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Encyclopedia > Chinese People's Liberation Army
People's Liberation Army
Military manpower
Military age 18 years of age
Availability males age 15-49: 375,520,255 (2003 est.)
Fit for military service males age 15-49: 206,000,000 (2003 est.)
Active troops 2,250,000 (Ranked 1st)
Reaching military age annually males: 10,973,761 (2003 est.)
Military expenditures
Dollar figure $29.9 billion (FY05)
Percent of GDP 1.8% (FY05)

Note: The actual amount of PRC military spending remains highly controversial. First, the military may get resources which are not listed in the official budget. Second, an agreement on the conversion factor used to convert military expenditures to dollars is quite difficult. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...

The Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) (Simplified Chinese: 中国人民解放军; Traditional Chinese: 中國人民解放軍; pinyin: Zhōnggúo Rénmín Jiěfàng Jūn), which includes an army, navy, air force, and strategic nuclear forces, serves as the military of the People's Republic of China (PRC). Its 2.25 million strong force makes it the largest army, in terms of sheer number of troops, in the world. The PLA was established on August 1, 1927, as the military arm of the Communist Party of China. It was originally named the Red Army, until June 1946. The People's Liberation Army's insignia consists of a round device with a design of a red star bearing the Chinese characters for August 1 (八一, pinyin: ba yi)—the anniversary of the 1927 Nanchang Uprising)—surrounded by wheat ears and cog wheels. (Use of the insignia is governed by the 1984 Military Service Law.) Simplified Chinese characters (Simplified Chinese: 简体字; Traditional Chinese: 簡體字; pinyin: jiÇŽntǐzì; also called 简化字/簡化字, jiÇŽnhuàzì) are one of two standard character sets of printed contemporary Chinese written language. ... Traditional Chinese characters are one of two standard character sets of printed contemporary Chinese written language. ... Pinyin (拼音, pÄ«nyÄ«n) literally means join (together) sounds (a less literal translation being phoneticize, spell or transcription) in Chinese and usually refers to HànyÇ” PÄ«nyÄ«n (汉语拼音, literal meaning: Han language pinyin), which is a system of romanization (phonemic notation and transcription to Roman script) for Standard Mandarin. ... Army (from French armée) can, in some countries, refer to any armed force (for example, the Peoples Liberation Army of China consists of ground force, navy and air force branches). ... U.S. Navy supercarrier USS Nimitz on November 3, 2003. ... An air force is a military organization that primarily operates in air-based war. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the hypocenter. ... August 1st is the 213th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (214th in leap years), with 152 days remaining. ... 1927 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Chinese Communist Party flag The Chinese Communist Party (Simplified Chinese: 中国共产党; Traditional Chinese: 中國共産黨; pinyin: ) is the ruling party of the Peoples Republic of China. ... 1946 was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... 漢字 hànzì, hanja, kanji… in Traditional Chinese and other languages. ... August 1st is the 213th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (214th in leap years), with 152 days remaining. ... The Nanchang Uprising (南昌起义) (August 1, 1927) was the first major Kuomintang-Communist engagement of the Chinese Civil War. ... 1984 is a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents


Organization

Within the PRC government, the PLA maintains a semi-autonomous existence. The PLA reports not to the State Council of the People's Republic of China but rather to two Central Military Commissions, one belonging to the state and one belonging to the party. In practice, the two CMC's do not conflict because their membership is usually identical. (These days the only difference in membership between the two occurs for a few months every five years, during the period between a Party Congress, when Party CMC membership changes, and the next ensuing National People's Congress, when the State CMC changes.) The State Council (国务院, pinyin: Guówùyuàn) of the Central Peoples Government is the chief civilian administrative body of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Central Military Commission (Chinese: 中央军事委员会 pinyin: Zhōngyāng JÅ«nshì WÄ›iyuánhuì ) refers to one of two bodies within the Peoples Republic of China. ...


However, the chain of command above the CMC can be quite unclear. The Party CMC is subordinate to the Secretary General of the Communist Party of China while the State CMC is nominally subordinate to the State Council and National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China which in practice have very little control over the CMC. This lack of clarity in overall command of the PLA can cause great amounts of confusion during times of crisis such as during the Cultural Revolution and the Tiananmen Protests of 1989. In the latter case, the PLA was being given conflicting orders by the Party General Secretary Zhao Ziyang and the Chairman of the state CMC, Deng Xiaoping. The General Secretary of the Communist Party of China (Chinese: 中国共产党中央委员会总书记 pinyin: Zhōngguó Gòngchǎndǎng Zhōngyāng Wěiyuánhuì Zǒngshūjì) is the highest ranking official within the Communist Party of China and heads the Secretariat of the Communist Party of China. ... The Great Hall of the People, where the NPC convenes The National Peoples Congress (全国人民代表大会 in Pinyin: Quánguó Rénmín Dàibiǎo Dàhuì, literally Pan-Nation Congress of the Peoples Representatives), abbreviated PNCOTPR (人大, Pinyin Réndà), is the highest legislative body in the Peoples Republic of China. ... A poster during the Cultural Revolution The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (Simplified Chinese: 无产阶级文化大革命; Traditional Chinese: 無產階級文化大革命; pinyin: ; literally Proletarian Cultural Great Revolution; often abbreviated to 文化大革命 wén huà dà gé mìng, literally Great Cultural Revolution, or simply 文革 wén gé, literally Cultural Revolution) in the Peoples Republic of China... The Unknown Rebel — This famous photo, taken by Associated Press photographer Jeff Widener, depicts a lone protester who single-handedly halted the progress of a column of advancing tanks for over half an hour. ... Zhao Ziyang (Simplified Chinese: 赵紫阳; Traditional Chinese: 趙紫陽; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chao Tzu-yang) (October 17, 1919–January 17, 2005) was a politician in the Peoples Republic of China. ... Deng Xiaoping Deng Xiaoping   listen? (Simplified Chinese: 邓小平; Traditional Chinese: 鄧小平; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Teng Hsiao-ping; August 22, 1904—February 19, 1997) was a revolutionary elder in the Communist Party of China (CPC) who served as the de facto ruler of the Peoples Republic of China from the late...


