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Encyclopedia > Chinese civilization
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This article is about the Chinese civilization. For the two modern states using the name "China", see People's Republic of China (PRC), which governs mainland China, and Republic of China Republic of China (ROC), which governs Taiwan, Matsu, and Kinmen. For other meanings, see China (disambiguation).

China (Traditional Chinese: 中國; Simplified Chinese: 中国; Hanyu Pinyin: Zhōngguó ; Tongyong Pinyin: Jhongguó) is a cultural region and ancient civilization in East Asia. China refers to one of the world's oldest civilization comprising successive states and cultures dating back more than 6,000 years. Due to the stalemate of the last Chinese Civil War following World War II, China is currently divided into two separate countries: the People's Republic of China (PRC) and Republic of China (ROC). The PRC administers and governs mainland China, Hong Kong, and Macau, while the ROC administers and governs Taiwan and its surrounding islands. Image File history File links Padlock. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... PRC redirects here. ... The highlighted area in the map is what is commonly known as mainland China. Mainland China (Simplified Chinese: 中国大陆; Traditional Chinese: 中國大陸; pinyin: Zhōnggúo Dàlù; literally The Chinese Massive Landmass or Continental China) is an informal (disputed — see talk page) geographical term which is usually synonymous with the area... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Republic_of_China. ... Motto: None Anthem(s): National Anthem of the Republic of China Capital Taipei City (de facto) Nanjing (de jure)1 Largest city Taipei City Official language(s) Mandarin (GuóyÇ”) Government Semi-presidential system  - President Chen Shui-bian  - Vice President Annette Lu  - Premier Su Tseng-chang Establishment Xinhai Revolution   - Declared... Matsu can refer to: Matsu, a significant sea goddess in Chinese culture. ... Quemoy, Kinmen, or Chinmen (金門, pinyin: Jīnmén, POJ: Kim-mn̂g) (pop. ... // China may refer to: China, a civilization in East Asia States and regions Peoples Republic of China (PRC), a state governing Mainland China, Hong Kong, and Macau; often simply called China Mainland China, which is the territory governed by the PRC except for Hong Kong and Macau, is also... Traditional Chinese characters are one of two standard character sets. ... Simplified Chinese characters (Simplified Chinese: 简体字; Traditional Chinese: 簡體字; pinyin: jiÇŽntǐzì; also Simplified Chinese: 简化字; Traditional Chinese: 簡化字; pinyin: jiÇŽnhuàzì) are one of two standard character sets of printed contemporary Chinese written language. ... Pinyin (拼音, Pīnyīn) literally means join (together) sounds (a less literal translation being phoneticize, spell or transcription) in Chinese and usually refers to Hànyǔ Pīnyīn (汉语拼音, literal meaning: Han language pinyin), which is a system of... Image File history File links Zh-zhongguo. ... Tongyong Pinyin (Chinese: ; pinyin: Tōngyòng pÄ«nyÄ«n; literally Universal/General Usage Sound-combining) is the current official romanization of the Chinese language adopted by the national government (although not all local governments) of the Republic of China (Taiwan) since 2002. ... Ornamental jar from the Kingdom of Wu (222-280 CE) of the Three Kingdoms period. ... Cities are a major hallmark of human civilization. ... East Asia is a subregion of Asia that can be defined in either geographical or cultural terms. ... Cities are a major hallmark of human civilization. ... Ornamental jar from the Kingdom of Wu (222-280 CE) of the Three Kingdoms period. ... Combatants Chinese Nationalists Chinese Communists Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949) 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) The Chinese Civil War (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese... Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article describes a type of political entity. ... PRC redirects here. ... Motto: None Anthem(s): National Anthem of the Republic of China Capital Taipei City (de facto) Nanjing (de jure)1 Largest city Taipei City Official language(s) Mandarin (GuóyÇ”) Government Semi-presidential system  - President Chen Shui-bian  - Vice President Annette Lu  - Premier Su Tseng-chang Establishment Xinhai Revolution   - Declared... PRC redirects here. ... The highlighted area in the map is what is commonly known as mainland China. Mainland China (Simplified Chinese: 中国大陆; Traditional Chinese: 中國大陸; pinyin: Zhōnggúo Dàlù; literally The Chinese Massive Landmass or Continental China) is an informal (disputed — see talk page) geographical term which is usually synonymous with the area... Motto: None Anthem(s): National Anthem of the Republic of China Capital Taipei City (de facto) Nanjing (de jure)1 Largest city Taipei City Official language(s) Mandarin (GuóyÇ”) Government Semi-presidential system  - President Chen Shui-bian  - Vice President Annette Lu  - Premier Su Tseng-chang Establishment Xinhai Revolution   - Declared... This is a list of islands under the Republic of China administration (all claimed by the Peoples Republic of China). ...


China has one of the world's longest periods of mostly uninterrupted civilization and one of the world's longest continuously used written language systems. The successive states and cultures of China date back more than six millennia. For centuries, China was the world's most advanced civilization, and the cultural center of East Asia, with an impact lasting to the present day. China is also the source of many great technical inventions developed throughout world history, including the four great inventions of ancient China: Paper, the compass, gunpowder, and printing. The Chinese written language consists of a writing system stretching back nearly 4000 years. ... According to Chinese political theory, every dynasty goes through a dynastic cycle: A new ruler unites China and founds a new dynasty. ... Ornamental jar from the Kingdom of Wu (222-280 CE) of the Three Kingdoms period. ... Ornamental jar from the Kingdom of Wu (222-280 CE) of the Three Kingdoms period. ... East Asia is a subregion of Asia that can be defined in either geographical or cultural terms. ... Cai Lun, widely regarded as the inventor of paper The Four Great Inventions of ancient China (Chinese: 四大发明; Pinyin: Sì dà fā míng) are the compass, gunpowder, papermaking, and printing. ... Piece of A4 paper Paper is a thin, flat material produced by the amalgamation of plant fibres, which are subsequently held together without extra binder, largely by hydrogen bonds and to a small degree by fiber entanglement. ... Compass in a wooden box A compass (or mariners compass) is a navigational instrument for finding directions on the earth. ... Smokeless powder Gunpowder, whether black powder or smokeless powder, is a substance that burns very rapidly, releasing gases that act as a propellant in firearms. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...

Geography of China and geographic region labels
Geography of China and geographic region labels

Contents

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x733, 1391 KB) The Geography of China The map was drawn by Alan Mak based on a world map in Wikimedia Commons. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x733, 1391 KB) The Geography of China The map was drawn by Alan Mak based on a world map in Wikimedia Commons. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (4606x3071, 2099 KB) The photographer is Hao Wei, a Chinese exchange student attending Tipperary Institute, when he was in the vicinity of the Great Wall. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (4606x3071, 2099 KB) The photographer is Hao Wei, a Chinese exchange student attending Tipperary Institute, when he was in the vicinity of the Great Wall. ... The Great Wall in the winter The Great Wall of China (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: Wànlǐ Chángchéng; literally 10,000 Li (里)¹ long wall) is a Chinese fortification built from the 14th century until the beginning of the 17th century, in order to protect the various dynasties...

Names

Main article: Names of China

The different usages and names for China in world languages are generally consistent with how knowledge of Chinas existence first reached each culture, by two distinct routes: the northern land-route through Central Asia to East Asia The land of the Seres became known in the Europe as the...

"Zhongguo"

China is called Zhongguo (also Romanized as Chung-kuo or Jhongguo) in Mandarin Chinese. The first character zhōng (中) means "central" or "middle" while guó (国 or 國) means "country" or "region". The term is commonly translated into English as "the Middle Kingdom"[citation needed]. However, there have been arguments that it should be translated as "the Central Kingdom"[1], based on the archaic meaning of the term Zhongguo as "center part [of the world]"[2][3]. In linguistics, romanization (or Latinization, also spelled romanisation or Latinisation) is the representation of a word or language with the Roman (Latin) alphabet, or a system for doing so, where the original word or language uses a different writing system. ... Standard Mandarin is the official Chinese spoken language used by the Peoples Republic of China, the Republic of China (Taiwan) and Singapore. ...


The term has not been used consistently throughout Chinese history, and has carried varying cultural and political connotations. China is the worlds oldest continuous major civilization, with written records dating back about 3,500 years and with 5,000 years being commonly used by Chinese as the age of their civilization. ...


During the Spring and Autumn Period, it was used only to describe the states politically descended from the Western Zhou Dynasty, in the Yellow River (Huang He) valley, to the exclusion of states such as the Chu along the Yangtze River and the Qin to the west. However, by the time of the Han Dynasty, the states of Chu, Qin and others had linked themselves to the politics of Zhongguo and were already considered integral parts of a newer Zhongguo. The Spring and Autumn Period (Chinese: 春秋時代; Hanyu Pinyin: ) represented an era in Chinese history between 722 BC and 481 BC. The period takes its name from the Spring and Autumn Annals, a chronicle of the period whose authorship was traditionally attributed to Confucius. ... Alternative meaning: Zhou Dynasty (690 CE - 705 CE) The Zhou Dynasty (周朝; Wade-Giles: Chou Dynasty) (late 10th century BC to late 9th century BC - 256 BC) followed the Shang (Yin) Dynasty and preceded the Qin Dynasty in China. ... For other Yellow Rivers, see Yellow River (disambiguation). ... State of Chu (small seal script, 220 BC) Chu (楚) was a kingdom in what is now southern China during the Spring and Autumn period (722-481 BCE) and Warring States Period (481-212 BCE). ... Afternoon light on the jagged grey mountains rising from the Yangtze River gorge The Yangtze River or Chang Jiang is the longest river in Asia and the third longest in the world after the Nile in Africa and the Amazon in South America. ... Qin or Chin (Wade-Giles) (秦), pronounced something like Shin, (778 BC-207 BC) was a state during the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods of China. ... The Han Dynasty (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Han Chau; 206 BC–AD 220) followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. ...


During the Han Dynasty and before, Zhongguo had three distinctive meanings: The Han Dynasty (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Han Chau; 206 BC–AD 220) followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. ...

  1. The area around the capital or imperial domain. The Book of Poetry explicitly gives this definition.
  2. Territories under the direct control of the "central" authorities. The Records of the Grand Historian states: "Eight mountains are famed in the empire. Three are with the Man and Yi barbarians. Five are in Zhongguo."
  3. The area now called the North China Plain. The Records of Three Kingdoms records the following monologue: "If we can lead the host of Wu and Yue (the kingdoms in areas of present-day Shanghai, southern Jiangsu and northern Zhejiang) to oppose Zhongguo, then we should break off relations with them soon." In this sense, the term Zhongguo is synonymous with Hua (华 or 華) and Xia (夏), and distinct from the Wu and Yue peoples living around the Yangtze River Delta.

During the period of division after the fall of the Han Dynasty, the term Zhongguo was subjected to transformation as a result of the surge of nomadic peoples from the northern frontier. This was reinforced after the loss of the Yellow River valley, the cradle of Chinese civilization, to these peoples. For example, the Xianbei called their Northern Wei regime Zhongguo, contrasting it with the Southern Dynasties, which they called the Yi (夷), meaning "barbarian". The southern dynasties, for their part, recently exiled from the north, called the Northern Wei Lu (虜), meaning "criminal" or "prisoner". In this way Zhongguo came to represent political legitimacy. It was used in this manner from the tenth century onwards by the competing dynasties of Liao, Jin and Song. The term Zhongguo came to be related to geographic, cultural and political identity and less to ethnic origin. Shī Jīng (詩經), translated variously as the Classic of Poetry, the Book of Songs or the Book of Odes, is the first major collection of Chinese poems. ... The Records of the Grand Historian or the Records of the Grand Historian of China (Chinese: 史記; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shih-chi; literally Historical Records), written from 109 BCE to 91 BCE, was the magnum opus of Sima Qian, in which he recounted Chinese history from the time of the mythical... The North China Plain (Chinese: 华北平原; Pinyin: HuábÄ›i Píngyuán), also called the Central Plain (Chinese: 中原; Pinyin: Zhōngyuán), is based on the deposits of the Huang He (Yellow River) and is the largest alluvial plain of eastern Asia. ... The Records of Three Kingdoms (Chinese: ; Wade-Giles: Sanguo Chih), is the official and authoritative historical text on the period of Three Kingdoms covering from 189 to 280, that was composed by Chen Shou in the 3rd century. ... Wu (吳) is a region in the Jiang Nan area (the south of Yangtze River), surrounding Suzhou, in Jiangsu province of China. ... Yue (Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Yüeh4; also seen as Yueh, Yuet, Việt) refers to ancient semi-Sinicized or non-Sinicized Chinese peoples of southern China, originally those along the eastern coastline of present-day Zhejiang province and Shanghai. ... Shanghai (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Shanghainese: ), stuated on the banks of the Yangtze River Delta in East China, is the largest city of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Jiangsu (Simplified Chinese: 江苏; Traditional Chinese: 江蘇; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chiang-su; Postal System Pinyin: Kiangsu) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located along the east coast of the country. ... Zhejiang (Chinese: 浙江; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Che-chiang; Postal System Pinyin: Chehkiang or Chekiang) is an eastern coastal province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Yangtze River Delta The Yangtze River Delta (Chinese 长江三角洲/長江三角洲 chángjiāng sānjiÇŽozhōu) or Yangtze Delta, generally comprises the triangular-shaped territory of Shanghai, southern Jiangsu province and northern Zhejiang province. ... The Northern Wei Dynasty (北魏 386-534) is most noted for the unification of northern China in 440, it was also heavily involved in funding the arts and many antiques and art works from this period have survived. ... The Southern dynasties 南朝 (nanchao in pinyin: nán cháo) include Liu Song, Southern Qi, Liang Dynasty and Chen Dynasty whose capital were largely all at Jiankang (although the Southern Qi capital was briefly at Jiangling (江陵, in modern Jingzhou, Hubei) during the reign of Emperor He of Southern Qi, and... The Liao Dynasty (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: Liáo Cháo), 907-1125, also known as the Khitan Empire, was an empire in northern China that ruled over the regions of Manchuria, Mongolia, and parts of northern China proper. ... The Jin Dynasty (金 pinyin: JÄ«n 1115-1234; Anchu in Jurchen), also known as the Jurchen dynasty, was founded by the Wanyan (完顏 Wányán) clan of the Jurchen, the ancestors of the Manchus who established the Qing Dynasty some 500 years later. ... The Song Dynasty (Chinese: ) was a ruling dynasty in China from 960-1279. ...


