and Liuyi Jushi 六一居士) (Wade-Giles: Ouyang Hsiu) (1007 - 1072) was a Chinese statesman, historian, essayist and poet of the Song Dynasty. ... Su Shi (蘇軾) (1037-1101) was a writer, poet, artist, calligrapher and statesman of the Song Dynasty, one of the major poets of the Song era. ... Wáng Ānshí (王安石) (1021 - 1086) was a Chinese economist, statesman and poet of the Song Dynasty who attempted some controversial, major socio-economic reforms. ... Zeng Gong (曾鞏; style name: Zigu 子固; 1019-1083) was a scholar and historian of the Song Dynasty in China. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Shen Shen Kuo or Shen Kua (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) (1031–1095) was a polymathic Chinese scientist and statesman of the Song Dynasty (960–1279). ... Su Song 蘇頌 (1020 – 1101), style Zirong 子容, was a Chinese engineer. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... Liu Ji (Chinese: 刘基, courtesy name Bowen (伯温)) (1311-1375) was a Chinese military strategist and statesman in the Ming dynasty. ... Ming Dynasty (1368-1644 AD) era matchlock firearms featuring serpentine levers. ... Yuan Hongdao or Yüan Hung-tao (1568-1610) was Chinese poet of the Ming Dynasty, and one of the Three Yuan Brothers. ... Xu Xiake (徐霞客, py. ... Gao Qi (1336-1374)is generally acknowledged as the greatest poet of the Ming dynasty in China. ... Zhang Dai (å¼ å²±; pinyin: Zhāng Dài, courtesy name: Zhongzhi (宗子), pseudonym: Taoan (陶庵)) (1597 - 1689) was a Ming Dynasty writer. ... Tu Long 屠隆 (1577-1605) Tu Long,Chinese 屠隆. Ming Dynasty playwright and essayist. ... Wen Zhenheng (Chinese: 文震亨 ) (1585-1645 AD) was a Ming dynasty scholar, painter, landscape garden designer, and great grandson of Wen Zhengming, a famous Ming dynasty painter. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... Yuan Mei (袁枚, 1716 - 1797) was a well-known poet, scholar and artist of the Qing Dynasty. ... Wei Yuan (魏源, 1794-1856). ...

List of some of the great classical novels

The Four Great Classical Novels, or Four Major Classical Novels (Chinese: ) of Chinese literature, are the four novels commonly counted by scholars to be the greatest and most influential in classical Chinese fiction. ... “The Story of the Stone” redirects here. ... Cao Xueqin (Chinese: ; pinyin: Cáo XuÄ›qín) (? 1715 - c. ... It has been suggested that Guo Shiguang be merged into this article or section. ... Shī Nàiān, (施耐庵) (1296? - 1370?) was one of the most famous classical Chinese authors. ... For other uses, see Romance of the Three Kingdoms (disambiguation). ... Luo Guanzhong (Traditional Chinese: 羅貫中, Wade Giles: Lo Kuan-chung) was a 14th century Chinese author attributed with writing Romance of the Three Kingdoms and editing Outlaws of the Marsh, two of the most revered adventure epics in Chinese literature. ... The four heroes of the story, left to right: SÅ«n Wùkōng, Xuánzàng, ZhÅ« Bājiè, and Shā Wùjìng. ... Wu Chengen (Traditional Chinese: 吳承恩; Simplified Chinese: 吴承恩; pinyin: Wú ChéngÄ“n) (1500? or 1506?-1582) , was a Chinese novelist and poet of the Ming Dynasty. ... Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio or Liaozhai Zhiyi (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Strange Tales from a Chinese Studio or Strange Tales of Liaozhai) is a collection of nearly five hundred mostly supernatural tales written by Pu Songling during the early Qing Dynasty. ... Pu Songling (Chinese: 蒲松齡; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Pu Sung-ling) (5 June 1640 - 25 February 1715) was an ethnic Mongol Chinese writer. ... Jin Ping Mei (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally The Plum in the Golden Vase, also translated as The Golden Lotus) is a Chinese naturalistic novel composed in the vernacular (baihua) during the late Ming Dynasty. ... Fengshen Yanyi (Traditional Chinese: 封神演義; Simplified Chinese: 封神演义) (translated as The Investiture of the Gods or The Creation of the Gods), also known as Fengshen Bang (Traditional Chinese: 封神榜; Simplified Chinese: 封神榜), is one of the major works of classical Chinese literature created in Ming dynasty. ... Xing Shi Yin Yuan Zhuan (《醒世姻緣傳》 The Story of a Marital Fate to Awaken the World) is a Chinese classical novel of the Qing Dynasty. ... The semiautobiographical novel The Scholars (儒林外史 pinyin: rú lín wài shǐ; literally The Unofficial History of Officialdom) by Wu Jingzi (吳敬梓), completed in 1750, can be viewed as an explanation of the authors having not only failed the civil service examinations but also having frittered away the family fortune. ... Wu Ching-tzu, or Wu Ching-tse, pinyin Wu Jingzi, was a Chinese writer born in 1701 in Quanjiao (Chuan-chiao) County in eastern Anhui (Anhwei) Provence. ... The Dijing Jingwulue (Chinese: ; Wade-Giles: Ti-ching ching-wu lüeh; literally Survey of Scenery and Monuments in the Imperial Capital) is a 17th century Chinese prose classic. ... Liu Tong (Chinese: ; Wade-Giles: Liu Tung, ca. ... Romance of the West Chamber (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) (record/story of the west chamber/room) is one of the most famous Chinese dramatic works. ... Wang Shifu (c1250 - c1337) was a successful Chinese dramatic playwright of the Yuan Dynasty. ... The Injustice to Dou E (竇娥冤 Dou E Yuan) is a Chinese drama by Guan Hanqing during the Yuan Dynasty. ... Considered one of the Four Great Yuan Playwrights, Guan Hanqing (關漢卿) (circa 1241-1320), sobriquet the Oldman of the Studio (齋叟 ZhāisÇ’u), was born in the capital city of the Yuan Empire, Dadu (the part that is Anguo, Hebei, China now) and produced about 65 plays, mostly in Vernacular Chinese... Gao Lian (Chinese: ; Wade-Giles: Kao Lien, fl. ... Li Xingdao (李行道) was a 14th century Chinese playwright. ... The Caucasian Chalk Circle is one of Bertolt Brechts most important plays and one of the most regularly performed German plays. ... English translation published by Indiana University Press The Peony Pavilion (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is a play written by Tang Xianzu in the Ming Dynasty. ... Tang Xianzu (1550 - 1616) was a Chinese playwright of the Ming Dynasty. ...