By convention, the chairman and vice-chairman of the Central Military Commission are civilian members of the Communist Party of China, but they are not necessarily the heads of the civilian government. It was the case with both Jiang Zemin and Deng Xiaoping that they retained the office of chairman even after relinquishing their other positions. All of the other members of the CMC are uniformed active officers. Chinese Communist Party flag The Chinese Communist Party (Simplified Chinese: 中国共产党; Traditional Chinese: 中國共産黨; pinyin: ) is the ruling party of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Jiāng Zémín (born August 17, 1926) was the core of the third generation of Communist Party of China leaders, serving as General Secretary of the Communist Party of China from 1989 to 2002, as President of the Peoples Republic of China from 1993 to 2003, and... Deng Xiaoping Deng Xiaoping   listen? (Simplified Chinese: 邓小平; Traditional Chinese: 鄧小平; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Teng Hsiao-ping; August 22, 1904—February 19, 1997) was a revolutionary elder in the Communist Party of China (CPC) who served as the de facto ruler of the Peoples Republic of China from the late...


As with other nations, the Minister of National Defense of the People's Republic of China is not the head of the military, and is usually a vice chairman of the CMC. The Ministry of National Defense of the Peoples Republic of China is a ministry under the State Council. ...


Under the CMC are the General Staff Headquarters, the General Logistics Department, the General Armaments Department, and the General Political Department. The GPD maintains a system of political commissars which maintain a separate chain of command to ensure loyalty to the party and the civilian government. A political commissar is an officer appointed by a communist party to oversee a unit of the military. ...


Under the General Staff Headquarters are the seven military area commands: Shenyang, Beijing, Lanzhou, Jinan, Nanjing, Guangzhou, and Chengdu. The organization into MAC's has been much criticized as being obsolete and irrelevant for the 21st century, and there is wide speculation that the system will be drastically altered in the next several years.


Coordination with civilian national security groups such as the Ministry of Foreign Affairs is achieved primarily by leading groups of the Communist Party of China. Particularly important are the Leading group on foreign affairs, and the leading group on Taiwan.


Branches

The People's Liberation Army (PLA) consists of the following:

Flag of the Peoples Liberation Army Ground Force The Peoples Liberation Army (PLA) deploys over 8,000 tanks, 4,000 armoured vehicles, and 25,000 artillery pieces. ... PLAN Jack The Peoples Liberation Army Navy (PLAN) is the naval arm of the Peoples Liberation Army (PLA), the military of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Peoples Liberation Army Marine Corps is the amphibious arm of the Peoples Liberation Army Navy. ... The Peoples Liberation Army Naval Air Force (PLANAF) (解放军海军航空兵) is the naval aviation branch of the Peoples Liberation Army Navy. ... Flag of the Peoples Liberation Army Air Force The Peoples Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF) (simplified Chinese: 解放军空军; pinyin: JiÄ›fàngjÅ«n KōngjÅ«n) is the aviation branch of the Peoples Liberation Army, the military of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Peoples Armed Police Force (人民武装警察部队; renmin wuzhuang jingcha budui) is a paramilitary police force responsible for domestic security within the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Ministry of Public Security (公安部, pinyin: Gonggong Anquan Bu, or Gonganbu) is the principal police authority in mainland China and the agency that is responsible for most of the day-to-day police work in mainland China. ...

Terms of service

Theoretically, all citizens of the PRC have the duty of performing military service. In practice, military service with the PLA is voluntary; all 18-year-old males have to register themselves with the government authorities, in a way similar to the Selective Service System of the United States. The main exception to this system applies to potential university students, who are required to undergo military training before their courses commence. The Selective Service System is the means by which the United States administers military conscription. ...