Zhongguo quickly came to include areas farther south, as the cultural and political unit (not yet a "nation" in the modern sense) spread to include the Yangtze River and Pearl River systems. By the Tang Dynasty it included barbarian regimes such as the Xianbei and Xiongnu. Afternoon light on the jagged grey mountains rising from the Yangtze River gorge The Yangtze River or Chang Jiang is the longest river in Asia and the third longest in the world after the Nile in Africa and the Amazon in South America. ... Pearl River in Guangzhou Pearl River at night, Guangzhou The Zhu Jiang, (珠江 Pinyin: Zhū Jiāng), or Pearl River, is Chinas third longest river (2,200 km, after the Yangtze River and the Yellow River), and second largest by volume (after the Yangtze). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... // The word barbarian generally refers to an uncivilized, uncultured person, either in a general reference to a member of a nation or ethnos perceived as having an inferior level of civilization, or in an individual reference to a brutal, cruel, insensitive person whose behavior is unacceptable in a civilized society. ... The Xianbei (Simplified Chinese: 鲜卑; Traditional Chinese: 鮮卑; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsien-pei) were a significant nomadic people residing in modern Manchuria and eastern Mongolia, or Xianbei Shan, a historic term for Greater Khingan, before migrating into areas of the modern Chinese provinces of Shanxi, Shaanxi, Gansu, Qinghai, Hebei, Inner Mongolia... A Xiongnu belt buckle. ...


The Republic of China, when it controlled mainland China, and later, the People's Republic of China, have used Zhongguo to mean all the territories and peoples within their political control. Thus it is asserted that all 56 officially recognized ethnic groups are Zhongguoren (中国人 or 中國人), or Zhongguo people, though such claims remain politically controversial, especially when Zhongguo refers to the PRC.


"China"

English and many other languages use various forms of the name "China" and the prefix "Sino-" or "Sin-". These forms are thought to be probably derived from the name of the Qin Dynasty that first unified the country (221-206 BCE).[4] The Qin originated from a small warring tribe located in the Shanxi region, while the ethnic Han Chinese originated from the east branch of the Yellow River; this difference in ethnicity makes "China" a misnomer. The Qin Dynasty unified the written language in China and gave the supreme ruler of China the title of "Emperor" instead of "King," thus the subsequent Silk Road traders might have identified themselves by that name. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... In linguistics, a prefix is a type of affix that precedes the morphemes to which it can attach. ... The Qin Dynasty (Chinese: 秦朝; Pinyin: Qín Cháo; Wade-Giles: Chin Chao) (221 BC - 206 BC) was preceded by the Zhou Dynasty and followed by the Han Dynasty in China. ... The Silk Road in the 1st century CE. For other uses, see Silk Road (disambiguation). ...


The term "China" can also be used to refer to:

In economic contexts, "Greater China" (大中华地区 or 大中華地區) is a neutral and non-political way to refer to Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau and sometimes Taiwan. "Taiwan" often refers to the Republic of China. Special administrative region may be: Peoples Republic of China Special administrative regions, present-day administrative divisions (as of 2006) set up by the Peoples Republic of China to administer Hong Kong (since 1997) and Macau (since 1999) Republic of China Special administrative regions, also translated as special administrative... China proper refers to the historical heartlands of China in the context of that paradigm which contrasts these heartlands with frontier regions of Outer China (including sections of Inner Asia and other regions). ... Manchuria (Manchu: Manju; Traditional Chinese: 滿洲; Simplified Chinese: 满洲; pinyin: MÇŽnzhōu, Russian: ) is a vast territorial region in northeast Asia. ... Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N... This article is becoming very long. ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... Greater China (Traditional Chinese: 大中華地區; Simplified Chinese: 大中华地区; Pinyin: Dà Zhōnghuá DìqÅ«) is a term referring collectively to mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, and territories administered by the Republic of China (Taiwan), usually in the context of their financial markets and economies. ... The highlighted area in the map is what is commonly known as mainland China. Mainland China (Simplified Chinese: 中国大陆; Traditional Chinese: 中國大陸; pinyin: Zhōnggúo Dàlù; literally The Chinese Massive Landmass or Continental China) is an informal (disputed — see talk page) geographical term which is usually synonymous with the area... Motto: None Anthem(s): National Anthem of the Republic of China Capital Taipei City (de facto) Nanjing (de jure)1 Largest city Taipei City Official language(s) Mandarin (GuóyÇ”) Government Semi-presidential system  - President Chen Shui-bian  - Vice President Annette Lu  - Premier Su Tseng-chang Establishment Xinhai Revolution   - Declared...


Sinologists usually use "Chinese" in a more restricted sense, akin to the classical usage of Zhongguo, to the Han ethnic group, which makes up the bulk of the population in China and of the overseas Chinese. Sinology is the study of China, which usually requires a foreign scholar to have command of the Chinese language. ... Han Chinese (Simplified Chinese: 汉族; Traditional Chinese: 漢族; Pinyin: hànzú) is a term which refers to the majority ethnic group within China and the largest single human ethnic group in the world. ... Overseas Chinese are Chinese people who live outside China. ...


Cathay

Although now restricted mostly to poetic usage, the name Cathay has historically been used as a name for China, particularly its northern half. Cathay derives from the name of the Khitan ethnic group, which ruled over most of North China as the Liao Dynasty until being displaced in turn by the Jurchens from the northeast and the Mongols from the north. A cognate form, Kitay, remains the most commonly used name for China in the modern Slavic languages.[citation needed] The Khitan, in Chinese Qidan (契丹 Pinyin: Qìdān), were an ethnic group which dominated much of Manchuria and was classified in Chinese history as one of the Tungus ethnic groups (東胡族 dōng hú zú). They established the Liao dynasty in 907, which was then conquered in 1125 by the... Northern Peoples Republic of China region. ... The Liao Dynasty (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: Liáo Cháo), 907-1125, also known as the Khitan Empire, was an empire in northern China that ruled over the regions of Manchuria, Mongolia, and parts of northern China proper. ... The Jurchens (Traditional Chinese: 女眞; Simplified Chinese: 女真; pinyin: nÇšzhÄ“n) were a Tungus people who inhabited parts of Manchuria and northern Korea until the 17th century, when they became the Manchus. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup...


Seres (Σηρες)

Main article: Seres

Seres (Σηρες) was the ancient Greek and Roman name for the northwestern part of China and its inhabitants. It meant "of silk," or "land where silk comes from." The name is thought to derive from the Chinese word for silk, "si" (Traditional Chinese: 絲; Simplified Chinese: 丝; pinyin: sī). It is itself at the origin of the Latin for silk, "serica". See the main article Seres for more details. Seres (Σηρες) was the ancient Greek and Roman name for the northwestern part of China and its inhabitants. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Traditional Chinese characters are one of two standard character sets of printed contemporary Chinese written language. ... Simplified Chinese characters (Simplified Chinese: 简体字; Traditional Chinese: 簡體字; pinyin: jiǎntǐzì; also called 简化字/簡化字, jiǎnhuàzì) are one of two standard character sets of printed contemporary Chinese written language. ... Pinyin is a system of romanization (phonemic notation and transcription to Roman script) for Standard Mandarin, where pin means spell and yin means sound. The most common variant of pinyin in use is called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: , Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: HànyÇ” PÄ«nyÄ«n), also known as scheme... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Seres (Σηρες) was the ancient Greek and Roman name for the northwestern part of China and its inhabitants. ...


Sinae

Sinae was an ancient Greek and Roman name for some people who dwelt south of the Seres in the eastern extremity of the inhabitable world. References to the Sinae include mention of a city that the ancients called "the metropolis of the Sinae," the identity of which is unknown to modern scholars. Although the name Sinae appears to be derived from the same etymological source as the Latin prefixes Sino- and Sin-, which are traditionally used to refer to China and the Chinese, there is some controversy as to the ultimate origin of these terms, as their use in historical texts of classical antiquity in the West appears to antedate the emergence of the Qin Dynasty and its empire, the name of which has often been cited as the source of Latin Sino- and Sin-.[citation needed] Seres (Σηρες) was the ancient Greek and Roman name for the northwestern part of China and its inhabitants. ... The Qin Dynasty (Chinese: 秦朝; Pinyin: Qín Cháo; Wade-Giles: Chin Chao) (221 BC - 206 BC) was preceded by the Zhou Dynasty and followed by the Han Dynasty in China. ...


History

Main articles: History of China and Timeline of Chinese history

China was one of the earliest centers of human civilization. Chinese civilization was also one of the few to invent writing independently, the others being ancient Mesopotamia (Sumerians), Ancient India (Indus Valley Civilization), the Mayan Civilization, and Ancient Egypt. The Chinese script is still used today by the Chinese and Japanese, and to a lesser extent by Koreans and Vietnamese. This script is one of the few, and the only major, logographic script still used in the world. The history of China is detailed by historical records dating as far back as 16th century BC. China is one of the worlds oldest continuous civilizations. ... The following is a timeline of the history of China: For a summary table of the dynasties in chinker history and their dates, check here. ... Cities are a major hallmark of human civilization. ... Writing Systems of the World today A Specimen of typeset fonts and languages, by William Caslon, letter founder; from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Sumer (or Shumer, Egyptian Sangar, Bib. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro, Sindh, Pakistan. ... The Maya civilization is a culture Mesoamerican civilization, noted for the only known fully developed written language of the pre-Columbian Americas, its spectacular art and monumental architecture, and sophisticated mathematical and astronomical systems. ... Khafres Pyramid (4th dynasty) and Great Sphinx of Giza (c. ... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... A Chinese logogram A logogram, or logograph, is a single written character which represents a word or a morpheme (a meaningful unit of language). ...


Prehistory

Archaeological evidence suggests that the earliest occupants in China date to as long as 2.24 million to 250,000 years ago by an ancient human relative (hominin) known as Homo erectus. One particular cave in Zhoukoudian (near current-day Beijing) has fossilized evidence that current dating techniques put at somewhere between 300,000 and 550,000 years old. Evidence of primitive stone tool technology and animal bones associated with H. erectus have been studied since the late 18th to 19th centuries in various areas of Eastern Asia including Indonesia (in particular Java) and Malaysia. It is thought that these early hominids first evolved in Africa during the Pleistocene epoch. By 2 million years ago, the first migration wave of H. erectus settled throughout the Old World. Genera Gorilla Pan (chimpanzees) Homo (humans) Paranthropus (extinct) Australopithecus (extinct) Sahelanthropus (extinct) Ardipithecus (extinct) Kenyanthropus (extinct) Homininae is a subfamily of Hominidae, including Homo sapiens and some extinct relatives, as well as the gorillas and the chimpanzees. ... Binomial name †Homo erectus (Dubois, 1892) Synonyms † Pithecanthropus erectus † Sinanthropus pekinensis † Javanthropus soloensis † Meganthropus paleojavanicus Homo erectus (Upright Man) is an extinct species of genus Homo. ... Zhoukoudian Peking Man Site - the Caves (taken in July 2004) Zhoukoudian or Choukoutien (周口店) is a cave system near Beijing in China. ... Beijing [English Pronunciation] (Chinese: 北京 [Chinese Pronunciation]; Pinyin: Běijīng; IPA: ), a city in northern China, is the capital of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... East Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Java (Indonesian, Javanese, and Sundanese: Jawa) is an island of Indonesia, and the site of its capital city, Jakarta. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa. ... The Pleistocene epoch (IPA: ) is part of the geologic timescale. ... The Old World consists of those parts of Earth known to Europeans before the voyages of Christopher Columbus; it includes Europe, Asia, and Africa (collectively known as Africa-Eurasia), plus surrounding islands. ...


Fully modern humans (Homo sapiens) are believed to originally have evolved roughly 200,000 and 168,000 years ago in the area of Ethiopia or Southern Africa (Homo sapiens idaltu). By 100,000 to 50,000 years ago, modern human beings had settled in all parts of the Old World (25,000 to 11,000 BCE in the New World). In the last 100,000 years, all proto-human populations disappeared as modern humans took over or drove other human species into extinction. Trinomial name Homo sapiens sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Humans, or human beings, are bipedal primates belonging to the mammalian species Homo sapiens (Latin for wise man or knowing man) under the family Hominidae (known as the great apes). ... Categories: Africa geography stubs | Southern Africa ... Trinomial name Homo sapiens idaltu White et al, 2003 Homo sapiens idaltu (roughly translated as elderly wise man) is an extinct subspecies of Homo sapiens that lived almost 160,000 years ago in Pleistocene Africa. ... Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, c. ...


