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Encyclopedia > Chinese Civil War
Nationalist-Communist Civil War
Part of the Cold War

Soldiers of the victorious People's Liberation Army enter Beijing in June 1949.
Date Full scale fighting lasted from April 1927 to December 1936, and clashes from January 1941 resuming full conflict from August 1945 to May 1950; war declared over by the ROC in 1991; [1] no legal document has been signed to end the war, technically continuing from 1927 until today
Location China
Result Communist victory. Republic of China (ROC) retreats to Taiwan, while the People's Republic of China (PRC) is established
Belligerents
Nationalist Party of China Flag of the Communist Party of China Communist Party of China
Commanders
Chiang Kai-shek Flag of the Communist Party of China Mao Zedong
Strength
4,300,000 (July 1946)
3,650,000 (June 1948)
1,490,000 (June 1949)
1,200,000 (July 1946)
2,800,000 (June 1948)
4,000,000 (June 1949)

The Chinese Civil War (traditional Chinese: 國共內戰; simplified Chinese: 国共内战; pinyin: Guógòng Neìzhàn; literally "Nationalist-Communist Civil War"), which lasted from April 1927 to May 1950, was a civil war in China between the Kuomintang (KMT or Chinese Nationalist Party) and the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). The war began in 1927, after the Northern Expedition, when the right-wing faction of the KMT, led by General Chiang Kai-shek, purged the Communists and KMT leftists from a KMT-CCP alliance. The war represented an ideological split between the Western-supported Nationalist KMT, and the Soviet-supported Communist CCP. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Communists_enter_Beijing_(1949). ... Peoples Liberation Army redirects here. ... Peking redirects here. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... Image File history File links Naval_Jack_of_the_Republic_of_China. ... The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China (ROC), now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in terms of seats in the Legislative Yuan, and the oldest political party in the... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Chinese_Communist_Party. ... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China, a position guaranteed by the countrys constitution. ... Image File history File links Naval_Jack_of_the_Republic_of_China. ... Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was the Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Chinese_Communist_Party. ... Mao redirects here. ... The Encirclement Campaigns were a series of campaigns launched by the Nationalist Government with the goal of destroying the developing Chinese Red Army during the early stage of Chinese Civil War between 1930 - 1934. ... Combatants National Revolutionary Army Chinese Red Army Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Lu Diping Zhang Huizan Mao Zedong Zhu De Strength 100,000 40,000 Casualties 9,000 kill, 6,000 captured  ? Chinese Civil War Major engagements in bold Encirclement Campaigns (First - Second - Third - Fourth - Fifth) - Long March (Luding Bridge) - Intermission... Combatants National Revolutionary Army Chinese Red Army Commanders He Yingqin Zhu De Strength 200,000 30,000+ Casualties 30,000  ? The Second Encirclement Campaign (Chinese: ) was another series of battles launched by the Chinese Nationalist Government in hope to encircle and destroy the Jiangxi Soviet after the previous campaign have... Combatants National Revolutionary Army Chinese Red Army Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Zhu De Strength 300,000 30,000+ Casualties 30,000  ? The Third Encirclement Campaign (Chinese: ) was the third campaign launched by the Chinese Nationalist Government in hope to destroy the Red Army in Jiangxi. ... Combatants National Revolutionary Army Chinese Red Army Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Chen Cheng Cai Tingkai Zhu De Mao Zedong Wang Ming Zhou Enlai Bo Gu Li De Strength Around 500,000 70,000 Casualties 30,000  ? The Fourth Encirclement Campaign (Chinese: ) was the fourth campaign launched by the Chinese Nationalist... Combatants National Revolutionary Army Chinese Red Army Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Chen Jitang Wang Ming Zhou Enlai Bo Gu Li De Strength 500,000 under Chiang Kai-shek, 300,000 under Chen Jitang, 200,000 form other warlords of Manchuria, Sichuan, Hunan, Fujian and Guangxi. ... Combatants Nationalist Party of China and allied warlords Communist Party of China Commanders Chiang Kai-shek various, eventually Mao Zedong Strength over 300,000 First Front Red Army: 86,000 (October 1934) 7,000 (October 1935) The Long March (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) was a massive military retreat undertaken... now. ... The Second United Front was the alliance between the Kuomintang and Communists during the Second Sino-Japanese War that suspended the Chinese Civil War from 1937 to 1940. ... The New Fourth Army Incident occurred during the Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945), during which the Chinese Civil War was in theory suspended, uniting the Communists and Nationalists against the Japanese. ... Shangdang (上党) campaign was a series battles fought between the communist force under the leadership of Liu Bocheng and the nationalist Yan Xishan’s Kuomintang force from September 10, 1945 thru October 12, 1945. ... Combatants National Revolutionary Army Peoples Liberation Army Commanders  ?  ? Strength  ?  ? Casualties 16,000  ? The Longhai Campaign (Chinese: ) was series of battle launched by Peoples Liberation Army in Shanxi-Hebei-Shandong-Henan Military Region against the National Revolutionary Army. ... Combatants National Revolutionary Army Peoples Liberation Army Commanders  ? Liu Bocheng, Deng Xiaoping Strength  ? 50,000 Casualties 17,000  ? The Dingtao Campaign (Chinese: ) was series of battle launched by the Peoples Liberation Army against the National Revolutionary Army in Dingtao region, Xuzhou. ... Combatants National Revolutionary Army Peoples Liberation Army Commanders  ?  ? Strength  ?  ? Casualties 35,000  ? The Zhengtai Campaign (Chinese: ) was a serie of battles launched by the Peoples Liberation Army around Zhengtai Railway in hope to connect the military region of Shanxi-Chahar-Hebei and Shanxi-Heibei-Shandong-Henan. ... The Liaoshen Campaign was an important series of battles in the Chinese Civil War fought in the north-eastern province of Liaoning. ... Combatants National Revolutionary Army Peoples Liberation Army Northeast and North China Field Army Commanders Zheng Dongguo Xiao Jingguang Strength ~100,000 100,000 Casualties unknown; ~330,000 civilian deaths minimal The Siege of Changchun (Simplified Chinese: , Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ChángchÅ«n Wéikùnzhàn) was a besiege... Combatants National Revolutionary Army Peoples Liberation Army Northeast Field Army Commanders Fan Hanjie Lin Biao Strength ~200,000 250,000 Casualties 20,000 deaths, 80,000 captured unknown Battle of Jinzhou (Simplified Chinese: , Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Jînzhou ZhÄ«zhàn) was a battle between the Peoples Liberation... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Combatants National Revolutionary Army Peoples Liberation Army Northeast and North China Field Army Commanders Fu Zuoyi Lin Biao, Luo Ronghuan Strength ~500,000 1,000,000 Casualties ~520,000 (including non-combat losses) 40,000 Pingjin Campaign (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: PíngjÄ«n Zhànyì), known as... Combatants Republic of China, National Revolutionary Army Peoples Republic of China, Peoples Liberation Army Commanders Tang Enbo Ye Fei Strength Roughly 40,000 garrisoned troops from the ROC 18th Army, air support from ROC Air Force, maritime support from ROC Navy. ... Combatants Republic of China Army Peoples Liberation Army Commanders Liu Lien-Yi (劉廉一) Hu Wei (胡煒) Strength Unknown from 221st Division, 67th Division, 75th Division 20,000 men+ from 61st Division with additional unit Casualties 2173 killed and wounded 3660+ killed 677+ captured The Battle of Dengbu Island (登步島戰役) was a conflict... Combatants National Revolutionary Army Peoples Liberation Army Commanders Cheng Zhiwu 程志武 Li Yuanheng 李元亨 ? Strength 3,000+ 100 Casualties 300+ killed 100+ captured alive Minor The Battle of Tianquan was a battle fought between the communists and the nationalists during the Chinese Civil War in the post World War II era... Combatants National Revolutionary Army Chinese Red Army Commanders Wu Qijun 吴起骏  ? Strength 1,375 around 7,000 Casualties 27 killed 1,348 captured Minor The battle of Nan’ao island (Nan’ao Dao, 南澳岛) was a battle fought between the nationalists and the communists during the Chinese Civil War and communists emerged... Combatants National Revolutionary Army Peoples Liberation Army Commanders  ?  ? Strength 5,000 14,000 Casualties 2,044 Minor The battle of Eastern Mountain (Dongshan, 东山) Island (东山岛战斗) was a battle fought between the nationalists and the communists during the Chinese Civil War for the control of the Eastern Mountain (Dongshan, 东山) Island at... Combatants National Revolutionary Army Chinese Red Army Commanders Qi Hongzhang 齐鸿章 Hong Xuezhi 洪学智 Strength 4,000 40+ naval vessels 10,000 24 naval vessels Casualties > 700 4 gunboats sunk, 11 naval vessels captured by the enemy > 300 1 landing ship and 1 gunboat severely damaged Wanshan Archipelago Campaign (万山群岛战役) was a campaign... Combatants National Revolutionary Army Chinese Red Army Commanders  ?  ? Strength 421 > 1,000 Casualties 421 Minor Battle of Nanpéng Island (南鹏岛战斗) was a battle fought between the nationalists and the communists during the Chinese Civil War and resulted in the communist victory. ... Combatants Republic of China Army Peoples Liberation Army Commanders Wang Kuan-Yao (汪光堯) Ye Fei (葉飛) Strength 6000+ men from 75th Division 1,300 men+ Casualties Less than 100 500+ killed 700+ captured 3 torpedo boats sunk The Battle of Nanri Island (南日島戰役) was a conflict between the Republic of China Army... Combatants National Revolutionary Army Chinese Red Army Commanders Huang Songsheng黄颂声  ? Strength > 150 around 400 Casualties 106 killed 40+ captured 89 killed 300+ wounded Battle of NanpÄ“ng Archipelago was a battle fought between the Chinese nationalists and the communists over the islands of NanpÄ“ng (南澎) Archipelago off the Cantonese coast... Combatants National Revolutionary Army Peoples Liberation Army Commanders He Zhuoquan何卓权 ? Strength 239 450 Casualties 239 Minor The battle of Dalushan (Greater Deer Mountain) Islands (大鹿山等岛战斗) was a battle fought between the nationalists and the communists for several islands and islets just off the coast of Zhejiang, China during the Chinese... Combatants National Revolutionary Army Chinese Red Army Commanders Hu Lian 胡琏 Ye Fei 叶飞 You Meiyao 游梅耀 Strength 10,000 11,000 Casualties 2,664 killed 715 captured 1,250 total Dongshan Island Campaign (东山岛战役) was a series battles fought on the Eastern Mountain (Dongshan, 东山) Island, Fujian between the nationalists and the communists during... Combatants National Revolutionary Army Peoples Liberation Army Commanders Wang Shen-Ming (王生明) Zhang Aiping (张爱萍) Strength 1000+ men 5,000 men+ 137 warship 184 planes Casualties 567 killed 519 taken as prisoners 393 killed 1024 wounded The Battle of Yijiangshan Islands (一江山島戰役) was a conflict between forces of the Republic of China... Combatants National Revolutionary Army Peoples Liberation Army Commanders  ?  ? Strength 15,000  ? Casualties Minor None The Battle of Dachen Archipelago (大陈等岛之战) was a struggle between the nationalists and the communists for the control of several archipelagos just off the coast of Zhejiang, China during the Chinese Civil War in the post... Combatants Republic of China Navy Peoples Liberation Navy Commanders 何德崇 Unknown Strength 1 Patrol Craft 8 Gun Boats Casualties Official Claim: 3 killed 4 wounded Estimate: 7 killed 43 wounded 4 Boats sunk 2 Boats damaged The Battle of Dong-Yin (東引海戰) was a naval conflict between forces of the Republic... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... This article is about the definition of the specific type of war. ... The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China (ROC), now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in terms of seats in the Legislative Yuan, and the oldest political party in the... Communist Party of China flag The Communist Party of China (Simplified Chinese: 中国共产党; Traditional Chinese: 中國共産黨; pinyin: Zhōnggu ngchǎndǎng) is the ruling party of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was the Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925. ... The First United Front of the Kuomintang, Nationalist Party of China was formed in 1926 to enable the implementation of the Northern Expedition. ... Political Ideologies Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ...