Modern Literature

Late Qing (1895-1911)

Scholars now tend to agree that modern Chinese literature did not erupt suddenly in the New Culture Movement (1917-23). Instead, they trace its origins back at least to the late Qing period (1895-1911). The late Qing was a period of intellectual ferment sparked by a sense of national crisis. Intellectuals began to seek solutions to China's problems outside of its own tradition. They translated works of Western expository writing and literature, which enthralled readers with new ideas and opened up windows onto new exotic cultures. Most outstanding were the translations of Yan Fu 严复 (1864-1921) and Lin Shu 林纾 (1852-1924). In this climate, a boom in the writing of fiction occurred, especially after the 1905 abolishment of the civil service examination when literati struggled to fill new social and cultural roles for themselves. Stylistically, this fiction shows signs of both the Chinese novelistic traditional and Western narrative modes. In subject matter, it is strikingly concerned with the contemporary: social problems, historical upheavel, changing ethical values, etc. In this sense, late Qing fiction is modern. Important novelists include Wo Woyao 吴沃尧 (1866–1910), Li Boyuan 李伯元 (1867–1906), Liu E 刘鹗 (1857–1909), and Zeng Pu 曾朴 (1872–1935).


The late Qing also saw a "revolution in poetry" (诗界革命), which promoted experimentation with new forms and the incorporation of new registers of language. Yet the poetry scene was still dominated by the adherents to the Tongguang School (named after the Tongzhi and Guangxu reigns of the Qing), whose leaders—Chen Yan 陈衍, Chen Sanli 陈三立, Zheng Xiaoxu 郑孝胥, and Shen Zengzhi 沈曾植—promoted a Song style in the manner of Huang Tingjian. These poets would become the objects of scorn by New Culturalists like Hu Shi, who saw their work as overly allusive, artificial, and divorced from contemporary reality.


In drama, the late Qing saw the emergence of the new "civilized drama" (文明戏), a hybrid of Chinese operatic drama with Western-style spoken drama. Peking opera and "reformed Peking opera" were also popular at the time.


Republican Era (1911-1949)

The literary scene in the first few years after the collapse of the Qing in 1911 was dominated by popular love stories, some written in the classical language and some in the vernacular. This entertainment fiction woud later be labelled "Mandarin Ducks and Butterfly" fiction by New Culturalists, who dispised its lack of social engagement. Throughout much of the Republican era, Butterfly fiction would reach many more readers than its "progressive" counterpart.


In the course of the New Culture Movement (1917-23), the vernacular language largely displace the classical in all areas of literature and writing. Literary reformers Hu Shi 胡適 (1891-1962) and Chen Duxiu 陳獨秀 (1880-1942) declared the classical language "dead" and promoted the vibrant vernacular in its stead. It should be said, however, that Hu Shi and Chen Duxiu were not the first to promote the vernacular, which had its proponents in the late Qing. In terms of literary practice, Lu Xun (1881-1936) is usually said to be the first major stylist in the new vernacular prose that Hu Shi and Chen Duxiu were promoting. Students in Beijing rallied during the May Fourth Movement. ... Hu Shih (Simplified: 胡适, Traditional: 胡適, Pinyin: Hú Shì), (December 17, 1891-February 24, 1962) was a Chinese philosopher and essayist. ... Chen Duxiu (October 8, 1879 – May 27, 1942) played many different roles in Chinese history. ... Lu Xun (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) or Lu Hsün (Wade-Giles), pen name of Zhou Shuren (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: Zhōu Shùrén; Wade-Giles: Chou Shu-jen) (September 25, 1881 – October 19, 1936) is one of the major Chinese writers of the 20th...