The earliest evidence of fully modern humans in China comes from Liujiang, China where a cranium has been found dating from 67,000 years ago. There is a partial skeleton from Minatogawa that is only 18,000 years old.


Dynastic rule

The first dynasty according to Chinese sources was the Xia Dynasty, but it was believed to be mythical until scientific excavations were made at early bronze-age sites at Erlitou in Henan Province. Since then, archaeologists have uncovered urban sites, bronze implements, and tombs that point to the possible existence of the Xia dynasty at the same locations cited in ancient Chinese historical texts. // For other uses, see Dynasty (disambiguation). ... This article is about the extremely ancient Chinese dynasty whose existence has yet to be thoroughly confirmed by archaeology. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use) consisted of techniques for smelting copper and tin from naturally occurring outcroppings of ore, and then alloying those metals in order to cast bronze. ... The Erlitou culture (二里頭文化) (1900 BC to 1500 BC) is a name given by archaeologists to an Early Bronze Age society that existed in China. ... Henan (Chinese: 河南; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-nan), is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located in the central part of the country. ...


The first reliable historical dynasty is the Shang, which settled along the Yellow River in eastern China from the 18th to the 12th century BCE. The Shang were invaded from the west by the Zhou who ruled from the 12th to the 5th century BCE. The centralized authority of the Zhou was slowly eroded by warlords. In the Spring and Autumn period there were many strong, independent states continually warring with each other, who deferred to the Zhou state in name only. The first unified Chinese state was established by the Qin Dynasty in 221 BCE, when the office of the emperor was set up. This state did not last long, as its legalist approach to control soon led to widespread rebellion. The Shāng Dynasty (Chinese: 商朝) or Yīn Dynasty (殷代) (ca. ... For other Yellow Rivers, see Yellow River (disambiguation). ... The Zhou Dynasty (Chinese: 周朝; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: chou chao; 11th century BC to 256 BC) followed the Shang (Yin) Dynasty and preceded the Qin Dynasty in China. ... The Spring and Autumn Period (Chinese: 春秋時代; Hanyu Pinyin: ) represented an era in Chinese history between 722 BC and 481 BC. The period takes its name from the Spring and Autumn Annals, a chronicle of the period whose authorship was traditionally attributed to Confucius. ... The Zhou Dynasty (周朝; Wade-Giles: Chou Dynasty) (late 10th century BC or 9th century BC to 256 BC) followed the Shang (Yin) Dynasty and preceded the Qin Dynasty in China. ... The Qin Dynasty (Chinese: 秦朝; Pinyin: Qín Cháo; Wade-Giles: Chin Chao) (221 BC - 206 BC) was preceded by the Zhou Dynasty and followed by the Han Dynasty in China. ... An emperor is a (male) monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. ... Legalism, in the Western sense, is an approach to the analysis of legal questions characterized by abstract logical reasoning focusing on the applicable legal text, such as a constitution, legislation, or case law, rather than on the social, economic, or political context. ...


The Han Dynasty lasted from 206 BCE until 220 CE. Another period of disunion followed. In 580 CE, China was reunited under the Sui. Under the succeeding Tang and Song dynasties, China had its golden age. Between the 7th and 14th centuries, China was one of the most advanced civilizations in the world in technology, literature, and art, although change was gradual. In 1271, Mongol leader Kublai Khan established the Yuan Dynasty, with the last remnant of the Song Dynasty falling to the Yuan in 1279. A peasant named Zhu Yuanzhang overthrew the Mongols in 1368 and founded the Ming Dynasty, which lasted until 1644. The Manchu-founded Qing Dynasty, which lasted until the overthrow of Puyi in 1911, was the final dynasty of China. The Han Dynasty (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Han Chau; 206 BC–AD 220) followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. ... The Sui Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: suí cháo; 581-618) followed the Southern and Northern Dynasties and preceded the Tang Dynasty in China. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Song Dynasty (Chinese: ) was a ruling dynasty in China from 960-1279. ... Cities are a major hallmark of human civilization. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... The word leadership can refer to: the process of leading the concept of leading those entities that perform one or more acts of leading. ... Kublai Khan, Khubilai Khan or the last of the Great Khans (September 23, 1215 - February 18, 1294) (Mongolian: Хубилай хаан, Chinese: , also spelled as Kubilay Han in Turkic), was a Mongol military leader. ... The Yuan Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: Yuáncháo; Mongolian: Dai Ön Yeke Mongghul Ulus) lasting officially from 1271 to 1368. ... The Hongwu Emperor (October 21, 1328 - June 24, 1398), personal name Zhu Yuanzhang, was the founder of the Ming Dynasty of China, and the first emperor of this dynasty from 1368 to 1398. ... Ming redirects here. ... The Qing Dynasty (Chinese: ; Pinyin: Qīng cháo; Wade-Giles: Ching chao; Manchu: daicing gurun), occasionally known as the Manchu Dynasty, is a Chinese term for the Empire of the Great Qing (Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: dàqīngguó), founded by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro, in what... Puyi (Chinese: (Traditional), (Simplified), Pǔyí (Pinyin)) (February 7, 1906–October 17, 1967) of the Manchu Aisin-Gioro ruling family was the last Emperor of China between 1908 and 1924 (ruling emperor between 1908 and 1912, and non-ruling emperor between 1912 and 1924), the tenth and last emperor of...


Regime change was often violent and the new ruling class usually needed to take special measures to ensure the loyalty of the overthrown dynasty. For example, after the Manchus conquered China, the Manchu rulers put into effect measures aimed at subduing the Han Chinese identity, such as the requirement for the Han Chinese to wear the Manchu hairstyle, the queue. The Manchu (manju in Manchu; 滿族 (pinyin: mǎnzú) in Chinese, often shortened to 滿 (pinyin: mǎn) are an ethnic group who originated in northeastern Manchuria. ... Han Chinese (Simplified Chinese: 汉族; Traditional Chinese: 漢族; Pinyin: hànzú) is a term which refers to the majority ethnic group within China and the largest single human ethnic group in the world. ... A ponytail is a hairstyle in which most or all of the hair on the head is pulled away from the face, gathered and secured at the back of the head with a hair tie, clip or similar device, and allowed to hang freely from that point. ...


In the 18th century, China achieved a decisive technological advantage over the peoples of Central Asia, with which it had been at war for several centuries, while simultaneously falling behind Europe. Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ...


In the 19th century China adopted a defensive posture towards European imperialism, even though it engaged in imperialistic expansion into Central Asia itself. At this time China awoke to the significance of the rest of the world, in particular the West. As China opened up to foreign trade and missionary activity opium became available. Two Opium Wars with Britain weakened the Emperor's control. One result was the Taiping Civil War which lasted from 1851 to 1862. It was started by Hong Xiuquan, who was partly influenced by Christianity and believed himself the son of God and the younger brother of Jesus. Although the imperial forces were eventually victorious, the civil war was one of the bloodiest in human history, costing at least twenty million lives (more than the total number of fatalities in the First World War), with some estimates of over 30 million. The flow of opium led to more decline, even in the face of noble efforts by missionaries such as Hudson Taylor and the China Inland Mission to stem the tide. Further destruction followed the Boxer Rebellion of 1900 which aimed to repel Westerners. Although secretly supporting the rebels, Empress Ci Xi publicly aided foreign forces suppressing the uprising. In the end the Boxers were defeated by the Eight-Nation Alliance. Imperialism is a policy of extending control or authority over foreign entities as a means of acquisition and/or maintenance of empires. ... Western imperialism in Asia traces its roots back to the late 15th century with a series of voyages that sought a sea passage to India in the hope of establishing direct trade between Europe and Asia in spices. ... Opium, or opïum is a narcotic analgesic drug which is obtained from the unripe seed pods of the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L. or the synonym paeoniflorum). ... There were two Opium Wars between Britain and China. ... Combatants Qing Empire Taiping Heavenly Kingdom Commanders Xianfeng Emperor, Tongzhi Emperor, Empress Dowager Cixi Hong Xiuquan The Taiping Rebellion (1851–1864) was perhaps the bloodiest civil war in human history, a clash between the forces of the Qing Empire in China and those inspired by a Hakka self-proclaimed mystic... A statue of Hong Xiuquan Hóng Xiùquán (洪秀全, Wade-Giles: Hung Hsiu-chüan, born Hong Renkun 洪仁坤, Courtesy name Huoxiu 火秀; January 10, 1812-June 1, 1864) was a Hakka Chinese Christian who led the Taiping Rebellion and established the Heavenly Kingdom of Taiping, in which he was known... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Jesus (8–2 BC/BCE to 29–36 AD/CE),[1] also known as Jesus of Nazareth, is the central figure of Christianity. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... Hudson Taylor. ... The China Inland Mission was a missionary society, set up by English missionary Hudson Taylor on 25 June 1865 in Brighton during a home leave. ... Combatants Eight-Nation Alliance (ordered by contribution): Japan Russia United Kingdom France United States Germany Italy Austria-Hungary Righteous Harmony Society Qing China Commanders Edward Seymour Alfred Gaselee Ci Xi Strength 20,000 initially 49,000 total Over 100,000 Casualties 230 foreigners, thousands of civilians Unknown This article is... Empress Dowager Cixi Empress Dowager Cixi (Chinese: 慈禧太后; Wade-Giles: Tzu-hsi) (November 29, 1835–November 15, 1908), popularly known in China as the Western Empress Dowager (西太后), and officially known posthumously as Empress Xiaoqin Xian (孝欽顯皇后), was a... Military of the Powers during the Boxer Rebellion, with their naval flags, from left to right: Italy, United States, France, Austria-Hungary, Japan, Germany, United Kingdom, Russia. ...

See also: Dynasties in Chinese history and Chinese sovereign

Below is a table of the dynasties in Chinese history. ... The king or wang (王 wáng) was the Chinese head of state from the Zhou to Qin dynasties. ...

Republican China

At the 1924 inauguration of the Whampoa Military Academy, Sun Yat-sen delivered a speech that would later become the lyrics of the ROC's national Anthem.
At the 1924 inauguration of the Whampoa Military Academy, Sun Yat-sen delivered a speech that would later become the lyrics of the ROC's national Anthem.

On January 1, 1912, the Republic of China was established, ending the Qing Dynasty. Sun Yat-sen of the Kuomintang (KMT or Nationalist Party), was proclaimed provisional president of the republic. However, Yuan Shikai, a former Qing general who had defected to the revolutionary cause, soon forced Sun to step aside and took the presidency for himself. Yuan then attempted to have himself proclaimed emperor of a new dynasty; however, he died of natural causes before fully taking power over all of the Chinese empire. Image File history File links Whampoa1. ... Image File history File links Whampoa1. ... The Nationalist Party of China Army Officer Academy (Chinese: 中國國民黨陸軍軍官學校; pinyin: ), commonly known as the Whampoa Military Academy (Chinese: 黃埔軍校; pinyin: ), was a military academy in China that produced many prestigious commanders who fought in the Sino-Japanese War and Chinese Civil War. ... Sun Yat-sen (November 12, 1866–March 12, 1925) was a Chinese revolutionary and political leader who had a significant role in the overthrow of the Qing Dynasty. ... At the inauguration of the Whampoa Military Academy, Sun Yat-sen delivered a speech that would later become the lyrics of the national anthem. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Sun Yat-sen (November 12, 1866–March 12, 1925) was a Chinese revolutionary and political leader who had a significant role in the overthrow of the Qing Dynasty. ... The Chinese Nationalist Party (Traditional Chinese: 中國國民黨; Simplified Chinese: 中国国民党; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chung-kuo Kuo-min-tang), commonly known as the Kuomintang (KMT), is a centre-right political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in terms of sitting Legislative... Yuan Shikai in military uniform Yuan Shikai (Courtesy Weiting 慰亭; Pseudonym: Rongan 容庵 Traditional Chinese: 袁世凱; Simplified Chinese: 袁世凯; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Yüan Shih-kai) (September 16, 1859 – June 5, 1916) was a Chinese military official and politician during the late Qing Dynasty and the early Republic of China. ...


After Yuan Shikai's death, China was politically fragmented, with an internationally-recognized, but virtually powerless, national government seated in Beijing. Warlords in various regions exercised actual control over their respective territories. In the late 1920s, the Kuomintang, under Chiang Kai-shek, was able to reunify the country under its own control, moving the nation's capital to Nanjing and implementing "political tutelage", an intermediate stage of political development outlined in Sun Yat-sen's program for transforming China into a modern, democratic state. Effectively, political tutelage meant one-party rule by the Kuomintang. Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887–April 5, 1975) was a Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the 1925 death of Sun Yat-sen. ...


The Sino-Japanese War of 1937-1945 (part of World War II) forced an uneasy alliance between the Nationalists and the Communists. With the surrender of Japan in 1945, China emerged victorious but financially drained. The continued distrust between the Nationalists and the Communists led to the resumption of the Chinese Civil War. In 1947, constitutional rule was established, but because of the ongoing Civil War many provisions of the ROC constitution were never implemented on the mainland. The Second Sino-Japanese War was a major invasion of eastern China by Japan preceding and during World War II. It ended with the surrender of Japan in 1945. ... Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Combatants Chinese Nationalists Chinese Communists Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949) 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) The Chinese Civil War (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese...