The civil war carried on intermittently until the looming Second Sino-Japanese War interrupted it, resulting in an organized and temporary Chinese resistance to the Japanese invasion. The Japanese assault and occupation was an opportunistic attack made possible by China's own state of internal turmoil. Japan's campaign was defeated in August, 1945 by the Allies, marking the end of WWII, and China's full-scale civil war resumed in 1946. Hostilities ended after 23 years in 1950, with an unofficial cessation of major hostilities, with the Communists controlling mainland China (including Hainan Island) and the Nationalists restricted to their remaining territories of Taiwan, Pescadores, and the several outlying Fujianese islands. To this day, no official armistice has ever been signed, although the two sides have close economic ties. Combatants China  United States1 Soviet Union2  Empire of Japan Collaborationist Chinese Army3 Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Cheng, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren, Xue Yue, Bai Chongxi, Peng Dehuai, Joseph Stilwell, Claire Chennault, Aleksandr Vasilevsky Hirohito, Fumimaro Konoe, Hideki Tojo, Kotohito Kanin, Matsui Iwane, Hajime Sugiyama, Shunroku Hata... The Second United Front was the alliance between the Kuomintang and Communists during the Second Sino-Japanese War that suspended the Chinese Civil War from 1937 to 1940. ... Look up ally in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... German soldiers at the Battle of Stalingrad World War II was the most extensive and costly armed conflict in the history of the world, involving the great majority of the worlds nations, being fought simultaneously in several major theatres, and costing tens of millions of lives. ... ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Pescadores (Traditional Chinese: 澎湖群島; Hanyu Pinyin: Pénghú Qúndăo; Tongyong Pinyin: Pénghú Cyúndăo; Wade-Giles: Peng-Hu Chün-Tao; Taiwanese POJ: Phêⁿ-ô·-kōan, from Portuguese, fishermen, pron. ... This is a list of islands under the Republic of China administration (all claimed by the Peoples Republic of China). ... A white flag is traditionally used to represent a truce. ...

