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Encyclopedia > Chinese calendar
Calendars
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Wide use Astronomical · Gregorian · Islamic · ISO
Calendar Types
Lunisolar · Solar · Lunar

Selected use Assyrian · Armenian · Attic · Aztec (TonalpohualliXiuhpohualli) · Babylonian · Bahá'í · Bengali · Berber · Bikram Samwat · Buddhist · Celtic · Chinese · Coptic · Egyptian · Ethiopian · Calendrier Républicain · Germanic · Hebrew · Hellenic · Hindu · Indian · Iranian · Irish · Japanese · Javanese · Juche · Julian · Korean · Lithuanian · Malayalam · Maya (Tzolk'inHaab') · Minguo · Nanakshahi · Nepal Sambat · Pawukon · Rapa Nui · Roman · Soviet · Tamil · Thai (LunarSolar) · Tibetan · Vietnamese· Xhosa · Zoroastrian
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Original Julian · Runic · Mesoamerican (Long CountCalendar Round)

The Chinese calendar is a lunisolar calendar, incorporating elements of a lunar calendar with those of a solar calendar. This measure of time is not exclusive to China, but followed by many other Asian cultures. However, it is often referred to by the Western cultures as the Chinese calendar. In most of Asia today, the Gregorian calendar is used for day to day activities, but the Chinese calendar is still used for marking traditional East Asian holidays such as the Lunar New Year (Spring Festival), and in China the Duan Wu festival, and the Mid-Autumn Festival, and in astrology, such as choosing the most auspicious date for a wedding or the opening of a building. Because each month follows one cycle of the moon, it is also used to determine the phases of the moon. A calendar is a system for assigning calendar dates to days. ... A Tunisian calendar showing Gregorian, Islamic and Berber dates // Afghan calendar (Afghan Calendar Project) Armenian calendar Astronomical year numbering Baháí calendar Bengali calendar Berber calendar Buddhist calendar Chinese calendar Coptic calendar Ethiopian calendar Fiscal year Germanic calendar (still in use by Ásatrúar) Gregorian calendar Hebrew calendar Hindu calendars Indian... Astronomical year numbering is based on BCE/CE (or BC/AD) year numbering, but follows normal decimal integer numbering more strictly. ... For the calendar of religious holidays and periods, see liturgical year. ... The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (Arabic: التقويم الهجري; at-taqwÄ«m al-hijrÄ«; Persian: تقویم هجري قمری ‎ taqwÄ«m-e hejri-ye qamari; also called the Hijri calendar) is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate... The ISO week date system is a leap week calendar system that is part of the ISO 8601 date and time standard. ... A lunisolar calendar is a calendar whose date indicates both the moon phase and the time of the solar year. ... A solar calendar is a calendar whose dates indicate the position of the earth on its revolution around the sun (or equivalently the apparent position of the sun moving on the celestial sphere). ... A lunar calendar is a calendar in many cultures that is oriented at the moon phase. ... The Assyrian calender is a lunar-based calender that begins in the year 4750 BC, marking the finishing of the first temple build by the Assyrians for the God Ashur. ... The Attic calendar is the calendar that was in use in ancient Attica, the ancestral territory of the Athenian polis. ... The Aztec calendar was the calendar of the Aztec people of Pre-Columbian Mexico. ... The Tonalpohualli,the day-count in English, is the 260 day sacred calendar of early Mesoamericans. ... The Xiuhpohualli was a calendar cycle constructed from a count of 365 days, used by the Aztecs and other Nahua peoples from the central Mexican region during the Postclassic period of Mesoamerican chronology. ... In the Babylonian calendar a year consisted of 12 lunar months, each beginning when a new crescent moon was first sighted low on the western horizon at sunset. ... The Baháí calendar, also called the Badí‘ calendar, used by the Baháí Faith, is a solar calendar with regular years of 365 days, and leap years of 366 days. ... The Bengali calendar (Bengali: ) is a traditional solar calendar used in Bangladesh and the states of West Bengal, Assam and Tripura in eastern India. ... The Berber calendar is the annual calendar used by Berber people in North Africa. ... Bikram Samwat (Bikram Sambat, Devnagari:बिक्रम संवत, abbreviated B.S.) is the calendar established by Indian emperor Vikramaditya. ... The Buddhist calendar is used on mainland southeast Asia in the countries of Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and Myanmar (formerly Burma) in several related forms. ... The term Celtic calendar is used to refer to a variety of calendars used by Celtic-speaking peoples at different times in history. ... The Coptic calendar, also called the Alexandrian calendar, is used by the Coptic Orthodox Church. ... A French Revolutionary Calendar in the Historical Museum of Lausanne. ... The Hebrew calendar (‎) or Jewish calendar is the calendar used by Jews for religious purposes. ... A page from the Hindu calendar 1871-72. ... The Javanese calendar is a calendar used by the Javanese people. ... The Juche Idea (also Juche Sasang or Chuche; pronounced // in Korean, approximately joo-cheh) is the official state ideology of North Korea and the political system based on it. ... The Revised Julian calendar is a calendar that was considered for adoption by the Eastern Orthodox churches at a synod in Istanbul in May 1923. ... Malayalam calendar (also known as Malayalam Era or Kollavarsham) is a solar Sideral calendar used in the state of Kerala in South India. ... The Maya calendar is a system of distinct calendars and almanacs used by the Maya civilization of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica, and by some modern Maya communities in highland Guatemala. ... Tzolkin (in the revised Guatemala Mayan languages Academy orthography which is now preferred, formerly and commonly tzolkin) is the name bestowed by Mayanist scholars upon the version of the 260-day Mesoamerican calendar which was used by the Maya civilization of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica. ... The Maya Haab calendar is a 365-day solar calendar whose dates indicate the position of the Sun at noon relative to the zenith over the Yucatan peninsula. ... A calendar that commemorates the first year of the Republic as well as the election of Sun Yat-sen as the provisional President. ... The Nanakshahi (Punjabi: , ) calendar is a solar calendar that was adopted by the Shiromani Gurdwara Prabhandak Committee to determine the dates for important Sikh events. ... Nepal Sambat (Nepal Bhasa: नेपाल सम्बत) is a lunar calendar. ... The Pawukon is a 210 day calendar that has its origins in the Hindu religion in Bali, Indonesia. ... The Roman calendar changed its form several times in the time between the foundation of Rome and the fall of the Roman Empire. ... Page of the Soviet revolutionary calendar showing December 12, 1937 The Soviet revolutionary calendar was in use in the USSR from 1929 to 1940. ... The Tamil Calendar is followed by the Tamil speaking state of Tamil Nadu and Kerala in India, and by the Tamil population in Malaysia, Singapore & Sri Lanka. ... The Thai lunar calendar or Patitin Chantarakati (Thai: ปฏิทินจันทรคติ) was replaced by the Patitin Suriyakati (ปฎิทินสุริยคติ) Thai solar calendar in AD 1888 2431 BE for most purposes, but the Chantarakati still determines most Buddhist feast or holy days, as well as a day for the famous Loy Krathong festival. ... The Thai solar, or Suriyakati (สุริยคติ), calendar is used in traditional and official contexts in Thailand, although the Western calendar is sometimes used in business. ... The Tibetan calendar is a lunisolar calendar, that is, the Tibetan year is composed of either 12 or 13 lunar months, each beginning and ending with a new moon. ... Tết display in Ho Chi Minh City Tết Nguyên Đán (Sino-Vietnamese for Feast of the First Morning, derived from Hán nôm 節元旦), more commonly known by its shortened name Tết, is the most important holiday in Vietnam. ... By the traditional Xhosa calendar, the year began in June and ended in May, when Canopus, a large star visible in the Southern Hemisphere, signalled the time for harvesting. ... The Zoroastrian calendar is a religious calendar used by members of the Zoroastrian faith, and it is an approximation of the (tropical) solar calendar. ... The Julian calendar was a reform of the Roman calendar which was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... Runic calendar - Norwegian - carved wood. ... The Pre-Columbian people of Mesoamerica kept track of time with calendars which had ritual and religious meaning. ... Long Count redirects here. ... In the Mesoamerican calendars, Calendar Round dates are composed by interlacing the dates of the Tzolkin 260 day period (eg the Tzolkin) with that of the 365 day period (known in the Maya language as the Haab). ... A lunisolar calendar is a calendar whose date indicates both the moon phase and the time of the solar year. ... A lunar calendar is a calendar in many cultures that is oriented at the moon phase. ... A solar calendar is a calendar whose dates indicate the position of the earth on its revolution around the sun (or equivalently the apparent position of the sun moving on the celestial sphere). ... For the calendar of religious holidays and periods, see liturgical year. ... Lunar New Year may refer to the beginning of the year in several cultures calendars: Chinese New Year Korean New Year Islamic New Year Tết (Vietnamese New Year) Thai New Year (Songkran) Categories: | ... A more specific term for dragon boat as a sport is dragon boat race, which is a team paddling sport on water, using painted boats to which are attached decorative dragon heads and tails. ... Japanese name Kanji: Kana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Chữ nôm: Mid-Autumn Festival celebrations in Victoria Park, Hong Kong. ...



