FACTOID # 9: The bookmobile capital of America is Kentucky.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Chinese Indonesian
Chinese Indonesian
Total population

7.5 - 9 million

Regions with significant populations
Bangka-Belitung, Java, West Kalimantan, Sumatra, South Sulawesi
Language(s)
Min Nan, Hakka, Cantonese, Mandarin, Indonesian
Religion(s)
Buddhist, Confucianism, Christian
Related ethnic groups
Han Chinese

Chinese Indonesians (Mandarin: Yìndùníxīyà Huárén (Traditional: 印度尼西亞華人, Simplified: 印度尼西亚华人) Hakka: Thong ngin, Min: Teng lang, Indonesian: Tionghoa Indonesia, or (derisively) Cina totok) are ethnically Chinese people living in Indonesia, as a result of centuries of overseas Chinese migration. | This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Java (Indonesian, Javanese, and Sundanese: Jawa) is an island of Indonesia, and the site of its capital city, Jakarta. ... West Kalimantan (Indonesian: Kalimantan Barat often abbreviated to Kalbar) is a province of Indonesia. ... Sumatra (also spelled Sumatera) is the sixth largest island in the world (approximately 470,000 km²) and is the largest island entirely in Indonesia (two larger islands, Borneo and New Guinea, are partially in Indonesia). ... Map showing South Sulawesi province within Indonesia South Sulawesi (Indonesian: Sulawesi Selatan) is a province of Indonesia, located on Sulawesi island. ... Mǐn N n (Chinese: 閩南語), also spelt as Minnan or Min-nan; native name B ; literally means Southern Min or Southern Fujian and refers to the local language/dialect of southern Fujian province, China. ... Hakka (Simplified Chinese: 客家话, Traditional Chinese: 客家話, Pronunciation in Hakka: Hak-ka-fa/-va, Pinyin: Kèjiāhuà) is a spoken variation of the Chinese language spoken predominantly in southern China by the Hakka ethnic group and descendants in diaspora throughout East and Southeast Asia and around the world. ... This article is on all of the Yue dialects. ... This article is on all of the Northern and Southwestern Chinese dialects. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... A Confucian temple in Wuwei, Peoples Republic of China. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Languages Chinese languages Religions Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ... This article is on all of the Northern and Southwestern Chinese dialects. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Min can be: // Abbreviation for minimum function in mathematics. ... Han Chinese (Simplified: 汉; Traditional: 漢; Pinyin: hàn) is a term which refers to the majority ethnic group within China and the largest single human ethnic group in the world. ... Languages various Religions Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ...


Chinese Indonesian people are diverse in their origins, timing and circumstances of immigration to Indonesia, and level of ties to China. Many trace their origins to the southern parts of China, such as Fujian, Guangdong and Hainan provinces.   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Fu-chien; Postal map spelling: Fukien, Foukien; local transliteration Hokkien from Min Nan Hok-kiàn) is one of the provinces on the southeast coast of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Not to be confused with the former Kwantung Leased Territory in north-eastern China. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Broadly speaking, there were three waves of immigration of ethnic Chinese to Southeast Asia in general and Indonesia in particular. The first wave was spurred by trading activities dating back to the time of Zheng He's voyage in the early 15th century, the second wave around the time of the Opium War, and the third wave around the first half of the 20th century. A modern illustration of Zheng He, by an unidentified artist. ... There were two Opium Wars between Britain and China. ...


Chinese Indonesians whose ancestors immigrated in the first and second waves, and have thus become creolised or huan-na (in Hokkien) by marriage and assimilation, are called Peranakan Chinese. The more recent Chinese immigrants and those who are still culturally Chinese are called Cina Totok. Hoklo (pronounced Holo; Chinese ; Mandarin pronunciation--pinyin: Fulao) can refer to an ethnic-cultural group originating in Fujian province, China. ...


Most Chinese who migrated to Indonesia came as traders or labourers. Colonial policies made it difficult for Chinese to acquire land, and the only region with a significant Chinese farmer population was West Kalimantan. The largest populations of Chinese Indonesians today are in the cities of Jakarta, Surabaya, Medan, Pekan Baru, Semarang, Pontianak, Makassar, Palembang, and Bandung. Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta), formerly known as Sunda Kalapa, Jayakarta, Batavia and Djakarta is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. ... Location of Surabaya in Indonesia Coordinates: , Country Province Area  - City 274. ... For other uses, see Medan (disambiguation). ... Pekanbaru is the capital of Riau province, Indonesia. ... Semarang is a city on the north coast of the island of Java, Indonesia. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Location of Makassar in Indonesia Coordinates: , Country Indonesia Province South Sulawesi Government  - Mayor Ilham Arief Sirajuddin Area  - City 175. ... Location of Palembang Palembang is a city in the south of the Indonesian island of Sumatra. ... Nickname: Kota Kembang (City of Flowers) Motto: Bermartabat (dignity) Location of Bandung in Indonesia Coordinates: Province West Java Country Indonesia Government  - Mayor Dada Rosada Area  - City 167. ...

Contents

Demography

The economic activities and wealth of the Chinese community in Indonesia is very diverse; many are labourers and small-scale merchants, and others are businessmen. Most are identified as ethnic Chinese in official documents, but many are not, for a variety of reasons. In many parts of Indonesia, however, they are represented among the wealthier classes out of proportion with their small numbers.


According to a survey of corporations listed on the Jakarta Stock Exchange, the Chinese Indonesian community was thought to own or operate a large fraction of major Indonesian corporations. This is a result of a long government restriction for Chinese Indonesians from going into academia, public service, and other governmental occupations. Bursa Efek Jakarta (BEJ) or Jakarta Stock Exchange (JSX) is a stock exchange based in Jakarta, Indonesia. ...


Some, however, believe that this overestimates the influence of Chinese Indonesians on the economy: for example, despite being considered to be under control of Chinese Indonesians in research, the Salim Group is actually controlled by Liem Sioe Liong, two pribumi relatives of then President Suharto, and Ibrahim Risaid, an Acehnese associate of one of Suharto's cousins. Sudono Salim (Chinese: 林绍良, Liem Swie Liong or Lim Sioe Liong) (born 10 September 1915), an ethnic-Chinese Indonesian (Chinese Indonesian) of Hok-Chia (Fu Qing Province in China) origin, is considered one of the most successful entrepreneurs in Indonesia, although it is widely suspected that his successes are through bribery...


Such simplifications fuel the stereotype that Chinese Indonesian people are extremely wealthy, a common perception in Indonesian society. In part, as a result of this perceived dominance of the economy, the Chinese Indonesian community has frequently been viewed with suspicion by indigenous (Pribumi) Indonesians. For other uses, see Stereotype (disambiguation). ... Pribumi is a term that refers to a population group in Indonesia that shares a similar socio/cultural heritage. ...


Origins

Map of Chinese Indonesian origin location in mainland Chinese
Map of Chinese Indonesian origin location in mainland Chinese

Most Chinese Indonesian are descended from ethnic groups originally from the south-eastern part of China. These ethnic groups include: Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1000 × 1000 pixel, file size: 380 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Chinese Indonesian Metadata... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1000 × 1000 pixel, file size: 380 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Chinese Indonesian Metadata...