Contents

Background

The collapse of the Qing Dynasty in 1911, left China under the control of several major and lesser warlords, in what is referred to as the Warlord era. To defeat the warlords who had seized control of much of Northern China since the collapse of the Qing Dynasty, the anti-monarchist and national unificationist Kuomintang party and its leader Sun Yat-sen sought the help of foreign powers. His efforts to obtain aid from the Western democracies were ignored, however, and in 1921 he turned to the Soviet Union. For political expediency, the Soviet leadership initiated a dual policy of support for both Sun and the newly established Communist Party of China. The Soviets hoped for Communist consolidation, but were prepared for either side to emerge victorious. Thus the struggle for power in China began between the Nationalists and the Communists. Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... The Warlord era represents the period in the history of the Republic of China from 1916 to the mid-1930s when the country was divided by various military cliques, and this division continued until the fall of the nationalist government in mainland China in many regions, such as in Sichuan... Alternative meaning: In geology, North China (continent) and South China (continent) were two ancient landmasses that correspond to modern northern and southern China. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China (ROC), now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in terms of seats in the Legislative Yuan, and the oldest political party in the... Dr. Sun Yat-sen Traditional Chinese: 孫中山; Pinyin: Sūn Zhōngshān; or Sun Yixian (Pinyin: Sūn Yìxiān) (November 12, 1866 – March 12, 1925) was a Chinese revolutionary and political leader often referred to as the father of modern China. Sun played an instrumental role in the...


In 1923, a joint statement by Sun and Soviet representative Adolph Joffe in Shanghai pledged Soviet assistance for China's national unification, and issued the Sun-Joffe Manifesto, calling for a unified and independent China, and arranged an alliance between the KMT and CCP. Soviet advisers, the most prominent of whom was an agent of the Comintern, Mikhail Borodin, began to arrive in China in 1923 to aid in the reorganization and consolidation of the KMT along the lines of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. The CCP was under Comintern instructions to cooperate with the KMT, and its members were encouraged to join the KMT while maintaining their CCP party identities, forming the First United Front between the two parties. Adolph Joffe Adolph Abramovich Joffe (Russian: Адольф Абрамович Иоффе, alternative transliterations Adolf Ioffe or, rarely, Yoffe) (October 10, 1883, Simferopol – November 16, 1927, Moscow) was a Russian Communist revolutionary, a Bolshevik politician and a Soviet diplomat. ... For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ... The Comintern (Russian: Коммунистический Интернационал, Kommunisticheskiy Internatsional – Communist International, also known as the Third International) was an international Communist organization founded in March 1919, in the midst of the war communism period (1918-1921), by Vladimir Lenin and the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik), which intended to fight by all available means, including... Mikhail Markovich Borodin (Михаи́л Бороди́н) (July 9, 1884, - May 29, 1951) was the alias of Mikhail Gruzenberg. ... The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за, transliterated Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Sovetskogo Soyuza, acronym: КПСС (KPSS)) was the ruling political party in the Soviet Union. ... The First United Front of the Kuomintang, Nationalist Party of China was formed in 1926 to enable the implementation of the Northern Expedition. ...