Though often said to be less successful than their counterparts in fiction writing, poets also experimented with the new vernacular in new poetic forms, such as free verse and the sonnet. Given that there was no tradition of writing poetry in the vernacular, these experiments were more radical than those in fiction writing and also less easily accepted by the reading public. Modern poetry flourishes especially in the 1930s, in the hands of poets like Zhu Xiang 朱湘, Dai Wangshu 戴望舒, Li Jinfa 李金发, Wen Yiduo 闻一多, etc. Other poets, even some of the May Fourth radicals (e.g., Yu Dafu), continued to write poetry in classical styles. Dai Wangshu (Chinese: ) (also Tai Wang-shu or Tai Van-chou) (March 5, 1905—February 28, 1950) was a Chinese poet, essayist and translator active from the late 1920s to the end of the 1940s. ... Wen Yiduo (real name: Wen Jiahua) (1899-1946) was a Chinese poet and scholar. ... Yu Ta-fu, pinyin Yu Dafu was a 1920s Chinese short story writer. ...


May Fourth radicalism, as well as changes in the education system, made possible the emergence of a large group of women writers. To be sure, there were women writers in the late imperial period and in the late Qing, but nowhere near on the scale as during the May Fourth. These writers generally tackled "domestic" issues, such as relations between the exes, family, and friendship, but they were revolutionary in giving drect expression to female subjectivity. Ding Ling's 丁玲 story "Diary of Miss Sophie" (莎菲女士日记) exposes the thoughts and feelings of its female diarist in all their complexity.


The late 1920s and 1930s were years of creativity in Chinese fiction, and literary journals and societies espousing various artistic theories proliferated. Among the major writers of the period were Guo Moruo 郭沫若 (1892-1978), a poet, historian, essayist, and critic; Mao Dun 茅盾 (1896-1981), the first of the novelists to emerge from the League of Left-Wing Writers and one whose work reflected the revolutionary struggle and disillusionment of the late 1920s; and Ba Jin 巴金 (1904-2005), a novelist whose work was influenced by Ivan Turgenev and other Russian writers. In the 1930s Ba Jin produced a trilogy that depicted the struggle of modern youth against the ageold dominance of the Confucian family system. Comparison often is made between Jia (Family), one of the novels in the trilogy, and Dream of the Red Chamber (红楼梦). Another writer of the period was the gifted satirist and novelist Lao She 老舍 (1899-1966). Many of these writers became important as administrators of artistic and literary policy after 1949. Most of those authors who were still alive during the Cultural Revolution (1966-76) were either purged or forced to submit to public humiliation. Guo Moruo (Chinese: 郭沫若; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kuo Mo-jo, courtesy name Dǐng Táng 鼎堂) (November 16, 1892 - June 12, 1978) was a Chinese author, poet, historian, archaeologist, and government official. ... Mao Dun (July 4, 1896–March 27, 1981) was the pen name of Shen Dehong, a 20th century Chinese novelist, cultural critic, and journalist. ... Li Yaotang (Simplified Chinese: , Styled Feigan; ) (November 25, 1904 – October 17, 2005) is considered to be one of the most important and widely-read Chinese writers of the twentieth century. ... Ivan Turgenev, photo by Félix Nadar (1820-1910) “Turgenev” redirects here. ... Lao She (老舍, Pinyin: LÇŽo ShÄ›), (February 3, 1899 – October 14, 1966) was a noted Chinese writer. ... This article is about the Peoples Republic of China. ...


The 1920s and 1930s also saw the emergence of spoken drama. Most outstanding among playwrights of the day are Ouyuang Yuqian 欧阳予倩, Hong Shen 洪深, Tian Han 田汉, and Cao Yu 曹禺. More popular than this Western-style drama, however, was Peking Opera, raised to new artistic heights by the likes of Mei Lanfang 梅蘭芳. Tian Han Tian Han (田汉; pinyin: tián hàn) (March 12, 1898 - December 10, 1968) was a Chinese playwright. ... Cao Yu (Chinese: 曹禺, pinyin: Cáo YÇ”, Wade-Giles: Tsao Yü) was the literary name of Wan Jiabao (萬家寶 / 万家宝; Wade-Giles: Wan Chia-pao) (Tianjin, China; September 24, 1910 - Beijing; December 13, 1996). ... Méi Lánfāng (梅蘭芳; 1894-1961) was a Peking opera legend. ...


The League of Left-Wing Writers was founded in 1930 and included Lu Xun 魯迅 in its leadership. By 1932 it had adopted the Soviet doctrine of socialist realism, that is, the insistence that art must concentrate on contemporary events in a realistic way, exposing the ills of nonsocialist society and promoting the glorious future under communism. Lu Xun (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) or Lu Hsün (Wade-Giles), pen name of Zhou Shuren (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: Zhōu Shùrén; Wade-Giles: Chou Shu-jen) (September 25, 1881 – October 19, 1936) is one of the major Chinese writers of the 20th... Roses for Stalin, Boris Vladimirski, 1949 For other meanings of the term realism, see realism (disambiguation). ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ...


