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Encyclopedia > Chinese culture

Chinese culture has roots going back over five thousand years. Though regional differences provide a sense of diversity, commonalities in language and religion connect a culture distinguished by such south terrebonne is awesome!!! its the shit !! contributions as Confucianism and Taoism. Confucianism was the official philosophy throughout most of Imperial China's history, and traditional Chinese culture is heavily influenced by it. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Confucian temple in Jiading district, Shanghai. ... Taoism (pronounced and often written as Daoism (dow-ism) is the English name for a cluster of Chinese religious and philosophical traditions. ... China is the worlds oldest continuous major civilization, with written records dating back about 3,500 years and with 5,000 years being commonly used by Chinese as the age of their civilization. ...

With the rise of Western economic and military power over China beginning in the mid-19th century, however, non-Chinese systems of social and political organization gained adherents in China. Some of these would-be reformers totally rejected China's cultural legacy, while others sought to combine the strengths of Chinese and Western cultures. In essence, the history of 20th century China is one of experimentation to find a new system of social, political, and economic organization that would allow for the reintegration of the nation in the wake of dynastic collapse. Economics (deriving from the Greek words οίκω [okos], house, and νέμω [nemo], rules hence household management) is the social science that studies the allocation of scarce resources to satisfy unlimited wants. ... Politics is the process by which decisions are made within groups. ... Economics (deriving from the Greek words οίκω [okos], house, and νέμω [nemo], rules hence household management) is the social science that studies the allocation of scarce resources to satisfy unlimited wants. ...

Main article: Chinese art
Song Dynasty (960-1279) Jian tea bowl (Metropolitan Museum of Art).
Song Dynasty (960-1279) Jian tea bowl (Metropolitan Museum of Art).

Chinese art has varied throughout its ancient history, divided into periods by the ruling dynasties of China raymond and changing technology, as well as influenced by great philosophers, teachers and religion. Early forms of art in China were made from pottery and jade in the Neolithic period, to which was added bronze in the Shang Dynasty. The Shang are most remembered for their bronze casting, noted for its clarity of detail. Early Chinese music and poetry was influenced by the Book of Songs, Confucius and the Chinese poet and statesman Qu Yuan. Early Chinese music was based on percussion instruments, which later gave away to string and reed instruments. Chinese art is art that, whether ancient or modern, originated in or is practiced in China or by Chinese artists or performers. ... Image File history File links Jian_bowl. ... Image File history File links Jian_bowl. ... The Song Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) was a ruling dynasty in China from 960-1279. ... Chinese art is art that, whether ancient or modern, originated in or is practiced in China or by Chinese artists or performers. ... Bronze vessel Beast Face Flat Feet Ding (兽面扁足鼎) dated early Shang Dynasty, 1600 - 1350BC. Remnants of advanced, stratified societies dating back to the Shang period have been found in the Yellow River Valley. ... Shī Jīng (詩經), translated variously as the Classic of Poetry, the Book of Songs or the Book of Odes, is the first major collection of Chinese poems. ... Confucius (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kung-fu-tzu, lit. ... Music of China appears to date back to the dawn of Chinese civilization, and documents and artifacts provide evidence of a well-developed musical culture as early as the Zhou Dynasty (1122 BC _ 256 BC). ...

In early imperial China, porcelain was introduced and was refined to the point that in English the word china has become synonymous with high-quality porcelain. Around the 1st century AD, Buddhism arrived in China, though it did not become popular until the 4th century. At this point, Chinese Buddhist art began to flourish, a process which continued through the 8th century. Around this period, several well-known Chinese poets influenced Chinese poetry, which included Cao Cao and his sons and Tao Qian. It was during the period of Imperial China that calligraphy and painting became highly appreciated arts in court circles, with a great deal of work done on silk until well after the invention of paper. This article is concerned with the porcelain wares of China, from early times until the present day. ... Buddhism is a dharmic, non-theistic religion, which is also a philosophy and a system of psychology. ... For other uses, see Cao Cao (disambiguation). ...