The policy of working with the Kuomintang was also recommended by the Dutch Communist Henk Sneevliet, chosen in 1923 to be a Comintern representative in China due to his revolutionary experience in the Dutch Indies, where he had a major role in founding the Partai Komunis Indonesia (PKI) - and who felt that the Chinese party was too small and weak to act on its own (see Henk Sneevliet#Working for the Comintern). The Dutch (Ethnonym: Nederlanders meaning Lowlanders) are the dominant ethnic group[1] of the Netherlands[2]. They are usually seen as a Germanic people. ... Hendricus Josephus Franciscus Marie Sneevliet, known as Henk Sneevliet or the pseudonym Maring (May 13, 1883 - April 13, 1942), was a Dutch Communist, who was active in both the Netherlands and the Dutch East-Indies. ... The Comintern (Russian: Коммунистический Интернационал, Kommunisticheskiy Internatsional – Communist International, also known as the Third International) was an international Communist organization founded in March 1919, in the midst of the war communism period (1918-1921), by Vladimir Lenin and the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik), which intended to fight by all available means, including... The Dutch East Indies, or Netherlands East Indies, (Dutch: Nederlands Indië) was the name of the colonies set up by the Dutch East India Company, which came under administration of the Netherlands during the 19th century (see Indonesia). ... Communist Party of Indonesia (Partai Komunis Indonesia), was founded in 1920 in Semarang, as the successor of the Indische Sociaal-Democratische Vereeniging (ISDV, Indian Social Democratic Association). ... Hendricus Josephus Franciscus Marie Sneevliet, known as Henk Sneevliet or the pseudonym Maring (May 13, 1883 - April 13, 1942), was a Dutch Communist, who was active in both the Netherlands and the Dutch East-Indies. ...


One major disadvantage that Sun Yat-sen suffered against the warlords was that he had no army, in an era when military power carried the most persuasion. In 1923, Sun Yat-sen sent Chiang Kai-shek, one of Sun's lieutenants from Tongmeng Hui days, for several months' military and political study in Moscow. After Chiang's return in late 1923, he participated in the establishment of the Whampoa Military Academy outside Guangzhou, which was the seat of government under the KMT-CCP alliance. In 1924, Chiang became head of the academy and began the rise to prominence that would make him Sun's successor as head of the KMT. The Soviets provided much studying material, organization, and munitions for the academy. The Soviets also provided many techniques on mass mobilization. With this dedicated "army of the party," Sun Yat-sen hoped to defeat the warlords militarily. Chiang Kai-shek was a fervent instructor and at the academy he built up the personal allegiance and brotherhood with his students and officers who would eventually form the core of his central army. Communists were also present in the academy, and many of them, including Zhou Enlai, were political commissars who instilled the students with a sense of nationalist revolution. Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was the Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925. ... The Tongmenghui (同盟會 Pinyin: Tóng Méng Huì, literal meaning: United Allegiance Society), also known as the United League or the Revolutionary Alliance, was organized by Sun Yat-sen and Sung Chiao-jen in Tokyo, Japan on August 20, 1905. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... The Chinese Military Academy emblem includes its motto, which was first proclaimed by Sun Yat-sen at the Whampoa Academys opening in 1924. ... Guangzhou is the capital and the sub-provincial city of Guangdong Province in the southern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Zhou Enlai (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chou En-lai) (March 5, 1898 – January 8, 1976), a prominent Communist Party of China leader, was Premier of the Peoples Republic of China from 1949 until his death in January 1976, and Chinas foreign minister from 1949... Commissar is the English transliteration of an official title (комисса́р) used in Russia after the Bolshevik revolution and in the Soviet Union, as well as some other Communist countries. ...


Communist members were allowed to join the KMT on an individual basis. The CCP was still small at the time, having a membership of 300 in 1922 and only 1,500 by 1925. The KMT in 1922 already was 150,000 strong. However, the "party within party" situation and the Soviet meddling in Chinese political affairs irked Chiang, causing him to begin purging the communists and KMT leftists from the party ranks, leading to Civil War.


Northern Expedition (1926–1928) and KMT-CCP split

Just months after Sun Yat Sen's death in 1925, Chiang-Kai-Shek, as commander-in-chief of the National Revolutionary Army, set out on the long-delayed Northern Expedition against the northern warlords to unite China under KMT control. By 1926, however, the KMT had divided into left and right wing factions, and the Communist bloc within it was also growing. In the March 1926 Zhongshan Warship Incident, after thwarting an alleged kidnapping attempt against him, Chiang imposed restrictions on CCP members' participation in the top KMT leadership and emerged as the pre-eminent Kuomintang leader. The Soviet Union, still hoping to prevent a split between Chiang and the CCP, ordered Communist underground activities to facilitate the Northern Expedition, which was finally launched by Chiang from Guangzhou in July 1926. Sun Yat-sen (November 12, 1866 - March 12, 1925) was a Chinese revolutionary leader and statesman who is considered by many to be the Father of Modern China. He had a significant influence in the overthrow of the Qing Dynasty and establishment of the Republic of China. ... The National Revolutionary Army (NRA) (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: , sometimes shortened to 國軍 or National Army) was the party army of the Kuomintang (KMT) from 1925 until 1947, as well as the national army of the Republic of China during the KMTs period of party rule beginning in 1928. ... Zhongshan Warship Incident, or March 20th Incident, involving a suspected plot by Captain Li Zhilong of the warship Zhongshan to kidnap Chiang Kai-shek. ... Guangzhou is the capital and the sub-provincial city of Guangdong Province in the southern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ...