Residents of the two Special Administrative Regions, Hong Kong and Macau, are prohibited from joining the PLA. A Special Administrative Region (SAR) (Simplified Chinese: 特别行政区; Traditional Chinese: 特別行政區; pinyin: tèbié xíngzhèngqū; Cantonese IPA: /tɐk6piːt6 hɐŋ4tsɪŋ3kʰɵy1/; Jyutping: dak6bit6 hang4zing3keoi1; Yale: dahkbiht hàhngjingkeūi) is a political subdivision of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


History

PLA flag
PLA flag

The People's Liberation Army was founded on August 1, 1927 during the Nanchang Uprising when troops of the Kuomintang rebelled under the leadership of Zhu De and Zhou Enlai after the end of the first Kuomintang-Communist alliance. They were known as the Chinese Red Army. Between 1934 and 1935, the Red Army survived several campaigns lead against it by Chiang Kai-Shek and engaged in the Long March. Image File history File links Flag of the Peoples Liberation Army. ... Image File history File links Flag of the Peoples Liberation Army. ... August 1st is the 213th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (214th in leap years), with 152 days remaining. ... 1927 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Nanchang Uprising (南昌起义) (August 1, 1927) was the first major Kuomintang-Communist engagement of the Chinese Civil War. ... The Kuomintang (KMT) or Nationalist Party of China (Traditional: 中國國民黨; Simplified: 中国国民党; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chung-kuo Kuo-min-tang; Tongyong Pinyin: Jhongguo Guomindang) is a conservative political party currently active in the Republic of China (ROC) on Taiwan. ... Zhu De Zhū Dé (朱德, Wade-Giles: Chu Teh, zi: Yùjiē 玉阶) (December 1, 1886 - July 6, 1976) was a Chinese Communist military leader and statesman. ... Zhou Enlai (Simplified Chinese: 周恩来; Traditional Chinese: 周恩來; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chou En-lai) (March 5, 1898 – January 8, 1976), a prominent Chinese Communist leader, was Premier of the Peoples Republic of China from 1949 until his death. ... The Chinese Civil War was a conflict in China between the Kuomintang (The Nationalist Party; The Nationalists; KMT) and the Communist Party of China (CPC). ... Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887–April 5, 1975) was a Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925. ... The Long March (长征, pinyin:Chángzhēng) was a massive military retreat undertaken by the Chinese Communist Army to evade the pursuit of the Kuomintang army. ...


During the Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945), the Red Army was nominally integrated into the Chinese national army forming the Eighth Route Army and the New Fourth Army units. During this time, the Red Army used primarily guerilla tactics, but also fought several conventional battles with the Japanese and the Kuomintang. The Second Sino-Japanese War was a major invasion of eastern China by Japan preceding and during World War II. It ended with the surrender of Japan in 1945. ... The Eighth Route Army (八路軍 Pinyin: bālù-jūn) was one of the main military forces of the Communist Party of China, active during the Chinese Civil War and Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945). ... The New Fourth Army (新四軍 Pinyin: xin-si-jun) and the Eighth Route Army were the two main communist forces from 1938. ... Guerrilla (also called a partisan) is a term borrowed from Spanish (from guerra meaning war) used to describe small combat groups. ... The Kuomintang (KMT) or Nationalist Party of China (Traditional: 中國國民黨; Simplified: 中国国民党; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chung-kuo Kuo-min-tang; Tongyong Pinyin: Jhongguo Guomindang) is a conservative political party currently active in the Republic of China (ROC) on Taiwan. ...


After the end of the Sino-Japanese War, the Red Army renamed itself the PLA and won the civil war against the Kuomintang. The Chinese Civil War was a conflict in China between the Kuomintang (The Nationalist Party; The Nationalists; KMT) and the Communist Party of China (CPC). ...

Vintage Chinese propaganda poster showing strength and determination of People's Army
Vintage Chinese propaganda poster showing strength and determination of People's Army

During the 1950s, the PLA with Soviet help transformed itself from a peasant army into a more modern one. One of the earliest operations was the reoccupation of Tibet in 1950. In December 1951, the PLA intervened in the Korean War as United Nations forces under General Douglas MacArthur approached the Yalu River. Under the weight of this offensive, Chinese forces captured Seoul, but were subsequently pushed back to a line roughly straddling the 38th Parallel. The war ended as a standstill in 1953. In 1962, the PLA also defeated India in the Sino-Indian War. Image File history File links Chinese poster showing strength and determination of Peoples Army This is a copyrighted poster. ... Image File history File links Chinese poster showing strength and determination of Peoples Army This is a copyrighted poster. ... // Events and trends The 1950s in Western society was marked with a sharp rise in the economy for the first time in almost 30 years and return to the 1920s-type consumer society built on credit and boom-times, as well as the height of the baby-boom from returning... Tibet (Tibetan: བོད་, Bod, pronounced pö in Lhasa dialect; Chinese: 西藏, pinyin: XÄ«zàng; older spelling Thibet) is a region in Central Asia and the home of the Tibetan people. ... 1950 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1951 was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... The Korean War (Korean: 한국전쟁/韓國戰爭), from June 25, 1950 to July 27, 1953, was a conflict between North Korea and South Korea. ... The United Nations, or UN, is an international organization established in 1945. ... General Douglas MacArthur aboard a battle ship toward the end of World War II, 1945 Douglas MacArthur (26 January 1880-5 April 1964) was an American military leader. ... The Yalu (Amnok) River is a river on the border between China and North Korea. ... Seoul (서울,   listen?) is the capital of South Korea and is one of the most populous cities in the world, located in the northwestern part of the country on the Han River. ... The 38th parallel north is a line latitude that cuts across Asia and North America. ... 1953 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... 1962 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Sino-Indian war was a short border war between India and the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), the worlds two most populous countries, which took place in late 1962. ...