This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Hoklo (pronounced Holo; Chinese ; Mandarin pronunciation--pinyin: Fulao) can refer to an ethnic-cultural group originating in Fujian province, China. ... Mǐn N n (Chinese: 閩南語), also spelt as Minnan or Min-nan; native name B ; literally means Southern Min or Southern Fujian and refers to the local language/dialect of southern Fujian province, China. ... Cantonese people (Traditional Chinese: 廣東人; Simplified Chinese: 广东人; Pinyin: GuÇŽngdōng rén; Jyutping: gwong2 dung1 yan4), broadly speaking, are persons originating from the present-day Guangdong province in southern China. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: Fúzhōu; Wade-Giles: Fu-chou; BUC: Hók-ciÅ­; EFEO: Fou-Tcheou; also seen as Foochow or Fuchow) is the provincial seat and the largest prefecture-level city of Fujian province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Teochiu can refer to: Chaozhou(潮州), a prefecture-level city in Guangdong Province, China. ...

Ethnic concentrations

Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta), formerly known as Sunda Kalapa, Jayakarta, Batavia and Djakarta is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. ... This article is about the Java island. ... Location of Makassar in Indonesia Coordinates: , Country Indonesia Province South Sulawesi Government  - Mayor Ilham Arief Sirajuddin Area  - City 175. ... Aceh (IPA pronunciation: , pronounced approximately Ah-Cèh, but with [e], not [ei] at the end) is a special territory (daerah istimewa) of Indonesia, located on the northern tip of the island of Sumatra. ... Map of North Sumatra province within Indonesia North Sumatra (Indonesian: Sumatera Utara) is one of the provinces of Indonesia. ... The Batam island in the Riau Islands Province of Indonesia, known for a free trade zone as a part of the Sijori Growth Triangle, is located 20 km (12. ... Map of South Sumatra province in Indonesia South Sumatra or Sumatera Selatan is one of the provinces of Indonesia. ... Bangka can refer to: the Holo name of Wanhua district of Taipei City Bangka Island, an island of Indonesia Bangka Regency, Indonesia Tagalog: bangka, an outrigger canoe Category: ... Belitung, formerly known as Billiton, is an island on the east coast of Sumatra, Indonesia in the Java Sea. ... Lampung is a province of Indonesia, located on the southern tip of the island of Sumatra. ... This article is about the Java island. ... West Kalimantan (Indonesian: Kalimantan Barat often abbreviated to Kalbar) is a province of Indonesia. ... Map showing South Sulawesi province within Indonesia South Sulawesi (Indonesian: Sulawesi Selatan) is a province of Indonesia, located on Sulawesi island. ... Ceram and Ambon Islands (Operational Navigation Chart, 1967) Not for navigational use Ambon City in 2001, showing heavy damage from fighting Ambon Island is part of the Maluku Islands of Indonesia. ... A workers mural in Jayapura, Indonesia Jayapura City (Indonesian: Kota Jayapura) is the capital of Papua province, Indonesia, on the island of New Guinea. ... Map of Indonesia showing Riau province Riau is a province of Indonesia, located in the center of Sumatra island along the Strait of Malacca. ... Pekanbaru is the capital of Riau, a province in Indonesia on the island of Sumatra. ... The Batam island in the Riau Islands Province of Indonesia, known for a free trade zone as a part of the Sijori Growth Triangle, is located 20 km (12. ... Manado is the capital of the North Sulawesi province of Indonesia. ... Map of North Sumatra province within Indonesia North Sumatra (Indonesian: Sumatera Utara) is one of the provinces of Indonesia. ... Bagansiapiapi is a small town near Dumai, Riau, Indonesia. ... Pekanbaru is the capital of Riau, a province in Indonesia on the island of Sumatra. ... Padang is the capital and largest city of West Sumatra, Indonesia. ... For other uses, see Jambi (disambiguation). ... Map of South Sumatra province in Indonesia South Sumatra or Sumatera Selatan is one of the provinces of Indonesia. ... Bengkulu is a province of Indonesia. ... This article is about the Java island. ... This article is about the Indonesian island. ... Gajah Mada Street Denpasar is the capital city of the province of Bali, Indonesia. ... Singaraja is the second largest city in Bali, Indonesia after Denpasar. ... Nickname: Motto: Kayuh Baimbai (Banjarese: Rowing Together) Coordinates: , Province Country Government  - Mayor H.A. Yudhi Wahyuni Area  - City 72 km²  (27. ... Sumbawa is an Indonesian island, located in the middle of the Lesser Sunda Islands chain, with Lombok to the west, Flores to the east, and Sumba further to the southeast. ... Kupang is the provincial capital of East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. ... Location of Makassar in Indonesia Coordinates: , Country Indonesia Province South Sulawesi Government  - Mayor Ilham Arief Sirajuddin Area  - City 175. ... Kendari is the capital of the Indonesian province of South East Sulawesi. ... Map of Central Sulawesi province within Indonesia Central Sulawesi (Sulawesi Tengah) is one of Indonesias provinces located in the heart of Sulawesi Island. ... Manado is the capital of the North Sulawesi province of Indonesia. ... Ceram and Ambon Islands (Operational Navigation Chart, 1967) Not for navigational use Ambon City in 2001, showing heavy damage from fighting Ambon Island is part of the Maluku Islands of Indonesia. ... Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta), formerly known as Sunda Kalapa, Jayakarta, Batavia and Djakarta is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. ... Location of Makassar in Indonesia Coordinates: , Country Indonesia Province South Sulawesi Government  - Mayor Ilham Arief Sirajuddin Area  - City 175. ... Manado is the capital of the North Sulawesi province of Indonesia. ... This article is about the Java island. ... Nickname: Kota Kembang (City of Flowers) Motto: Bermartabat (dignity) Location of Bandung in Indonesia Coordinates: Province West Java Country Indonesia Government  - Mayor Dada Rosada Area  - City 167. ... Cirebon (formerly Cheribon) is a city on north coast of the Indonesian island of Java. ... Location of Surabaya in Indonesia Coordinates: , Country Province Area  - City 274. ... Nickname: Motto: Kayuh Baimbai (Banjarese: Rowing Together) Coordinates: , Province Country Government  - Mayor H.A. Yudhi Wahyuni Area  - City 72 km²  (27. ... Map of North Sumatra province within Indonesia North Sumatra (Indonesian: Sumatera Utara) is one of the provinces of Indonesia. ... Map of Indonesia showing Riau province Riau is a province of Indonesia, located in the center of Sumatra island along the Strait of Malacca. ... Map of South Sumatra province in Indonesia South Sumatra or Sumatera Selatan is one of the provinces of Indonesia. ... West Kalimantan (Indonesian: Kalimantan Barat often abbreviated to Kalbar) is a province of Indonesia. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

History

Pre-colonial era

There was little direct Chinese involvement in what is now Indonesia before the fifteenth century. Trade between China and the Indonesian archipelago was in the hands of Indonesians, rather than Chinese and later standard word for a Chinese trading vessel, junk, is derived from the Javanese word jong, which described large teak vessels that trekked north from Southeast Asia to southern China. Chinese sources, however, are a useful external source of information on early Indonesia, including the records of a few emissaries, such as Fa Hien (Faxian, 法顯) the Buddhist monk who passed the region in the 5th Century on his way to India. Kingdoms of Indonesia and China had some relationships that thrived during the Tang dynasty. Faxian(Chinese: ; pinyin: ; also romanized as Fa-Hien or Fa-hsien) (ca. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... For other uses, see Monk (disambiguation). ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ...