Though it might have liked to, the League did not control the entire literary field in the 1930s. Indeed, there were many styles of literature at odds with the highly political literature being promoted by the League. The "New Sensationsists" (新感觉派)--a group of writers based in Shanghai who were influenced, to varying degrees, by Western and Japanese modernism--wrote fiction that was more concerned with the unconscious and with aesthetics than politics or social problems. Most important among these writers were Mu Shiying 穆时英, Liu Na'ou 刘呐鸥, and Shi Zhecun 施蛰存. Other writers, most famously Shen Congwen 沈从文 and Fei Ming 废名, balked at the utilitarian role for literature by writing lyrical, almost nostalgic, depictions of the countryside.


In Yan'an, where the Communists had established a base after the Long March, the literary ideals of the League were being simplified and enforced on writers and "cultural workers." In1942, Mao Zedong gave a series of lectures called "Talks at the Yan'an Forum on Art and Literature" that clearly made literature subservient to poliitcs (and implicitly to the Communist Party itself). This document would become the national guideline for cultuer after the establishment of the People's Republic of China.


Maoist Era (1949-1976)

After coming to power in 1949, the Communist gradually nationalized the publishing industry, centralized the book distribution system, and brought writers under institutional control through the Writers Union. A system of strict censorship was implemented, with Mao's "Yan'an Talks" as the guiding force. Periodic liteary campaigns (e.g., against Hu Shi, Hu Feng 胡风) targeted certain literary figures who did not toe the Party line on literature. Socialist realism became the uniform style. Conflict, however, soon developed between the government and the writers. The ability to satirize and expose the evils in contemporary society that had made writers useful to the Communist Party of China before its accession to power was no longer welcomed. Even more unwelcome to the party was the persistence among writers of what was deplored as "petty bourgeois idealism," "humanitarianism," and an insistence on freedom to choose subject matter. This conflict came to a head in the 1956-57 Hundred Flowers movement. Mao Zedong encouraged writers to speak out against problems in the new society. Having learned the lessons of the anti-Hu Feng campaign, they were initially reluctant; soon, however, a flurry of newspaper articles, films, and literary works drew attention to such problems as bureaucratism and authoritarianism within the ranks of the Party. Now aware of the level of discontent toward the new regime by intellectuals, Mao decided to reverse the Hundred Flowers liberalization and to crack down. This crackdown is referred to as the Anti-Rightist campaign (反右运动). Hundreds of thousands of intellectuals were attacked. The Communist Party of China (CPC) (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China, a position guaranteed by the countrys constitution. ... Petit-bourgeois or Anglicised petty bourgeois is a French term that reffered to the members of the lower middle social-classes. ... There are a number of meanings for humanitarianism: humanitarianism, humanism, the doctrine that peoples duty is to promote human welfare. ...


At the time of the Great Leap Forward, the government increased its insistence on the use of socialist realism and combined with it so-called revolutionary realism and revolutionary romanticism. Authors were permitted to write about contemporary China, as well as other times during China's modern period--as long as it was accomplished with the desired socialist revolutionary realism. One of the most oustanding examples of this new socialist literature is Song of Youth (青春之歌), a novel that continues to be popular among young readers in China today. Despite the draconian measures instituted by the new regime to instill literary uniformity, novels of some quality were produced. And it cannot be said that these novels were without pleasures for readers. Nonetheless, the political restrictions discouraged many writers. Although authors were encouraged to write, production of literature fell off to the point that in 1962 only forty-two novels were published. The Great Leap Forward (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) was an economic and social plan used from 1958 to 1960 which aimed to use Chinas vast population to rapidly transform mainland China from a primarily agrarian economy dominated by peasant farmers...


During the Cultural Revolution, the repression and intimidation led by Mao's fourth wife, Jiang Qing, succeeded in drying up all cultural activity except a few "model" operas and heroic novels, such as as those by Hao Ran 浩然. Although it has since been learned that some writers continued to produce in secret, during that period no significant literary work was published. Madame Mao This is a Chinese name; the family name is Jiang Jiang Qing (Chinese: ), real name Lǐ ShÅ«méng, known under various other names, including the stage name Lan Ping (Chinese: 蓝苹), and commonly referred to as Madame Mao, (March 1914 – May 14, 1991), was the fourth wife of...


Post-Mao (1976-present)

The arrest of Jiang Qing and the other members of the Gang of Four in 1976, and especially the reforms initiated at the Third Plenum of the Eleventh National Party Congress Central Committee in December 1978, led more and more older writers and some younger writers to take up their pens again. Much of the literature in what would be called the "new era" (新时期) discussed the serious abuses of power that had taken place at both the national and the local levels during the Cultural Revolution. The writers decried the waste of time and talent during that decade and bemoaned abuses that had held China back. At the same time, the writers expressed eagerness to make a contribution to building Chinese society. This literature, often called "the literature of the wounded," contained some disquieting views of the party and the political system. Intensely patriotic, these authors wrote cynically of the political leadership that gave rise to the extreme chaos and disorder of the Cultural Revolution. Some of them extended the blame to the entire generation of leaders and to the political system itself. The political authorities were faced with a serious problem: how could they encourage writers to criticize and discredit the abuses of the Cultural Revolution without allowing that criticism to go beyond what they considered tolerable limits? The Gang of Four (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ) was a group of Communist Party of China leaders in the Peoples Republic of China who were arrested and removed from their positions in 1976, following the death of Mao Zedong, and were primarily blamed for the events of...