In China, the traditional calendar is known as the "agricultural calendar" (traditional Chinese: 農曆; simplified Chinese: 农历; pinyin: nónglì) while the Gregorian calendar is known as the "common calendar" (traditional Chinese: 公曆; simplified Chinese: 公历; pinyin: gōnglì) or "Common calendar" . Another name for the Chinese calendar is the "Yin Calendar" (traditional Chinese: 陰曆; simplified Chinese: 阴历; pinyin: yīnlì) in reference to the lunar aspect of the calendar, whereas the Gregorian calendar is the "Yang Calendar" (traditional Chinese: 陽曆; simplified Chinese: 阳历; pinyin: yánglì) in reference to its solar properties. The Chinese calendar was also called the "old calendar" (traditional Chinese: 舊曆; simplified Chinese: 旧历; pinyin: jìulì) after the "new calendar" (traditional Chinese: 新曆; simplified Chinese: 新历; pinyin: xīnlì), i.e. the Gregorian calendar, was adopted as the official calendar. The traditional calendar is also often referred to as "the Xia Calendar", following a comment in the Shiji which states that under the Xia Dynasty, the year began on the second moon after the winter solstice (just as in the modern calendar). Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Vietnamese name Vietnamese: In Chinese philosophy the yin and yang (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) are generalized descriptions of the antitheses or mutual correlations in human perceptions of phenomena in the natural world, combining to create a unity of opposites in the theory of the Taiji. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Vietnamese name Vietnamese: In Chinese philosophy the yin and yang (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) are generalized descriptions of the antitheses or mutual correlations in human perceptions of phenomena in the natural world, combining to create a unity of opposites in the theory of the Taiji. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... For the Sixteen Kingdoms Period state, see Xia (Sixteen Kingdoms). ... The Records of the Grand Historian or the Records of the Grand Historian of China was the magnum opus of Sima Qian, in which he recounted Chinese history from the time of the mythical Yellow Emperor until his own time. ...


The current year in the Chinese calendar is the Year of the Earth Rat (year of Wù , 戊子). It lasts from 7 February 2008 to 25 January 2009. Based on traditional beliefs, some form of the calendar has been in use for almost five millennia. Based on archaeological evidence some form of it has been in use for three and a half millennia. Celestial stem (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is an ancient Chinese cyclic character numeral system: Jia (甲), Yi (ä¹™), Bing (丙), Ding (丁), Wu (戊), Ji (å·±), Geng (庚), Xin (è¾›), Ren (壬), Gui (癸). They were first used for dates in the Shang Dynasty, and are now used with the twelve Earthly Branches in the Sexagesimal cycle in the Chinese calendar and... The Earthly Branches (Chinese: 地支; pinyin: Dìzhī) is an ancient Chinese numeral system now uncommon, except when used in conjunction with the Heavenly Stems in the traditional calendar and Taoism. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (common) era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2009 (MMIX) will be a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents

History

Early history

The earliest evidence of the Chinese calendar is found on oracle bones of the Shang dynasty (late second millennium BC), which seem to describe a lunisolar year of twelve months, with a possible intercalary thirteenth, or even fourteenth, added empirically to prevent calendar drift. The Sexagenary cycle for recording days was already in use. Tradition holds that, in that era, the year began on the first new moon after the winter solstice. Replica of an oracle bone -- turtle shell Replica of an oracle bone -- ox scapula Oracle bones (甲骨片 pinyin: jiÇŽgÇ”piàn) are pieces of bone or turtle shell used in royal divination in the mid Shang to early Zhou dynasties in ancient China, and often bearing written inscriptions in what... Remnants of advanced, stratified societies dating back to the Shang period have been found in the Yellow River Valley. ... (3rd millennium BC – 2nd millennium BC – 1st millennium BC – other millennia) Events Second dynasty of Babylon First Bantu migrations from west Africa The Cushites drive the original inhabitants from Ethiopia, and establish trade relations with Egypt. ... Intercalation is the insertion of an extra day, week or month into some calendar years to make the calendar follow the seasons. ... The Chinese sexagenary cycle (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a cyclic numeral system of 60 combinations of the two basic cycles, the ten Heavenly Stems (天干; tiāngān) and the twelve Earthly Branches (地支; dìzhÄ«). These have been traditionally used as a means of numbering days and years, not only in China...


Early Eastern Zhou texts, such as the Spring and Autumn Annals, provide better understanding of the calendars used in the Zhou dynasty. One year usually had 12 months, which were alternatively 29 and 30 days long (with an additional day added from time to time, to catch up with "drifts" between the calendar and the actual moon cycle), and intercalary months were added in an arbitrary fashion, at the end of the year. Alternative meaning: Zhou Dynasty (690 CE - 705 CE) The Zhou Dynasty (周朝; Wade-Giles: Chou Dynasty) (late 10th century BC to late 9th century BC - 256 BC) followed the Shang (Yin) Dynasty and preceded the Qin Dynasty in China. ... The Spring and Autumn Annals (春秋 ChÅ«n QiÅ«, also known as 麟經 Lín JÄ«ng) is the official chronicle of the state of Lu covering the period from 722 BCE to 481 BCE. It is the earliest surviving Chinese historical text to be arranged on annalistic principles. ... This article is about the ancient Chinese dynasty. ... Intercalation is the insertion of an extra day, week or month into some calendar years to make the calendar follow the seasons. ...


These arbitrary rules on day and month intercalation caused the calendars of each state to be slightly different, at times. Thus, texts like the Annals will often state whether the calendar they use (the calendar of Lu) is in phase with the Royal calendar (used by the Zhou kings).


Although tradition holds that in the Zhou, the year began on the new moon which preceded the winter solstice, the Spring and Autumn Annals seem to indicate that (in Lu at least) the Yin calendar (the calendar used in Shang dynasty, with years beginning on the first new moon after the winter solstice) was in use until the middle of the 7th century, and that the beginning of the year was shifted back one month around 650 BC. This article is about the astronomical event of winter solstice or midwinter. ... The Spring and Autumn Annals (春秋 Chūn Qiū, also known as 麟經 Lín Jīng) is the official chronicle of the state of Lu covering the period from 722 BCE to 481 BCE. It is the earliest surviving Chinese historical text to be arranged on annalistic principles. ... Remnants of advanced, stratified societies dating back to the Shang period have been found in the Yellow River Valley. ... This article is about the astronomical event of winter solstice or midwinter. ... Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 700s BC 690s BC 680s BC 670s BC 660s BC - 650s BC - 640s BC 630s BC 620s BC 610s BC 600s BC Events and Trends Occupation begins at Maya site of Piedras Negras, Guatemala 657 BC - Cypselus becomes the...


By the beginning of the Warring States, progress in astronomy and mathematics allowed the creation of calculated calendars (where intercalary months and days are set by a rule, and not arbitrarily). The sìfēn 四分 (quarter remainder) calendar, which began about 484 BC, was the first calculated Chinese calendar, so named because it used a solar year of 365¼ days, along with a 19-year (235-month) Rule Cycle, known in the West as the Metonic cycle. The year began on the new moon preceding the winter solstice, and intercalary months were inserted at the end of the year. Alternative meaning: Warring States Period (Japan) The Warring States Period (traditional Chinese: 戰國時代, simplified Chinese: 战国时代 pinyin Zhànguó Shídài) takes place from sometime in the 5th century BC to the unification of China by Qin in 221 BC. It is nominally considered to be the second part of the Eastern... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC Years: 489 BC 488 BC 487 BC 486 BC 485 BC - 484 BC - 483 BC 482 BC... The Metonic cycle or Enneadecaeteris in astronomy and calendar studies is a particular approximate common multiple of the year (specifically, the seasonal tropical year) and the synodic month. ...


In 256 BC, as the last Zhou king ceded his territory to Qin, a new calendar (the Qin calendar) began to be used. It followed the same principles as the Sifen calendar, except the year began one month before (the second new moon before the winter solstice, which now fell in the second month of the year). The Qin calendar was used during the Qin dynasty, and in the beginning of the Western Han dynasty. Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC - 250s BC - 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC Years: 261 BC 260 BC 259 BC 258 BC 257 BC - 256 BC - 255 BC 254 BC... Qin Dynasty in 210 BC Capital Xianyang Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy History  - Unification of China 221 BC  - Death of Qin Shi Huangdi 210 BC  - Surrender to Liu Bang 206 BC The Qin Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Chao) (221 BC - 206 BC) was preceded by the... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication to Cao Wei 220...


Taichu calendar

The Emperor Wu of the Western Han dynasty introduced reforms that have governed the Chinese calendar ever since. His Tàichū 太初 (Grand Inception) calendar of 104 BC had a year with the winter solstice in the eleventh month and designated as intercalary any calendar month (a month of 29 or 30 whole days) during which the sun does not pass a principal term (that is, remained within the same sign of the zodiac throughout). Because the sun's mean motion was used to calculate the jiéqì (traditional Chinese: 節氣; simplified Chinese: 节气) (or seasonal markings) until 1645, this intercalary month was equally likely to occur after any month of the year. The conjunction of the sun and moon (the astronomical new moon) was calculated using the mean motions of both the sun and moon until 619, the second year of the Tang dynasty, when chronologists began to use true motions modeled using two offset opposing parabolas (with small linear and cubic components). Unfortunately, the parabolas did not meet smoothly at the mean motion, but met with a discontinuity or jump. Emperor Wu of Han (156 BC*–March 29, 87 BC), personal name Liu Che, was the sixth emperor of the Chinese Han Dynasty, ruling from 141 BC to 87 BC. A military compaigner, Han China reached its greatest expansion under his reign, spanning from Kyrgyzstan in the west, Northern Korea... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication to Cao Wei 220... Taichuli calendar was one of the most advanced calendars of Ancient China. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC - 100s BC - 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC Years: 109 BC 108 BC 107 BC 106 BC 105 BC - 104 BC - 103 BC 102 BC... This article is about the astronomical event of winter solstice or midwinter. ... The term zodiac denotes an annual cycle of twelve stations along the ecliptic, the apparent path of the sun across the heavens through the constellations that divide the ecliptic into twelve equal zones of celestial longitude. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ... The Avars attack Constantinople. ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... A parabola A graph showing the reflective property, the directrix (light blue), and the lines connecting the focus and directrix to the parabola (blue) In mathematics, the parabola (from the Greek: παραβολή) (IPA pronunciation: ) is a conic section generated by the intersection of a right circular conical surface and a plane...