See also: History of the Republic of China

The Republic of China (Traditional Chinese: 中華民國; Pinyin: Zhōng huá mín guó) succeeded the Qing Dynasty in 1912, ending 2,000 years of imperial rule. ...

The People's Republic of China and the Republic of China

After its victory in the Chinese Civil War, the Communist Party of China controlled most of Mainland China. On October 1, 1949, they established the People's Republic of China, laying claim to be the successor state of the ROC. The central government of the ROC was forced to retreat to the island of Taiwan. Major armed hostilities ceased in 1950 but both sides are technically still at war. The Communist Party of China (CPC) (official name) also known as Chinese Communist Party (CCP) (Simplified Chinese: 中国共产党; Traditional Chinese: 中國共産黨; Pinyin: Zhōngguó Gòngchǎndǎng) is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The highlighted area in the map is what is commonly known as mainland China. Mainland China (Simplified Chinese: 中国大陆; Traditional Chinese: 中國大陸; pinyin: Zhōnggúo Dàlù; literally The Chinese Massive Landmass or Continental China) is an informal (disputed — see talk page) geographical term which is usually synonymous with the area... October 1 is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... The succession of states theory asserts that all possessions and territory held by a state are automatically transferred to the successor state, the state which succeeds it. ...


Beginning in the late 1970s, the Republic of China began the implementation of full, multi-party, representative democracy in the territories still under its control (i.e., Taiwan Province, Taipei, Kaohsiung and some offshore islands of Fujian province). Today, the ROC has active political participation by all sectors of society. The main cleavage in ROC politics is the issue of eventual unification with China vs. formal independence. Representative democracy is a form of democracy founded on the exercise of popular sovereignty by the peoples representatives. ... Taiwan Province can refer to an existing administrative division under the government of the Republic of China or the claimed 23rd province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Nickname: the City of Azaleas Government Official Website City of Taipei Mayor Ma Ying-jeou Capital District Xinyi Geographical characteristics Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 16 of 25 271. ... Kaohsiung City (Traditional Chinese:高雄市, Tongyong Pinyin: Gaosyóng, Hanyu Pinyin: Gāoxióng, POJ: Ko-hiông; coordinates 22°38N, 120°16E) is a city located in southern Taiwan. ... (Chinese: 福建; Pinyin: Fújiàn; Wade-Giles: Fu-chien; Postal System Pinyin: Fukien, Foukien; local transliteration Hokkien from Min Nan Hok-kiàn) is one of the provinces on the southeast coast of China. ...


Post-1978 reforms on the mainland have led to some relaxation of the control over many areas of society. However, the Chinese government still has absolute control over politics, and it continually seeks to eradicate threats to the stability of the country . Examples include the fight against terrorism, jailing of political opponents and journalists, custody regulation of the press, regulation of religions, and suppression of independence/secessionist movements. In 1989, the student protests at Tiananmen Square were violently put to an end by the Chinese military after 15 days of martial law. Terrorist redirects here. ... A dissident, broadly defined, is a person who actively opposes an established opinion, policy, or structure. ... A journalist is a person who practices journalism. ... The Unknown Rebel - This famous photo, taken by Associated Press photographer Jeff Widener, depicts a lone protester, whose actions halted the progress of a column of advancing tanks until he was pulled into the crowd. ... Tiananmen Square (Simplified Chinese: 天安门广场; Traditional Chinese: 天安門廣場; Pinyin: Tiānānmén Guǎngchǎng) is the large plaza near the center of Beijing, China, named after the Tiananmen (literally, Gate of Heavenly Peace) which sits to its north, separating it from the Forbidden City. ...


In 1997 Hong Kong was returned to the PRC by the United Kingdom and in 1999 Macao was returned by Portugal.

See also: History of Hong Kong, History of Macau, and History of the Republic of China

Hong Kong, a coastal city in southern China, has evolved from a fishing village, salt production site, trading and military port into an international financial center that enjoys the worlds ninth highest GNP per capita,[1] and supports a third of foreign capital flows into China. ... This article details the history of Macau. ... The Republic of China (Traditional Chinese: 中華民國; Pinyin: Zhōng huá mín guó) succeeded the Qing Dynasty in 1912, ending 2,000 years of imperial rule. ...

Present

Today, the Republic of China continues to exist on Taiwan, while the People's Republic of China controls the Chinese mainland. The PRC continues to be dominated by the Communist Party, but the ROC has moved towards democracy. Both states are still officially claiming to be the sole legitimate ruler of all of "China". The ROC had more international support immediately after 1949, but most international diplomatic recognitions have shifted to the PRC. The ROC representative to the United Nations was replaced by the PRC representative in the 1970s. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, and social equity. ...


The ROC has not formally renounced its claim to all of China, or changed its official maps on which its territories include the mainland, including Outer Mongolia, but it has moved away from this identity and increasingly identifies itself as "Taiwan". Presently, the ROC does not pursue any of the territories on mainland China, Tibet, or Mongolia claimed by the PRC. The PRC claims to have succeeded the ROC as the legitimate governing authority of all of China including Taiwan. The PRC has used diplomatic and economic pressure to advance its One China policy, which attempts to displace the ROC in official world organizations such as the World Health Organization and the Olympic Games. Today, there are only twenty-four U.N. member states that still maintain official diplomatic relations with the ROC. Outer Mongolia makes up Mongolia (presently a sovereign state) and Tannu Uriankhai (the majority of which is the modern-day Tuva Republic, a federal subject of the Russian Federation), while Inner Mongolia (内蒙古; Nèi MÄ›nggÇ”) is an autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The highlighted area in the map is what is commonly known as mainland China. Mainland China (Simplified Chinese: 中国大陆; Traditional Chinese: 中國大陸; pinyin: Zhōnggúo Dàlù; literally The Chinese Massive Landmass or Continental China) is an informal (disputed — see talk page) geographical term which is usually synonymous with the area... This article is becoming very long. ... The One-China policy (Chinese: 一個中國) is the principle that there is one China and both mainland China and Taiwan are part of that China. ... Flag of World Health Organization The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations, acting as a coordinating authority on international public health, headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. ... The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ...


Territory

Historical political divisions

Main article: History of the political divisions of China

Top-level political divisions of China have altered as administrations changed. Top levels included circuits and provinces. Below that, there have been prefectures, subprefectures, departments, commanderies, districts, and counties. Recent divisions also include prefecture-level cities, county-level cities, towns and townships. This article talks about the history of the political divisions of China. ... Circuits in the common law In law, a circuit is an appellate judicial district commonly seen in the court systems of many nations. ... A province, in the context of China, is a translation of sheng (省 shÄ›ng), which is an administrative division of China. ... Prefecture, in the context of China, is used to refer to several unrelated political divisions in both ancient and modern China. ... Subprefecture is an administrative level that is below prefecture or province. ... A department is geographic area of a centralized country which functions as an administrative unit. ... Commandry (British English), or commandery (American English), was the smallest division of the European landed estate or manor under the control of a commendator, or commander, of an order of knights. ... District, in the context of China, is used to refer to several unrelated political divisions in both ancient and modern China. ... In the context of Political divisions of China, county is the standard English translation of 县 (xiàn). ... A prefecture-level city (地级市 Pinyin: dìjí shì, literally region-level city) or prefecture-level municipality is an administrative division of the Peoples Republic of China. ... A county-level city (县级市 Pinyin: xiànjí shì) is a county-level administrative division of mainland China. ... When referring to Political Divisions of China, town is the standard English translation of the Chinese 镇 (zhèn). ... When referring to Political Divisions of China, township is the standard English translation of the Chinese 乡 (xiāng). ...


Most Chinese dynasties were based in the historical heartlands of China, known as China proper. Various dynasties also expanded into peripheral territories like Inner Mongolia, Manchuria, Xinjiang, and Tibet. The Manchu-established Qing Dynasty and its successors, the ROC and the PRC, incorporated these territories into China. China proper is generally thought to be bounded by the Great Wall and the edge of the Tibetan Plateau. Manchuria and Inner Mongolia are found to the north of the Great Wall of China, and the boundary between them can either be taken as the present border between Inner Mongolia and the northeast Chinese provinces, or the more historic border of the World War II-era puppet state of Manchukuo. Xinjiang's borders correspond to today's administrative Xinjiang. Historic Tibet occupies all of the Tibetan Plateau. China is traditionally divided into Northern China (北方) and Southern China (南方), the boundary being the Huai River (淮河) and Qinling Mountains (秦岭 or 秦嶺). China proper refers to the historical heartlands of China in the context of that paradigm which contrasts these heartlands with frontier regions of Outer China (including sections of Inner Asia and other regions). ... Expansionism is the doctrine of expanding the territorial base (or economic influence) of a country, usually by means of military aggression. ... Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N... Manchuria (Manchu: Manju; Traditional Chinese: 滿洲; Simplified Chinese: 满洲; pinyin: MÇŽnzhōu, Russian: ) is a vast territorial region in northeast Asia. ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... This article is becoming very long. ... The Manchu (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: , Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: MÇŽnzú, Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeast China). ... The Qing Dynasty (Chinese: ; Pinyin: QÄ«ng cháo; Wade-Giles: Ching chao; Manchu: daicing gurun), occasionally known as the Manchu Dynasty, is a Chinese term for the Empire of the Great Qing (Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: dàqÄ«ngguó), founded by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro, in what... Great Wall can refer to several things: Great Wall of China Great Wall of Galaxies, part of the Coma Cluster This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Tibet Autonomous Region, Qinghai Province and Sichuan Province of China lie on the Tibetan Plateau. ... Manchuria (Manchu: Manju; Traditional Chinese: 滿洲; Simplified Chinese: 满洲; pinyin: MÇŽnzhōu, Russian: ) is a vast territorial region in northeast Asia. ... Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N... The Great Wall in the winter The Great Wall of China (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: Wànlǐ Chángchéng; literally 10,000 Li (里)¹ long wall) is a Chinese fortification built from the 14th century until the beginning of the 17th century, in order to protect the various dynasties... Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N... Approximate extent Northeast China (Simplified Chinese: 东北; Traditional Chinese: 東北; pinyin: Dōngběi; literally east-north), historically known as Manchuria, is the name of a region (ca. ... Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ... Manchukuo (1932 to 1945) (Simplified Chinese: 满洲国; Traditional Chinese: 滿洲國; Pinyin: MÇŽnzhōu Guó Kanji: 満州国) was a former country in Manchuria and eastern Inner Mongolia under the leadership of the Emperor Puyi, the last emperor of Qing Dynasty. ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... This article is becoming very long. ... Tibet Autonomous Region, Qinghai Province and Sichuan Province of China lie on the Tibetan Plateau. ... Alternative meaning: In geology, North China (continent) and South China (continent) were two ancient landmasses that correspond to modern northern and southern China. ... Alternative meaning: In geology, North China (continent) and South China (continent) were two ancient landmasses that correspond to modern northern and southern China. ... Huai He The Huai River (Chinese: 淮河; pinyin: ) is about mid-way between the Yellow River (Huang He) and the Yangtze River. ... The Qinling Mountains (Chinese Simplified 秦岭, Chinese Traditional 秦嶺) are a major mountain range in central China. ...


Geography and climate

Main article: Geography of China
The precipitation in different regions of China

China is composed of a vast variety of highly different landscapes, with mostly plateaus and mountains in the west, and lower lands on the east. As a result, principal rivers flow from west to east, including the Yangtze (central), the Huang He (central-east), and the Amur (northeast), and sometimes toward the south (including the Pearl River, Mekong River, and Brahmaputra), with most Chinese rivers emptying into the Pacific Ocean. China stretches some 5,000 kilometers across the East Asian landmass in an erratically changing configuration of broad plains, expansive deserts, and lofty mountain ranges, including vast areas of inhospitable terrain. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (900x794, 367 KB) Summary The map for the average annual precipitation of China Drawn by Alan Mak in March, 2006. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (900x794, 367 KB) Summary The map for the average annual precipitation of China Drawn by Alan Mak in March, 2006. ... The Harvesters, by Pieter Brueghel the Elder, 1565: Peace and agriculture in a pre-Romantic ideal landscape, without sublime terrors The term Landscape as most westerners use it, is completely entrenched in western notions of land, nature and art. ... For alternate uses of the term, see Plateau (disambiguation). ... Mount Cook, a mountain in New Zealand A mountain is a landform that extends above the surrounding terrain in a limited area. ... River running into Harrietville Trout Farm A river is a large natural waterway. ... Afternoon light on the jagged grey mountains rising from the Yangtze River gorge The Yangtze River or Chang Jiang is the longest river in Asia and the third longest in the world after the Nile in Africa and the Amazon in South America. ... For other Yellow Rivers, see Yellow River (disambiguation). ... The Amur River (Russian: Амур; Simplified Chinese: 黑龙江; Traditional Chinese: 黑龍江; Hanyu Pinyin: , or Black Dragon River; Mongolian: Хара-Мурэн, Khara-Muren or Black River; Manchu: Sahaliyan Ula, literal meaning Black River) is one of the world’s ten longest rivers, forming the border between the Russian Far East and Manchuria in China. ... Pearl River in Guangzhou Pearl River at night, Guangzhou The Zhu Jiang, (珠江 Pinyin: Zhū Jiāng), or Pearl River, is Chinas third longest river (2,200 km, after the Yangtze River and the Yellow River), and second largest by volume (after the Yangtze). ... View of the Mekong before the sunset The Mekong is one of the worlds major rivers. ... The Brahmaputra is one of the major rivers of Asia. ...