During this period, a large number of novels and short stories were published; literary magazines from before the Cultural Revolution were revived, and new ones were added to satisfy the seemingly insatiable appetite of the reading public. There was a special interest in foreign works. Linguists were commissioned to translate recently published foreign literature, often without carefully considering its interest for the Chinese reader. Literary magazines specializing in translations of foreign short stories became very popular, especially among the young.


It is not surprising that such dramatic change brought objections from some leaders in government and literary and art circles, who feared it was happening too fast. The first reaction came in 1980 with calls to combat "bourgeois liberalism," a campaign that was repeated in 1981. These two difficult periods were followed by the Anti-Spiritual Pollution Campaign in late 1983. The Anti-Spiritual Pollution Campaign was a Chinese political campaign from October 1983 to February 1984 that was started by political factions in the leadership of the Communist Party of China who were fearing the distribution of Western liberal ideas among the Chinese population due to their relatively recent open...


At the same time, writers were freer than ever before to write in unconventional styles and to treat sensitive subject matter. A spirit of literary experimentation flourished, especially in the second half of the 1980s. Fiction writers, such as Wang Meng 王蒙, Zhang Xinxin 张辛欣, and Zong Pu 宗璞, and dramatists, such as Gao Xingjian 高行健, experimented in modernist language and narrative modes. Another group of writers--collectively said to constitute the Roots (寻根) movement--sought to reconect literature and culture to Chinese traditions, from which a century of modernization and cultural and political iconoclasm had severed them. Han Shaogong 韩少功, Mo Yan, and A Cheng 阿城 are exemplary. Other writers (e.g., Yu Hua 余华, Ge Fei 格非, Su Tong 苏童) experimented in a more avant-garde (先锋) mode of writing that was daring in form and language and showed a complete loss of faith in ideals of any sort.


In the wake of the Tian'anmen massacre of 1989 and with the intensification of the market reforms, literature (and culture more generally) turned commercial and escapist. Wang Shuo 王朔, the so-called "hooligan" (痞子) writer, is the most obvious manifestation of this commercial shift, though his fiction is not without serious intent. Of course, not all writing in China today is commercial. Yan Lianke 阎连科, for example, takes seriously the role of literature in exposing social problems, such as the plight of HIV-AIDS victims in his novel Dreams of Ding Village (丁庄梦). As in the May Fourth, women writers flourish in present-day China. Many of them, such as Chen Ran 陈然, Wei Hui 卫慧, Wang Anyi 王安忆, and Hong Ying 虹影, explore female subjectivity in a radically changing society. Neo-realism (e.g., Liu Heng 刘恒, Chi Li 池莉, Fang Fang 方方, He Dun 何顿, and Zhu Wen 朱文) is another important current in post-Tian'anmen fiction. In short, contemporary literature in the PRC is multifarious and cannot be reduced to any single school or trend.


Chinese language literature also flourishes in the diaspora--in South East Asia, the United States, and Europe. China is the largest publisher of books, magazines and newspapers in the world. In book publishing alone, some 128,800 new titles of books were published in 2005, acrcording to the General Administration of Press and Publication. There are more than 600 litetrary journals across the country. Living and writing in France but continuing to write primarily in Chinese, Gao Xingjian became the first Chinese writer to win the Nobel Prize for Literature (2000), something that irked Chinese writers on the mainland who felt Gao did not authentically represent China. Some Chinese writers comment that Gao's "Chinoiserie" or translateable works have opened a new approach for Chinese modern literature to the Swedish Academy, and his winning Nobel Prize in its 100-year anniversary is a happy occasion for Chinese literature world.