True sun and moon

With the introduction of Western astronomy into China via the Jesuits, the motions of both the sun and moon began to be calculated with sinusoids in the 1645 Shíxiàn calendar (時憲書, Book of the Conformity of Time) of the Qing dynasty, made by the Jesuit Adam Schall. The true motion of the sun was now used to calculate the jiéqì, which caused the intercalary month to often occur after the second through the ninth months, but rarely after the tenth through first months. A few autumn-winter periods have one or two calendar months where the sun enters two signs of the zodiac, interspersed with two or three calendar months where the sun stays within one sign. Seal of the Society of Jesus. ... Sine redirects here. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... Johann Adam Schall von Bell (Chinese: 湯若望) (1591 - 15 August 1666) was a German Jesuit missionary to China. ...


Gregorian Reform and the 1929 time change

The Gregorian calendar was adopted by the nascent Republic of China effective January 1, 1912 for official business, but the general populace continued to use the traditional calendar. The status of the Gregorian calendar was unclear between 1916 and 1921 while China was controlled by several competing warlords each supported by foreign colonial powers. From about 1921 until 1928 warlords continued to fight over northern China, but the Kuomintang or Nationalist government controlled southern China and used the Gregorian calendar. After the Kuomintang reconstituted the Republic of China October 10, 1928, the Gregorian calendar was officially adopted, effective 1 January 1929. Along with this, the time zone for the whole country was adjusted to the coastal time zone that had been used in European treaty ports along the Chinese coast since 1904. This changed the beginning of each calendar day, for both the traditional and Gregorian calendars, by plus 14 minutes and 26 seconds from Beijing midnight to midnight at the longitude 120° east of Greenwich. For the calendar of religious holidays and periods, see liturgical year. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... A warlord is a person with power who has de facto military control of a subnational area due to armed forces loyal to the warlord and not to a central authority. ... The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China (ROC), now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in terms of seats in the Legislative Yuan, and the oldest political party in the... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Treaty ports were port cities in China, Japan and Korea opened to foreign trade by the so-called Unequal Treaties, i. ... Peking redirects here. ... For other uses, see Midnight (disambiguation) Midnight, literally the middle of the night, is a time arbitrarily designated to determine the end of a day and the beginning of the next in some, mainly Western, cultures. ... Longitude is the east-west geographic coordinate measurement most commonly utilized in cartography and global navigation. ... This article is about Greenwich in England. ...


This caused some discrepancies, such as with the 1978 Mid-Autumn Festival. There was a new moon on September 3, 1978, at 00:07, Chinese Standard Time [1]. Using the old Beijing timezone, the New Moon occurred at 23:53 on the 2nd, so the eighth month began on a different day in the calendars. Thus people in Hong Kong (using the traditional calendar) celebrated the Festival on 16 September, but those in the mainland celebrated on 17 September. [2] (see page 18) Japanese name Kanji: Kana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Chữ nôm: Mid-Autumn Festival celebrations in Victoria Park, Hong Kong. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Certain regions of eastern Asia, including all of China, observe a time zone eight hours ahead of UTC, known as Chinese Standard Time. ... is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Calendar rules

The following rules outline the Chinese calendar since c.104 BC. Note that the rules allow either mean or true motions of the Sun and Moon to be used, depending on the historical period.

  1. The months are lunar months. This means the first day of each month beginning at midnight is the day of the astronomical new moon. (Note, however, that a "day" in the Chinese calendar begins at 11 p.m. and not at midnight)
  2. Each year has 12 regular months, which are numbered in sequence (1 to 12) and have alternative names. Every second or third year has an intercalary month (閏月 rùnyuè), which may come after any regular month. It has the same number as the preceding regular month, but is designated intercalary.
  3. Every other jiéqì of the Chinese solar year is equivalent to an entry of the sun into a sign of the tropical zodiac (a principal term or cusp).
  4. The sun always passes the winter solstice (enters Capricorn) during month 11.
  5. If there are 12 months between two successive occurrences of month 11, at least one of these 12 months must be a month during which the sun remains within the same zodiac sign throughout (no principal term or cusp occurs within it). If only one such month occurs, it is designated intercalary, but if two such months occur, only the first is designated intercalary.
  6. The times of the astronomical new moons and the sun entering a zodiac sign are determined in the Chinese Time Zone by the Purple Mountain Observatory (紫金山天文台 Zǐjīnshān Tiānwéntái) outside Nanjing using modern astronomical equations. Chinese Americans use Nanjing Calendar instead of defining a local one. To them, the new Moon can occur on the last day of the previous month according to their local USA time. For example, A new Moon occurred on May 16, 2007 by USA time. But Chinese Americans still regard May 17, 2007 as the first day of a new month. Further, they define the boundaries of the day according to a USA local time zone. Thus rule number 1 is not followed in this case,.

The zodiac sign which the sun enters during the month and the ecliptic longitude of that entry point usually determine the number of a regular month. Month 1, zhēngyuè, literally means principal month. All other months are literally numbered, second month, third month, etc. The lunar phase depends on the Moons position in orbit around Earth. ... Intercalation is the insertion of an extra day or month into some calendar years to make the calendar follow the seasons. ... The December solstice occurs on December 21 or December 22 of most years, and is known by different names in different hemispheres of Earth: Winter solstice in the Northern Hemisphere; the shortest day of the year. ... Purple Mountain Observatory is an astronomical observatory near Nanjing, China. ... For other uses, see Nanjing (disambiguation). ...

# Chinese name Long. Zodiac sign
11 十一月 shíyīyuè 270° Capricornus
12 十二月 shí'èryuè 300° Aquarius
1 正月 zhēngyuè 330° Pisces
2 二月 èryuè Aries
3 三月 sānyuè 30° Taurus
4 四月 sìyuè 60° Gemini
5 五月 wǔyuè 90° Cancer
6 六月 liùyuè 120° Leo
7 七月 qīyuè 150° Virgo
8 八月 bāyuè 180° Libra
9 九月 jiǔyuè 210° Scorpius
10 十月 shíyuè 240° Sagittarius

Some believe the above correspondence to be always true, but there are exceptions, which, for example, prevent Chinese New Year from always being the second new moon after the winter solstice, or that cause the holiday to occur after the Rain Water jieqi. An exception will occur in 2033-2034, when the winter solstice is the second solar term in the eleventh month. The next month is a no-entry month and so is intercalary, and a twelfth month follows which contains both the Aquarius and Pisces solar terms (deep cold and rain water). The Year of the Tiger thus begins on the third new moon following the Winter Solstice, and also occurs after the Pisces (rain water) jieqi, on February 19. Capricornus ( or , Unicode: ♑), a name meaning Horned Goat or That which has horns like a goats in Latin, is one of the constellations of the zodiac. ... Spirit of Aquarius Aquarius is an astrological sign, which originated from the constellation Aquarius, and is the eleventh sign of the zodiac. ... Symbol of Pisces Pisces is an Astrological sign, which originated from the constellation Pisces, and is the twelfth sign of the zodiac. ... Aries the animal Aries is an astrological sign that originated from the constellation Aries, and is the first sign of the zodiac. ... Taurus the bull Taurus is an astrological sign which originated from the constellation Taurus, and is the second sign of the zodiac. ... Gemini the twins Gemini is an astrological sign, which originated from the constellation Gemini, and is the third sign of the zodiac. ... Cancer astrology sign on the ceiling of the main concourse of Grand Central Terminal. ... Leo the lion Leo is an astrological sign, which originated from the constellation Leo, and is the fifth sign of the zodiac. ... Virgo the virgin or maiden Virgo is an astrological sign which originated from the constellation Virgo, and is the sixth sign of the zodiac. ... Libra is an astrological sign and is the seventh sign of the zodiac. ... Scorpius (Latin for scorpion, symbol , Unicode ♏) is one of the constellations of the zodiac. ... Sagittarius the archer Sagittarius is an astrological sign, which originated from the constellation Sagittarius, and is the ninth sign of the Zodiac. ... Chinese New Year (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), or Spring Festival or the Lunar New Year (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), is the most important of the traditional Chinese holidays. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Another occurrence was in 1984-85, after the sun had entered both Capricorn at 270° and Aquarius at 300° in month 11, and then entered Pisces at 330° during the next month, which should have caused it to be month 1. The sun did not enter any sign during the next month. In order to keep the winter solstice in month 11, the month which should have been month 1 became month 12, and the month thereafter became month 1, causing Chinese New Year to occur on 20 February 1985 after the sun had already passed into Pisces at 330° during the previous month, rather than during the month beginning on that day. is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ...


On those occasions when a dual-entry month does occur, it always occurs somewhere between two months that do not have any entry (non-entry months). It usually occurs alone and either includes the winter solstice or is nearby, thus placing the winter solstice in month 11 (rule 4) chooses which of the two non-entry months becomes the intercalary month. In 1984-85, the month immediately before the dual-entry month 11 was a non-entry month which was designated as an intercalary month 10. All months from the dual-entry month to the non-entry month that is not to be intercalary are sequentially numbered with the nearby regular months (rule 2). The last phrase of rule 5, choosing the first of two non-entry months between months 11, has not been required since the last calendar reform, and will not be necessary until the 2033-34 occasion, when two dual-entry months will be interspersed among three non-entry months, two of which will be on one side of month 11. The leap eleventh month produced is a very rare occasion. See [3] for details.


Exceptions such as these are rare. Fully 96.6% of all months contain only one entry into a zodiacal sign (have one principal term or cusp), all obeying the numbering rules of the jiéqì table, and 3.0% of all months are intercalary months (always non-entry months between principal terms or cusps). Only 0.4% of all months either are dual-entry months (have two principal terms or cusps) or are neighboring months that are renumbered.


It is only after the 1645 reform that this situation arose. Then it became necessary to fix one month to always contain its principal term and allow any other to occasionally not contain its principal term. Month 11 was chosen, because its principal term (the winter solstice) forms the start of the Chinese Solar year (the sui).