Ironically, though most of the present Chinese Indonesians are not Muslims, some of the earliest Muslim evangelists in Java (who were called the Wali Songo or 'The Nine Ambassadors') were Chinese ancestry - at least four of those nine were original Chinese or Chinese descendants; they were Sunan Ampel (Bong Swi Hoo), Sunan Bonang (the son of Ampel and a Chinese woman), Sunan Kalijaga (Gan Si Cang), and Sunan Gunungjati (Toh A Bo). A historical theory even suggests that one of the first people who brought Islamic faith to Indonesia were the Chinese traders, especially those who came to Semarang under the leadership of Sam Po Kong or Admiral Zheng He(鄭和) in the 15th century. Zheng He himself was not a Han, but a Muslim from a minority ethnic group in China. There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... The nine walis were Sufi teachers who spread Islam and did all variety of powerful and unusual acts across Java. ... Sunan Ampel was a sayyid (descendant of the Holy Messenger Muhammad) and Muslim saint who spread Islam in Java of Hadramaut, South Yemen descent. ... Sunan Bonang, whose real name was Raden Maulana Makdum Ibrahim, was born in Tuban, East Java in 1465 and died in 1525 at Pulau Bawean[1]. He was a descendant of Majapahit nobility in Tuban. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Sunan Gunungjati was a Javanese wali who founded the city of Cirebon and the Banten Sultanate. ... Semarang is a city on the north coast of the island of Java, Indonesia. ... A modern illustration of Zheng He, by an unidentified artist. ... Han Chinese (Simplified: 汉; Traditional: 漢; Pinyin: hàn) is a term which refers to the majority ethnic group within China and the largest single human ethnic group in the world. ...


Starting from the voyage of Zheng He, many Chinese considered the territory of what is now Indonesia as an attractive trading partner.


See: Zheng He#Zheng He and Islam in Southeast Asia. A modern illustration of Zheng He, by an unidentified artist. ...


Early Colonial Era (1500s-1800s)

Favored position under the Dutch

The largest waves of Chinese migration happened during early to middle Dutch colonial era, from about the 16th to the 19th Centuries, seeking to find new opportunities of trade.


Race relations between the Chinese Indonesians and native Indonesians (pribumis)have always been problematic, and remain so up to the present. Some commentators trace this to the Dutch era when colonial policy favored the ethnic Chinese, and in so doing established their economic dominance over the region. In general, the word colonial means of or relating to a colony. In United States history, the term Colonial is used to refer to the period before US independence. ...


The caste system established by the Dutch also made it disadvantageous for ethnic Chinese—as for members of other ethnic groups—to assimilate into the native population: this would mean being put in the third estate, the lowest one, together with the natives. Ethnic Chinese, on the other hand, together with Arabs and other "Foreign Orientals" were put in the second estate - just a notch beneath the first estate, a category reserved for Europeans and, ironically, Japanese and Siamese nationals as well.[1] Caste systems are traditional, hereditary systems of social classification, that evolved due to the enormous diversity in India (where all three primary races met, not by forced slavery but by immigration). ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... For the country formerly called Siam see Thailand SIAM is an acronym for Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. ...


In this the Dutch were among the early practitioners of a classic colonial strategy practiced in many other times and places as well - namely, favoring specific ethnic or religious minorities and making of them a prop of the colonial rule and a buffer between it and the majority of the indigenous population. (In later times, the French and British were to use the local Christian and Jewish communities in the Arab World in the same way.) For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... “Arab States” redirects here. ...


Having the favor of the Dutch and being considered by them "intelligent, diligent, and capable of overseeing Dutch plantations", many ethnic Chinese were supporters of colonial rule. Indeed, in the early years of the Netherlands East Indies, ethnic Chinese actively helped strengthen Dutch domination in the region. Souw Ben Kong, the Kapitan Cina (i.e. "Captain of the Chinese") of Banten, for example, organized a large-scale immigration of Chinese under his rule to Batavia in the seventeenth century. This significantly destabilized the Bantenese economy, thus facilitating Dutch conquest of the Sultanate. For the Banten meteorite of 1933, see Meteorite falls. ... Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta), formerly known as Sunda Kalapa, Jayakarta, Batavia and Djakarta is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. ...


As a reward, Souw was made the first Kapitein der Chinezen of Batavia. His successors, the Kapiteins and later, the "Majors" (Majoors der Chinezen) of Batavia, were given landed fiefdoms and the hereditary title of "Sia" by the colonial government.


Between them, these aristocratic "Peranakan" families controlled a great deal of Java's land and wealth. Through the officership system, moreover, they governed the Peranakan and ethnic Chinese population of Batavia. The system was later extended to other centers of Dutch power in Java and parts of the rest of the archipelago.[2] Peranakan, Baba-Nyonya () and Straits Chinese (; named after the Straits Settlements) are terms used for the descendants of the very early Chinese immigrants to the Nusantara region, including both the British Straits Settlements of Malaya and the Dutch-controlled island of Java among other places, who have partially adopted Malay...


Massacre of 1740

In spite of the above, Dutch attitudes towards the Chinese were not invariably friendly, and in the early decades of the Eighteenth Century tensions started building up, in some ways resulting from the very fact of the Chinese having settled in and around Batavia, ever since its foundation, and came to be a major element in its economic life.


Chinese workers were greatly involved in building Batavia and cultivating the adjacent agricultural areas. And Chinese traders, who were arriving in growing numbers, made the East India Company (VOC) increasingly dependent on them. The VOC's came to make most of its profits from trade among different Asian destinations rather than back to the Netherlands themselves - and it was naturally the Chinese traders resident in Batavia who had the best contacts in China. VOC is a three-letter abbreviation with multiple meanings, as described below: A historic trade organization (Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie); see Dutch East India Company A group of chemical compounds; see Volatile Organic Compounds Vehicle operating costs Voice of the customer Creative Voice file, a proprietary audio format developed by Creative...


Dutch and Chinese needed each other - which in theory should have ensured a good relationship. But an element among the Dutch colonists came to increasingly resent the situation of the Chinese being their effective social equals and economic rivals. The Chinese traders, like the Dutch ones, were tax-payers - which was an economic burden but also conferred considerable privileges (a phenomenon comparable to the later resentment of French settlers in Algeria to local Christians and Jews being legally their equals). This article is about the religous people known as Christians. ...


What set off a cataclysm of hatred and bloodshed was not the Chinese trading but the other major branch of their economic activity on Java: agricultural work carried out by poor Chinese coolies who were imported and employed by rich Chinese entrepreneurs. Such coolies were, for example, the dominant part of the labor force employed in the sugar plantations at the Ommelanden of Batavia, a major field of economic activity. Coolie refers to unskilled laborers from Asia of the 1800s to early 1900s who were sent to the United States, Australia, New Zealand, North Africa and the West Indies. ... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely traded commodity. ... The ommelanden (In English: surrounding lands) are the parts of the province Groningen, that surround the city Groningen. ...