List of some of the modern Chinese writers

Wang Tao Wang Tao (Chinese: 王韬) (November 10, 1828 – April, 1897) was a Qing dynasty translator, reformer, political columnist, newspaper publisher, and fiction writer. ... Yan Fu (1853–1921) Yan Fu (Traditional Chinese:嚴復; courtesy name:幾道, Jidao) (December 10, 1853–October 27, 1921) was a Chinese scholar, most famous for introducing Western thoughts, including Darwins ideas of natural selection and survival of the fittest, into China during the late 19th century. ... Liu E (Chinese: 劉鶚; pinyin: , also spelled Liu O) was born in China, October 1848, in Liu-ho, and died 23 August 1909 in Tihua, Xinjiang. ... Portrait of Liang Qichao (Tung Wah News, 17 April 1901) Liang Qichao (Chinese: 梁啟超, Liáng Qǐchāo; Courtesy: Zhuoru, 卓如; Pseudonym: Rengong, 任公) (February 23, 1873–January 19, 1929) was a Chinese scholar, journalist, philosopher and reformist during the Qing Dynasty (1644–1911) who inspired Chinese scholars with his writings and... Wang Guowei (1877-1927) also known as Qing¡an and Baiyu, styled Guantang and Shuiguan, was a Chinese scholar and Ci poet. ... Hu Shih (Simplified: 胡适, Traditional: 胡適, Pinyin: Hú Shì), (December 17, 1891-February 24, 1962) was a Chinese philosopher and essayist. ... Su Manshu (1894–1918) was a writer, poet, painter and a translator. ... Lu Xun (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) or Lu Hsün (Wade-Giles), pen name of Zhou Shuren (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: Zhōu Shùrén; Wade-Giles: Chou Shu-jen) (September 25, 1881 – October 19, 1936) is one of the major Chinese writers of the 20th... Liang Shih-chiu (born January 6, 1903, died November 3, 1987), a renowned educator, writer, translator, literary theorist and lexicographer, was educated at Tsinghua College in Beijing (1915-1923). ... Xu Dishan (許地山) (1893 - 1941) was a Chinese author who studied Buddhism. ... Ye Shengtao (28 October 1894—1988) was a prominent author, educator and publisher. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Lin Yutang Lin Yutang, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1939 This is a Chinese name; the family name is Lin (æž—) Lin Yutang (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: , October 10, 1895 – March 26, 1976) was a Chinese writer and inventor whose original works... Mao Dun (July 4, 1896–March 27, 1981) was the pen name of Shen Dehong, a 20th century Chinese novelist, cultural critic, and journalist. ... Hsu Chih-mo (徐志摩, pinyin: Xú Zhìmó) (January 15, 1897-November 19, 1931) was a twentieth-century Chinese poet. ... Yu Ta-fu, pinyin Yu Dafu was a 1920s Chinese short story writer. ... Guo Moruo (Chinese: 郭沫若; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kuo Mo-jo, courtesy name Dǐng Táng 鼎堂) (November 16, 1892 - June 12, 1978) was a Chinese author, poet, historian, archaeologist, and government official. ... Lao She (老舍, Pinyin: LÇŽo ShÄ›), (February 3, 1899 – October 14, 1966) was a noted Chinese writer. ... Zhu Ziqing (Chinese: 朱自清, 1898 - 1948) is a Chinese poet and essayist. ... Tian Han Tian Han (田汉; pinyin: tián hàn) (March 12, 1898 - December 10, 1968) was a Chinese playwright. ... Wen Yiduo (real name: Wen Jiahua) (1899-1946) was a Chinese poet and scholar. ... Bing Xin (Chinese: 冰心; pinyin: BÄ«ng XÄ«n) (October 5, 1900-February 28, 1999) was a Chinese writer and poet. ... Li Yaotang (Simplified Chinese: , Styled Feigan; ) (November 25, 1904 – October 17, 2005) is considered to be one of the most important and widely-read Chinese writers of the twentieth century. ... Shen Congwen (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ShÄ›n Cóngwén; Wade-Giles: Shen Tsung-wen, December 28, 1902—May 10, 1988) was the pen name of a Chinese writer from the May Fourth Movement. ... Cao Yu (Chinese: 曹禺, pinyin: Cáo YÇ”, Wade-Giles: Tsao Yü) was the literary name of Wan Jiabao (萬家寶 / 万家宝; Wade-Giles: Wan Chia-pao) (Tianjin, China; September 24, 1910 - Beijing; December 13, 1996). ... Qian Zhongshu (November 21, 1910 – December 19, 1998) was a Chinese literary scholar, writer and polyglot, famous for his burning wit and formiddable erudition. ... He Qifang was a Chinese poet. ... Lin Haiyin (林海音; March 18, 1918 - December 1, 2001) was a Chinese writer of Taiwanese nationality, best remembered for her sensitive memoir 城南旧事 (Chengnan Jiushi, My Memories of Old Beijing), a tribute to her childhood reminiscences of Beijing. ... 74-year-old Eileen Chang holding a newspaper which reports the death of Kim Il-sung Eileen Chang (Traditional Chinese: 張愛玲; Simplified Chinese: 张爱玲; pinyin: Zhāng Àilíng) (September 30, 1920 – found dead September 8, 1995) was a Chinese writer. ... Louis Cha or Zha Liangyong (sometimes Cha Leung Yung), OBE (born June 6, 1924), known to most by his penname Jinyong (Jin Yong) or Kam-yung (Cantonese), is one of the most influential modern Chinese-language novelists who is also the co-founder of the Hong Kong daily Ming Pao. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Notable people called Zhang Xianliang include: Zhang Xianliang (author) - b. ... Kenneth Hsien-yung Pai (白先勇, pinyin: B Xiānyǒng, born July 11, 1937) is a writer who has been described as a melancholy pioneer. ... Gao Xingjian (pron. ... Nobel Prize in Literature medal. ... Bei Dao (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally Northern Island, born August 2, 1949) is the pseudonym of Chinese poet Zhao Zhenkai (趙振開). He was born in Beijing, his pseudonym was chosen because he came from the north and because of his preference for solitude. ... Mo Yan (莫言) (born 1956) is a modern Chinese author, known in the West for two of his novels which were the basis of the film Red Sorghum. ... Tie Ning is a Chinese author born in 1957 in Peking, China. ... Su Tong 苏童 (born 1963) is a Mainland Chinese writer based in Nanjing. ... Happy Avenue (幸福大街 in Chinese; pinyin: Xìng Fú Dà JiÄ“ or Xìngfú DàjiÄ“; sometimes translated as Lucky Road) is a Chinese rock band based in Beijing, China, founded in September 1999. ... Wang Xiaobo (Chinese: 王小波; Pinyin: ) (May 13, 1952 – April 11, 1997) was a Chinese writer who became famous after his death. ...