The Chinese lunar calendar and the Gregorian Calendar often sync up every 19 years (Metonic cycle). Most Chinese people notice that their Chinese and Western birthdays often fall on the same day on their 19th, 38th birthday etc. However, a 19-year cycle with a certain set of intercalary months is only an approximation, so an almost identical pattern of intercalary months in subsequent cycles will eventually change after some multiple of 19 years to a quite different 19-year cycle. The Metonic cycle or Enneadecaeteris in astronomy and calendar studies is a particular approximate common multiple of the year (specifically, the seasonal tropical year) and the synodic month. ...


The Chinese zodiac (see Nomenclature and Twelve Animals sections) is only used in naming years—it is not used in the actual calculation of the calendar. In fact, the Chinese have a very different constellation system. Chinese astrology (占星術 pinyin: zhan4 xing1 shu4; 星學 pinyin: xing1 xue2; 七政四餘 pinyin: qi1 zheng4 si4 yu2; and 果老星宗 pinyin: guo3 lao3 xing1 zong1) is related to the Chinese calendar, particularly its 12-year cycle of animals (aka Chinese Zodiac), and the fortune-telling aspects according to movement of heavenly... Chinese constellations are different from the western constellations, due to the independent development of ancient Chinese astronomy. ...


The twelve months are closely connected with agriculture, so they are alternatively named after plants:

  1. Primens (first month) 正月: Latin "primus mensis".
  2. Apricomens (apricot month) 杏月: apricot blossoms.
  3. Peacimens (peach month) 桃月: peach blossoms.
  4. Plumens (plum month) 梅月: mei ripens.
  5. Guavamens (guava month) 榴月: pomegranate blossoms.
  6. Lotumens (lotus month) 荷月: lotus blossoms.
  7. Orchimens (orchid month) 蘭月: orchid blossoms.
  8. Osmanthumens (osmanthus month) 桂月: osmanthus blossoms.
  9. Chrysanthemens (chrysanthemum month) 菊月: chrysanthemum blossoms.
  10. Benimens (good month) 良月: good month.
  11. Hiemens (hiemal month) 冬月: hiemal month.
  12. Lamens (last month) 臘月: last month.

Binomial name Prunus armeniaca L. For other uses, see Apricot (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (L.) Batsch Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Binomial name Prunus mume Siebold & Zucc. ... For the color, see Pomegranate (color). ... Species Nelumbo lutea (American Lotus) Nelumbo nucifera (Sacred Lotus) Nelumbo is a genus of water flowers commonly known as lotus (Hindi: कमल) and the only genus in the family Nelumbonaceae. ... Orchid re-directs here; for alternate uses see Orchid (disambiguation) Genera Over 800 See List of Orchidaceae genera. ... Species About 30 species; see text. ... Species Chrysanthemum aphrodite Chrysanthemum arcticum Chrysanthemum argyrophyllum Chrysanthemum arisanense Chrysanthemum boreale Chrysanthemum chalchingolicum Chrysanthemum chanetii Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium Chrysanthemum coronarium, Crown daisy Chrysanthemum crassum Chrysanthemum glabriusculum Chrysanthemum hypargyrum Chrysanthemum indicum Chrysanthemum japonense Chrysanthemum japonicum Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium Chrysanthemum mawii Chrysanthemum maximowiczii Chrysanthemum mongolicum Chrysanthemum morifolium Chrysanthemum morii Chrysanthemum okiense Chrysanthemum oreastrum Chrysanthemum... For other uses, see Winter (disambiguation). ...

Year markings

Regnal years

Traditional Chinese years were not continuously numbered in the way that the BC/AD system is. More commonly, official year counting always used some form of a regnal year. This system began in 841 BC during the Zhou dynasty. Prior to this, years were not marked at all, and historical events cannot be dated exactly. Regnal year: the year of the reign of a sovereign. ... This article is about the ancient Chinese dynasty. ...


In 841 BC, the Li King Hu of Zhou (周厲王胡) was ousted by a civilian uprising (國人暴動), and the country was governed for the next fourteen years by a council of senior ministers, a period known as the Regency (共和行政). In this period, years were marked as First (second, third, etc) Year of the Regency. Centuries: 10th century BC - 9th century BC - 8th century BC Decades: 890s BC 880s BC 870s BC 860s BC 850s BC - 840s BC - 830s BC 820s BC 810s BC 800s BC 790s BC Events and Trends 845 BC - Pherecles, King of Athens dies after a reign of 19 years and... The following kings Li of Zhou result from the Pinyin transliteration of the original Chinese characters. ... The Goughe regency ruled China from 841 BC to 828 BC. Categories: China-related stubs ...


Subsequently, years were marked as regnal years, e.g. the year 825 BC was marked as the 3rd Year of the Xuan King Jing of Zhou (周宣王三年). This system was used until early in the Han dynasty, when the Wen Emperor of Han (漢文帝劉恒) instituted regnal names. After this, most emperors used one or more regnal names to mark their reign. Usually, the emperor would institute a new name upon accession to the throne, and then change to new names to mark significant events, or to end a perceived cycle of bad luck. In the Ming dynasty, however, each emperor usually used only one regnal name for their reign. In Qing dynasty, each emperor used only one regnal name for their reign. Centuries: 10th century BC - 9th century BC - 8th century BC Decades: 870s BC 860s BC 850s BC 840s BC 830s BC - 820s BC - 810s BC 800s BC 790s BC 780s BC 770s BC Events and trends 827 BC - Zhou xuan wang becomes King of the Zhou Dynasty of China. ... King Xuan of Zhou (before 841 BC - 781 BC) (ch. ... Emperor Wen of Han (202 BC–157 BC) was an emperor of the Han Dynasty in China. ... A Chinese era name (traditional Chinese: 年號, simplified Chinese: 年号, pinyin nían hào) is the era name, reign period, or regnal title used when traditionally numbering years in an emperors reign and naming certain Chinese rulers (see the conventions). ...


This system continued until the Republic of China, which counted years as Years of the Republic, beginning in 1912. Thus, 1912 is the 1st Year of the Republic, and 1949 the 38th. This system is still used for official purposes in Taiwan. For the rest of China, in 1949 the People's Republic of China chose to use the Common Era system (equivalently, AD/BC system), in line with international standards. For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... BCE redirects here. ...


The stem-branch cycle

The other system by which years are marked historically in China was by the stem-branch or sexagenary cycle. This system is based on two forms of counting: a cycle of 10 Heavenly Stems and a cycle of 12 Earthly Branches. Each year is named by a pair of one stem and one branch called a Stem-Branch (干支 gānzhī). The Heavenly Stems are associated with Yin Yang and the Five Elements. Recent 10-year periods began in 1984, 1994, and 2004. The Earthly Branches are associated with the twelve signs of the Zodiac. Each Earthly Branch is also associated with an animal, collectively known as the Twelve Animals. Recent 12-year periods began in 1984 and 1996. The Chinese sexagenary cycle (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a cyclic numeral system of 60 combinations of the two basic cycles, the ten Heavenly Stems (天干; tiāngān) and the twelve Earthly Branches (地支; dìzhÄ«). These have been traditionally used as a means of numbering days and years, not only in China... The ten heavenly stems (Chinese: 天干; pinyin: ) or ten stems (Chinese: 十干; pinyin: ) are an ancient Chinese cyclic numeral system. ... The Earthly Branches (Chinese: ; pinyin: dìzhÄ«; or Chinese: ; pinyin: shíèrzhÄ«; literally twelve branches) provide one Chinese system for reckoning time. ... Taoists Taijitu The concept of Yin Yang originates in ancient Chinese philosophy, most likely from the observations of day turning into night and night into day. ... Chinese Wood (木) | Fire (火) Earth (土) | Metal (金) | Water (æ°´) Japanese Earth (地) | Water (æ°´) | Fire (火) | Air / Wind (風) | Void / Sky / Heaven (空) Hinduism and Buddhism Vayu / Pavan — Air / Wind Agni / Tejas — Fire Akasha — Aether Prithvi / Bhumi — Earth Ap / Jala — Water In traditional Chinese philosophy, natural phenomena can be classified into the Five Elements (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ): wood, fire... The term zodiac denotes an annual cycle of twelve stations along the ecliptic, the apparent path of the sun across the heavens through the constellations that divide the ecliptic into twelve equal zones of celestial longitude. ...


Since the numbers 10 (Heavenly Stems) and 12 (Earthly Branches) have a common factor of 2, only 1/2 of the 120 possible stem-branch combinations actually occur. The resulting 60-year (or sexagesimal) cycle takes the name jiǎzǐ (甲子) after the first year in the cycle, being the Heavenly Stem of "jiǎ" and Earthly Branch of "zǐ". The term "jiǎzǐ" is used figuratively to mean "a full lifespan"—one who has lived more than a jiǎzǐ is obviously blessed. (Compare the Biblical "three-score years and ten.")


At first, this system was used to mark days, not years. The earliest evidence of this were found on oracle bones dated c.1350 BC in Shang Dynasty. This system of date marking continues to this day, and can still be found on Chinese calendars today. Although a stem-branch cannot be used to deduce the actual day in historical events, it can assist in converting Chinese dates to other calendars more accurately. Replica of an oracle bone -- turtle shell Replica of an oracle bone -- ox scapula Oracle bones (甲骨片 pinyin: jiǎgǔpiàn) are pieces of bone or turtle shell used in royal divination in the mid Shang to early Zhou dynasties in ancient China, and often bearing written inscriptions in what... Remnants of advanced, stratified societies dating back to the Shang period have been found in the Yellow River Valley. ...


Around the Han Dynasty, the stem-branch cycle also began to be used to mark years. The 60-year system cycles continuously, and determines the animal or sign under which a person is born (see Chinese Zodiac). These cycles were not named, and were used in conjunction with regnal names declared by the Emperor. For example: 康熙壬寅 (Kāngxī rényín) (1662 AD) is the first 壬寅 (rényín) year during the reign of 康熙 (Kāngxī), regnal name of an emperor of the Qing Dynasty Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication to Cao Wei 220... A Chinese era name (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is the era name, reign period, or regnal title used when traditionally numbering years in an emperors reign and naming certain Chinese rulers (see the conventions). ... For the volcano in Indonesia, see Emperor of China (volcano). ... For other uses, see Kangxi (disambiguation) The Kangxi Emperor (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kang-hsi; May 4, 1654 – December 20, 1722) was an Emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty,[1] and the second Qing emperor to rule over China proper, from 1661 to 1722. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ...