The importation of ever more coolies caused an enormous increase in the Chinese population in the VOC-ruled area of Batavia and its environs, and they came to constitute nearly half of the total population just before 1740. Already in 1690, the colonial authorities had imposed severe limitations on further immigration from China. This did not have, however, the effect of stopping the importation of more coolies. Rather, they continued to be imported through the payment of bribes to the authorities, and were all the more dependent on their employers (usually Chinese themselves) and susceptible to lucrative exploitation. Events May 31 - Friedrich II comes to power in Prussia upon the death of his father, Friedrich Wilhelm I. October 20 - Maria Theresia of Austria inherits the Habsburg hereditary dominions (Austria, Bohemia, Hungary and present-day Belgium). ... Events Giovanni Domenico Cassini observes differential rotation within Jupiters atmosphere. ...


From about 1720 the sugar market went through a deepening crisis, with the markets in Europe becoming saturated, and the plantations of Java facing sharp competition from cheaper Brazilian sugar. Many of the sugar planters went bankrupt, and the authorities took no step to alleviate the situation of the workers thrown out of their jobs - with the result being bands of unemployed, hungry and desperate coolies turning to brigandage. // Events January 6 - The Committee of Inquiry on the South Sea Bubble publishes its findings February 11 - Sweden and Prussia sign the (2nd Treaty of Stockholm) declaring peace. ...


Belatedly, at July, 1740 the colonial authorities decreed that all the coolies of the Ommelanden were to be transferred to Dutch-run plantations at Galle in Southern Ceylon. That might or might not have been the true intention, but rumors rife among the coolies were that the Dutch actually intended to throw them overboard once out of sight of the shore. Instead of boarding the ships, the coolies burst into an all-out revolt, with roaming bands robbing and killing in the countryside and some even attempting to attack Batavia itself. Events May 31 - Friedrich II comes to power in Prussia upon the death of his father, Friedrich Wilhelm I. October 20 - Maria Theresia of Austria inherits the Habsburg hereditary dominions (Austria, Bohemia, Hungary and present-day Belgium). ... Galle (ගාල්ල in Sinhala; காலி in Tamil) (pronounced as one syllable, rhyming with Gaul in English, in Sinhalese, IPA /gaːlːə/) is a town situated on the southwestern tip of Sri Lanka, 119 km from Colombo. ...


There is no evidence that the better off Chinese living inside the walled area of Batavia, some five thousand in number, were planning to join the rebellious coolies outside. However, many of the Dutch inhabitants did have such suspicions. On October 9, 1740, the order was issued to search the houses of all the Chinese residents in Batavia. This soon degenerated into an all-out, three-day long massacre - with Chinese being massacred in their homes, and earlier captured Chinese being killed out of hand in prisons and hospitals. is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 31 - Friedrich II comes to power in Prussia upon the death of his father, Friedrich Wilhelm I. October 20 - Maria Theresia of Austria inherits the Habsburg hereditary dominions (Austria, Bohemia, Hungary and present-day Belgium). ...


A preacher fanned the flames from the pulpit, declaring that the killing of Chinese was "God's Will", and the colonial government itself reportedly posted a bounty for decapitated Chinese heads. The number of victims in these three days is variously estimated at between five thousand and ten thousand. The name Kali Angke ("Red River" in Indonesian) is said to date from that time, recalling the blood flowing into the river.[3][4]


Afterwards, the "restoration of order" was proclaimed, with surviving Chinese henceforth ghettoized in specific quarters of Batavia and other Dutch-ruled cities. The Chinese area of Batavia was designated Glodok, where many Chinese still live in present-day Jakarta. For the Kelly Rowland song, see Ghetto (song). ... Banner photo: Rejected to any kind FalunGong activity Glodok is the Chinatown area in Jakarta, Indonesia. ... Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta), formerly known as Sunda Kalapa, Jayakarta, Batavia and Djakarta is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. ...


Following the massacre, the Dutch Governor-General Valckenier was arrested and required to account for himself to the Heeren XVII ("Seventeen Lords", the VOC directors in Amsterdam). He died in prison, however, and the charges against him were declared "annulled by death".


The affair continued to crop up in later periods, especially in times of tension[5]


Continued Immigration and division into three sub-communities

Even such bloody events did not put an end to the continued Chinese emigration to the Indies, where economic opportunities not available in China itself outweighed the dangers of discrimination or persecution.


Earlier Chinese immigrants had much closer ties toward mainland China. This was manifested in their strong desire to return home and consideration of the Indies as yet another temporary settlement.


Attitudes started changing from the middle 18th century, when the Qing Emperor of the time, Qian Long, considered these expatriates to be "turncoats" and thereby a threat to China. Still, while Emperor Qian Long adopted a general "closed-door policy", there was no evidence that Chinese expatriates were banned from returning to their original homeland. Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Territory of Qing China in 1892 Capital Shengjing (1636-1644) Beijing (1644-1912) Language(s) Chinese Manchu Mongolian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1636-1643 Huang Taiji  - 1908-1912 Xuantong Emperor Prime Minister  - 1911 Yikuang  - 1911-1912 Yuan Shikai History  - Establishment of the Late... The Qing Dynasty was founded as the Later Jin Dynasty in 1616, and changed its name to Qing in 1636. ... The Qianlong Emperor (September 25, 1711–February 7, 1799) was the fifth emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty, and the fourth Qing emperor to rule over China. ...


Many of them, however, found the Indies an increasingly attractive abode. The hostile and oppressive Manchu government of the Qing dynasty brought even more migrants from China. Lulled by comfortable lives, some of them no longer associated themselves with mainland China. They were called Cina Babas or Peranakans. Cina Babas often intermarried with indigenous Indonesian (pribumis). The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... Peranakan, Baba-Nyonya () and Straits Chinese (; named after the Straits Settlements) are terms used for the descendants of the very early Chinese immigrants to the Nusantara region, including both the British Straits Settlements of Malaya and the Dutch-controlled island of Java among other places, who have partially adopted Malay... Peranakan, Baba-Nyonya () and Straits Chinese (; named after the Straits Settlements) are terms used for the descendants of the very early Chinese immigrants to the Nusantara region, including both the British Straits Settlements of Malaya and the Dutch-controlled island of Java among other places, who have partially adopted Malay...


Some of them, however, identified themselves as Dutchmen, embraced Christianity, generally enjoyed higher education and social status, and thereby considered themselves as more culturally refined. They got to be called Qiao Sheng (literally, "foreign-born"). Beginning in the late Nineteenth Century, most of the aristocratic "Sia" families underwent rapid westernization. By the early decades of the twentieth century, many of them—especially those domiciled around Batavia—had become "more Dutch than the Dutch themselves". The Sias were consequently some of the strongest proponents of colonial rule. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Those who still maintained ties toward China, whose main belief was Confucianism, considered Cina Babas and Qiao Shengs unfilial, all the more so because Cina Babas and Qiao Shengs typically shunned Chinese tradition. The ones who still maintained "purity" were called Cina Totoks. A Confucian temple in Wuwei, Peoples Republic of China. ...


These three groups of Chinese Indonesians had starkly different nationalistic views and tendencies. At the time

  • Qiao Shengs were more inclined toward the Dutch;
  • Cina Totoks were more inclined toward mainland China;

and

  • Cina Babas were more toward the indigenous population of the Indies.