Overseas Chinese Literature

  • You Jin, Singapore

Others

Chinese writers writing in French:

Chinese writers writing in English: Chen Jitong in official dress Chen Jitong (陳季同, 1851-1907; style 敬如; also known as Tcheng Ki-tong). ... François Cheng (程抱一 Chéng Bàoyī) (born August 30, 1929) is a French writer, poet and calligrapher. ... Dai Sijie (b. ... Shan Sa is a French author born in Beijing in 1972. ...

Jīn Xuěfēi (Simplified Chinese: 金雪飞; Traditional Chinese: 金雪飛; born February 21, 1956) is a contemporary Chinese-American writer using the pen name Ha Jin (哈金). Ha Jin was born in Liaoning, China in 1956. ...

See also

This article contains Chinese text.
Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Chinese characters.

Image File history File links Zhongwen. ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Hán tá»±: A Chinese character or Han character (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a logogram used in writing Chinese, Japanese, sometimes Korean, and formerly Vietnamese. ... Chinese classic texts or Chinese canonical texts are the classical literature in Chinese culture that are considered to be the best or the most valuable. ... // Chronological list Antiquity, Qin, Han and pre-Tang dynasties 屈原 Qu Yuan (340 ? -278 ? BC) 宋玉 Song Yu (3rd century BC) 司馬遷 Sima Qian (145- ? BC) 司馬相如 Sima Xiangru (179-117 BC) 班固 Ban Gu (32-92) 張衡 Zhang Heng (78-139) 曹操 Cao Cao (155-220) 曹丕 Cao Pi (187-226) 曹植 Cao Zhi (192-232) 嵇康 Xi Kang... Bai Xianyong: see Pai Hsien-yung Bo Yang 柏楊 Chang, Belinda ç« ç·£ (Zhang Yuan) Cai Sufen 蔡素芬 Chen Ruoxi 陳若曦 (Chen Jo-hsi) Chen Yingzhen 陳映真 Cheng Ching-wen: see Zheng Qingwen Chu Hsi-ning 朱西甯 Chu Tien-hsin 朱天心 Chu Tien-wen 朱天文 Chung Chao-cheng 鍾肇政 Dong Fangbai 東方白 Hao Yuxiang 郝譽翔 Huang Fan 黃凡 Huang Chunming 黃春明 (Hwang Chun-ming... The Huainanzi (淮南子) is a Chinese classic from the 2nd century BC written under the patronage of the Han dynasty nobleman Liu An. ... Chinese (written) language (pinyin: zhōngw n) written in Chinese characters The Chinese language (汉语/漢語, 华语/華語, or 中文; Pinyin: H nyǔ, Hu yǔ, or Zhōngw n) is a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... Chinese mythology is a collection of cultural history, folktales, and religions that have been passed down in oral or written form. ... Chinese culture has roots going back over five thousand years. ... Literature of Hong Kong is writing from Hong Kong or by writers based in Hong Kong. ... See also Culture of Taiwan List of Taiwanese authors External links Contemporary Authors Full-Text & Image System 當代文學史料影像全文系統 (in Chinese characters) Mimesis and Motivation in Taiwan Colonial Fiction On-line Alliance of Taiwans Modern Poetry 臺灣&#29694... // Chinese Tea Classics Tea as a beverage was introduced to China no later than the fifth century BCE. The earliest extant mention of tea in literature is in the Shih Ching or Book of Changes, written circa 550 BCE. Although the ideogram used (Tu) also can designate a variety of... Shen Kuo (沈括) (1031-1095 AD) The Dream Pool Essays (Pinyin: Meng Xi Bi Tan; Wade-Giles: Meng Chi Pi Tan Chinese: 梦溪笔谈) was an extensive book written by the polymath Chinese scientist and statesman Shen Kuo (1031-1095) by 1088 AD, during the Song Dynasty (960-1279) of China. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Needham, Volume 3, 500–501.

References

  • Needham, Joseph (1986). Science and Civilization in China: Volume 3, Mathematics and the Sciences of the Heavens and the Earth. Taipei: Caves Books Ltd.
  • China

This article contains material from the Library of Congress Country Studies, which are United States government publications in the public domain. The Country Studies are works published by the Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress ( USA), freely available for use by researchers. ... The U.S. Constitution, adopted in 1789 by a constitutional convention, sets down the basic framework of American government in its seven articles. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


External links

  • MCLC Resource Center--Literature - bibliography of scholarly studies and translations of modern Chinese literature
  • Chinese Text Project - Early classical texts with English and modern Chinese translations
  • http://www.china-on-site.com/comicindex.php - manhua retellings of old Chinese legends
  • WuxiaWorld - English translations of Wuxia genre novels
  • Renditions - English translations of modern and classical Chinese literature
  • China the Beautiful - Chinese Art and Literature - Early classical texts