In the east, along the shores of the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea there are extensive and densely populated alluvial plains;. On the edges of the Inner Mongolian plateau in the north, grasslands can be seen. Southern China is dominated by hills and low mountain ranges. In the central-east are the deltas of China's two major rivers, the Huang He and Yangtze River (Chang Jiang). Most of China's arable lands lie along these rivers; they were the centers of China's major ancient civilizations. Other major rivers include the Pearl River, Mekong, Brahmaputra and Amur. Yunnan Province is considered a part of the Greater Mekong Subregion which also includes Myanmar, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, and Vietnam [1]. ... The East China Sea is a marginal sea and part of the Pacific Ocean. ... Alluvium is soil land deposited by a river or other running water. ... A mountain range is a group of mountains bordered by lowlands or separated from other mountain ranges by passes or rivers. ... Nile River delta, as seen from Earth orbit. ... For other Yellow Rivers, see Yellow River (disambiguation). ... Afternoon light on the jagged grey mountains rising from the Yangtze River gorge The Yangtze River or Chang Jiang is the longest river in Asia and the third longest in the world after the Nile in Africa and the Amazon in South America. ... The are two Pearl Rivers: The Pearl River (China) (See also the Pearl River Delta) The Pearl River in the U.S. states of Mississippi and Louisiana Pearl River is also the name of some places in the United States of America: Pearl River, Louisiana Pearl River, Mississippi Pearl River... View of the Mekong before sunset The Mekong is one of the worlds major rivers. ... The Brahmaputra is one of the major rivers of Asia. ... The Amur River (Russian: Амур; Simplified Chinese: 黑龙江; Traditional Chinese: 黑龍江; Hanyu Pinyin: , or Black Dragon River; Mongolian: Хара-Мурэн, Khara-Muren or Black River; Manchu: Sahaliyan Ula, literal meaning Black River) is one of the world’s ten longest rivers, forming the border between the Russian Far East and Manchuria in China. ...


In the west, the north has a great alluvial plain, and the south has a vast calcareous tableland traversed by hill ranges of moderate elevation, and the Himalayas, containing our planet's highest point Mount Everest. The northwest also has high plateaus with more arid desert landscapes such as the Takla-Makan and the Gobi Desert, which has been expanding. During many dynasties, the southwestern border of China has been the high mountains and deep valleys of Yunnan, which separate modern China from Burma, Laos and Vietnam. Calcareous formed from or containing a high proportion of Calcium carbonate. ... In geology and earth science, a plateau (alternatively spelt in a false French spelling plâteau, the real spelling in French being plateau) is an area of highland, usually consisting of relatively flat open country if the uplift was recent in geologic history. ... A hill in Hungary with a hillside vintage garden For the landform that extends less than 600 metres above the surrounding terrain and that is smaller than a mountain, see the mountain article. ... Perspective view of the Himalaya and Mount Everest as seen from space looking south-south-east from over the Tibetan Plateau. ... Everest redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Taklamakan is a desert of Central Asia, in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Gobi (Mongolian Говь, Chinese 戈壁; pinyin gē bì) is a large desert region in northern China and southern Mongolia. ... Mount McKinley (Denali) in Alaska (USA) has the highest visible base-to-summit elevation on Earth (approximately 5400 metres). ... (Simplified Chinese: 云南; Traditional Chinese: 雲南; pinyin: Yúnnán south of the clouds) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located in the far southwestern corner of the country. ...


The Paleozoic formations of China, excepting only the upper part of the Carboniferous system, are marine, while the Mesozoic and Tertiary deposits are estuarine and freshwater or else of terrestrial origin. Groups of volcanic cones occur in the Great Plain of north China. In the Liaodong and Shandong Peninsulas, there are basaltic plateaus. The Paleozoic Era is a major division of the geologic timescale, one of four geologic eras. ... The Carboniferous is a major division of the geologic timescale that extends from the end of the Devonian period, about 359. ... Sea as seen from jetty in Frankston, Australia Look up Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Mesozoic is one of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic eon. ... Tertiary period was previously one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, from the end of the Cretaceous period about 65 million years ago to the start of the Quaternary period about 1. ... Estuaries and coastal waters are among the most productive ecosystems on Earth, providing numerous ecological, economic, cultural, and aesthetic benefits and services. ... For the village on the Isle of Wight, see Freshwater, Isle of Wight. ... Volcano 1. ... The Liaodong Peninsula (sim. ...   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Shāndōng; Wade-Giles: Shan-tung) is a coastal province of eastern Peoples Republic of China. ... Basalt Basalt is a common gray to black volcanic rock. ...


The climate of China varies greatly. The northern zone (containing Beijing) has winters of Arctic severity. The central zone (containing Shanghai) has a temperate climate. The southern zone (containing Guangzhou) has a subtropical climate. Beijing [English Pronunciation] (Chinese: 北京 [Chinese Pronunciation]; Pinyin: Běijīng; IPA: ), a city in northern China, is the capital of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, commonly used to define the Arctic region border Satellite image of the Arctic surface The Arctic is the area around the Earths North Pole, opposite the Antarctican area around the South Pole. ... Shanghai (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Shanghainese: ), stuated on the banks of the Yangtze River Delta in East China, is the largest city of the Peoples Republic of China. ... In geography, temperate latitudes of the globe lie between the tropics and the polar circles. ... (Simplified Chinese: 广州; Traditional Chinese: 廣州; pinyin: Guǎngzhōu; Wade-Giles: Kuang-chou; Postal System Pinyin: Canton) is the capital of Guangdong Province in southern China. ... Subtropical (or semitropical) areas are those adjacent to the tropics, usually roughly defined as the ranges 23. ...


Due to a prolonged drought and poor agricultural practices, dust storms have become usual in the spring in China.[5] Dust has blown to southern China and Taiwan, and has even reached the West Coast of the United States. Water, erosion, and pollution control have become important issues in China's relations with other countries. A drought is an abnormally dry period when there is not enough water to support agricultural, urban or environme fdsdesntal water needs. ... This article or section needs to be wikified. ... Severe soil erosion in a wheat field near Washington State University, USA. Erosion is the displacement of solids (soil, mud, rock and other particles) by the agents of wind, water or ice, by downward or down-slope movement in response to gravity or by living organisms (in the case of...

See also: Environment of China

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Society

Demographics

China's overall population exceeds 1.3 billion, about one-fifth of the world's population. While over a hundred ethnic groups have existed in China, the government of the People's Republic of China officially recognizes a total of 56. The largest ethnic group in China by far is the Han. This group is diverse and can be divided into smaller ethnic groups that share some traits. Any non clear-cut connection is denoted by a question mark (?) beside the equivalences. ... The Peoples Republic of China is a multi-ethnic unitary state and, as such, officially recognizes 55 ethnic minority groups within China together with the Han majority. ... The demographics of China may include or exclude, depending on context or point of view: The demographics of mainland China The demographics of Hong Kong The demographics of Macau The demographics of Taiwan This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... The Peoples Republic of China is a multi-ethnic unitary state and, as such, officially recognizes 55 ethnic minority groups within China together with the Han majority. ... Han Chinese (Simplified Chinese: 汉族; Traditional Chinese: 漢族; Pinyin: hànzú) is a term which refers to the majority ethnic group within China and the largest single human ethnic group in the world. ...


Many ethnic groups have been assimilated into neighboring ethnicities or disappeared without a trace. Several previously distinct ethnic groups have been Sinicized into the Han, causing its population to increase dramatically. At the same time, many within the Han identity have maintained distinct linguistic and cultural traditions, though still identifying as Han. Many foreign groups have shaped Han language and culture; the queue was a pig tail hairstyle strictly enforced by the Manchurians on the Han populace. The term Chinese nation (Zhonghua Minzu) is usually used to describe a notion of a Chinese nationality that transcends ethnic divisions. Sinicization, or Sinification, is to make things Chinese. ... This Zhonghua Minzu does not cite its references or sources. ...


Languages

Main article: Languages of China

Most languages in China belong to the Sino-Tibetan language family, spoken by 29 ethnicities. There are also several major "dialects" within the Chinese language itself. The most spoken dialects are Mandarin (spoken by over 70% of the population), Wu (Shanghainese), Yue (Cantonese), Min, Xiang, Gan, and Hakka. Non-Sinitic languages spoken widely by ethnic minorities include Zhuang (Thai), Mongolian, Tibetan, Uyghur (Turkic), Hmong and Korean.[6] Map of Linguistic Groups (showing arees under effective control of the Peoples Republic of China (including Hong Kong and Macau) and Republic of China combined) Chinas many different ethnic groups speak many different languages, collectively called Zhōngguó YÇ”wén (中国语文), literally Speech and writing of China which... Sino-Tibetan languages form a language family of about 250 languages of East Asia, in number of speakers worldwide second only to Indo-European. ... Chinese (written) language (pinyin: zhōngw n) written in Chinese characters The Chinese language (汉语/漢語, 华语/華語, or 中文; Pinyin: H nyǔ, Hu yǔ, or Zhōngw n) is a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... Mandarin, or Beifanghua (Chinese: 北方話; Pinyin: BÄ›ifānghuà; literally Northern Dialect(s)), or Guanhua (Traditional Chinese: 官話; Simplified Chinese: 官话; Pinyin: Guānhuà; literally official speech) is a category of related Chinese dialects spoken across most of northern and southwestern China. ... Wu (吳方言 pinyin wú fāng yán; 吳語 pinyin wú yÇ” lumazi wu niu(nyu)) is one of the major divisions of the Chinese language. ... This article is on all of the Yue dialects. ... Min (閩方言 in pinyin: min3 fang1 yan2) is a general term for a group of dialects of the Chinese language spoken in the southeastern Chinese province of Fujian as well as by migrants from this province in Guangdong (around Chaozhou-Swatou, and Leizhou peninsula), Hainan, three counties in... Xiang (湘語/湘语), also Hunan, Hunanese, or Hsiang, is a subdivision of spoken Chinese. ... Gan (赣语) is one of the major divisions of spoken Chinese, concentrated in and typical of Jiangxi Province. ... Hakka (Simplified Chinese: 客家话, Traditional Chinese: 客家話, Hakka: Hak-ka-fa/-va, pinyin: Kèjiāhuà) is a Chinese dialect/language spoken predominantly in southern China by the Hakka ethnic group and descendants in diaspora throughout East and Southeast Asia and around the world. ... The Zhuang language (autonym: Cuengh or CueÅ‹ÑŒ; Chinese: 壮语; Hanyu Pinyin: ) is used by the Zhuang people in the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Tibetan language is spoken primarily by the Tibetan people who live across a wide area of eastern Central Asia bordering South Asia, as well as by large number of Tibetan refugees all over the world. ... Uyghur (ئۇيغۇرچه UyurqÉ™, or ئۇيغۇر تىلى Uyur tili; Simplified Chinese: 维吾尔语; Traditional Chinese: 維吾爾語; Pinyin: WéiwúěryÇ”) is a Turkic language spoken by the Uyghur people in Xinjiang (also called East Turkestan or Uyghuristan), China. ... Hmong (Hmong: Hmoob) is a Hmong-Mien language spoken by the Hmong people native to Sichuan, northern Vietnam, Thailand, and Laos. ...


Putonghua (Standard Mandarin, literally Common Speech) is the official language and is based on the Beijing dialect of the Mandarin group of dialects spoken in northern and southwestern China. Standard Mandarin is the medium of instruction in education and is taught in all schools. It is the language used in the media, for formal purposes, and by the government.[7] Non-Sinitic languages are co-official in some autonomic minority regions.[6] Standard Mandarin refers to the official Chinese spoken language used by the Peoples Republic of China, the Republic of China on Taiwan, Malaysia and Singapore. ... Mandarin, or Beifanghua (Chinese: 北方話; Pinyin: Běifānghuà; literally Northern Dialect(s)), or Guanhua (Traditional Chinese: 官話; Simplified Chinese: 官话; Pinyin: Guānhuà; literally official speech) is a category of related Chinese dialects spoken across most of northern and southwestern China. ...


"Vernacular Chinese" or "baihua" is the written standard based on the Mandarin dialect which has been in use since the early 20th century. An older written standard, Classical Chinese, was used by literati for thousands of years before the 20th century. Classical Chinese is still a part of the high school curriculum and is thus intelligible to some degree to many Chinese. Spoken variants other than Standard Mandarin are usually not written, except for Standard Cantonese (see Written Cantonese) which is sometimes used in informal contexts. Vernacular Chinese (pinyin: báihuà; Wade-Giles: paihua) is a style or register of the written Chinese language essentially modeled after the spoken language and associated with Standard Mandarin. ... Classical Chinese or Literary Chinese is a traditional style of written Chinese based on the grammar and vocabulary of very old forms of Chinese , making it very different from any modern spoken form of Chinese. ... Standard Cantonese is a variant, and is generally considered the prestige dialect of Cantonese Chinese. ... Written Cantonese refers to the written language used to write colloquial standard Cantonese using Chinese characters. ...