Late Colonial period (end of the 1800s to 1945)

Changing Dutch policies and decline of the Sia aristocracy

By the 1920s and 1930s, the long standing hold over the economy of the old Sia families, Qiao Sheng par excellence, was systematically destroyed by the very Dutch colonial government they supported . Following Queen Wilhelmina's speech to the Estates General (the Dutch Parliament) in which she insisted that a "moral debt" was owed to the people of the East Indies, the colonial government implemented its so-called "social policy". This was aimed at ending feudalism in Java and breaking up the large estates of the Peranakan aristocracy. For other uses, see Wilhelmina (disambiguation). ... The Estates-General (Staten-Generaal) is the parliament of the Netherlands. ...


It was the Chinese Sias, more than the native aristocracy, who suffered from this measure. The native aristocracy did not own much land, due to their belief that popular influence, rather than ownership of land, was the base of their power. The native aristocracy owes to the Dutch their employment in the civil service. To the contrary, the Dutch compulsory acquisition of Peranakan fiefdoms destroyed many of the older Chinese landowning families. While some successfully managed to get into business, most former Sias—their title becoming obsolete by the 1940s—were swamped in economic power by Totok Chinese. This latter group remains, even today, the most powerful economic group in Indonesia.[6]


Concomittant with the decline of the feudal-type Sias, Chinese Indonesians underwent a process of modernization and of building up Western-type political and social institutions. Chinese Indonesians built the first of their schools in Surabaya in the 1920s—one of the first non-Western schools in Java—and by the 1960s, many Chinese schools had been established in the major cities. The first Chinese newspapers were also printed during this era, and several Chinese political parties were established. These parties ranged from those who saw themselves as part of the Indonesian nationalist movement, and those who felt that Chinese Indonesians were still Chinese citizens - a question that was left unresolved for many decades. [citation needed] Modernization (also Modernisation) is a concept in the sphere of social sciences that refers to process in which society goes through industrialization, urbanization and other social changes that completely transforms the lives of individuals. ... Location of Surabaya in Indonesia Coordinates: , Country Province Area  - City 274. ...


Reflections of Chinese mainland politics

Later waves of migrants still maintained ties to China, mainly by supporting Chinese nationalistic movements to overthrow the Qing dynasty. Although the support was mainly monetary, some Chinese Indonesians were actively involved in the inside politics, especially so during the Sun Yat Sen era. Cina Totoks were particularly active. Sun Yat-sen (November 12, 1866 - March 12, 1925) was a Chinese revolutionary leader and statesman who is considered by many to be the Father of Modern China. He had a significant influence in the overthrow of the Qing Dynasty and establishment of the Republic of China. ...


Although the Chinese Communists were largely unsupported at first, from the 1930s on the Communists' effort to drive the Japanese occupants out of China gained the support of many Cina Totoks and even some Qiao Shengs. Thus, Indonesian Chinese manifestations of support towards mainland China became divided into two camps, parallel with the civil war sides in China itself: Nationalistic (Kuomintang or Guómín Dǎng) and Communistic (Gòngchǎn Dǎng). Communist Party of China flag The Communist Party of China (Simplified Chinese: 中国共产党; Traditional Chinese: 中國共産黨; pinyin: Zhōnggu ngchǎndǎng) is the ruling party of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China, now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in terms of seats in the Legislative Yuan. ... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China, a position guaranteed by the countrys constitution. ...


Sympathy for Indonesian nationalism

At the turn of the 20th century, however, Cina Totoks were increasingly assimilated into Indonesian culture. Younger generations still tried to maintain ties with China, but considered themselves as Indonesians and, therefore, adopted more Indonesian-Chinese nationalistic views.


Although the Dutch had given the Chinese Indonesians a special status, they were becoming increasingly oppressive and discriminative against all Chinese Indonesians. So, all three groups - Qiao Shengs, Cina Babas, and Cina Totoks - were more and more cooperative toward the Indonesian national movement, especially in providing monetary support.


More and more Chinese Indonesians were involved in Indonesian politics. Cina Totoks typically set up specific Chinese political parties which aimed at an Indonesia-China alliance and established newspapers. Cina Babas and Qiao Shengs typically joined nationalist parties jointly with pribumis. Some of them, serving as officers in the Dutch Army and later the Japanese one, used their positions to help the national movement.


All three groups were pioneers in the use of the Indonesian language, actually eclipsing the pribumis in terms of quantity of publication. They were also among the pioneers of Indonesian newspapers. In their fledgling publishing companies, they published their own political ideas along with contributions from other Indonesian writers. In November 1928, the Chinese weekly Sin Po was the first paper to openly publish the text of the national anthem Indonesia Raya. On occasion, those involved in such activities ran a concrete risk of imprisonment or even of their lives, as the Dutch colonial authorities banned nationalistic publications and activities. Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Indonesia Raya (Indonesia Raja in old Indonesian spelling. ...


Chinese Indonesians were very active in supporting the independence movement during the 1940s Japanese occupation, when the all but one Chinese Indonesian political party - Huaqiao Zhonghui (华侨中会) - were banned by the Japanese military authorities. Some notable pro-independence activists were Siauw Giok Tjhan and Liem Koen Hian. Some of them, such as Yap Tjwan Bing, became officers in the Japanese forces, along with other Indonesians. Their aim was not to perpetuate Japanese rule but to help create the forces which they hoped would eventually gain Indonesian independence (which did indeed happen in 1945).


Indonesian National Revolution

"BPUPKI" ("Body for Investigating Preparation Attempts of Indonesia's Independence", Badan Penyelidik Usaha-usaha Persiapan Kemerdekaan Indonesia) — had been originally set up under the Japanese and with their backing - but it outlived their rule and had a central role in proclaiming the Indonesian Declaration of Independence at 17 August 1945 - making clear that the return of Dutch colonial rule was unacceptable. The independece declaration announced by Sukarno The Indonesian Declaration of Independence was officially proclaimed at 10. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...


During the Indonesian National Revolution, many Chinese Indonesians supported the Independence movement. BPUPKI's membership included six ethnic Chinese members who contributed to the drafting of the Indonesian Constitution in 1945.[citation needed] To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...


There was discussion on the formation of all-Chinese Indonesian units in the Revolution [4], similar to the formation of the all-Japanese American Nisei units in World War II. This suggestion was ultimately rejected, and the ethnic Chinese were urged instead to join their local pro-Independence groups. Serving from 1999 to 2003, Army General Eric Shinseki of Hawaii became the first Asian American military chief of staff. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Due to the lack of such clearly-defined ethnic unit, the precise number of Chinese Indonesians who took part in the Indonesian National Revolution, and their percentage of the Chinese Indonesian community as a whole, remains disputed. It is a sensitive issue due to it sometimes being linked to the post-war status of Chinese Indonesians and their equal status (or lack of one) in the Indonesia created by that war.


In 1946, the Consul General of the Republic of China, Chiang Chia Tung, expressed in Malang the ROC's support for Indonesia's independence. See also: consulate (disambiguation). ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... Malang is the second largest city in East Java province, Indonesia with an ancient history dating back to the Mataram Kingdom. ...


Post-independence and New Order Era

During the 1945–1950 National Revolution to defend the independence from Dutch, surprisingly few Chinese Indonesians were involved in the liberation army. At that time, the economy plummeted and the taxes went sky high. Even everyday goods, such as soaps and spoons, were very rare as Dutch and Japanese confiscated many of them for their own army. Chinese Indonesian contribution in this era was in the smuggling of these goods. However, smuggling became increasingly difficult as Japan continued to affirm their foothold in Indonesia. Armed conflicts were inevitable. Nevertheless, Chinese Indonesians risked their lives for it. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ...