Manhua (Traditional Chinese: 漫畫; Simplified Chinese: 漫画; Pinyin: ) is a general term for comics produced in China, often including Chinese translations of Japanese manga. ... Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and Republic of China (Taiwan) For other meanings, see China (disambiguation). ... In the Peoples Republic of China, National Scenic and Historic Interest Area is the exact equivalent of the National Park, as specified by the Ministry of Construction in 1994. ... The Water resources of China are affected by pollution, contamination and regional scarcity. ... This is a list of rivers which are at least partially located in China, classified according to their respective termini: // Indus (印度河) Yarlung Tsangpo River (Brahmaputra) (雅鲁藏布江) (joins the Ganges) [1] Salween (萨尔温江 or 怒江) Mekong (江) Red River (Vietnam) (红河, a. ... Chinese Mountain Cat Wildlife of China includes its flora and fauna and their natural habitats. ... A province, in the context of China, is a translation of Sheng (Chinese: 省 ShÄ›ng), which is an administrative division of China. ... According to administrative divisions of the Peoples Republic of China, there are three level of cities, namely municipalities, prefecture-level cities, and county-level cities. ... Demographics of China, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands. ... This article is about migration in the Peoples Republic of China. ... Continuing to occupy more than half of Chinas population, Rural life in the Peoples Republic of China has a varied range in terms of standard of living and living style. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Social issues in the Peoples Republic of China in the 21st century are varied. ... When the Communist Party of China came to power in 1949, its leaders fundamental long-range goals were to transform China into a modern, powerful, socialist nation. ... This article is about Communications in mainland China. ... Chinas financial system is highly regulated and relatively underdeveloped, but has recently begun to expand rapidly as monetary policy becomes integral to its overall economic policy. ... Special Economic Zones of the Peoples Republic of China are Special Economic Zones (SEZs) located in mainland China. ... Foreign aid to the Peoples Republic of China takes the form of both bilateral and multilateral official development assistance and official aid to individual recipients. ... The term Administration, as used in the context of government, differs according to jurisdiction. ... Civil and state flag and ensign. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Government of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Elections in the Peoples Republic of China take two forms: elections for selected local government positions in selected rural villages, and elections by Communist Party peoples congresses for the national legislature: the National Peoples Congress (Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahui). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Flag of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) The Nationality Law of the Peoples Republic of China (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó guójí fÇŽ) regulates citizenship in the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... The civil service of the Peoples Republic of China consists of civil servants of all levels who run the day-to-day affairs in mainland China. ... The Chinese court system is based on civil law, modeled after the legal systems of Germany and France. ... This article is about the welfare system in the Peoples Republic of China. ... The foreign relations of the Peoples Republic of China draws upon traditions extending back to China in the Qing Dynasty and the Opium Wars, despite China having undergone many radical upheavals over the past two and a half centuries. ... Law enforcement in the the Peoples Republic of China are divided between the Peoples Armed Police Ministry of Public Security of China The security apparatus is made up of the Ministry of State Security and the Ministry of Public Security, the People’s Armed Police, the People’s... Terrorism in China is primarily committed by Muslim separatist militants in the Xinjiang Uyghur and Tibet autonomous regions. ... Science and technology in China is currently experiencing rapid growth. ... Water supply and sanitation in China is undergoing a massive transition while facing numerous challenges such as rapid urbanization, a widening gap between rich and poor as well as urban and rural areas, as well as water scarcity, contamination and pollution. ... The following are international rankings of the Peoples Republic of China. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Chinese Jade ornament with flower design, Jin Dynasty (1115-1234 AD), Shanghai Museum. ... Chinese cuisine (Chinese: 中國菜) originated from different regions of China and has become widespread in many other parts of the world — from East Asia to North America, Australasia and Western Europe. ... Chinese literature spans back thousands of years, from the earliest recorded dynastic court archives to the matured fictional novel arising in the medieval period to entertain the masses of literate Chinese. ... The music of China dates back to the dawn of Chinese civilization with documents and artifacts providing evidence of a well-developed musical culture as early as the Zhou Dynasty (1122 BC - 256 BC). ... Yin Yang symbol and Ba gua paved in a clearing outside of Nanning City, Guangxi province, China. ... Sexuality in China has undergone revolutionary changes and this sexual revolution still continues today. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Kung fu redirects here. ... Variety arts in China, including tightrope walking, acrobatics, animal acts, and sleight of hand date back at least as far as the Han dynasty (206 B.C.-A.D. 220) and were very popular in the imperial court. ... National Day in 2004, Beihai Park. ... The history of China is told in traditional historical records that refer as far back as the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors about 5,000 years ago, supplemented by archaeological records dating to the 16th century BC. China is one of the worlds oldest continuous civilizations. ... The following is a timeline of the history of China. ... The history of China is told in traditional historical records that refer as far back as the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors about 5,000 years ago, supplemented by archaeological records dating to the 16th century BC. China is one of the worlds oldest continuous civilizations. ... ‹ The template below (History of China - BC) is being considered for deletion. ... Main articles: History of China and History of the Peoples Republic of China The history of the Peoples Republic of China is often divided distinctly by historians into the Mao era and the post-Mao era. The Mao era lasted from the founding of the Peoples Republic... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... // After the June 4th Incident, a large number of overseas Chinese students were granted political refuge almost unconditionally by foreign governments. ... // In November 2002 Jiang Zemin stepped down from the powerful Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China to make way for a younger fourth generation of leadership led by Hu Jintao. ... The sub-pages of this article aim to list articles on Wikipedia that are related to China, including Hong Kong and Macau. ...


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