Buddhist architecture and sculpture thrived in the Sui and Tang dynasties, and the Tang dynasty was particularly open to foreign influence. Buddhist sculpture returned to a classical form, inspired by Indian art of the Gupta period. Toward the end of the Tang dynasty, all foreign religions were outlawed to support Taoism. Also during this period, Chinese poetry thrived and the Tang is considered the "Golden age" of Chinese poetry. In this period, the greatest Chinese poets, Li Po (李白) and Du Fu (杜甫) composed their poems. Late Tang poetry was marked by the influence of two poets, Li Shangyin (李商隱) and Li Yu (李漁), the latter of whom introduced the stanza form. Painting from the Tang dynasty period mainly consisted of landscape that was to grasp emotion or atmosphere to catch the "rhythm of nature." Also in the Tang dynasty, Chinese opera was introduced. The Tang Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) (18 June 618 – 4 June 907), lasting about three centuries, preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by the Song Dynasty and the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period in China. ... Taoism (pronounced and often written as Daoism (dow-ism) is the English name for a cluster of Chinese religious and philosophical traditions. ... Li Po (701-762) was a Chinese poet, considered the greatest romantic poet of the Tang dynasty. ... Du Fu or Tu Fu (February 12, 712–770) was a prominent Chinese poet of the Tang Dynasty. ... Li Shangyin (李商隱 Lǐ Shāngyǐn, also known as 李義山, Li Yishan) (between 810 and 813- 858), was a Chinese poet of the late Tang dynasty, born in Henei (now Qinyang, Henan Province). ... During the middle of the tenth century A.D. Li Houzhu ruled the Southern Tang Kingdom. ...

FIn the Song Dynasty, poetry was marked by a lyric poetry known as Ci (詞) which Uexpressed feelings of desire, often in an adopted persona. Also in the Song dynasty, paintings of Cmore subtle expression of landscapes appeared, with blurred outlines and mountain contours which kconveyed distance through an impressionistic treatment of natural phenomena. It was during this Yperiod that in painting, emphasis was placed on spiritual rather than emotional elements, as in the Oprevious period. Kunqu, the oldest extant form of Chinese opera developed during the Song UDynasty in Kunshan, near present-day Shanghai. In the Yuan dynasty, painting by the Chinese painter Zhao Mengfu (趙孟頫) greatly influenced later Chinese landscape painting, and the Yuan dynasty opera became a variant of Chinese opera which continues today as Cantonese opera. The Song Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) was a ruling dynasty in China from 960-1279. ... Ci poetry (è©ž, interchangeable with è¾­ pinyin cí) is a kind of lyric Chinese poetry. ... Kunqu (崑曲; pinyin: KÅ«nqÇ”; Wade-Giles: kun-chü), also known as Kunju, Kun opera or Kunqu Opera, is the oldest extant form of Chinese opera. ... Kunshan ( 昆山; pinyin: KÅ«nshān; Wade-Giles: Kun-shan) is a county-level city in Jiangsu, China. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Yuan Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: Yuáncháo; Mongolian: Dai Ön Yeke Mongghul Ulus), lasting officially from 1279 to 1368, followed the Song Dynasty and preceded the Ming Dynasty in the historiography of China. ... Categories: Artist stubs | Calligraphers | Chinese painters ... Cantonese opera is one of the major categories in Chinese opera, originating in southern Chinas Cantonese culture. ...

Late imperial China was marked by two specific dynasties: Ming and Qing. Of Ming Dynasty poetry, Gao Qi was acknowledged as the greatest poet of the era. Artwork in the Ming dynasty perfected color painting and color printing, with a wider color range and busier compositions than Song paintings. In the Qing dynasty, Beijing opera was introduced; it is considered the one of the best-known forms of Chinese opera. Qing poetry was marked by a poet named Yuan Mei whose poetry has been described as having "unusually clear and elegant language" and who stressed the importance of personal feeling and technical perfection. Under efforts of masters from the Shanghai School during the late Qing Dynasty, traditional Chinese art reached another climax and continued to the present in forms of the "Chinese painting" (guohua, 國畫). The Shanghai School challenged and broke the literati tradition of Chinese art, while also paying technical homage to the ancient masters and improving on existing traditional techniques. For other uses, see Ming. ... Gao Qi (1336-1374)is generally acknowledged as the greatest poet of the Ming dynasty in China. ... The Qing Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: QÄ«ng cháo; Wade-Giles: Ching chao; Manchu: daicing gurun), occasionally known as the Manchu Dynasty, was a dynasty founded by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro, in what is today northeast China, expanded into China and the surrounding territories, establishing the Empire... Yuan Mei (袁枚, 1716 - 1797) was a well-known poet, scholar and artist of the Qing Dynasty. ... It has been suggested that Chinese Painting Arts be merged into this article or section. ...