Government troops rounding up prisoners.

In early 1927, the KMT-CCP rivalry led to a split in the revolutionary ranks. The CCP and the left wing of the KMT had decided to move the seat of the Nationalist government from Guangzhou to Wuhan, where Communist influence was strong. But Chiang and Li Zongren, whose armies defeated warlord Sun Chuanfang, moved eastward toward Jiangxi. Chiang wished to capture arsenals at Nanking and Shanghai, so he would not have to rely on the Hanyang Arsenal in leftist-controlled Wuhan. Chiang also demanded the capital be moved from Guangzhou to Nanchang, rather than to Wuhan. The leftists rejected Chiang's demand and Chiang denounced the leftists for betraying Sun Yat-sen's Three Principles of the People by taking orders from the Soviet Union. On March 30, 1927, the left wing of the Kuomintang reorganized the party and attempted to strip Chiang Kai-shek of his power and spread anti-Chiang propaganda. Image File history File linksMetadata China_1920s. ... Image File history File linksMetadata China_1920s. ... For the brand of cymbal, see Wuhan cymbals. ... Li Tsung-jen (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Li Tsung-jen) (13 August 1890 - 13 January 1969), courtesy name Delin (å¾·é„°), was prominent Guangxi warlord and Kuomintang (KMT) military commander during the Second Sino-Japanese War and Chinese Civil War. ... Sun Chuan-fang or Sun Chuanfang was a Zhili clique warlord and protege of Wu Peifu. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chiang-hsi; Postal map spelling: Kiangsi) is a southern province of the Peoples Republic of China, spanning from the banks of the Yangtze River in the north into hillier areas in the south. ... Nanjing (南京, Pinyin: Nánjīng, Wade-Giles: Nan-ching; Postal System Pinyin: Nanking, formerly Jinling 金陵, Jiangning 江宁, and Tianjing 天京) is the central city of downstream Yangtze Basin and is a renowned historical and cultural city. ... For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ... Nanchang (Chinese: 南昌; Hanyu Pinyin: ) is the capital of Jiangxi Province in southeastern China. ... Sun Yat-sen, who developed the Three Principles of the People. ...


On April 7, Chiang and several other Kuomintang leaders held a meeting arguing that communist activities were socially and economically disruptive, and must be undone for the national revolution to proceed. As a result of this, on April 12, Chiang turned on communists and unionists in Shanghai, Guangzhou, and Guangxi; the April 12 Incident purged the Kuomintang leftists by arresting and executing hundreds. The purge widened the rift between Chiang and Wang Jingwei's Wuhan government (a contest won by Chiang) and destroyed the urban base of the CCP. Chiang, expelled from the Wuhan Kuomintang for his actions, formed a rival government in Nanjing known as the Nanjing government. There now were three capitals in China: the internationally recognized warlord regime in Beijing; the Communist and left-wing civilian-military regime at Wuhan; and the right-wing Kuomintang regime at Nanjing, which would remain the Nationalist capital for the next decade. 412 Incident was a large-scale purge to Communists in the Chinese Nationalist Party in Shanghai, which was ordered by Chiang Kai-shek, occured on 12 April 1927 during the Northern Expedition. ... Wang Jingwei * Courtesy name: Jixin (季新) * Alternate name: Zhaoming (兆銘). Wang Jingwei (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Wang Ching-wei) (May 4, 1883 – November 10, 1944), was a Chinese politician. ... Peking redirects here. ...