The months and hours can also be denoted using Heavenly Stems and Earthly Branches, though they are commonly addressed using Chinese numerals instead. In Chinese astrology, four Stem-Branch pairs form the Eight Characters (八字 bāzì). Today, speakers of Chinese use three numeral systems: There is the ubiquitous system of Arabic digits and two ancient Chinese numeral systems. ... Chinese astrology is the divination of the future from the Chinese calendar, which is based on astronomy, and ancient Chinese philosophy. ...


Continuously-numbered years

There is no universally agreed upon "epoch" or starting point for the Chinese calendar. Tradition holds that the calendar was invented by Huang Di (黄帝) in the 61st year of his reign in what is now known under the proleptic Gregorian calendar as 2637 BCE. Many have used this date as the epoch, i.e. the first year of the first sixty-year (sexagesimal) cycle, of the Chinese calendar, but others have used the date of the beginning of his reign in 2697 BCE as the epoch. Since these dates are exactly sixty years apart, it does not matter which is used to determine the stem/branch sequence or the astrological sign for any succeeding year. That is, 2006 is a bingxu year and the Year of the Dog regardless of whether years are counted from 2637 BCE or 2697 BCE. In chronology, an epoch (or epochal date, or epochal event) means an instant in time chosen as the origin of a particular era. ...


For the most part, the imposition of a continuous numbering system on the Chinese calendar was of interest mostly to Jesuit missionaries and other Westerners who assumed that calendars obviously had to be continuous. However, in the early 20th century, some Chinese Republicans began to advocate widespread use of continuously numbered years, so that year markings would be independent of the Emperor's regnal name. (This was part of their attempt to delegitimise the Qing Dynasty.) When Sun Yat-sen became the provisional president of the Republic of China, he sent telegrams to leaders of all provinces and announced the 13th day of 11th Month of the 4609th year of the Yellow Emperor's reign (corresponding to 1st January 1912) to be the 1st year of the Republic of China. His choice was adopted by many overseas Chinese communities outside Southeast Asia such as San Francisco's Chinatown. Republicanism is the ideology of governing a nation as a republic, with an emphasis on liberty, rule by the people, and the civic virtue practiced by citizens. ... A Chinese era name (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is the era name, reign period, or regnal title used when traditionally numbering years in an emperors reign and naming certain Chinese rulers (see the conventions). ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... Dr. Sun Yat-sen Traditional Chinese: 孫中山; Pinyin: Sūn Zhōngshān; or Sun Yixian (Pinyin: Sūn Yìxiān) (November 12, 1866 – March 12, 1925) was a Chinese revolutionary and political leader often referred to as the father of modern China. Sun played an instrumental role in the... Languages various Religions Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... An intersection of Chinatown in San Francisco. ...


Correspondence between systems

The following link provides conversion of Chinese calendar dates to Western calendar dates: http://www.sinica.edu.tw/~tdbproj/sinocal/luso.html This table shows the stem/branch year names, correspondences to the Western (Gregorian) calendar, and other related information for the current decade. (These years are all part of the 79th sexagenary cycle, or the 78th if an epoch of 2637 BCE is accepted.) Or see this larger table of the full 60-year cycle. [Main article: Chinese calendar] This table shows the stem/branch year names, correspondences to the Western (Gregorian) calendar, and other related information for the current, 79th sexagenary cycle of the Chinese calendar (or the 78th cycle if an epoch of 2637 BCE is accepted). ...

Jiǎzǐ (甲子) sequence Stem/ branch Gānzhī (干支) Year of the... [Note 1] Continuous [Note 2] Gregorian [Note 3] New Year's Day (chūnjié, 春節)
15 5/3 wùyín (戊寅) Earth Tiger 4695 1998 January 28
16 6/4 jǐmăo (己卯) Earth Rabbit 4696 1999 February 16
17 7/5 gēngchén (庚辰) Metal Dragon 4697 2000 February 5
18 8/6 xīnsì (辛巳) Metal Snake 4698 2001 January 24
19 9/7 rénwǔ (壬午) Water Horse 4699 2002 February 12
20 10/8 guǐwèi (癸未) Water Sheep 4700 2003 February 1
21 1/9 jiǎshēn (甲申) Wood Monkey 4701 2004 January 22
22 2/10 yǐyǒu (乙酉) Wood Rooster 4702 2005 February 9
23 3/11 bǐngxū (丙戌) Fire Dog 4703 2006 January 29
24 4/12 dīnghài (丁亥) Fire Pig 4704 2007 February 18
25 5/1 wùzǐ (戊子) Earth Rat 4705 2008 February 7
26 6/2 jǐchǒu (己丑) Earth Ox 4706 2009 January 26
27 7/3 gēngyín (庚寅) Metal Tiger 4707 2010 February 14
28 8/4 xīnmăo (辛卯) Metal Rabbit 4708 2011 February 3

Notes


1 The beginning of each zodiac year should correspond to the first day of the lunar year.


2 As discussed above, there is considerable difficulty in establishing a basis for the chronology of the continuous year numbers. The numbers listed here are too high by 60 if an epoch of 2637 BCE is accepted. They may be too low by 1 if an epoch of 2698 BCE is accepted. That is, according to some sources, Gregorian 2006 could alternatively correspond to 4643, or perhaps 4704.


3 In any case, the correspondence between a lunisolar Chinese year and a solar Gregorian year is of course not exact. The first few months of each Gregorian year—those preceding Chinese New Year—belong to the previous Chinese year. For example, January 1 – January 28 of 2006 correspond to yǐyǒu or 4702. Thus, it might be more precise to state that Gregorian 2006 corresponds to 4702–4703, or that continuous Chinese 4703 corresponds to 2006–2007.


Solar year versus lunar year

There is a distinction between a solar year and a lunar year in the Chinese calendar because the calendar is lunisolar. A lunar year (年 nián) is from one Chinese new year to the next. A solar year (歲 suì) is either the period between one Spring Equinox and the next or the period between two winter solstices (see Jiéqì section). A lunar year is exclusively used for dates, whereas a solar year, especially that between winter solstices, is used to number the months. In astronomy, the vernal equinox (spring equinox, March equinox, or northward equinox) is the equinox at the beginning of spring in the northern hemisphere: the moment when the sun appears to cross the celestial equator, heading northward. ... The December solstice occurs on December 21 or December 22 of most years, and is known by different names in different hemispheres of Earth: Winter solstice in the Northern Hemisphere; the shortest day of the year. ...


Hours of the day

Under the traditional system of hour-marking, each day is divided into 12 units (時辰). Each of these units is equivalent to two hours of international time. Each is named after one of the twelve Earthly Branches. The first unit, Hour of Zi (子時), begins at 11 p.m. of the previous day and ends at 1 a.m. Traditionally, executions of condemned prisoners occur at the midpoint of Hour of Wu (正午時), i.e. noon. The Earthly Branches (Chinese: ; pinyin: dìzhÄ«; or Chinese: ; pinyin: shíèrzhÄ«; literally twelve branches) provide one Chinese system for reckoning time. ...

Main article: Ke (unit)

A second system subdivided the day into 100 equal parts, ke, each of which equalling 14.4 minutes or a familiar rough quarter of a standard Western hour. This was valid for centuries, making the Chinese first to apply decimal time - long before the French revolution. However, because 100 could not be divided equally into the 12 "hours", the system was changed to variously 96, 108, and 120 ke in a day. During the Qing Dynasty, the number was officially settled at 96, making each ke exactly a quarter of a Western hour. Today, ke is often used to refer to a quarter of an hour. Ke (刻) is a traditional decimal time unit equalling 14. ... Ke (刻) is a traditional decimal time unit equalling 14. ... French decimal clock from the time of the French Revolution Decimal time is the representation of the time of day using units which are decimally related. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ...


The Chinese zodiac

Main article: Chinese Astrology

The Twelve animals (十二生肖 shí'èr shēngxiào, or colloquially 十二屬相 shí'èr shǔxiàng) representing the twelve Earthly Branches are, in order, the rat, ox, tiger, rabbit, dragon, snake, horse, sheep (or goat), monkey, rooster, dog, and pig (or boar). Chinese astrology is the divination of the future from the Chinese calendar, which is based on astronomy, and ancient Chinese philosophy. ... The Earthly Branches (Chinese: ; pinyin: dìzhÄ«; or Chinese: ; pinyin: shíèrzhÄ«; literally twelve branches) provide one Chinese system for reckoning time. ... The Rat ( é¼  ) was welcomed in ancient times as a protector and bringer of material prosperity. ... The Ox ( 丑 ) is one of the 12-year cycle of animals which appear in the Chinese zodiac related to the Chinese calendar. ... The Tiger ( 寅 ), associated with good fortune, power, and royalty, is viewed with both fear and respect. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... A Chinese dragon The Dragon ( 龍 ) is the only mythical creature in the Chinese zodiac. ... The Snake (蛇) (also known as the Serpent) is one of the 12-year cycle of animals which appear in the Chinese zodiac related to the Chinese calendar. ... The Horse (馬 午) is one of the 12-year cycle of animals which appear in the Chinese zodiac related to the Chinese calendar. ... The Sheep ( 羊 ) (also known as Goat) is the eighth sign of the 12-year cycle of animals which appear in the Chinese zodiac related to the Chinese calendar. ... This article is about the domestic species. ... The Monkey (申) is one of the 12-year cycle of animals which appear in the Chinese zodiac related to the Chinese calendar. ... The Rooster ( 雞 ) is one of the 12-year cycle of animals which appear in the Chinese zodiac related to the Chinese calendar. ... The Dog ( ç‹— ) is one of the 12-year cycle of animals which appear in the Chinese zodiac related to the Chinese calendar. ... Hai (亥) is the twelfth sign of the Earthly Branches. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 The wild boar (Sus scrofa) is the wild ancestor of the domestic pig. ...