Chinese banknotes are multilingual and contain written scripts for Standard Mandarin (Chinese characters and Hanyu Pinyin), Zhuang (Roman alphabet), Tibetan (Tibetan alphabet), Uyghur (Arabic alphabet) and Mongolian (traditional Mongolian alphabet). Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... Pinyin (拼音, Pīnyīn) literally means join (together) sounds (a less literal translation being phoneticize, spell or transcription) in Chinese and usually refers to Hànyǔ Pīnyīn (汉语拼音, literal meaning: Han language pinyin), which is a system of... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... The Tibetan script was created in the mid-7th century, by Thonmi Sambhota, a Tibetan official, with the assistance of some Indian Buddhist monks. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... The Mongolian language historically has four writing systems that have been used over the centuries. ...


Religion

Main article: Religion in China
500 Buddha lohans in Shanghai's Longhua temple (first built during the Three Kingdoms era)
500 Buddha lohans in Shanghai's Longhua temple (first built during the Three Kingdoms era)

Due to the Cultural Revolution and other policies, 59% of the mainland Chinese from the People's Republic of China (PRC), or about 767 million people, identify themselves as non-religious or atheist.[8] However, religion and rituals play a significant part in the lives of many in the PRC, especially the traditional beliefs of Buddhism, Confucianism and Taoism. About 33% of the population in the PRC follow a mixture of beliefs usually referred to by statisticians as "Traditional Beliefs," "Ancient Chinese Beliefs," or just "Other". This is in contrast to the demographics of religion in the Republic of China (Taiwan) which was not affected by the Cultural Revolution in the People's Republic of China. Religion and ancient Chinese traditions play a big role in the daily lives of modern Taiwanese people. According to the official figures released by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) of the United States of America: Jingan Temple in downtown Shanghai. ... Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 1173 KB)Statues of the 500 lohan in the Longhua temple in Shanghai, P.R. China (July 27th 2004), photo author: Rolf Müller, licensed to the public under the GNU Free Documentation License (GFDL). ... Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 1173 KB)Statues of the 500 lohan in the Longhua temple in Shanghai, P.R. China (July 27th 2004), photo author: Rolf Müller, licensed to the public under the GNU Free Documentation License (GFDL). ... Shanghai (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Shanghainese: ), stuated on the banks of the Yangtze River Delta in East China, is the largest city of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Longhua Temple (Chinese: ; pinyin: Lónghúa Sì, literally Lustre of the Dragon Temple) is a Buddhist Temple dedicated to the Maitreya Buddha in Shanghai Municipality, China. ... The Three Kingdoms in 262, on the eve of the conquest of Shu. ... The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (Simplified Chinese: , Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: WúchÇŽn JiÄ“jí Wénhuà Dà Gémìng; literally Proletarian Cultural Great Revolution; often abbreviated to 文化大革命 wénhuà dà gémìng, literally Great Cultural Revolution, or even simpler, to 文革 wéngé, Cultural Revolution) in the People... PRC is a common abbreviation for: Peoples Republic of China Palestinian Red Crescent Popular Resistance Committees This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... For information about the band, see Atheist (band). ... PRC is a common abbreviation for: Peoples Republic of China Palestinian Red Crescent Popular Resistance Committees This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... A replica of an ancient statue of Gautama Buddha, found in Sarnath, near Varanasi. ... Confucianist temple Thian Hock Keng in Singapore Confucianism (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: Rúxué [   ], literally The School of the Scholars; or 孔教 Kŏng jiào, The Teachings of Confucius) is a Chinese ethical and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of the early Chinese sage Confucius. ... Taoism (sometimes written as Daoism) is the English name for: (a) a philosophical school based on the texts the Tao Te Ching (ascribed to Laozi and alternately spelled Dào Dé JÄ«ng) and the Zhuangzi. ... PRC is a common abbreviation for: Peoples Republic of China Palestinian Red Crescent Popular Resistance Committees This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Motto: None Anthem(s): National Anthem of the Republic of China Capital Taipei City (de facto) Nanjing (de jure)1 Largest city Taipei City Official language(s) Mandarin (GuóyÇ”) Government Semi-presidential system  - President Chen Shui-bian  - Vice President Annette Lu  - Premier Su Tseng-chang Establishment Xinhai Revolution   - Declared... The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (Simplified Chinese: , Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: WúchÇŽn JiÄ“jí Wénhuà Dà Gémìng; literally Proletarian Cultural Great Revolution; often abbreviated to 文化大革命 wénhuà dà gémìng, literally Great Cultural Revolution, or even simpler, to 文革 wéngé, Cultural Revolution) in the People... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Demographics of Taiwan. ... The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an intelligence agency of the United States Government. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ...

The major religions of the People's Republic of China are: A replica of an ancient statue of Gautama Buddha, found in Sarnath, near Varanasi. ... Confucianist temple Thian Hock Keng in Singapore Confucianism (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: Rúxué [   ], literally The School of the Scholars; or 孔教 Kŏng jiào, The Teachings of Confucius) is a Chinese ethical and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of the early Chinese sage Confucius. ... Taoism (sometimes written as Daoism) is the English name for: (a) a philosophical school based on the texts the Tao Te Ching (ascribed to Laozi and alternately spelled Dào Dé JÄ«ng) and the Zhuangzi. ... For other uses, including people named Islam, see Islam (disambiguation). ... Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on Jesus of Nazareth, and on his life and teachings as presented in the New Testament. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The term Mormon is a colloquial name, most-often used to refer to members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ...

The major religions of the Republic of China Republic of China are: Confucianist temple Thian Hock Keng in Singapore Confucianism (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: Rúxué [   ], literally The School of the Scholars; or 孔教 Kŏng jiào, The Teachings of Confucius) is a Chinese ethical and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of the early Chinese sage Confucius. ... Taoism (sometimes written as Daoism) is the English name for: (a) a philosophical school based on the texts the Tao Te Ching (ascribed to Laozi and alternately spelled Dào Dé JÄ«ng) and the Zhuangzi. ... Ancestor worship, also ancestor veneration, is a religious practice based on the belief that ones ancestors possess supernatural powers. ... Shakyamuni Buddha teaching. ... Islam has a rich heritage in China. ... Christianity in China has developed since at least the 7th century AD. The introduction of Nestorianism, a Christian sect, around 635 is considered by some to be the first entry of the Christian religion into China. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Republic_of_China. ... Motto: None Anthem(s): National Anthem of the Republic of China Capital Taipei City (de facto) Nanjing (de jure)1 Largest city Taipei City Official language(s) Mandarin (GuóyÇ”) Government Semi-presidential system  - President Chen Shui-bian  - Vice President Annette Lu  - Premier Su Tseng-chang Establishment Xinhai Revolution   - Declared...

Only about 6% of the mainland Chinese population in the PRC are avowed Buddhists, with Mahayana Buddhism and Zen Buddhism being the most widely practiced, in contrast to the combined 93% of the ROC (Taiwan) population who are devout adherents of a symbiotic combination of Buddhism, Taoism, and Confucianism. With an estimated 100 million adherents, Buddhism is the PRC's largest organized religion. Other forms of Buddhism, such as Theravada Buddhism and Tibetan Buddhism, are practiced largely by ethnic minorities along the geographic fringes of the PRC.[9] Official figures indicate that there are currently about 20 million Muslims (mostly Hui), more than 15 million Protestants, and 5 million Catholics in the country.[10] A replica of an ancient statue of Gautama Buddha, found in Sarnath, near Varanasi. ... Taoism (sometimes written as Daoism) is the English name for: (a) a philosophical school based on the texts the Tao Te Ching (ascribed to Laozi and alternately spelled Dào Dé JÄ«ng) and the Zhuangzi. ... Confucianist temple Thian Hock Keng in Singapore Confucianism (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: Rúxué [   ], literally The School of the Scholars; or 孔教 Kŏng jiào, The Teachings of Confucius) is a Chinese ethical and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of the early Chinese sage Confucius. ... PRC is a common abbreviation for: Peoples Republic of China Palestinian Red Crescent Popular Resistance Committees This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Statues of Buddha such as this, the Tian Tan Buddha statue in Hong Kong, remind followers to practice right living. ... Relief image of the bodhisattva Guan Yin from Mt. ... A woodblock print by Yoshitoshi, (Japan, 1887) depicting Bodhidharma the founder of Chinese Zen. ... ROC can be: Roc is a mythical bird Roc is the second single release from Nâdiya selfnamed album. ... A replica of an ancient statue of Gautama Buddha, found in Sarnath, near Varanasi. ... Taoism (sometimes written as Daoism) is the English name for: (a) a philosophical school based on the texts the Tao Te Ching (ascribed to Laozi and alternately spelled Dào Dé JÄ«ng) and the Zhuangzi. ... Confucianist temple Thian Hock Keng in Singapore Confucianism (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: Rúxué [   ], literally The School of the Scholars; or 孔教 Kŏng jiào, The Teachings of Confucius) is a Chinese ethical and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of the early Chinese sage Confucius. ... PRC is a common abbreviation for: Peoples Republic of China Palestinian Red Crescent Popular Resistance Committees This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Theravada (Pali; Sanskrit: Sthaviravada) is one of the eighteen (or twenty) Nikāya schools that formed early in the history of Buddhism. ... Tibetan Buddhism is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet, the Himalayan region (including northern Nepal, Bhutan, and Sikkim), Mongolia, Buryatia, Tuva and Kalmykia (Russia), and northeastern China (Manchuria: Heilongjiang, Jilin). ... PRC is a common abbreviation for: Peoples Republic of China Palestinian Red Crescent Popular Resistance Committees This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... The Hui people (Chinese: 回族; Pinyin: ) are a Chinese ethnic group, typically distinguished by their practice of the Islamic religion. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ...


The People's Republic of China (PRC) is officially secular and atheist but it does allow personal religion or supervised religious organization. Taoism and Buddhism, along with an underlying Confucian morality, have been the dominant religions of Chinese society for almost two millennia. Personal religion is widely tolerated in the PRC today, so there has been a resurrection of interest in Buddhism and Taoism in the past decade. Among the younger, urban secular population, Taoist spiritual ideas of Feng Shui have become popular in recent years, spawning a large home decoration market in China. PRC is a common abbreviation for: Peoples Republic of China Palestinian Red Crescent Popular Resistance Committees This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Fēng Shuǐ (風水 – literally, wind and water pronounced fung shuway), which may be more than 3000 years old, is the ancient practice of placement to achieve harmony with the environment. ...


In recent years Falun Gong has attracted great controversy after the government labeled it a malicious cult[2] and attempted to eradicate it. The Falun Gong itself denies that it is a cult or a religion. The Falun Gong claims approximately 70-100 million followers, higher than estimates by foreign independent groups; exact numbers are unknown. Falun Gong, (Traditional Chinese: 法輪功, Simplified Chinese: 法轮功; pinyin: Fǎlún Gōng; literally Practice of the Wheel of Law) also known as Falun Dafa, (Traditional Chinese: 法輪大法, Simplified Chinese: 法轮大法; pinyin: Fǎlún dàfǎ; lit. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ...

See also: Catholicism in China, Chinese folk religion, Chinese mythology, Protestantism in China, and Way of Former Heaven

Catholicism in China has a long and complicated history. ... Chinese folk religion comprises the religion practiced in much of China for thousands of years which included ancestor worship and drew heavily upon concepts and beings within Chinese mythology. ... Chinese Mythology is a collection of cultural history, folktales, and religions that have been passed down in oral or written form. ... Protestant Christianity entered China in the early 19th century. ... The Way of Former Heaven, or Hsien-tien tao (先天道) encompasses five religious groups of Chinese origin. ...

Culture

Main article: Culture of China
A Chinese Tang Dynasty tri-color glazed porcelain horse (ca. 700 CE).
A Chinese Tang Dynasty tri-color glazed porcelain horse (ca. 700 CE).

Confucianism was the official philosophy throughout most of Imperial China's history, and mastery of Confucian texts was the primary criterion for entry into the imperial bureaucracy. The literary emphasis of the exams affected the general perception of cultural refinement in China, e.g. the view that calligraphy was a higher art form than painting or drama. China's traditional values were derived from various versions of Confucianism and conservatism. A number of more authoritarian strains of thought have also been influential, such as Legalism. There was often conflict between the philosophies, such as the individualistic Song Dynasty neo-Confucians, who believed Legalism departed from the original spirit of Confucianism. Examinations and a culture of merit remain greatly valued in China today. In recent years, a number of New Confucians have advocated that democratic ideals and human rights are quite compatible with traditional Confucian "Asian values".[11] Ornamental jar from the Kingdom of Wu (222-280 CE) of the Three Kingdoms period. ... Tang horse at the Shanghai Museum by Andrew Lih File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Tang horse at the Shanghai Museum by Andrew Lih File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Glaze is a thin shiny coating, or the act of applying the coating. ... China is the worlds oldest continuous major civilization, with written records dating back about 3,500 years and with 5,000 years being commonly used by Chinese as the age of their civilization. ... The imperial examinations (Chinese: 科舉; Pinyin: kÄ“jÇ”) in dynastic China determined positions in the civil service based on merit and education, which promoted upward mobility among the population for centuries. ... Calligraphy is an art dating back to the earliest day of history, and widely practiced throughout China to this day. ... Confucianist temple Thian Hock Keng in Singapore Confucianism (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: Rúxué [   ], literally The School of the Scholars; or 孔教 Kŏng jiào, The Teachings of Confucius) is a Chinese ethical and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of the early Chinese sage Confucius. ... This article deals with conservatism as a political philosophy. ... Bold text:This article applies to political ideologies. ... Legalism, in the Western sense, is an approach to the analysis of legal questions characterized by abstract logical reasoning focusing on the applicable legal text, such as a constitution, legislation, or case law, rather than on the social, economic, or political context. ... Individualism is a term used to describe a moral, political, or social outlook, that stresses human independence and the importance of individual self-reliance and liberty. ... The Song Dynasty (Chinese: ) was a ruling dynasty in China from 960-1279. ... Neo-Confucianism (理學 Pinyin: Lǐxué) is a term for a form of Confucianism that was primarily developed during the Song dynasty, but which can be traced back to Han Yu and Li Ao in the Tang dynasty. ... Legalism, in the Western sense, is an approach to the analysis of legal questions characterized by abstract logical reasoning focusing on the applicable legal text, such as a constitution, legislation, or case law, rather than on the social, economic, or political context. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... New Confucianism (當代新儒學 or 當代新儒學 Contemporary New Confucianism) is a new movement of Confucianism since the twentieth century. ...