Establishment of a professional military force equipped with modern weapons and doctrine was the last of the "Four Modernizations" announced by Zhou Enlai and supported by Deng Xiaoping. In keeping with Deng's mandate to reform, the PLA has demobilized millions of men and women since 1978 and has introduced modern methods in such areas as recruitment and manpower, strategy, and education and training. In 1979, the PLA fought Vietnam in the Sino-Vietnamese War. The Four Modernizations (simplified Chinese: 四个现代化; traditional Chinese: 四個現代化; pinyin: sì gè xiàn dài huà) were the goals of Deng Xiaoping’s reforms. ... Zhou Enlai (Simplified Chinese: 周恩来; Traditional Chinese: 周恩來; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chou En-lai) (March 5, 1898 – January 8, 1976), a prominent Chinese Communist leader, was Premier of the Peoples Republic of China from 1949 until his death. ... Deng Xiaoping Deng Xiaoping   listen? (Simplified Chinese: 邓小平; Traditional Chinese: 鄧小平; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Teng Hsiao-ping; August 22, 1904—February 19, 1997) was a revolutionary elder in the Communist Party of China (CPC) who served as the de facto ruler of the Peoples Republic of China from the late... 1978 was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1978 calendar). ... This page refers to the year 1979. ... The Sino-Vietnamese War or Third Indochina War was a war fought in 1979 between the neighboring countries of the Peoples Republic of China and Vietnam. ...


In the 1980s, the PRC shrunk its military considerably on the theory that freeing up resources for economic development was in the PRC's interest. // Events and trends The 1980s marked an abrupt shift towards more conservative lifestyles after the momentous cultural revolutions which took place in the 1960s and 1970s and the definition of the AIDS virus in 1981. ...


Following the 1989 Tiananmen crackdown, ideological correctness was temporarily revived as the dominant theme in Chinese military affairs. Reform and modernization appear to have since resumed their position as the PLA's priority objectives, although the armed forces' political loyalty to the Communist Party of China remains a leading concern. One other area of concern to the political leadership was the PLA's involvement in civilian economic activities. Concern that these activities were adversely impacting PLA readiness has led the political leadership to attempt to remove the PLA's business empire. 1989 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Unknown Rebel — This famous photo, taken by Associated Press photographer Jeff Widener, depicts a lone protester whose actions halted the progress of a column of advancing tanks for over half an hour. ... Chinese Communist Party flag The Chinese Communist Party (Simplified Chinese: 中国共产党; Traditional Chinese: 中國共産黨; pinyin: ) is the ruling party of the Peoples Republic of China. ...

PLA soldiers marching in Beijing
PLA soldiers marching in Beijing

Beginning in the 1980s, the PLA tried to transform itself from a land-based power, centered on a vast ground force, to a smaller, mobile, high-tech military capable of mounting defensive operations beyond its coastal borders. The motivation for this was that a massive land invasion by Russia is no longer seen as a major threat, and the new threats to the PRC are seen to be a declaration of independence by Taiwan, possibly with assistance from the United States, or a confrontation over the Spratly Islands. In addition, the economic center of gravity of mainland China has shifted from the interior to the coastal regions and the PRC is now more dependent on trade than it has been in the past. Furthermore, the possibility of a militarily resurgent Japan remains a worry to the Chinese military leadership. Download high resolution version (1050x742, 189 KB)courtesy of http://www. ... Download high resolution version (1050x742, 189 KB)courtesy of http://www. ... In this map of China, the light-coloured areas represent Mainland China, while yellow coloured area refers to Taiwan. ...


The PRC's power-projection capability is limited and one Chinese general characterized China's military as having "short arms and weak legs". There has however been an effort to redress these deficiencies in recent years. The PLA has acquired some advanced weapons systems, including Sovremenny class destroyers, Sukhoi Su-27 and Sukhoi Su-30 aircraft, and Kilo-class diesel submarines from Russia. It is also currently building 4 new destroyers including 2 AAW Type 052C class guided missile destroyers. However, the mainstay of the air force continues to be the 1960s-vintage J-7 fighter. In addition, the PLA has attempted to build an indigenous aerospace and military industry with its production of the J-10, which currently is in production. It reportedly contains technology supplied by Israel from its Lavi fighter program as well as technology reverse-engineered from an F-16 reportedly given to the PRC by Pakistan. The PLA launched a new class of nuclear submarine on December 3, 2004 capable of launching nuclear warheads that could strike targets across the Pacific Ocean. The Sovremenny Class destroyer has a maximum displacement of 8480t. ... The Sukhoi Su-27 (Су-27 in the Cyrillic alphabet) (NATO reporting name Flanker) is originally a Soviet fighter aircraft designed by the Sukhoi Design Bureau (SDB). ... An Indian Air Force Sukhoi-30 landing (Nato: Flanker-C) The Sukhoi Su-30 is a military aircraft that was produced by the Russian company Sukhoi in 1996. ... The Yunes, an Iranian submarine of the Kilo class Kilo class is the NATO reporting name for a type of military diesel-electric submarines that are made in Russia. ... The 1960s, or The Sixties, in its most obvious sense refers to the decade between 1960 and 1969, but the expression has taken on a wider meaning over the past twenty years. ... The Chengdu J-7 (export versions are designated F-7) is a Peoples Republic of China-built fighter jet derived from the Russian MiG-21. ... The Chengdu J-10 is a multirole fighter aircraft produced by the Peoples Republic of China Chengdu Aircraft Corporation (CAC). ... IAI Lavi (Hebrew for - Young Lion) is a prototype concept fighter jet Indigenously developed by Israel. ... F-16 Fighting Falcon over Iraq The F-16 Fighting Falcon is a modern multi-role jet fighter aircraft built in the United States. ... USS Los Angeles A submarine is a specialized watercraft that can operate underwater. ... December 3 is the 337th (in leap years the 338th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004(MMIV) is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