After independence, the Japanese and Dutch were routed. Their companies were vacant or sold at very cheap prices. As Chinese Indonesians were apt at trades, they quickly assimilated these companies. However, many pribumis were dissatisfied with the outcome and sought to curb this effort. They were successful in accusing that Chinese Indonesian were rarely involved in armed conflicts and thereby the fledgling Indonesian government forced Chinese Indonesians to relinquish some of them. This upset many Chinese Indonesians. Some reduced their activities in politics, but some were still active and even served as ministers to the newly established republic. Pribumi is a term that refers to a population group in Indonesia that shares a similar socio/cultural heritage. ...


The pribumis still felt left out and discriminated as the economy was increasingly dominated by Chinese Indonesians. The pribumis decried the government's lackluster effort to provide a level playing field and sought even more aggressive predicaments. This further escalated the tension of the already uneasy relationship between pribumis and Chinese Indonesian. Pribumis always considered Chinese Indonesians as the agents of the colonials. The tendency of Chinese Indonesians flocking together in Pecinan or Chinatowns, segregated from the pribumis, exacerbated it. This article is about sections of an urban area associated with a large number of Chinese residents or commercial activities. ...


They succeeded. In 1959, President Soekarno approved PP 10/1959 that forced Chinese Indonesians to close their businesses in rural areas and relocate into urban areas in the hope of giving a competitive advantage for the pribumis to open their businesses in rural areas as the economy was agriculturally driven. This upset many Chinese Indonesians. They felt betrayed that their nationalism and heroism were not recognized at all. Moreover, the enforcement was brutal; many of them were slaughtered in the effort. Sukarno (June 6, 1901 – June 21, 1970) was the first President of Indonesia. ... Peraturan Pemerintah 10/1959 (Government Directive No. ...


Many Cina Totoks "returned home" in protest to either mainland China, Hong Kong, or Taiwan, only to find that they were not as welcomed there either. Ironically, they were not regarded as "pure Chinese" regardless of their effort of maintaining a "pure Chinese breed". The unfortunate news of the early migrants was widespread among the ones in Indonesia. They soon found themselves as neither Indonesian nor Chinese and thus were in deep identity crisis. Some decided to move to some other places, like Singapore or Malaysia, but some uneasily decided to stay in Indonesia.


In the 1960s, many government regulations, such as PP 10/1959, restricted the Chinese Indonesians from the rural areas and forced many to relocate to the big cities. Moreover, political pressures in the 1970s and 1980s restricted the role of the Chinese Indonesian in politics, academics, and the military. As a result, they were thereafter constrained professionally to becoming entrepreneurs and professional managers in trade, manufacturing, and banking. In the 1970s, following the failed alleged Communist coup attempt in 1965, there was a strong sentiment against the Chinese Indonesians who were accused of being Communist collaborators. Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Discriminatory laws against Indonesian Chinese are laws, directives, or constitutions enacted by the government of Indonesia against Indonesian Chinese. ... Year 1970 ([[Rf 1970 == January 1 - The Unix epoch begins at 00:00:00 UTC January 2 - The last studio performance of The Beatles oman numerals|MCMLXX]]) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1970 ([[Rf 1970 == January 1 - The Unix epoch begins at 00:00:00 UTC January 2 - The last studio performance of The Beatles oman numerals|MCMLXX]]) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

For decades, the use of Chinese characters were banned in Indonesia. But in 2004, even presidential candidates, such as Megawati Sukarnoputri and Hasyim Muzadi, used them in their campaign posters for the presidential election.
For decades, the use of Chinese characters were banned in Indonesia. But in 2004, even presidential candidates, such as Megawati Sukarnoputri and Hasyim Muzadi, used them in their campaign posters for the presidential election.

Most Chinese Indonesian are not Muslim, further generating negative sentiments from the mostly Muslim native Indonesians. This is ironic in light of the fact that some of the earliest Muslim evangelists in Java (who were called the Wali Songo or 'The Nine Ambassadors') were of Chinese ancestry. A historical theory even suggests that the first people who brought Islamic faith to Indonesia were the Chinese traders, especially those who came to Semarang under the leadership of Sam Po Kong or Admiral Zheng He—Zheng. He himself was not a Han, but a Muslim from a minority ethnic group in China. Image File history File links Mega-Hasyim-CH.jpg Summary Made by Meursault2004 on April 9, 2005 Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Mega-Hasyim-CH.jpg Summary Made by Meursault2004 on April 9, 2005 Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Diah Permata Megawati Setiawati Soekarnoputri (born January 23, 1947), was President of Indonesia from July 2001 to October 20, 2004. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... The nine walis were Sufi teachers who spread Islam and did all variety of powerful and unusual acts across Java. ... Semarang is a city on the north coast of the island of Java, Indonesia. ... A modern illustration of Zheng He, by an unidentified artist. ...


Various government policies banned Chinese language teaching, speaking, and publication. Established schools and colleges run by Chinese-Indonesian foundations were nationalized and their facilities seized without compensation and converted to state or pribumi-run schools such as Universitas Res Publica, which became Universitas Trisakti. A presidential directive forced Chinese Indonesian to abandon their Chinese names and adopt Indonesian names. Anti-Chinese sentiments increased among the pribumi Indonesians and anti-Chinese pogroms were frequent. In identity cards, all Chinese Indonesians were designated as "WNI" (Warga Negara Indonesia = Citizen of Indonesia), a euphemism for "ethnic Chinese" as opposed to just "Indonesian" for the pribumi Indonesians. This made it easy for government officials to extract bribes and side payments, and has been compared to Jews under Hitler being required to wear the Star of David badge on their chests. Ethnic Chinese must hold certificates of having rejected Chinese citizenship, despite being native-born and their family having lived in Indonesia for generations. Chinese (written) language (pinyin: zhōngw n) written in Chinese characters The Chinese language (汉语/漢語, 华语/華語, or 中文; Pinyin: H nyǔ, Hu yǔ, or Zhōngw n) is a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... Discriminatory laws against Indonesian Chinese are laws, directives, or constitutions enacted by the government of Indonesia against Indonesian Chinese. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


These highly discriminatory laws are believed by some as a concerted government effort at cultural genocide. Those Chinese Indonesians who could not stand the discrimination fled. The Totoks returned to mainland China—only to catch themselves trapped in Cultural Revolution—and the Peranakans, to the old masters' country, the Netherlands.


In 1998, preceding the fall of Suharto's 32-year presidency, big riots targeted the Chinese Indonesians, pogrom style. It is verified and confirmed that Chinese homes were looted and burned, and many Chinese people were raped or killed[5]. The events in 1998 were significant because unlike earlier pogroms against Chinese Indonesians, due to the Internet, this incident spread world wide in real-time, and aroused the interest and feelings of the ethnic Chinese in China and other countries, which led to demonstrations against Indonesia in many countries with significant Chinese populations and protests to the government of Indonesia. After the tragedy, a large number of Chinese Indonesians fled to other countries, such as the USA, Australia, Singapore, and the Netherlands. Adding insult to injury, Habibie, the unpopular president after Suharto, ridiculed the fleeing Chinese as being unpatriotic. Ironically, Habibie himself left Indonesia to live in Germany after his performance report (pidato pertanggungjawaban) was rejected by the new, democratically-elected parliament in 1999. Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Suharto GCB (born June 8, 1921) is a former Indonesian military and political leader. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Pogrom (from Russian: ; from громить IPA: - to wreak havoc, to demolish violently) is a form of riot directed against a particular group, whether ethnic, religious or other, and characterized by destruction of their homes, businesses and religious centres. ... Pogrom (from Russian: ; from громить IPA: - to wreak havoc, to demolish violently) is a form of riot directed against a particular group, whether ethnic, religious or other, and characterized by destruction of their homes, businesses and religious centres. ...