A legend explains the sequence in which the animals were assigned. Supposedly, the twelve animals fought over the precedence of the animals in the cycle of years in the calendar, so the Chinese gods held a contest to determine the order. All the animals lined up on the bank of a river and were given the task of getting to the opposite shore. Their order in the calendar would be set by the order in which the animals managed to reach the other side. The cat wondered how he would get across if he was afraid of water. At the same time, the ox wondered how he would cross with his poor eyesight. The calculating rat suggested that he and the cat jump onto the ox's back and guide him across. The ox was steady and hard-working so that he did not notice a commotion on his back. In the meanwhile, the rat sneaked up behind the unsuspecting cat and shoved him into the water. Just as the ox came ashore, the rat jumped off and finished the race first. The lazy pig came to the far shore in twelfth place. And so the rat got the first year named after him, the ox got the second year, and the pig ended up as the last year in the cycle. The cat finished too late to win any place in the calendar, and vowed to be the enemy of the rat forevermore. For other uses, see Legend (disambiguation). ...


Solar term

Main article: Solar term

Chinese months follow the phases of the moon. As a result, they do not accurately follow the seasons of the solar year. To assist farmers to decide when to plant or harvest crops, the drafters of the calendar put in 24 seasonal markers, which follow the solar year, and are called jiéqì 節氣. A Solar term is one of 24 days in the traditional East Asian lunisolar calendars that match a particular astronomical events or signify some natural phenomenon. ... A Jiéqì is one of 24 points spaced 15° apart along the ecliptic used by all traditional East Asian lunisolar calendars to stay synchronized with the seasons. ...


The term Jiéqì is usually translated as "Solar Terms" (lit. Nodes of Weather). Each node is the instant when the sun reaches one of twenty-four equally spaced points along the ecliptic, including the solstices and equinoxes, positioned at fifteen degree intervals. Because the calculation is solar-based, these jiéqì fall around the same date every year in solar calendars (e.g. the Gregorian Calendar), but do not form any obvious pattern in the Chinese calendar. The dates below are approximate and may vary slightly from year to year due to the intercalary rules (i.e. system of leap years) of the Gregorian calendar. Jiéqì are published each year in farmers' almanacs. Chinese New Year is usually the new moon closest to lìchūn. The plane of the ecliptic is well seen in this picture from the 1994 lunar prospecting Clementine spacecraft. ... “Summer solstice” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Equinox (disambiguation). ... This article describes the unit of angle. ... A solar calendar is a calendar whose dates indicate the position of the earth on its revolution around the sun (or equivalently the apparent position of the sun moving on the celestial sphere). ... For the calendar of religious holidays and periods, see liturgical year. ... A leap year (or intercalary year) is a year containing an extra day or month in order to keep the calendar year in sync with an astronomical or seasonal year. ... An almanac (also spelled almanack, especially in Commonwealth English) is an annual publication containing tabular information in a particular field or fields often arranged according to the calendar. ... Chinese New Year (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), or Spring Festival or the Lunar New Year (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), is the most important of the traditional Chinese holidays. ... The lunar phase depends on the Moons position in orbit around Earth. ...


In the table below, these measures are given in the standard astronomical convention of ecliptic longitude, zero degrees being positioned at the vernal equinox point. Each calendar month under the heading "M" contains the designated jiéqì called a principal term, which is an entry into a sign of the zodiac, also known as a cusp. Here term has the archaic meaning of a limit, not a duration. In Chinese astronomy, seasons are centered on the solstices and equinoxes, whereas in the standard Western definition, they begin at the solstices and equinoxes. Thus the term Beginning of Spring and the related Spring Festival fall in February, when it is still very chilly in temperate latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere. Ecliptic longitude (celestial longitude) is one of the co-ordinates which can be used to define the location of an astronomical object on the celestial sphere in ecliptic coordinates. ... Illumination of Earth by Sun on the day of equinox The vernal equinox (or spring equinox) marks the beginning of astronomical spring. ...

Ecliptic
Long.
Chinese Name Gregorian
Date (approx.)
Usual
Translation
Remarks
315° 立春 lìchūn February 4 start of spring spring starts here according to the Chinese definition of a season, see also Cross-quarter day
330° 雨水 yǔshuǐ February 19 rain water starting at this point, the temperature makes rain more likely than snow
345° 啓蟄 qǐzhé
(驚蟄 jīngzhé)
March 5 awakening of insects when hibernating insects awake
春分 chūnfēn March 21 vernal equinox lit. the central divide of spring (referring to the Chinese seasonal definition)
15° 清明 qīngmíng April 5 clear and bright a Chinese festival where, traditionally, ancestral graves are tended
30° 穀雨 gǔyǔ or gǔyù April 20 grain rains rain helps grain grow
45° 立夏 lìxià May 6 start of summer refers to the Chinese seasonal definition
60° 小滿 xiǎomǎn May 21 grain full grains are plump
75° 芒種 mángzhòng or mángzhǒng June 6 grain in ear lit. awns (beard of grain) grow
90° 夏至 xiàzhì June 21 summer solstice lit. summer extreme (of sun's height)
105° 小暑 xiǎoshǔ July 7 minor heat when heat starts to get unbearable
120° 大暑 dàshǔ July 23 major heat the hottest time of the year
135° 立秋 lìqiū August 7 start of autumn uses the Chinese seasonal definition
150° 處暑 chùshǔ August 23 limit of heat lit. dwell in heat
165° 白露 báilù September 8 white dew condensed moisture makes dew white; a sign of autumn
180° 秋分 qiūfēn September 23 autumnal equinox lit. central divide of autumn (refers to the Chinese seasonal definition)
195° 寒露 hánlù October 8 cold dew dew starts turning into frost
210° 霜降 shuāngjiàng October 23 descent of frost appearance of frost and descent of temperature
225° 立冬 lìdōng November 7 start of winter refers to the Chinese seasonal definition
240° 小雪 xiǎoxuě November 22 minor snow snow starts falling
255° 大雪 dàxuě December 7 major snow season of snowstorms in full swing
270° 冬至 dōngzhì December 22 winter solstice lit. winter extreme (of sun's height)
285° 小寒 xiǎohán January 6 minor cold cold starts to become unbearable
300° 大寒 dàhán January 20 major cold coldest time of year