China's military leadership has also been reacting to the display of American military might during the Gulf War and the 2003 Invasion of Iraq . The 1991 Gulf War was a conflict between Iraq and a coalition force of 34 nations mandated by the United Nations and led by the United States. ... This article covers invasion specifics. ...


During the 1980s and 1990s, the PLA became extensively involved in creating a business empire including companies in areas not normally associated with the military (i.e., travel and real estate). Much of the motivation for this was to supplement the PLA's normal budget, whose growth was restricted. Chairman Mao's belief that people and groups should be self-sufficient also played a role in the PLA's varied business interests. In the early 1990s, the leadership of the Communist Party and the high command of the PLA became alarmed that these business transactions were in conflict with the PLA's military mission. The business interests of the PLA were eroding military discipline, and there were reports of corruption resulting from the PLA businesses. As a result, the PLA was ordered to spin off its companies. Typically, the actual management of the companies did not change, but the officers involved were retired from active duty within the PLA and the companies were given private boards of retired PLA officers. Military units were compensated for the loss of profitable businesses with increased state funding. // Events and trends The 1990s are generally classified as having moved slightly away from the more conservative 1980s, but otherwise retaining the same mindset. ...   Mao Zedong? (December 26, 1893 – September 9, 1976; Mao Tse-tung in Wade-Giles) was the chairman of the Politburo of the Communist Party of China from 1943 and the chairman of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China from 1945 until his death. ...


Campaigns of the Red/People's Liberation Army

1931 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... World War II was a truly global conflict with many facets: immense human suffering, fierce indoctrinations, and the use of new, extremely devastating weapons like the atom bomb World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a mid-20th-century conflict that engulfed much of the globe... 1950 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Chinese Civil War was a conflict in China between the Kuomintang (The Nationalist Party; The Nationalists; KMT) and the Communist Party of China (CPC). ... The Kuomintang (KMT) or Nationalist Party of China (Traditional: 中國國民黨; Simplified: 中国国民党; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chung-kuo Kuo-min-tang; Tongyong Pinyin: Jhongguo Guomindang) is a conservative political party currently active in the Republic of China (ROC) on Taiwan. ... Tibet (Tibetan: བོད་, Bod, pronounced pö in Lhasa dialect; Chinese: 西藏, pinyin: XÄ«zàng; older spelling Thibet) is a region in Central Asia and the home of the Tibetan people. ... 1951 was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... 1953 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... The Korean War (Korean: 한국전쟁/韓國戰爭), from June 25, 1950 to July 27, 1953, was a conflict between North Korea and South Korea. ... 1954 was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1958 was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Taiwan Strait Area The Taiwan Strait or Formosa Strait is a 180km-wide Strait between mainland China and the island of Taiwan. ... Quemoy, Kinmen, or Chinmen (金門, pinyin: Jīnmén, POJ: Kim-mn̂g) (pop. ... The Matsu Islands (馬祖列島 or less frequently, 馬祖群島 Pinyin: Mǎzǔ) are a minor archipelago of 19 islands and islets in the Taiwan Strait administered as Lienchiang County (連江 Pinyin: Liánjiāng), Fujian Province of the Republic of China (ROC, based on Taiwan). ... 1962 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Sino-Indian war was a short border war between India and the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), the worlds two most populous countries, which took place in late 1962. ... 1969 was a common year starting on Wednesday For other uses, see Number 1969. ... 1978 was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1978 calendar). ... 1974 is a common year starting on Tuesday (click on link for calendar). ... The Paracel Islands or Xisha Islands (Chinese: 西沙群島, in pinyin: Xi1sha1 Qun2dao3; Vietnamese: Hoàng Sa) are a group of small islands and reefs in the South China Sea and part of the South China Sea Islands, about one-third of the way from central Vietnam to the northern Philippines. ... Official language Vietnamese Capital Saigon Last President Duong Van Minh Last Prime Minister Vu Van Mau Area  - Total  - % water 173,809km² N/A Population  - Total  - Density 19,370,000 (1973 est. ... This page refers to the year 1979. ... The Sino-Vietnamese War or Third Indochina War was a war fought in 1979 between the neighboring countries of the Peoples Republic of China and Vietnam. ... 1986 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

PLA in internal security

PRC military regions (1996)
PRC military regions (1996)

In general, the PLA has been extremely reluctant to be involved in internal security and views these sort of activities as a distraction from its primary purpose of national defense. Responsibility for internal security has been put into the hands of the paramilitary People's Armed Police. Download high resolution version (800x798, 252 KB)Source: Central Intelligence Agency 1996. ... Download high resolution version (800x798, 252 KB)Source: Central Intelligence Agency 1996. ... The Peoples Armed Police Force (人民武装警察部队; renmin wuzhuang jingcha budui) is a paramilitary police force responsible for domestic security within the Peoples Republic of China. ...