With the rise of Western economic and military power beginning in the mid-19th century, non-Chinese systems of social and political organization gained adherents in China. Some of these would-be reformers totally rejected China's cultural legacy, while others sought to combine the strengths of Chinese and Western cultures. In essence, the history of 20th century China is one of experimentation with new systems of social, political, and economic organization that would allow for the reintegration of the nation in the wake of dynastic collapse. Face-to-face trading interactions among on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor Economics, as a social science, studies human choice behavior and how it effects the production, distribution, and consumption of scarce resources. ... Politics is the process by which decisions are made within groups. ...


The first leaders of the PRC were born in the old society but were influenced by the May Fourth Movement and reformist ideals. They sought to change some traditional aspects of Chinese culture, such as rural land tenure, sexism, and Confucian education, while preserving others, such as the family structure and obedience to the state. Many observers believe that the period following 1949 is a continuation of traditional Chinese dynastic history, while others say that the CPC's rule has damaged the foundations of Chinese culture, especially through political movements such as the Cultural Revolution, where many aspects of traditional culture were labeled "regressive and harmful" or "vestiges of feudalism" by the regime. They further argue that many important aspects of traditional Chinese morals and culture, such as Confucianism, Chinese art, literature, and performing arts like Beijing opera, were altered to conform to government policies and communist propaganda. The institution of the Simplified Chinese orthography reform is controversial as well. Today, the PRC government has accepted much of traditional Chinese culture as an integral part of Chinese society, lauding it as an important achievement of the Chinese civilization and emphasizing it as being vital to the formation of a Chinese national identity. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... A dynasty is a family or extended family which retains political power across generations, or more generally, any organization which extends dominance in its field even as its particular members change. ... The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (Simplified Chinese: , Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: WúchÇŽn JiÄ“jí Wénhuà Dà Gémìng; literally Proletarian Cultural Great Revolution; often abbreviated to 文化大革命 wénhuà dà gémìng, literally Great Cultural Revolution, or even simpler, to 文革 wéngé, Cultural Revolution) in the People... Confucianist temple Thian Hock Keng in Singapore Confucianism (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: Rúxué [   ], literally The School of the Scholars; or 孔教 Kŏng jiào, The Teachings of Confucius) is a Chinese ethical and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of the early Chinese sage Confucius. ... Chinese art is art that, whether ancient or modern, originated in or is practiced in China or by Chinese artists or performers. ... In Beijing, September 2002 Beijing opera or Peking opera (Simplified Chinese: 京剧; Traditional Chinese: 京劇; Pinyin: JÄ«ngjù) is a kind of Chinese opera which arose in the mid-19th century and was extremely popular in the Qing Dynasty court. ... Simplified Chinese characters (Simplified Chinese: 简体字; Traditional Chinese: 簡體字; pinyin: jiǎntǐzì; also called 简化字/簡化字, jiǎnhuàzì) are one of two standard character sets of printed contemporary Chinese written language. ... This is the current collaboration of the week! Please help improve it to featured article standard. ... The May Fourth Movement in 1919 marked a turning point in the history of Chinese nationalism. ...


Rice is very important in Chinese culture. Not only is it the main part of the diet, but many Chinese myths and parables involve rice. Rice is the major grain crop in China, grown mainly in the Yangtze River valley and southern China, and on the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau. [3]. China produces and consumes more rice than any other country [4] [5]. Some archeologists theorize that rice cultivation originated in China [6].

See also: Chinese law and Chinese philosophy

The Law of China, for most of the history of China, was rooted in the Confucian philosophy of social control. ... Yin/Yang symbol and ba gua poopoo outside of Nanning city, Guangxi province. ...

Arts, scholarship, and literature

Chinese characters have had many variants and styles throughout Chinese history. Tens of thousands of ancient written documents are still extant, from Oracle bones to Qing edicts. Calligraphy is a major art form in China, more highly regarded than painting and music. Manuscripts of the Classics and religious texts (mainly Confucian, Taoist, and Buddhist) were handwritten by ink brush. Calligraphy later became commercialized, and works by famous artists became prized possessions. Image File history File links Mifu01. ... Image File history File links Mifu01. ... Calligraphy is an art dating back to the earliest day of history, and widely practiced throughout China to this day. ... The Song Dynasty (Chinese: ) was a ruling dynasty in China from 960-1279. ... 漢字 Chinese character in hànzì, hanja, kanji. ... Categories: Stub ... Calligraphy in a Latin Bible of AD 1407 on display in Malmesbury Abbey, Wiltshire, England. ... The Mona Lisa is one of the most recognizable artistic paintings in the Western world. ... Music is a form of entertainment or other human activity that involves organized and audible sounds and silence. ... Confucianism (儒家 Pinyin: rújiā The School of the Scholars), sometimes translated as the School of Literati, is an East Asian ethical, religious and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of Confucius. ... For other uses of the words tao and dao, see Dao (disambiguation). ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... Ink brushes (筆, in Japanese fude) are speciality brushes used in East Asian calligraphy. ...


Printmaking was developed during the Song Dynasty. Academies of scholars sponsored by the empire were formed to comment on the classics in both printed and handwritten form. Royalty frequently participated in these discussions. Printmaking is a process for producing editions (mutliple copies) of artwork; painting, on the other hand, is a process for producing a single original piece of artwork. ... The Song Dynasty (Chinese: ) was a ruling dynasty in China from 960-1279. ...


For centuries, economic and social advancement in China could be provided by high performance on the imperial examinations. This led to a meritocracy, although it was available only to males who could afford test preparation. Imperial examinations required applicants to write essays and demonstrate mastery of the Confucian classics. Those who passed the highest level of the exam became elite scholar-officials known as jinshi, a highly esteemed socio-economic position. The imperial examinations (Chinese: 科舉; Pinyin: kējǔ) in dynastic China determined positions in the civil service based on merit and education, which promoted upward mobility among the population for centuries. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Chinese philosophers, writers, and poets were highly respected, and played key roles in preserving and promoting the culture of the empire. Some classical scholars, however, were noted for their daring depictions of the lives of the common people, often to the displeasure of authorities.

A Chinese stringed instrument qin (琴, also known as guqin, a seven string bridgeless zither)
Enlarge
A Chinese stringed instrument qin (琴, also known as guqin, a seven string bridgeless zither)

The Chinese invented numerous musical instruments, such as the zheng (箏, zither with movable bridges), qin (琴, bridgeless zither), sheng (笙, free reed), xiao (箫 or 簫, end blown flute) and adopted and developed others such the erhu (二胡, bowed lute) and pipa (plucked lute), many of which have later spread throughout East Asia and Southeast Asia, particularly to Japan, Korea and Vietnam. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (976x304, 202 KB) Summary the same picture on guqin - just rotated Name of qin: Hewu Longxiang (鶴舞龍翔) Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (976x304, 202 KB) Summary the same picture on guqin - just rotated Name of qin: Hewu Longxiang (鶴舞龍翔) Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The guqin (Chinese: 古琴; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: ku-chin; literally ancient stringed-instrument) is the modern name for a plucked seven-string Chinese musical instrument of the zither family (中華絃樂噐/中华弦乐器). It has been played since ancient times, and has traditionally been favored by scholars and literati as an instrument of great... A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified with the purpose of making music. ... The guzheng, or gu zheng (Chinese: ; pinyin: gÇ”zhÄ“ng) or zheng (箏) (gu- means ancient) is a traditional Chinese musical instrument. ... The guqin (Chinese: 古琴; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: ku-chin; literally ancient stringed-instrument) is the modern name for a plucked seven-string Chinese musical instrument of the zither family (中華絃樂噐/中华弦乐器). It has been played since ancient times, and has traditionally been favored by scholars and literati as an instrument of great... The Chinese sheng (Chinese: 笙, Pinyin shēng) is a mouth-blown free reed instrument (the first) consisting essentially of vertical tubes, in the Chinese orchestra. ... Various sizes of xiao The xiao (Traditional Chinese: ç°«; Simplified Chinese: 箫; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: hsiao) is a Chinese vertical end-blown flute. ... Side view of an erhu. ... A woman plays the pipa in the New York City Subways Times Square Station, 2004. ... East Asia is a subregion of Asia that can be defined in either geographical or cultural terms. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ...

See also: Chinese art, Chinese painting, Chinese paper art, Chinese calligraphy, Chinese poetry, Cinema of China, and Music of China

Chinese art is art that, whether ancient or modern, originated in or is practiced in China or by Chinese artists or performers. ... Chinese painting is a form of Chinese art. ... Chinese paper art In a culture that invented paper back in the 1st century AD (Cai Lun, during the Han Dynasty), Chinese paper arts have existed for thousands of years, spanning from painted or pattern cut paper fans, lanterns, to decorative designs and structures accomplished by folding and/or cutting. ... Calligraphy is an art dating back to the earliest day of history, and widely practiced throughout China to this day. ... Quatrain on Heavenly Mountain by Emperor Gaozong Hand-painted Chinese New Years poetry pasted on the sides of doors leading to peoples homes, Old Town, Lijiang, Yunnan, China. ... The history of Chinese-language cinema has three separate threads of development: Cinema of Hong Kong, Cinema of China, and Cinema of Taiwan. ... Music of China appears to date back to the dawn of Chinese civilization, and documents and artifacts provide evidence of a well-developed musical culture as early as the Zhou Dynasty (1122 BC - 256 BC). ...

Sports and recreation

Main article: Sports in China

There is evidence that a form of football (i.e. soccer) was first played in China around 1000 CE, leading many historians to believe that it originated there.[12]. Professional football is still in its developmental stages, owing a kickstart to the recent formation of the Chinese Super League. Besides football, the most popular sports are martial arts, table tennis, badminton and more recently, golf. Basketball is especially popular with the young, in urban centers where space is limited. Sport in China refers to the sports played in the Peoples Republic of China. ... Football (soccer) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The Chinese Football Association Super League a. ... This article provides a general overview of Chinese martial arts. ... Jan-Ove Waldner at the 2004 Olympics Table tennis is one of the most popular sports in the world in terms of player numbers,[1] as well as being one of the newest of the major sports. ... The Danish Olympic badminton player Peter Gade Badminton is a racquet sport played by either two opposing players (singles) or two opposing pairs (doubles). ... Greg Norman - one of the greatest ever golfers on the 18th tee at St Andrews. ...


There are also many traditional sports. Chinese dragon boat racing occurs during the Duan Wu festival. In Inner Mongolia, Mongolian-style wrestling and horse racing are popular. In Tibet, archery and equestrian sports are part of traditional festivals.[13] Dragon boat racing is a team paddling sport which utilises the dragon boat. ... A more specific term for dragon boat as a sport is dragon boat race, which is a team paddling sport on water, using painted boats to which are attached decorative dragon heads and tails. ... Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N... Horse-racing is an equestrian sporting activity which has been practiced over the centuries; the chariot races of Roman times were an early example, as was the contest of the steeds of the god Odin and the giant Hrungnir in Norse mythology. ... This article is becoming very long. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


China has become a sports power in the Asian region and around the world. China finished first in medal counts in each of the Asian Games since 1982,[14] and in the top four in medal counts in each of the Summer Olympic Games since 1992.[15] The 2008 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXIX Olympiad, will be held in Beijing, China. The 2008 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXIX Olympiad, will be held in Beijing, China from August 8, 2008 through August 24, 2008, with the opening ceremony to take place at 8 p. ... Beijing (Chinese: 北京; pinyin: Běijīng; Wade-Giles: Pei-ching; Postal System Pinyin: Peking), is the capital city of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Physical fitness is highly regarded. Morning exercises are a common activity and the elderly are often seen practicing qigong in parks. Physical fitness is an attribute required for service in virtually all militaries. ... Qigong (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: qìgōng; Wade-Giles: chi4 kung1; Thai: ) or Energy-Cultivation, is an aspect of Chinese medicine involving the coordination of different breathing patterns with various physical postures and motions of the body. ...


Board games such as International Chess, Go (Weiqi), and Xiangqi (Chinese chess) are also common and have organised formal competitions. A board game is any game played with a premarked surface, with counters or pieces that are moved across the board. ... For other meanings, see Chess (disambiguation). ... Go, also known as Weiqi in Mandarin Chinese (Traditional Chinese: 圍棋; Simplified Chinese: 围棋), and Baduk in Korean (Hangul:바둑), is a strategic, deterministic two-player board game originating in ancient China, before 200 BC. The game is now popular throughout East Asia and on the Internet. ... Xiangqi (Chinese: 象棋; Pinyin: xiàngqí; Wade-Giles: hsiang4-chi2; ), is a two-player Chinese game in a family of strategic board games of which Western chess, Indian chaturanga, Japanese shogi, and the more similar Korean janggi are also members. ...