Twentieth-century Chinese art was heavily influenced by the New Culture Movement, which adopted Western techniques, introduced oil painting and employed socialist realism. Twentieth-century Chinese poetry was also influenced by the Cultural Revolution but several poets attempted to resist the Cultural Revolution by incorporating pro-democratic themes. Contemporary Chinese artists continue to produce a wide range of experimental works, multimedia installations, and performance "happenings" which have become very popular in the international art market. Students in Beijing rallied during the May Fourth Movement. ... Roses for Stalin, Boris Vladimirski, 1949 For other meanings of the term realism, see realism (disambiguation). ... The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally Proletarian Cultural Great Revolution; often abbreviated to 文化大革命 wénhuà dà gémìng, literally Great Cultural Revolution, or even simpler, to 文革 wéngé, Cultural Revolution) in the Peoples Republic of China was a struggle for power within the...

See also: National Palace Museum


Overview of the National Palace Museum. ...

Astrology and astronomy

Main article: Chinese astrology
in china, stars can be seen mainly near the eastern hempisphere due to over population in the cities which cause an overwhelming source of light which makes the stars appear non-visable
See also: Chinese constellation

Chinese astrology (as it is known today) is the divination of the future from the Chinese calendar, particularly its 12-year cycle of animals, referred to as the Chinese Zodiac. ... Chinese constellations are different from the western constellations, due to the independent development of ancient Chinese astronomy. ...


Main article: Chinese calendar
See also: Chinese New Year and Traditional Chinese holidays

The Chinese calendar is a lunisolar calendar, akin to the Hebrew calendar, incorporating elements of a lunar calendar with those of a solar calendar. ... Chinese New Year decoration in Londons Chinatown Hand-painted Chinese New Years poetry pasted on the sides of doors leading to peoples homes, Lijiang, Yunnan, China. ... The traditional Chinese holidays have been part of Chinese tradition for thousands of years; they are an essential part of Chinese Culture. ...


China's clothing varies by region, ethnic background, and economic situation. Contemporary urban clothing has developed an obsession with brand names. In major urban centers, especially Shanghai, a western look is preferred, and adults on the street dress formally rather than casually. Teenagers prefer brand names. Children usually wear clothes with a cartoon character.

See also: Cheongsam, Han Chinese clothing, Manchu official headwear, Mandarin square, Ming official headwear, and Qipao

Two women wear qipao in this 1930s Shanghai advertisement. ... Han Chinese clothing refers to the historical clothing of the Han Chinese people, especially before conquest by the Manchu Qing Dynasty in 1644. ... The headwear of an official during the Manchu Dynasty in China consisted of (in winter) a black velvet cap, or (in summer) a hat weaved in rattan or similar materials, both with a finial on top. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... The headwear of a Han Chinese official during Ming Dynasty China consisted of a black hat with two wing-like flaps (small thin oval boards) on each side. ... Two women wear qipao in this 1930s Shanghai advertisement. ...


Main article: Chinese cuisine

Chinese cuisine is widely seen as representing one of the richest and most diverse culinary cuisines and heritages in the world. ...


See also: Che Deng, Chinese dominoes, Go (board game), Gwat Pai, Mah Jong, Pai Gow, Tangram, Tien Gow, and Xiangqi

A set of Chinese dominoes Che Deng (斜釘, Cantonese: che4 deng1) literally means diagonal nails in Cantonese. ... A set of Chinese dominoes Chinese dominoes are used in several tile-based games, namely, Tien Gow, Pai Gow, Gwat Pai, Che Deng, Tiu U, Kap Tai Shap. ... Go is a strategic board game for two players. ... external link an article dated back to 1893 Categories: Game stubs ... This article discusses the four-player game of Chinese origin. ... A set of Chinese dominoes. ... A typical tangram construction Tangram (Chinese: 七巧板; Hanyu Pinyin: ; literally seven boards of cunning) is a Chinese puzzle. ... See also Pai Gow Gwat Pai Che Deng External link an article dated back to 1893 A contemporary description Categories: Game stubs ... Xiangqi (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: hsiang4-chi2;  ), is a two-player Chinese game in a family of strategic board games of which Western chess, Indian chaturanga, Japanese shogi, and the more similar Korean janggi are also members. ...