The PLA has generally not been used for internal security but was used for this purpose during the Cultural Revolution as it was the only national institution to survive the turmoil. It was also deployed to quell anti-government demonstrations in Tibet in 1989 as well as the crackdown of the Tiananmen Protests of 1989. A poster during the Cultural Revolution The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (Simplified Chinese: 无产阶级文化大革命; Traditional Chinese: 無產階級文化大革命; pinyin: ; literally Proletarian Cultural Great Revolution; often abbreviated to 文化大革命 wén huà dà gé mìng, literally Great Cultural Revolution, or simply 文革 wén gé, literally Cultural Revolution) in the Peoples Republic of China... Tibet (Tibetan: བོད་, Bod, pronounced pö in Lhasa dialect; Chinese: 西藏, pinyin: XÄ«zàng; older spelling Thibet) is a region in Central Asia and the home of the Tibetan people. ... The Unknown Rebel — This famous photo, taken by Associated Press photographer Jeff Widener, depicts a lone protester who single-handedly halted the progress of a column of advancing tanks for over half an hour. ...


Because the PLA is always involved in flood relief operations in the Yellow River region and performed admirably well in the eyes of the citizens due to several "courageous rescues" that are broadcast nationally every year, public opinion of the PLA is rather high especially when compared with the public opinion of the Communist Party of China or the PRC government. For other Yellow Rivers, see Yellow River (disambiguation). ... Chinese Communist Party flag The Chinese Communist Party (Simplified Chinese: 中国共产党; Traditional Chinese: 中國共産黨; pinyin: ) is the ruling party of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


See also: Police in the People's Republic of China Police in the mainland of the Peoples Republic of China are divided between the Peoples Armed Police Ministry of Public Security This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


The PLA and commercial enterprises

Until the mid-1990s, the PLA had extensive commercial enterprise holdings in non-military areas, particularly real estate. Almost all of these holdings were spun-off in the mid-1990s. In most cases, the management of the companies remained unchanged, with the PLA officers running the companies simply retiring from the PLA to run the newly formed private holding companies.


The history of PLA involvement in commercial enterprises begins in the 1950s and 1960s. Because of the socialist state-owned system and from a desire for military self-sufficiency, the PLA created a network of enterprises such as farms, guesthouses, and factories intended to support its own needs. One unintended side effect of the Deng Xiaoping reforms was that many of these enterprises became very profitable. For example, a military guesthouse intended for soldier recreation could easily be converted into a profitable hotel for civilian use. There were two factors which increased PLA commercial involvement in the 1990s. One was that running profitable companies decreased the need for the state to fund the military from the government budget. The second was that in an environment where legal rules were unclear and political connections were important, PLA influence was very useful.


However, by the early-1990s, party officials and high military officials were becoming increasing alarmed at the military's commercial involvement for a number of reasons. First, the military's involvement in commerce was seen to adversely affect military readiness and to cause corruption. Second, there was great concern that having an independent source of funding would lead to decreased loyalty to the party. The result of this was an effort to spin off the PLA's commercial enterprises into private companies managed by former PLA officers, and to reform military procurement from a system in which the PLA directly controls its sources of supply to a contracting system more akin to those of Western countries.


The separation of the PLA from its commercial enterprises was largely complete by the year 2000. It met with very little resistance, as the spinoff was arranged so that few lost out.


Military Intelligence

The intelligence gathering for the military is carried out under the Second and Third Departments of the Headquarters of the General Staff.


By ensuring that these report to the CPC Central Military Commission and the PLA General Staff Headquarters, this unit effectively monitors all external and internal military communications.


Second Department

The Second Department coordinates military human intelligence (HUMINT), signals intelligence (SIGINT), and imagery intelligence data.


Directors

  • Big Fag, 1982 - 1992

Units Of Second Department

  • Analysis Bureau - operates the National Watch Center
  • Institute for International Strategic Studies - is its research institute which publishes an internal publication Wai Jun Dongtai ("Movement Of Foreign Armies").
  • First Bureau - responsible for intelligence on Taiwan and HongKong. Of particular note in this bureau was the "Autumn Orchid" intelligence group which was awarded a Citation for Merit, Second Class, in December 1994, and further another Citation for Merit, Second Class.

Third Department

The Third Department is charged with monitoring the telecommunications of foreign armies.


Third Department headquarters is located in the vicinity of the GSD First Department (Operations Department), AMS, and NDU complex in the hills northwest of the Summer Palace.


Units Of Third Department

  • PLA Foreign Language Institute at Luoyang - responsible for for training foreign language specialists for use in monitoring foreign transmissions.