The Comintern cause appeared bankrupt. On May 22, Josef Stalin cabled the Wuhan group and urged them to recruit reliable commanders and organize an efficient army to fight against Chiang, against the advice of Borodin and Vasily Blyukher. They feared that such open challenge would irreversibly split the United Front. A new policy was instituted calling on the CCP to foment armed insurrections in both urban and rural areas in preparation for an expected rising tide of revolution. Unsuccessful attempts were made by Communists to take cities such as Nanchang, Changsha, Shantou, and Guangzhou, and an armed rural insurrection, known as the Autumn Harvest Uprising, was staged by peasants in Hunan Province. The insurrection was led by communist leader Mao Zedong. (Russian, in full: Ио́сиф Виссарио́нович Ста́лин [Iosif Vissarionovich Stalin]; December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953) was the leader of the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s to his death in 1953 and General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1922-1953... Marshal of the Soviet Union Vasily Blyukher Vasily Konstantinovich Blyukher (also spelled Blücher, Blukher, Bliukher etc, Russian: Василий Константинович Блюхер) (November 19, 1889 - November 9, 1938), Soviet military commander, was among the prominent victims of Stalins Great Purge of the late 1930s. ... Nanchang (Chinese: 南昌; Hanyu Pinyin: ) is the capital of Jiangxi Province in southeastern China. ... Changsha (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chang-sha) is the capital city of Hunan, a province of Southcentral China, located on the lower reaches of Xiangjiang river, a branch of the Yangtze River. ... Geographic coordinates: 116º14 - 117º19 E, 23º02 - 23º38 N Area: 234 km² Shantou (also known as Swatow or Suátao) is a city of 1. ... The Autumn Harvest Uprising was an insurrection that took place in Hunan province in China in 1927, led by Mao Zedong (later known as Chairman Mao). ... Not to be confused with the unrelated provinces of Hainan, Henan, and Yunnan. ... Mao redirects here. ...


In June 1927, the Soviet advisers were recalled and the CCP was at a low ebb. The Communists had been expelled from Wuhan by their left-wing KMT allies, who in turn were toppled by Chiang Kai-shek. The Kuomintang resumed the campaign against warlords and captured Beijing in June 1928, after which most of eastern China was under the Nanjing central government's control, and the Nanjing government received prompt international recognition as the sole legitimate government of China. The Nationalist government announced that in conformity with Sun Yat-sen's formula for the three stages of revolution: military unification, political tutelage, and constitutional democracy. China had reached the end of the first phase and would embark on the second, which would be under Kuomintang direction.


Anti-Communist campaigns (1927–1937)

During the 1920s, Communist Party of China activists retreated underground or to the countryside where they fomented a military revolt, beginning the Nanchang Uprising on August 1, 1927. They combined the force with remnants of peasant rebels, and established control over several areas in southern China. Attempts by the Nationalist armies to suppress the rebellion were unsuccessful but extremely damaging to the Communist forces. This marked the beginning of the ten year's struggle, known in mainland China as the "Ten Year's Civil War" (simplified Chinese: 十年内战; pinyin: Shínían Nèizhàn). It lasted until the Xi'an Incident when Chiang Kai-shek was forced to form the Second United Front against the invading Japanese. The Nanchang Uprising (Chinese: ; pinyin: Nánchāng Qǐyì) (August 1, 1927) was the first major Kuomintang-Communist engagement of the Chinese Civil War. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... In a detail of Brueghels Land of Cockaigne (1567) a soft-boiled egg has little feet to rush to the luxuriating peasant who catches drops of honey on his tongue, while roast pigs roam wild: in fact, hunger and harsh winters were realities for the average European in the... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Chiang Kai-shek and Zhang Xueliang around the time of the Xian Incident. ... The Second United Front was the alliance between the Kuomintang and Communists during the Second Sino-Japanese War that suspended the Chinese Civil War from 1937 to 1940. ...

A Communist leader addressing Long March survivors.
A Communist leader addressing Long March survivors.