Main article: Chinese marriage

In China, the institution of marriage has only changed in the last century, although many traditional elements remain in rural areas. Previously, the elites of Chinese society were polygamists, today this phenomenon is making a come-back, especially in Hong Kong and newly developed coastal areas. More ordinary marriages, by tradition, are unions arranged by parents. Chinese marriage is relatively stable compared to marriage in Western societies; divorce has only recently become a significant issue. Marriage ceremonies are often held at restaurants, and have a mixture of Western elements, e.g. wedding cake and bride's dress, and traditional Chinese elements, e.g. monetary gifts and fireworks. Traditionally marriage in ethnic Chinese societies (Chinese: ; pinyin: hūn yīn) has been an arrangement between families. ... An arranged marriage is a marriage that is established before involving oneself in a lengthy relationship, and often involves the arrangement of someone else other than the person getting married. ... For the record label, see Divorce Records. ...

Martial arts

Main article: Chinese martial arts
See also: Bāguàzhǎng, Kung Fu, Nèijiā, Qìgōng, Shaolin kung fu, T'ai Chi Ch'üan, and Wong Fei Hung

This article provides a general overview of Chinese martial arts. ... Bagua zhang (Chinese: 八卦掌; pinyin: ) (also called Pa Kua Chang, Bagua Quan, Pa kua chüan, Bagua, Pakua, Pakua boxing) is one of the three major internal Chinese martial arts, the other two of which are Xingyiquan (形意拳) and Taijiquan (太極拳). The word bagua zhang literally means eight trigram palm. The trigrams refer... Alternative meaning: Kung Fu (TV series) Kung fu or gongfu (功夫, Pinyin: gōngfu) is a well-known Chinese term used in the West to designate Chinese martial arts. ... The term Nèijiā (Chinese: ; pinyin: nèi jÄ«a; Wade-Giles: nei4 chia1; literally internal/inside sect claimed by some schools as soft style) denotes the styles of Chinese martial arts, which Sun Lutang identified in the 1920s as Tai Chi Chuan, Xíngyìquán and... Qigong (Simplified Chinese: 气功; Traditional Chinese: 氣功; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: chi4 kung1) is an increasingly popular aspect of Chinese medicine. ... Ever since 1669, when Huang Zongxi first described Chinese martial arts in terms of a Shaolin or external school versus a Wudang or internal school,[1] Shaolin has been used as a synonym for external Chinese martial arts regardless of whether or not the particular style in question has any... Tai Chi Chüan or Taijiquan (Traditional Chinese: 太極拳; Simplified Chinese: 太极拳; pinyin: Tàijíquán; literally supreme ultimate fist), commonly known as Tai Chi, Tai Chi, or Taiji, is an internal Chinese martial art. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Wong. ...

Mass media

Within the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), there is heavy government involvement in the media, with many of the largest media organizations (namely CCTV, the Peoples Daily, and Xinhua) being agencies of the government of the PRC. There are certain taboos and red lines within the media in... Media in Hong Kong are available to the public conveniently in various forms: television and radio channels, newspapers, magazines and the World Wide Web. ... // The first newspaper that was published in Macau was “Abelha da China” (Chinese:蜜蜂華報) which had only published for a year. ... The media in Taiwan is one of the freest and most competitive in Asia. ...


Main article: Chinese mythology
See also: Chinese dragon, Fenghuang, Futs-Lung, and Qilin

Chinese mythology is a collection of cultural history, folktales, and religions that have been passed down in oral or written form. ... The Chinese dragon, or Long (also spelled Loong or Lung) in Chinese, is a mythical Chinese creature that also appears in other East Asian cultures, and is also sometimes called the Oriental (or Eastern) dragon in the West. ... Fenghuang sculpture, Nanning city, Guangxi, China. ... In Chinese mythology the Futs-Lung (伏藏龍 Pinyin: Fúcánglóng), or Futs-Long, are the Chinese underworld dragons which guard buried treasures, both natural and man-made. ... A qilin of the Qing dynasty – note the antlers, closer in style to the Japanese version (Kirin) The qilin, also spelled kylin (Chinese: 麒麟; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: chilin; Cantonese: kay-lun; Hokkien: kee lin), kỳ lân (in Vietnamese) or kirin (from Japanese), is a mythical hooved Chinese creature...