Note: The third jiéqì was originally called 啓蟄 (qǐzhé) but renamed to 驚蟄 (jīngzhé) in the era of the Emperor Jing of Han (漢景帝) to avoid writing his given name 啓 (also written as 啟, a variant of 啓). Lichun (Simplified Chinese: 立春; Traditional Chinese: 立春; pinyin: LìchÅ«n; Japanese: 立春; Korean: 입춘) is a solar term begins when Sun lies between the celestial longitude of 315° and 330°. It sometimes refers in particular to the day when Sun is exactly at the celestial longitude of 315°. Introduction Lichun usually begins around... A cross-quarter day is a day falling halfway between one of the four main solar events (two solstices and two equinoxes) and the next one. ... Yushui (雨水) is a solar term begins when Sun lies between the celestial longitude of 330° and 345°. It sometimes refers in particular to the day when Sun exactly at the celestial longitude of 330°. Introduction Yushui usually begins around February 19, and ends around March 5. ... Jingzhe (惊蛰 / 驚蟄) is a solar term begins when Sun lies between the celestial longitude of 345° and 360°. It sometimes refers in particular to the day when Sun exactly at the celestial longitude of 345°. Introduction Jingzhe usually begins around March 5, and ends around March 21. ... This article refers to the process of hibernation in biology. ... 二十四節氣 solar terms 315° 330° 345° 0° 15° 30° 45° 60° 75° 90° 105° 120° 135° 150° 165° 180° 195° 210° 225° 240° 255° 270° 285° 300° The traditional East Asian calendars divide a year into 24 solar terms (節氣). ChÅ«nfÄ“n (pÄ«nyÄ«n) or Shunbun (rōmaji) (Chinese and... Illumination of Earth by Sun on the day of equinox The vernal equinox (or spring equinox) marks the beginning of astronomical spring. ... Qingming (清明) is a solar term begins when Sun lies between the celestial longitude of 15° and 30°. It sometimes refers in particular to the day when Sun exactly at the celestial longitude of 15°. Introduction Qingming usually begins around April 5, and ends around April 20. ... In the east Asian lunisolar calendars, Guyu (Traditional Chinese: 穀雨; Simplified Chinese: 谷雨; pinyin: gÇ” yÇ”; Japanese: 穀雨; Korean: 곡우) is a solar term that begins when the Sun lies between the celestial longitude of 30° and 45°. It sometimes refers in particular to the day when the Sun is exactly at the celestial... Source: JPL Horizons On-Line Ephemeris System The traditional East Asian calendars divide a year into 24 solar terms (節氣). Lìxià (pÄ«nyÄ«n) or Rikka (rōmaji) (Chinese and Japanese: 立夏; Korean: ; Vietnamese: ; literally: start of summer) is 7th solar term. ... Source: JPL Horizons On-Line Ephemeris System The traditional East Asian calendars divide a year into 24 solar terms (節氣). XiÇŽomÇŽn (pÄ«nyÄ«n) or Shōman (rōmaji) (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Japanese: ; Korean: ; Vietnamese: ; literally: grain full) is 8th solar term. ... Mangzhong (芒种 / 芒種) is a solar term begins when Sun lies between the celestial longitude of 75° and 90°. It sometimes refers in particular to the day when Sun exactly at the celestial longitude of 75°. Introduction Mangzhong usually begins around June 6, and ends around June 21. ... Source: JPL Horizons On-Line Ephemeris System The traditional East Asian calendars divide a year into 24 solar terms (節氣). Xiàzhì (pÄ«nyÄ«n) or Geshi (rōmaji) (Chinese and Japanese: 夏至; Korean: ; Vietnamese: ; literally: summer solstice) is 10th solar term. ... “Summer solstice” redirects here. ... Xiaoshu (小暑) is a solar term begins when Sun lies between the celestial longitude of 105° and 120°. It sometimes refers in particular to the day when Sun exactly at the celestial longitude of 105°. Introduction Xiaoshu usually begins around July 7, and ends around July 23. ... In the east Asian lunisolar calendars, Dashu (大暑) is a solar term begins when the Sun lies between the celestial longitude of 120° and 135°. It sometimes refers in particular to the day when the Sun is exactly at the celestial longitude of 120°. Introduction Dashu usually begins around July 23... In the east Asian lunisolar calendars, Liqiu (立秋, literall establishment of autumn) is a solar term begins when the Sun lies between the celestial longitude of 135° and 150°. It more often refers in particular to the day when the Sun is exactly at the celestial longitude of 135°. Liqiu usually... Source: JPL Horizons On-Line Ephemeris System The traditional East Asian calendars divide a year into 24 solar terms (節氣). ChÇ”shÇ” (pÄ«nyÄ«n) or Shosho (rōmaji) (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Japanese: ; Korean: ; Vietnamese: ; literally: limit of heat) is 14th solar term. ... Bailu (白露) is a solar term begins when Sun lies between the celestial longitude of 165° and 180°. It sometimes refers in particular to the day when Sun exactly at the celestial longitude of 165°. Introduction Bailu usually begins around September 8, and ends around September 23. ... Source: JPL Horizons On-Line Ephemeris System The traditional East Asian calendars divide a year into 24 solar terms (節氣). QiÅ«fÄ“n (pÄ«nyÄ«n) or ShÅ«bun (rōmaji) (Chinese and Japanese: 秋分; Korean: ; Vietnamese: ; literally: vernal equinox) is 16th solar term. ... Illumination of Earth by Sun on the day of equinox The autumnal equinox (or fall equinox) marks the beginning of astronomical autumn. ... Hanlu (寒露) is a solar term begins when Sun lies between the celestial longitude of 195° and 210°. It sometimes refers in particular to the day when Sun exactly at the celestial longitude of 195°. Introduction Hanlu usually begins around October 8, and ends around October 23. ... Shuangjiang (霜降) is a solar term begins when Sun lies between the celestial longitude of 210° and 225°. It sometimes refers in particular to the day when Sun exactly at the celestial longitude of 210°. Introduction Shuangjiang usually begins around October 23, and ends around November 7. ... Lidong (立冬) is a solar term begins when Sun lies between the celestial longitude of 225° and 240°. It sometimes refers in particular to the day when Sun exactly at the celestial longitude of 225°. Introduction Lidong usually begins around November 7, and ends around November 22. ... Xiaoxue (小雪) is a solar term that begins when the Sun lies between the celestial longitudes of 240° and 255°. It sometimes refers in particular to the day when the Sun is exactly at the celestial longitude of 240°. Xiaoxue usually begins around November 22, and ends around December 7. ... Daxue (大雪) is a solar term that begins when the Sun lies between the celestial longitudes of 255° and 270°. It sometimes refers in particular to the day when the Sun is exactly at the celestial longitude of 255°. Daxue usually begins around December 7, and ends around December 22. ... Illumination of Earth by Sun on the day of the northern hemisphere winter solstice Illumination of Earth by Sun on the day of the southern hemisphere winter solstice In astronomy, the winter solstice is the moment when the earth is at a point in its orbit where one hemisphere is... “Summer solstice” redirects here. ... Xiaohan (小寒) is a solar term that begins when the Sun lies between the celestial longitudes of 285° and 300°. It sometimes refers in particular to the day when the Sun is exactly at the celestial longitude of 285°. Xiaohan usually begins around January 6, and ends around January 20. ... Dahan has following meanings: Scythia Dahan (jieqi): see also Jieqi Categories: Disambiguation ... Emperor Jing of Han (188 BC–141 BC) was an emperor of China in the Han Dynasty from 156 BC to 141 BC. Era names Zhongyuan (中元 zhōng yúan) 149 BC-143 BC Houyuan (後元 hòu yúan) 143 BC-141 BC Personal information See also Rebellion of the Seven States...


Holidays

The Chinese calendar year has nine main festivals, seven determined by the lunisolar calendar, and two derived from the solar agricultural calendar. (Farmers actually used a solar calendar, and its twenty-four terms, to determine when to plant crops, due to the inaccuracy of the lunisolar traditional calendar. However, the traditional calendar has also come to be known as the agricultural calendar.) The two special holidays are the Qingming Festival and the Winter Solstice Festival, falling upon the respective solar terms, at ecliptic longitudes of 15° and 270°, respectively. As for all other calendrical calculations, the calculations use civil time in China, UTC+8. The Traditional Chinese holidays have been part of Chinese tradition for thousands of years; they are an essential part of Chinese culture. ... Burning paper gifts for the departed. ... The Dōngzhì Festival or Winter Solstice Festival (Chinese: 冬至; Pinyin: dōng zhì; The Extreme of Winter) is one of the most important festivals celebrated by the Chinese and other East Asians during the Dongzhi solar term on or around December 21 when sunshine is weakest and daylight shortest; , on... -12 | -11 | -10 | -9:30 | -9 | -8 | -7 | -6 | -5 | -4 | -3:30 | -3 | -2:30 | -2 | -1 | -0:25 | UTC (0) | +0:20 | +0:30 | +1 | +2 | +3 | +3:30 | +4 | +4:30 | +4:51 | +5 | +5:30 | +5:40 | +5:45 | +6 | +6:30 | +7 | +7:20 | +7...

Date English Name Chinese Name Vietnamese Name Remarks 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
month 1
day 1
Chinese New Year (Spring Festival) 春節
chūnjié
Tết Nguyên Đán Family gathering and festivities for 3–15 days Feb 7 Jan 26 Feb 14 Feb 3 Jan 23
month 1
day 15
Lantern Festival 元宵節
yuánxiāojié
Tết Thượng Nguyên Tangyuan eating
and lanterns
Feb 21 Feb 9 Feb 28 Feb 17 Feb 6
Apr 4
or 5
Qingming Festival (Clear and Bright) 清明節
qīngmíngjié
Tết Thanh Minh Tomb sweeping Apr 4 Apr 4 Apr 5 Apr 5 Apr 4
month 5
day 5
Dragon Boat Festival 端午節
duānwǔjié
Tết Đoan Ngọ Dragon boat racing
and zongzi eating
Jun 8 May 28 Jun 16 Jun 6 Jun 23
month 7
day 7
Night of Sevens 七夕
qīxī
Ngày mưa Ngâu For lovers, like Valentine's Day Aug 7 Aug 26 Aug 16 Aug 6 Aug 23
month 7
day 15
Ghost Festival (Spirit Festival) 中元節
zhōngyuánjié
Tết Trung Nguyên Offer tributes and respect to the deceased Aug 15 Sep 3 Aug 24 Aug 14 Aug 31
month 8
day 15
Mid-Autumn Festival (Moon Festival)[1] 中秋節
zhōngqiūjié
Tết Trung Thu Family gathering and moon cake eating Sep 14 Oct 3 Sep 22 Sep 12 Sep 30
month 9
day 9
Double Ninth Festival (Double Yang) 重陽節
chóngyángjié
Tết Trùng Cửu Mountain climbing
and flower shows
Oct 7 Oct 26 Oct 16 Oct 5 Oct 23
month 10
day 15
Xia Yuan Festival 下元節
xiàyuánjié
Tết Hạ Nguyên Pray for a peaceful year to the Water God Nov 12 Dec 1 Oct 16 Nov 10 Nov 28
Dec 21 or 22 Winter Solstice Festival 冬至
dōngzhì
Family gathering Dec 21 Dec 21 Dec 22 Dec 22 Dec 21
month 12
day 23
Kitchen God Festival 謝灶
xièzào
Tết Táo Quân Worshipping the kitchen god with thanks Jan 30 Jan 18 Feb 6 Jan 26 Jan 16

Chinese New Year (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), or Spring Festival or the Lunar New Year (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), is the most important of the traditional Chinese holidays. ... Tết display in Ho Chi Minh City Tết Nguyên Đán  , more commonly known by its shortened name Tết, is the most important and popular holiday and festival in Vietnam. ... For the festival associated with mooncakes sometimes called Lantern Festival, see Mid-Autumn Festival. ... Tangyuan (Simplified: 汤圆; Traditional: 湯圓; Hanyu Pinyin: ), is a Chinese food made from glutinous rice flour. ... Burning paper gifts for the departed. ... Dragon Boat Festival is also called Duan Wu or Tuen Ng Festival (端午节/端午節), which is a festival on the fifth day of the fifth month of the Chinese calendar. ... A Dragon boat (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a very long and narrow human powered boat used in the team paddling sport or Dragon boat racing which originated in China. ... Zong, zongzi, or Chinese rice dumplings are a traditional Chinese food, made of glutinous rice stuffed with different fillings and wrapped in bamboo leaves. ... Qi Xi (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; literally The Night of Sevens), sometimes called Chinese Valentines Day or Magpie Festival, falls on the seventh day of the seventh lunar month on the Chinese calendar; thus its name. ... This article is about the Chinese Ghost Festival. ... Japanese name Kanji: Kana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Chữ nôm: Mid-Autumn Festival celebrations in Victoria Park, Hong Kong. ... The Double Ninth Festival (Chinese: ; pinyin: ChóngjiÇ”, also Traditional Chinese: 重陽節; pinyin: Chóngyángjié or Chung Yeung Festival in Hong Kong) dated on the ninth day of the ninth month in Chinese calendar, is a traditional Chinese holiday, mentioned in writing since before the East Han period. ... The Dōngzhì Festival or Winter Solstice Festival (Chinese: 冬至; Pinyin: dōng zhì; The Extreme of Winter) is one of the most important festivals celebrated by the Chinese and other East Asians during the Dongzhi solar term on or around December 21 when sunshine is weakest and daylight shortest; , on...