Because of discrimination, most Chinese Indonesians were not politically active and could not lobby for legislation to protect their own interests despite their economical affluence. The situation is different in neighboring Malaysia where the overseas Chinese have been both politically and economically active despite being a minority in a similar environment—better off economically in a Muslim majority country.


Despite laws and sentiments against the Chinese Indonesians, many have succeeded in fields other than business, most notably in the sport of badminton, the most popular competitive sport in Indonesia. Indonesian athletes dominated the sport from the 1960s to the 1990s. Many of the beloved players and coaches are Chinese Indonesians, such as Tan Joe Hok, Rudy Hartono, Christian Hadinata, Tjun Tjun, Johan Wahjudi, Ade Chandra, Liem Swie King, Ivana Lie, Verawaty, Susi Susanti, Alan Budikusuma, Ardy Wiranata, and Heryanto Arbi. This article is about the sport. ... Rudy Hartono Kurniawan (born August 18, 1949) was an Indonesian badminton player who won the world championship in 1980, and the All-England Champions trophy 8 times in the 1960s and 1970s. ... Christian Hadinata (born Purwokerto, Central Java, 11 December 1949) is an Indonesian badminton player who won the world championship. ... Liem Swie King (林水鏡, pinyin: Lin Shuijing) (born February 28, 1956) was an Indonesian badminton player in the late 1970s and 1980s who competed in singles and some doubles events. ... Lucia Francisca Susi Susanti (Chinese: 王蓮香, pinyin: Wang Lian-xiang, born in Tasikmalaya, West Java on 11 February 1971) was an Indonesian badminton player. ... Alan Budikusuma was the 1992 Olympic gold medalist in Badminton. ...


New Order to Early Reform (1965-2000)

When Suharto came to power, Chinese Indonesians were increasingly discriminated against. With the justification of denouncing Chinese communism, Suharto not only closed communist-leaning parties, but also extended his reach toward all Chinese Indonesian parties and all aspects of Chinese Indonesian socio-culture. Soeharto effectively stripped Chinese Indonesians of power, banning them from politics and the military. He championed forced assimilation policy against Chinese Indonesians so that they would forget their ties to China. This policy brought forth many anti Chinese legislations. Soeharto passed and enacted very discriminatory citizenship laws, such as forcing Chinese Indonesians to re-register themselves as Indonesian citizens by renouncing their alleged Chinese citizenship regardless of the validity of the Indonesian citizenship they may already have. He denounced Chinese cultures and banned Chinese characters and literature. Allegedly, Soeharto was also the mastermind of the 1965 slaughter of millions of Chinese Indonesians, purportedly to eradicate the Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI). Suharto GCB (born June 8, 1921) is a former Indonesian military and political leader. ... Discriminatory laws against Indonesian Chinese are laws, directives, or constitutions enacted by the government of Indonesia against Indonesian Chinese. ... The Communist Party of Indonesia (in Indonesian: Partai Komunis Indonesia, PKI) was a communist party in Indonesia. ...


Group divisions among Cina Babas, Qiao Shengs, and Cina Totoks were blurred because Soeharto treated them alike. They were all forced to change their names to Indonesian sounding ones. This law is considered as one of the most humiliating ones to those in the Chinese community in Indonesia since by doing so, they are forced to lose their family name. Between 1965 and 1975, army and police officers were rampant in abusing Chinese Indonesians, such as openly robbing and raping their families. During this time, police could abuse any people using Chinese language. The only way to survive during this harsh period was by using bribes. 127/U/Kep/12/1966 is an Indonesian law passed in 1966 that requires Indonesian Chinese to change their names to Indonesian-sounding name. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


In addition, those who were considered as heroes of Indonesian independence, such as Siauw Giok Tjhan and Liem Koen Hian, were either brutally executed, exiled, or jailed. Those who protested were silently murdered. None of them were bestowed national hero status. It effectively discouraged any Chinese Indonesian of the time to dedicate their lives for Indonesia.


Since Chinese Indonesians were banned from all aspects of life except from the economy and industry, they concentrated their effort in those areas and became remarkably successful. It opened opportunities for government and military officers to levy bribes from Chinese Indonesian businessmen. Bribes and corruption soon became a norm. This widened the gap between them and pribumis. The pribumsi accused Chinese Indonesians with colluding with the government and thereby poisoning the entire political system. On the other hand, Chinese Indonesians felt that they were treated unfairly and the government was much more lenient toward the pribumis.


As more and more discrimination and enmity accumulated, Chinese Indonesians increasingly identified themselves as a separate group and did not like to be referred to as "Indonesians". Although younger generations did not as strictly follow traditions as the older ones did, they still felt they were different from Indonesians.


During this era, younger generations adopted western culture more and more as they perceived it as being more superior. They were more aligned toward western countries such as the United States or the United Kingdom. The westernization became popular as many parents sent their children abroad to western countries.


The Jakarta riot of 1998 targeted many Chinese Indonesians. The riot itself drew condemnations from Chinese speaking countries. Soeharto was allegedly the mastermind of this riot, but it misfired. Suffering from lootings and arsons, many Chinese Indonesians fled from Indonesia. Ironically, they found western countries were more accepting than Indonesia, their country of birth. Even after the riot subsided, many of them did not want to return. The neutrality of this article is disputed. ...


Those who decided to stay in Indonesia found relief when Soeharto stepped down as president. The memory of the two genocidal riots associated with him, in 1965 and 1998, was not going to fade. They hoped that the new president would restore their status and end the enmity of centuries long.


Early in the reformation era, the government focused on stabilizing the economy and security. Discrimination was still rampant. However, Chinese Indonesians gained courage to express themselves in limited ways, which were otherwise impossible in the Soeharto era for fear of his heavy-handed tactics. Unfortunately, there were still many officers loyal to Soeharto who enforced the discriminatory laws. It was not for the sake of ideology, but rather for their own benefits.


Recent history, post-Reformasi Era

Soon after Abdurrahman Wahid came into power, he quickly abolished some of the discriminatory laws in efforts to improve race relationships. He encouraged Chinese Indonesian literature and culture. He also designated the Chinese lunar new year as a national holiday. Abdurrahman Wahid (also known as Gus Dur) (born August 4, 1940) was the President of Indonesia from 1999 to 2001, and founder of the National Awakening Party (PKB). ... Chinese New Year (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), or Spring Festival or the Lunar New Year (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), is the most important of the traditional Chinese holidays. ...


Chinese Indonesians are now in the era of rediscovery. Many younger generations, who cannot speak Mandarin due to the ban decades earlier, choose to learn Mandarin, as many learning centers open throughout the country. Stores now can openly show Chinese characters. Dragon dances and Lion dances are shown in public in many places without special permits or supervision. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Japanese name Kanji: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quoc Ngu: Lion dance (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is a form of traditional dance in Chinese culture, in which performers mimic a lions movements in a lion costume. ...