Philosophy and religion

No religion has ever been dominant in China, although world religions such as Islam and Christianity have some followers. In contrast to Western societies and the Middle East, Chinese religion has always resided in a gray area between traditional Chinese superstitions, several persisting schools of thought and philosophies, and the dominant political norm of the day. Generally religions that have gained a significant following in China have been non-theistic, most prominently Buddhism, which made its way to China during the Tang Dynasty. Confucianism and Taoism are doctrines which contain philosophical as well as religious elements. These two ideologies do not subscribe to the equivalent of a God, but rather try to explain life and a person's surroundings with observations and principles. Chinese monk lighting incense in Beijing temple. ... Yin Yang symbol and Ba gua paved in a clearing outside of Nanning City, Guangxi province, China. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... The number 13 is often avoided in public buildings, also floors, doors and this Santa Anita Park horse stall. ... Nontheism or non-theism is the absence of belief in any gods. ... Buddhism is a dharmic, non-theistic religion, which is also a philosophy and a system of psychology. ... The Tang Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) (18 June 618 – 4 June 907), lasting about three centuries, preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by the Song Dynasty and the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period in China. ... Confucian temple in Jiading district, Shanghai. ... Taoism (pronounced and often written as Daoism (dow-ism) is the English name for a cluster of Chinese religious and philosophical traditions. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ...

See also: Bodhidharma, Confucius, Dalai Lama, Eastern philosophy, Five elements (Chinese philosophy), Guanyin, I Ching, Lao Zi, Listing of noted Confucianists, Listing of noted Taoists, Mohism, Qi, and Yin Yang

Bodhidharma was the Buddhist monk (usually Indian by most accounts) is credited as the founder of Chan/Zen Buddhism in 6th century China. ... Confucius (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kung-fu-tzu, lit. ... The 13th Dalai Lama, Thubten Gyatso (1876-1933). ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Chinese Wood (木) | Fire (火) Earth (土) | Metal (金) | Water (æ°´) Hinduism and Buddhism Vayu / Pavan — Air / Wind Agni / Tejas — Fire Akasha — Aether Prithvi / Bhumi — Earth Ap / Jala — Water In traditional Chinese philosophy, natural phenomena can be classified into the Five Elements (Chinese: ; pinyin: wÇ”xíng): wood, fire, earth, metal, and water (木, 火, 土, 金, æ°´; mù, hu... Kuan Yin (Pinyin: Guanyin; also written Kwan Yin or in other variants which hyphenate or remove the space between the two words) is the bodhisattva of compassion as venerated by East Asian Buddhists. ... Alternative meaning: I Ching (monk) The I Ching (Traditional Chinese: 易經, pinyin y jīng; Cantonese IPA: jɪk6gɪŋ1; Cantonese Jyutping: jik6ging1; alternative romanizations include I Jing, Yi Ching, Yi King) is the oldest of the Chinese classic texts. ... Lao Zi (Chinese 老子, also spelled Laozi, Lao Tzu, or Lao Tse) is a major figure in Chinese philosophy whose historical existence is debated. ... This is a partial list of people who follow Confucianism, selected for their influence on that belief, or for their fame in other areas. ... Classical Lao Zi Zhuang Zi (Chuang Tzu) Lie Zi Huai-nan Tzu Yang Hsiung Wang Pi Ho Yen Kuo Hsiang Zhang Daoling Zhang Sanfeng Modern Abbot Wang Alan Watts Ursula K. Le Guin See also: Taoism, List of people by belief Categories: Lists of people by belief | Taoists ... Founded by Mozi, Mohism (墨家), or Moism, is a Chinese philosophy that evolved at the same time as Confucianism, Taoism and Legalism (Hundred Schools of Thought). ... For other uses, see QI (disambiguation). ... Taoists Taijitu The concept of Yin Yang originates in ancient Chinese philosophy, most likely from the observations of day turning into night and night into day. ...


See also: Face (social custom), Ganqing, and Guanxi

Chinese society refers to the social structure of China. ... Chinese social relations are social relations typified by a reciprocal social network. ... Face refers to two separate but related concepts in Chinese social relations. ... Ganqing (Chinese: 感情 Mandarin pinyin: găn qíng ) is an important concept in Chinese social relations which is loosely translated as feeling and is related to the concept of guanxi. ... Guanxi (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: gūanxi ), describes the basic dynamic in personalised networks of influence. ...

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