Purpose of the intercalary months

Most people, upon using or studying the Chinese calendar, are perplexed by the intercalary month because of its seemingly unpredictable nature. As mentioned above, the intercalary month refers to additional months added to the calendar in some years to correct for its deviation from the astronomical year, a function similar to that of the extra day in February in leap years. A year is the time between two recurrences of an event related to the orbit of the Earth around the Sun. ...


However, because of the complex astronomical knowledge required to calculate if and when an intercalary month needs to be inserted, to most people, it is simply a mystery. This has led to a superstition that intercalary months in certain times of the year bring bad luck.


The main purpose of the intercalary month is to correct for deviations of the calendrical year from the astronomical year. Because the Chinese calendar is mainly a lunar calendar, its standard year is 354 days, whereas the astronomical year is approximately 365¼ days. Without the intercalary month, this deviation would build up over time, and the Spring festival, for example, would no longer fall in Spring. Thus, the intercalary month serves a valuable purpose in ensuring that the year in the Chinese calendar remains approximately in line with the astronomical year. A year is the time between two recurrences of an event related to the orbit of the Earth around the Sun. ...


The intercalary month is inserted whenever the Chinese calendar moves too far from the stage of progression of the earth in its orbit. Thus, for example, if the beginning of a certain month in the Chinese calendar deviates by a certain number of days from its equivalent in a solar calendar, an intercalary month needs to be inserted.


The practical benefit of this system is that the calendar is able to approximately keep in pace with the solar cycle, while at the same time retaining months that roughly correspond with lunar cycles. Hence the term lunisolar calendar. The latter is important because many traditional festivals correspond to significant events in the moon's cycle. For example, the mid-autumn festival is always on a day of the full moon.


The relevance of the calendar today

There have been calls for reform in recent years from experts in China, because of the increasing irrelevance of the Chinese calendar in modern life. They point to the example in Japan, where during the Meiji Restoration the nation adopted the Western calendar, and simply shifted all traditional festivities onto an equivalent date. However, the Chinese calendar remains important as an element of cultural tradition, and for certain cultural activities. The Meiji Restoration ), also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution, or Renewal, was a chain of events that led to enormous changes in Japans political and social structure. ...


Practical uses

The original practical relevance of the lunisolar calendar for date marking has largely disappeared. First, the Gregorian calendar is much easier to compute and more in line with both international standards and the astronomical year. Its adoption for official purposes has meant that the traditional calendar is rarely used for date marking. This, in turn, means that it is more convenient to remember significant events such as birth dates by the Gregorian rather than the Chinese calendar.


Second, the 24 solar terms were important to farmers who would not be able to plan agricultural activities without foreknowledge of these terms. However, the 24 solar terms (including the solstices and equinoxes) are more predictable on the Gregorian calendar than the lunisolar calendar since they are based on the solar cycle. It is easier for the average Chinese farmer to organise their planting and harvesting with the Gregorian calendar. “Summer solstice” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Equinox (disambiguation). ...


Cultural issues

However, the Chinese calendar remains culturally essential. For example, most of the traditional festivals, such as Chinese New Year and the Mid-Autumn Festival, traditionally occur at new moon or full moon. Furthermore, the traditional Chinese calendar, as an element of traditional culture, is invested with much cultural and nationalistic sentiment. Chinese New Year (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), or Spring Festival or the Lunar New Year (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), is the most important of the traditional Chinese holidays. ... Japanese name Kanji: Kana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Chữ nôm: Mid-Autumn Festival celebrations in Victoria Park, Hong Kong. ...


The calendar is still used in the more traditional Chinese households around the world to pick 'lucky dates' for important events such as weddings, funerals, and business deals. A special calendar is used for this purpose, called Huang Li, literally "Imperial Calendar", which contains auspicious activities, times, and directions for each day. The calendar follows the Gregorian dates but has the corresponding Chinese dates. Every date would have a comprehensive listing of astrological measurements and fortune elements.


Thus, while the traditional calendar could be removed without much practical effect, its sentimental and cultural significance will probably see its retention for some time yet.


Influence

Other traditional East Asian calendars are very similar to if not identical to the Chinese calendar: the Korean calendar is identical; the Vietnamese calendar substitutes the cat for the rabbit in the Chinese zodiac; the Tibetan calendar differs slightly in animal names, and the traditional Japanese calendar uses a different method of calculation, resulting in disagreements between the calendars in some years. East Asia Geographic East Asia. ... The traditional Korean calendar is directly derived from the Asian calendar. ... Tết display in Ho Chi Minh City Tết Nguyên Đán  , more commonly known by its shortened name Tết, is the most important and popular holiday and festival in Vietnam. ... The Tibetan calendar is a lunisolar calendar, that is, the Tibetan year is composed of either 12 or 13 lunar months, each beginning and ending with a new moon. ... Koinobori, flags decorated like koi, are popular decorations around Childrens Day This mural on the wall of a Tokyo subway station celebrates Hazuki, the eighth month. ...


The twelve year cycle, with the animal names translated into the vernacular, was adopted by the Göktürks (its use there is first attested 584), and spread subsequently among many if not most Turkic peoples, as well as the Mongols. It appears to have been used by the Bulgars, as attested in the Nominalia of the Bulgarian Khans and in some other documents. The Göktürks or Kök-Türks were a Turkic people of ancient Central Asia and China. ... For other uses, see Mongols (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Bulgarians. ... The Nominalia of the Bulgarian khans (Bulgarian: ) is a short manuscript containing the names of some early Bulgarian rulers, their clans, the year of their ascending to the throne and the length of their rule, including the times of joint rule and civil war. ...


Chinese-Uighur calendar

In 1258, when both China and the Islamic world were part of the Mongol Empire, Hulagu Khan established an observatory in Maragheh for the astronomer Nasir al-Din al-Tusi at which a few Chinese astronomers were present, resulting in the Chinese-Uighur calendar that al-Tusi describes in his Zij-i Ilkhani.[2] The twelve year cycle, including Turkish/Mongolian translations of the animal names (known as sanawat-e turki سنوات ترکی,) remained in use for chronology, historiography, and bureaucratic purposes in the Persian and Turkish speaking world from Asia Minor to India throughout the Medieval and Early Modern periods. In Iran it remained common in agricultural records and tax assessments until a 1925 law deprecated its use. The Islamic world is the world-wide community of those who identify with Islam, known as Muslims, and who number approximately one-and-a-half billion people. ... Expansion of the Mongol Empire Historical map of the Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire, also known as the Mongolian Empire (Mongolian: , Mongolyn Ezent Güren; 1206–1405) was the largest contiguous empire in history and for sometime was the most feared in Eurasia. ... Hulagu Khan, also known as Hulagu, Hülegü or Hulegu (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Chaghatay/Persian: ; Arabic:هولاكو; c. ... Maragheh or Maraghah is a town in the East Azarbaijan Province of Iran, on the Safi River. ... Tusi couple from Vat. ... Zij-i Ilkhani or Ilkhanic Tables (literal translation: The Ilkhan Stars, after ilkhan Hulagu, who was the patron of the author at that time) is a book with astronomical tables of planetary movements by a Persian astronomer Nasir al-Din al-Tusi. ... The Iranian calendar (Persian: ), also known as Persian calendar or (mistakenly) the Jalāli Calendar is an astronomical solar calendar currently used in Iran and Afghanistan as the main official calendar. ...


Notes

  1. ^ The Mid-Autumn Festival is called the Lantern Festival in Singapore and Malaysia, the same name given to as another festival on month 1 day 15 in the Chinese homeland.
  2. ^ van Dalen et al. 1997

References

  • van Dalen, Benno; Kennedy, E.S.; Saiyid, Mustafa K., «The Chinese-Uighur Calendar in Tusi's Zij-i Ilkhani», Zeitschrift für Geschichte der Arabisch-Islamischen Wissenschaften 11 (1997) 111-151.

See also

Chinese New Year (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), or Spring Festival or the Lunar New Year (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), is the most important of the traditional Chinese holidays. ... Chinese astrology (占星術 pinyin: zhan4 xing1 shu4; 星學 pinyin: xing1 xue2; 七政四餘 pinyin: qi1 zheng4 si4 yu2; and 果老星宗 pinyin: guo3 lao3 xing1 zong1) is related to the Chinese calendar, particularly its 12-year cycle of animals (aka Chinese Zodiac), and the fortune-telling aspects according to movement of heavenly... For contemporary culture after 1949, see Culture of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The sexagesimal cycle in China is composed of two series that paired with one another. ...

External links

Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication to Cao Wei 220... Hong Kong Observatory (Chinese: 香港天文台; Yale: hÄ“ung góng tÄ«n màhn tòih, Jyutping: hoeng1 gong2 tin1 man4 toi4; Mandarin Pinyin: XiānggÇŽng Tiānwén Tái), known as the Royal Observatory (Chinese: 皇家香港天文台) before 1997, is a department of the Government of the Hong Kong Special...

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History & info - the Chinese calendar (2102 words)
The beginnings of the Chinese calendar can be traced back to the 14th century B.C.E. Legend has it that the Emperor Huangdi invented the calendar in 2637 B.C.E. The Chinese calendar is based on exact astronomical observations of the longitude of the sun and the phases of the moon.
The Chinese calendar - like the Hebrew - is a combined solar/lunar calendar in that it strives to have its years coincide with the tropical year and its months coincide with the synodic months.
In the calendar that the Shang used, the seasons of the year and the phases of the Moon were all supposedly accounted for.
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