Science and technology

Yanghui Triangle, known as Pascal's Triangle in West, was first drawn by the Chinese
Yanghui Triangle, known as Pascal's Triangle in West, was first drawn by the Chinese

In addition to the cultural innovations mentioned above, technological inventions from China include: Science and technology in China is currently experiencing rapid growth. ... Image File history File links Yanghui_triangle. ... Image File history File links Yanghui_triangle. ... ... 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 3 3 1 1 4 6 4 1 1 5 10 10 5 1 The first six rows of Pascals triangle In mathematics, Pascals triangle is a geometric arrangement of the binomial coefficients in a triangle. ...

Other areas of technological study: An abacus is a calculation tool, often constructed as a wooden frame with beads sliding on wires. ... It has been suggested that Old Furnace, Ironbridge be merged into this article or section. ... Printmaking is a process for producing editions (mutliple copies) of artwork; painting, on the other hand, is a process for producing a single original piece of artwork. ... Printmaking is a process for producing a work of art in ink; the work (called a print) is created indirectly, through the transfer of ink from the surface upon which the work was originally drawn or otherwise composed. ... Assorted ancient bronze castings found as part of a cache, probably intended for recycling. ... A caliper is a device used in the metalworking field of mechanical engineering, to measure the distance between two symmetrically opposing sides. ... A clock (from the Latin cloca, bell) is an instrument for measuring time. ... Compass in a wooden box A compass (or mariners compass) is a navigational instrument for finding directions on the earth. ... A crossbow is a weapon consisting of a bow mounted on a stock that fires projectiles. ... U.S. Navy submarine USS Greeneville in dry dock following collision with a fishing boat. ... Non-electric fan Household Electric Fan Fans have had several purposes, the most common being to move air for creature comfort or for ventilation and to move air or gas from one location to another for industrial purposes. ... The Sydney Harbour Bridge and the Sydney Opera House illuminated under New Years Eve Fireworks 2005 Fireworks in Kraków, Poland for the 100th anniversary of Wisła Kraków FC. A fireworks event (also called a fireworks display or fireworks show) is a spectacular display of the effects... A Redstone rocket, part of the Mercury program The traditional definition of a rocket is a vehicle, missile or aircraft which obtains thrust by the reaction to the ejection of fast moving fluid from within a rocket engine. ... A fishing rod is a tool used to catch fish, usually for sport. ... Smokeless powder Gunpowder, whether black powder or smokeless powder, is a substance that burns very rapidly, releasing gases that act as a propellant in firearms. ... Gliders are heavier-than-air aircraft primarily intended for unpowered flight. ... Grenade may refer to: The well-known hand grenade commonly used by soldiers. ... Hot air balloons are the oldest successful human flight technology, dating back to the Montgolfier brothers invention in Annonay, France in 1783. ... Yokaichi Giant Kite Festival held on the fourth Sunday every May in Higashiomi, Shiga, Japan A kite is a flying tethered man-made object. ... In a general sense, lacquer is a clear or coloured coating, that dries by solvent evaporation only and that produces a hard, durable finish that can be polished to a very high gloss, and gives the illusion of depth. ... Household safety matches burning match A match is a simple and convenient means of producing fire under controlled circumstances and on demand. ... Piece of A4 paper Paper is a thin, flat material produced by the amalgamation of plant fibres, which are subsequently held together without extra binder, largely by hydrogen bonds and to a small degree by fiber entanglement. ... Paper Money is the second album by the band Montrose. ... The Apollo 15 capsule landed safely despite a parachute failure. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... piston pump ... It has been suggested that Porcelain tile be merged into this article or section. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A relief map is a three dimensional representation, usually of terrain. ... The worlds oldest depiction of a rudder. ... The seed drill was invented by Jethro Tull in 1701: It allowed farmers to sow seeds in well-spaced rows at specific depths. ... Seismographs (in Greek seismos = earthquake and graphein = write) are used by seismologists to record seismic waves. ... Silk weaver Silk is a natural protein fibre that can be woven into textiles. ... Haniwa horse statuette, complete with saddle and stirrups, 6th century, Kofun period, Japan. ... A suspension bridge is a type of bridge that has been made since ancient times. ... A roll of toilet paper. ... Three toothbrushes The toothbrush is an instrument used to clean teeth consisting of a small brush at the end of a handle. ... An umbrella is a device used to keep rain off a person. ... Mary Cassatts painting of two ladies drinking tea in a room with red-blue striped wallpapers. ... A common wheelbarrow Older wheelbarrow A wheelbarrow is a small one- or two-wheeled cart designed to be pushed by a single person using two handles to the rear. ... Whisky (or whiskey) is an alcoholic beverage distilled from grain, often including malt, which has then been aged in wooden barrels. ...

Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, known today as the father of geometry; shown here in a detail of The School of Athens by Raphael. ... The Parthenon on top of the Acropolis, Athens, Greece Architecture (from Latin, architectura and ultimately from Greek, αρχιτεκτων, a master builder, from αρχι- chief, leader and τεκτων, builder, carpenter) is the art and science of designing buildings and structures. ... When a circles diameter is 1, its circumference is Ï€. The mathematical constant Ï€ is an irrational real number, approximately equal to 3. ... Zu Chongzhi (祖冲之, pinyin Zǔ Chōngzhī, Wade-Giles Tsu Chung-chih) (429-500) was a Chinese mathematician and astronomer during the Song and Qi Dynasties (of the Southern Dynasties). ... Decimal, or denary, notation is the most common way of writing the base 10 numeral system, which uses various symbols for ten distinct quantities (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9, called digits) together with the decimal point and the sign symbols + (plus) and − (minus... 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 3 3 1 1 4 6 4 1 1 5 10 10 5 1 The first six rows of Pascals triangle In mathematics, Pascals triangle is a geometric arrangement of the binomial coefficients in a triangle. ... ... Yang Hui (楊輝, c. ... Zhu Shijie (朱世杰 mid-1270s?-1330?) also known as Chu Shih-Chieh was one of the greatest Chinese mathematicians. ... Blaise Pascal (pronounced []), (June 19, 1623 – August 19, 1662) was a French mathematician, physicist, and religious philosopher. ... Biology (from Greek βίος λόγος, see below) is the branch of science dealing with the study of life. ... Pharmacopoeia (literally, the art of the drug compounder), in its modern technical sense, is a book containing directions for the identification of samples and the preparation of compound medicines, and published by the authority of a government or a medical or pharmaceutical society. ... Herbology is the art of combining medicinal herbs. ... Traditional Chinese medicine shop in Tsim Sha Tsui, Hong Kong. ... Intraoperative X-Ray of a Humerus fixated by Kirschner wires Surgery (from the Greek meaning hand work) is the medical specialty that treats diseases or injuries by operative manual and instrumental treatment. ... A crossbow is a weapon consisting of a bow mounted on a stock that fires projectiles. ... Haniwa horse statuette, complete with saddle and stirrups, 6th century, Kofun period, Japan. ... A Repeating Crossbow is one where the separate actions of stringing the bow, placing the bolt and firing it can be accomplished with a simple one handed movement, all the while keeping the crossbow stationary. ... Trebuchet at Château des Baux, France. ... Early detection of chemical agents Sociopolitical climate of chemical warfare While the study of chemicals and their military uses was widespread in China, the use of toxic materials has historically been viewed with mixed emotions and some disdain in the West (especially when the enemy were doing it). ... A riot control agent is a type of lachrymatory agent (or lacrimatory agent). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Yokaichi Giant Kite Festival held on the fourth Sunday every May in Higashiomi, Shiga, Japan Kite flying is the activity of flying tethered man-made objects in wind. ... Grenade may refer to: The well-known hand grenade commonly used by soldiers. ... A small American Civil War-era cannon on a carriage A caun is any large tubular firearm designed to fire a heavy projectile over a considerable distance. ...

See also

China Portal
Find more information on China by searching Wikipedia's sister projects:

 Dictionary definitions from Wiktionary
 Textbooks from Wikibooks
 Quotations from Wikiquote
 Source texts from Wikisource
 Images and media from Commons
 News stories from Wikinews Image File history File links Portal. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikinews-logo. ...

For more information on the topic see Emerging Superpowers and Superpower The Peoples Republic of China (PRC) is often considered an emerging superpower due to its large and stable population, its rapidly growing economy and military spending and capabilities [1]. However, it has several economic, political, and demographic problems... The Chinese calendar (Traditional Chinese: 農曆; Simplified Chinese: 农历; pinyin: nónglì) is a lunisolar calendar incorporating elements of a lunar calendar with those of a solar calendar. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Chinese cuisine is widely seen as representing one of the richest and most diverse culinary cuisines and heritages in the world. ... Chinese dragons The Chinese dragon or Lóng in Mandarin Chinese (Traditional Chinese: 龍; Simplified Chinese: 龙; pinyin: Lóng; Cantonese Yale: Lùhng; Japanese: ryū or tatsu 竜; Korean: ryong 룡; Thai: mungkorn มังกรจีน; Vietnamese: rồng) is a mythical Chinese creature that also appears in other East Asian cultures, and is also sometimes... Personal names in Chinese culture follow a number of conventions different from those of personal names in Western culture. ... The May Fourth Movement in 1919 marked a turning point in the history of Chinese nationalism. ... Chinese New Year decoration in Londons Chinatown Hand-painted Chinese New Years poetry pasted on the sides of doors leading to peoples homes, Lijiang, Yunnan, China. ... The Chinese units (Chinese: 市制; Hanyu Pinyin: ; literally market system) are the customary and traditional units of measure used in China. ... Ornamental jar from the Kingdom of Wu (222-280 CE) of the Three Kingdoms period. ... Fenghuang sculpture, Nanning city, Guangxi province. ... The story of the postage stamps and postal history of China is complicated by the gradual decay of imperial China and the years of civil war and Japanese occupation in the 1930s and 1940s. ... The military history of China extends from around 1500 BCE to the present day. ... Overseas Chinese are Chinese people who live outside China. ...

Notes

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Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Chinese characters.
  1. ^ Mao's China and the Cold War. published by UNC Press ISBN 0-8078-4932-4
  2. ^ Ciyuan (《辭源》). published by the Commercial Press Beijing (北京商務印書館出版)
  3. ^ "Dictionary of Mandarin (《国语辞典》). issued by the Department of Education of the Republic of China (中华民国教育部)
  4. ^ The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed (AHD4). Boston and New York, Houghton-Mifflin, 2000, entries china, Qin, Sino-.
  5. ^ "Beijing hit by eighth sandstorm". BBC news. Accessed 17 April, 2006.
  6. ^ a b Languages. 2005. GOV.cn. URL accessed 3 May 2006.
  7. ^ Law of the People's Republic of China on the Standard Spoken and Written Chinese Language (Order of the President No.37). 2005. GOV.cn. URL accessed 15 May 2006.
  8. ^ World Desk Reference. D K Publishing. ISBN 0-7566-1099-0
  9. ^ Macintosh, R. Scott. China's prosperity inspires rising spirituality (March 09, 2006). Retrieved April 15, 2006.
  10. ^ "China (includes Tibet, Hong Kong, and Macau)". 2004. International Religious Freedom Report 2004 - U.S. Department of State. URL accessed 30 May 2006.
  11. ^ Bary, Theodore de. "Constructive Engagement with Asian Values". Columbia University.
  12. ^ Origins of the Great Game. 2000. Athleticscholarships.net. Accessed 23 April 2006.
  13. ^ Qinfa, Ye. Sports History of China. About.com. Retrieved April 21, 2006.
  14. ^ http://www.dohaasiangames.org/en/asian_games_2006/history.html
  15. ^ http://www.olympic.org/uk/games/index_uk.asp

Image File history File links Zhongwen. ... Chinese (written) language (pinyin: zhōngw n) written in Chinese characters The Chinese language (汉语/漢語, 华语/華語, or 中文; Pinyin: H nyǔ, Hu yǔ, or Zhōngw n) is a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ...

External links

  • Video travel guide in China.
  • Interactive China map with province and city guides.
  • China Digital Times Online China news portal, run by the Graduate School of Journalism of University of California at Berkeley.
  • Doing Business in China World Bank Group's guide
  • Enterprise Surveys: China
  • Infrastructure Projects Database: China
  • Privatization Database: China


  Results from FactBites:
 
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Chinese civilization was also one of the few to invent writing independently, the others being ancient Mesopotamia (Sumerians), Ancient India (Indus Valley Civilization), the Mayan Civilization, and Ancient Egypt.
Only about 6% of the mainland Chinese population in the PRC are avowed Buddhists, with Mahayana Buddhism and Zen Buddhism being the most widely practiced, in contrast to the combined 93% of the ROC (Taiwan) population who are devout adherents of a symbiotic combination of Buddhism, Taoism, and Confucianism.
Today, the PRC government has accepted much of traditional Chinese culture as an integral part of Chinese society, lauding it as an important achievement of the Chinese civilization and emphasizing it as being vital to the formation of a Chinese national identity.
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In 2006, the Chinese Department was renamed the School of Chinese consequent on the restructuring of the Faculty of Arts.
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The principal objectives of the Chinese Language Enhancement Programme are to help students acquire the necessary knowledge and skills in Chinese for future employment, to expedite their progress toward excellence in language use, and to make them understand that language improvement is a life-long self-learning process.
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