The Chinese culture is starting to be embraced by even the popular media, who widely covers Chinese New Year celebrations and even broadcasts TV shows on Feng Shui and news in Chinese language in Indonesian television and radio, like Metro TV and Cakrawala broadscast radio. Chinese New Year (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), or Spring Festival or the Lunar New Year (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), is the most important of the traditional Chinese holidays. ... Fēng Shuǐ (風水 – literally, wind and water pronounced fung shuway), which may be more than 3000 years old, is the ancient practice of placement to achieve harmony with the environment. ...


A small number of Chinese Indonesians also regained the courage to get involved in politics and created new political parties, from one, (Kwik Kian Gie) was appointed minister in 1999. Chinese Indonesians adopted the term Tionghoa (中華/中华, Zhōnghuá) to identify themselves. The term Cina is deemed derogatory today due to its unfortunate derogatory use in the past. Many Chinese Indonesians believe that they are now one distinct part of Indonesia. Indonesian coordinating minister of economics and finance 1999-2000; minister of national development planning 2001-2004. ...


Language

Some of the ethnic Chinese also speak Mandarin and other Chinese dialects. In Medan city, Sumatra Island, almost all Chinese speak Hokkien. In Kalimantan, the Chinese ethnic community speaks Teochew.[citation needed]


However, the presence of the Chinese language in Indonesia deserves special note. Unlike other local/ethnic languages ("bahasa daerah"), the use of Chinese was prohibited following the Overthrow of Sukarno [citation needed]. As a result, schools did not offer Chinese language courses. The political, legal, and social stigma associated with Chinese language usage and the difficulty of finding Chinese language materials eventually resulted in most of the younger Chinese generation in big cities like Jakarta, Bandung, and Solo losing their parents' language. Only during the term of President Abdurachman Wahid did international schools began offering English and Mandarin Chinese courses. Because of these changes, the use of Chinese language materials has seen a resurgence and some TV and radio services were able to start broadcasting material in Chinese again, like in the 1950s and early 1960s. The overthrow of Sukarno and the violence that followed it was a conflict in Indonesia from 1965 to 1966 between forces loyal to then-President Sukarno and the Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI) and forces loyal to a right-wing military faction led by General Abdul Haris Nasution and Maj. ...


See also

This is the list of famous Chinese Indonesians: // Oei Tjoe Tat, Old Order politician and once President Sukarnos advisor Soe Hok Gie, political analyst and activist in 1960s Arief Budiman (Soe Hok Djin), scholar in political studies. ... Discriminatory laws against Indonesian Chinese are laws, directives, or constitutions enacted by the government of Indonesia against Indonesian Chinese. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Indonesias 245 million people make it the worlds fourth-most populous nation. ... Malay name Malay: Orang Cina Malaysia A Malaysian Chinese is an overseas Chinese who is a citizen or long-term resident of Malaysia. ... Peranakan, Baba-Nyonya () and Straits Chinese (; named after the Straits Settlements) are terms used for the descendants of the very early Chinese immigrants to the Nusantara region, including both the British Straits Settlements of Malaya and the Dutch-controlled island of Java among other places, who have partially adopted Malay... Languages various Religions Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A modern illustration of Zheng He, by an unidentified artist. ...

Notes

  1. ^ http://www.greenleft.org.au/2000/406/23611
  2. ^ http://nanyang.xmu.edu.cn/printpage.asp?ArticleID=1369
  3. ^ [1]
  4. ^ [2]
  5. ^ Activist Arcengel quotes an anti-colonial pamphlet of 1902, the time of the bloody "Pacification of Aceh", stating: "The murder of 10,000 harmless Chinese was never punished!">[3].
  6. ^ http://kyotoreview.cseas.kyoto-u.ac.jp/issue/issue2/article_244_p.html

Year 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...

References

  • Mark Landler, "Indonesia's Ethnic Chinese Feel Their Neighbors' Wrath," New York Times, May 16, 1998
  • Ong Hok Ham. "Riwayat Tionghoa Peranakan di Jawa (Story of Chinese Descendant in Java): A Collection of Ong Hok Ham's Articles in Star Weekly 1958-1960". Komunitas Bambu. 2005
  • "Correcting the myth about the dominance of ethnic Chinese in Indonesian business," Business World (Philippines), 8 January 1999
  • Tim Johnson, "Chinese diaspora: Indonesia," BBC News
  • The Myth of Chinese Domination, By George J. Adijondro ([6])
  • Indonesia Country Report on Human Rights Practices for 1998 by the U.S. Department of State [7].
  • INDONESIA: Five years after May 1998 [8]
  • Interview of Jusuf Kalla: Businessmen will be Treated Differently (In Indonesian).
  • Protests of some Indonesian Chinese Organizations in the US towards racist remark of VP Kalla.
  • Khoon Choy, Lee; A Fragile Nation: The Indonesian Crisis (Chapter 9).
  • Khoon Choy, Lee; Indonesia, between myth and reality.
  • Christine Susanna Tjhin, Minority participation and democratization, The Jakarta Post - September 3, 2004.
  • Christine Susanna Tjhin, More Chinese Indonesians become actively engaged in politics, The Jakarta Post - March 29, 2004.
  • Graaf, H. J. de (Hermanus Johannes), 1899-(?), "Chinese Muslims in Java in the 15th and 16th centuries : the Malay Annals of Semarang and Cerbon / translated and provided with comments by H.J. de Graaf and Th. G.Th. Pigeaud; edited by M.C. Ricklefs. Publisher: [Melbourne] : Monash University, 1984. Description: xiii, 221 p. : folded map ; 21 cm. ISBN 0867464194 : Series: Monash papers on Southeast Asia ; no. 12
  • "Landmark Legal Decision May Open U.S. Border to Chinese from Indonesia" by Jemma Purdey, Ph.D. - 2/1/2005

  Results from FactBites:
 
Chinese Indonesian: Information from Answers.com (4274 words)
Chinese Indonesian people are diverse in their origins, timing and circumstances of immigration to Indonesia, and level of ties to China.
Chinese Indonesians whose ancestors immigrated in the first and second waves, and have thus become creolised or hua-na (in Hokkien) by marriage and assimilation, are called Keturunan Chinese.
Although there used to be a sizable spread of Chinese Indonesians in the rural areas, the largest populations of Chinese Indonesians today are in the cities of Jakarta, Surabaya, Medan, Pekan Baru, Semarang, Pontianak, Makassar, Palembang and Bandung, partially due to Anti-Chinese legislation in Indonesia.
Chinese Indonesian - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4225 words)
Chinese Indonesians whose ancestors immigrated in the first and second waves, and have thus become creolised or huan-na (in Hokkien) by marriage and assimilation, are called Keturunan Chinese.
Although there used to be a sizable number of Chinese Indonesians in the rural areas, the largest populations of Chinese Indonesians today are in the cities of Jakarta, Surabaya, Medan, Pekan Baru, Semarang, Pontianak, Makassar, Palembang, and Bandung, partially due to anti-Chinese legislation in Indonesia.
The Chinese Indonesians built their first schools in Surabaya in the 1920s—one of the first non-Western schools in Java—and by the 1960s, many Chinese schools had been established in the major cities.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m