Monitoring Stations

  • Main Technical Department net control station on the northwest outskirts of Beijing
  • A large complex near Lake Kinghathu in the extreme northeast corner of China
  • Jilemutu and Jixi, in the northeast of China - aimed at Russia
  • Erlian and Hami, near the Mongolian border - aimed at Russia
  • Qitai and Korla, in Xinjiang were operated jointly with the CIA during the Cold War - aimed at Russia
  • Chengdu and Dayi - aimed at India
  • Kunming - aimed at the South Asian countries like Vietnam
  • Fujian and Guangdong military districts - aimed at Taiwan
  • Hainan Island - monitoring the South China Sea

Technology

Firearms

The People's Republic of China's main firearm is the Type 81, a modified version of the AK-47. The AK-47 is often compared with its United States counterpart, the M16, see the article AK-47 vs. M16 for details. A newer assault rifle designed to replace the Type 81 is the Type 95(aka. QBZ-95). The Chinese Type 81 Assault Rifle is the principle automatic rifle used by the Peoples Liberation Army. ... Avtomat Kalashnikova model 1947 g. ... M16 can mean: M-16 (rifle) Eagle Nebula This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The two most famous assault rifles (and possibly overall firearms) in the world are the Colt AR-15 (more commonly known as the M16) and its variants, and the Avtomat Kalashnikova AK-47. ... The QBZ-95 (in Chinese, Qing Buqiang Zu, for Light Rifle Family) assault rifle manufactured by Norinco for the Peoples Liberation Army, the armed forces of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


The People's Liberation Army and police forces are widely equipped with the Type 54, 7.62mm pistol, although newer and better versions exist. The newest pistol in service is the QSZ-92 Pistol.


Nuclear weapons

In 1955, Mao Tse Tung's Chinese Communist Party decided to proceed with a nuclear weapons program. The decision was made after the United States threatened the use of nuclear weapons against the PRC should it take action against Quemoy and Matsu, coupled with the lack of interest of the Soviet Union for using its nuclear weapons in defense of China. Quemoy, Kinmen, or Chinmen (金門, pinyin: Jīnmén, POJ: Kim-mn̂g) (pop. ... The Matsu Islands (馬祖列島 or less frequently, 馬祖群島 Pinyin: Mǎzǔ) are a minor archipelago of 19 islands and islets in the Taiwan Strait administered as Lienchiang County (連江 Pinyin: Liánjiāng), Fujian Province of the Republic of China (ROC, based on Taiwan). ...


It was developed with Soviet assistance until 1960. After its first nuclear test on 16th October 1964, the PRC was the first state to pledge no-first-use of nuclear weapons. On 1st July 1966, the Second Artillery Corps (as named by Premier Zhou En-lai) was formed. Beijing has deployed a modest but potent ballistic missile force, including land- and sea-based intermediate-range and intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs). It is estimated that the PRC has between 15-30 ICBMs capable of striking the United States with a few hundred IRBMs able to strike Russia. A Minuteman III missile soars after a test launch. ...


The PRC's nuclear program follows a doctrine of minimal deterrence, which involves having the minimum force needed to deter an aggressor from launching a first strike. The current efforts of the PRC appear to be aimed at maintaining a survivable nuclear force by, for example, using solid-fueled ICBMs in silos rather than liquid-fueled missiles.


The PRC became a major international arms exporter during the 1980s. Beijing joined the Middle East arms control talks, which began in July 1991 to establish global guidelines for conventional arms transfers, and later announced that it would no longer participate because of the U.S. decision to sell 150 F-16A/B aircraft to Taiwan on 2nd September 1992.   Beijing? (Chinese: 北京; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Pei-ching; Postal System Pinyin: Peking) is the capital of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... The F-16 Fighting Falcon is a modern multi-role jet fighter aircraft built in the United States and used by dozens of countries all over the world. ...


It joined the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in 1984 and pledged to abstain from further atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons in 1986. The PRC acceded to the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) in 1992 and supported its indefinite and unconditional extension in 1995. In 1996, it signed the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty and agreed to seek an international ban on the production of fissile nuclear weapons material. However, United States intelligence agencies claim that in the 1980s, China provided a nuclear weapon design, and HEU, to Pakistan—in effect giving them nuclear weapons. IAEA flag The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), established as an autonomous organization on July 29, 1957, seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. ... The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) is a treaty, opened for signature on July 1, 1968, restricting the possession of nuclear weapons. ... Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Opened for signature September 10, 1996[1] at New York Entered into force Not yet in force Conditions for entry into force The treaty will enter into force 180 days after it is ratified by all of the following 44 (Annex 2) countries: Algeria, Argentina, Australia...


In 1996, the PRC committed to not provide assistance to unsafeguarded nuclear facilities. The PRC attended the May 1997 meeting of the NPT Exporters (Zangger) Committee as an observer and became a full member in October 1997. The Zangger Committee is a group which meets to list items that should be subject to IAEA inspections if exported by countries, which have, as the PRC has, signed the Non-Proliferation Treaty. In September 1997, the PRC issued detailed nuclear export control regulations. The PRC began implementing regulations establishing controls over nuclear-related dual-use items in 1998. The PRC also has decided not to engage in new nuclear cooperation with Iran (even under safeguards), and will complete existing cooperation, which is not of proliferation concern, within a relatively short period. Based on significant, tangible progress with the PRC on nuclear nonproliferation, President Clinton in 1998 took steps to bring into force the 1985 U.S.-China Agreement on Peaceful Nuclear Cooperation. Dual-use is a term often used in politics and diplomacy to refer to technology which can be used for both peaceful and military aims, usually in regard to the proliferation of nuclear weapons. ... William Jefferson Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001. ...


Chemical weapons

The People's Republic of China is not a member of the Australia Group, an informal and voluntary arrangement made in 1985 to monitor developments in the proliferation of dual-use chemicals and to coordinate export controls on key dual-use chemicals and equipment with weapons applications. In April 1997, however, the PRC ratified the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) and, in September 1997, promulgated a new chemical weapons export control directive. Australia Group is an informal group of countries established in 1985 (after the use of chemical weapons by Iraq in 1984) to help reduce the spread of chemical and biological weapons by monitoring and controlling the spread of technologies required to produce them. ... Chemical Weapons Convention Opened for signature January 13, 1993 at Paris Entered into force April 29, 1997 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by 50 states and the convening of a Preperatory Commission Parties 170 The Chemical Weapons Convention is an arms control agreement which outlaws the production, stockpiling and...


Missiles

While not formally joining the regime, in March 1992, the PRC undertook to abide by the guidelines and parameters of the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR), the multinational effort to restrict the proliferation of missiles capable of delivering weapons of mass destruction. The PRC reaffirmed this commitment in 1994 and pledged not to transfer MTCR-class ground-to-ground missiles. In November 2000, the PRC committed to not assist in any way the development by other countries of MTCR-class missiles. The Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) is an informal and voluntary partnership between 34 countries to prevent the proliferation of missile technology. ...


Lasers

The PLA continues to develop laser-based weapon systems, primarily for battlefield use. While far from the ray guns of science fiction, the systems are employed in blinding opponents, making them highly effective against infantry. The technical problem of combating such a weapon is that, since any form of protection must protect against specific frequencies of light, troops will be unable to be protected against most/all possible frequencies without losing considerable, if not all, visual abilities from protective gear (which would, in effect, have to be all black so as to avoid any light).


Land mines

The PRC remains opposed to international agreements limiting the use of landmines. U.S. Army soldier removes fuse from a Russian-made mine to clear a minefield outside of Fallujah, Iraq. ...


Miscellaneous

The PLA maintains a number of garrisons in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, notably at the Chinese People's Liberation Army Forces Hong Kong Building, Stonecutter's Island, and at Stanley Fort. Soldiers located at these garrisons are considered to be the cream of the PLA, but are not permitted to leave their compounds, even during off-duty times to mingle with the local populace. A contingent of local Hong Kong press was taken on a tour of the Chinese People's Liberation Army Forces Hong Kong Building compound in 2002, and every year the Stanley Fort compound is opened for inspection to the public. It also has a garrison in the Macau Special Administrative Region. The Military of Hong Kong consists of the Hong Kong Garrison of the Peoples Republic of Chinas Peoples Liberation Army (or PLA). ... A Special Administrative Region (SAR) (Simplified Chinese: 特别行政区; Traditional Chinese: 特別行政區; pinyin: tèbié xíngzhèngqÅ«; Cantonese IPA: /tɐk6piːt6 hɐŋ4tsɪŋ3kʰɵy1/; Jyutping: dak6bit6 hang4zing3keoi1; Yale: dahkbiht hàhngjingkeÅ«i) is a political subdivision of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Connaught Road Central, Central, heading towards (from the left), the City Hall, Prince of Wales Building, and across the road the Hong Kong Club Building. ... Stonecutters Island (昂船洲) is a former island in Victoria Harbour, Hong Kong. ... 2002(MMII) is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Since December 20, 1999, the defense of Macau has been the responsibility of the Chinese Peoples Liberation Army (PLA), which stations up to 1,000 troops in the Macau Special Administrative Region. ...


Compare to: Military of Taiwan The Republic of China (ROC) maintains a large military establishment, which will account for 16. ...


References

See also

The military history of China extends from around 1500 BCE to the present day. ... Here is a list of some of the notable people in the Peoples Liberation Army of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Throughout the history of the Peoples Republic of China, the position that effectively reigned as the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces changed from time to time. ... The Peoples Republic of China is said to have an arsenal of 390 nuclear weapons stockpiled as of 1999. ... The China North Industries Corporation (Norinco) manufactures vehicles (trucks, cars and motorcycles), machinery, optical-electronic products, oil field equipment, chemicals, light industrial products, explosives and blast materials, civil firearms and ammunition, etc. ... The following graph presents the images, names, transliterations and equivalent ranks in the Chinese Peoples Liberation Army. ...

External links

{{PLA


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The People's Liberation Army was founded on August 1, 1927 during the Nanchang Uprising when troops of the Kuomintang rebelled under the leadership of Zhu De and Zhou Enlai after the end of the first at the end of the first Kuomintang-Communist alliance, a fallout which developed into the Chinese Civil War.
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