After Chiang Kai-shek had foiled the coup to oust him, launched by Feng Yü-hsiang, Yen Hsi-shan, and Wang Ching-wei (1929–30) in the Central Plains War, he immediately turned his attention on rooting out the remaining pockets of Communist activity in a series of encirclement campaigns. The first and second campaigns failed and the third was aborted due to the Mukden Incident. The fourth campaign (1932-1933) achieved some early successes, but Chiang’s armies were badly mauled when they tried to penetrate into the heart of Mao’s Soviet Chinese Republic. During these campaigns, the Nationalist columns struck swiftly into Communist areas, but were easily engulfed by the vast countryside and were not able to consolidate their foothold. A Communist cadre leader addressing survivors. ... A Communist cadre leader addressing survivors. ... Feng Yü-hsiang (Traditional Chinese: 馮玉祥; Simplified Chinese: 冯玉祥; pinyin: ) (1882–1948) was a warlord during the early years of the Republic of China. ... Yen Hsi-shan Yen Hsi-shan, Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Yen Hsi-shan (8 October 1883–22 July 1960) was a Chinese warlord who served in the government of the Republic of China. ... Wang Jingwei (Traditional Chinese: 汪精衛, Simplified Chinese: 汪精卫, Hanyu Pinyin: Wāng Jīngwèi, Wade-Giles: Wang Ching-wei) (1883 - November 1944), was a member of the left wing of the Kuomintang and is most noted from breaking with Chiang Kai-Shek and forming a Japanese supported collaborationist government in Nanjing. ... Combatants Forces of Chiang Kai-shek Forces of the coalition of Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang and Li Zongren Commanders Han Fuqu, Liu Zhi Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren Strength 600,000 800,000 Casualties ~95,000+ ~150,000+ Central Plains War (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) was a civil... The Encirclement Campaigns were a series of campaigns launched by the Nationalist Government with the goal of destroying the developing Chinese Red Army during the early stage of Chinese Civil War between 1930 - 1934. ... Combatants National Revolutionary Army Chinese Red Army Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Lu Diping Zhang Huizan Mao Zedong Zhu De Strength 100,000 40,000 Casualties 9,000 kill, 6,000 captured  ? Chinese Civil War Major engagements in bold Encirclement Campaigns (First - Second - Third - Fourth - Fifth) - Long March (Luding Bridge) - Intermission... Combatants National Revolutionary Army Chinese Red Army Commanders He Yingqin Zhu De Strength 200,000 30,000+ Casualties 30,000  ? The Second Encirclement Campaign (Chinese: ) was another series of battles launched by the Chinese Nationalist Government in hope to encircle and destroy the Jiangxi Soviet after the previous campaign have... Combatants National Revolutionary Army Chinese Red Army Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Zhu De Strength 300,000 30,000+ Casualties 30,000  ? The Third Encirclement Campaign (Chinese: ) was the third campaign launched by the Chinese Nationalist Government in hope to destroy the Red Army in Jiangxi. ... Combatants National Revolutionary Army, Republic of China Imperial Japanese Army, Empire of Japan Commanders Zhang Xueliang, Ma Zhanshan, Feng Zhanhai Shigeru Honjo, Jiro Minami Strength 160,000 30,000 - 66,000 Casualties  ?  ? The Mukden Incident of September 18, 1931, known in Japanese as the Manchurian Incident, occurred in southern Manchuria... Combatants National Revolutionary Army Chinese Red Army Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Chen Cheng Cai Tingkai Zhu De Mao Zedong Wang Ming Zhou Enlai Bo Gu Li De Strength Around 500,000 70,000 Casualties 30,000  ? The Fourth Encirclement Campaign (Chinese: ) was the fourth campaign launched by the Chinese Nationalist... The Jiangxi Soviet, formally called the Chinese Soviet Republic (中华苏维埃共和国 Pinyin: Zhōnghuá Sūwéiāi Gònghēguó), also translated as the Soviet Republic of China or the China Soviet Republic, existed from 1931 to 1934. ...


Finally, in late 1933, Chiang launched a fifth campaign that involved the systematic encirclement of the Jiangxi Soviet region with fortified blockhouses. Unlike in previous campaigns in which they penetrated deeply in a single strike, this time the Nationalist troops patiently built blockhouses, each separated by five or so miles, to surround the Communist areas and cut off their supplies and food source. Villages in the region were organized into units known as baojia, as a security measure to prevent Communists from obtaining supplies and intelligence from the locals. Once the front line had been secured, a new ring of blockhouses were built to close in on the Communist base areas. This strategy was very successful, and by the fall of 1934, the Communists faced the possibility of total annihilation. It seemed that the time was now ripe to finish off the Communists, and then turn against the remaining warlords. Combatants National Revolutionary Army Chinese Red Army Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Chen Jitang Wang Ming Zhou Enlai Bo Gu Li De Strength 500,000 under Chiang Kai-shek, 300,000 under Chen Jitang, 200,000 form other warlords of Manchuria, Sichuan, Hunan, Fujian and Guangxi. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chiang-hsi; Postal map spelling: Kiangsi) is a southern province of the Peoples Republic of China, spanning from the banks of the Yangtze River in the north into hillier areas in the south. ... A 19th-century-era block house in Fort York, Toronto In military science, a blockhouse is a small, isolated fort in the form of a single building. ...


In October 1934, the Communists took advantage of gaps in the ring of blockhouses (manned by the troops of a warlord ally of Chiang Kai-shek's, rather than the Nationalists themselves) to escape Jiangxi. The warlord armies were reluctant to challenge Communist forces for fear of wasting their own men, and did not pursue the Communists with much fervor. In addition, the main Nationalist forces were preoccupied with annihilating Zhang Guotao's army, which was much larger than Mao's. The massive military retreat of Communist forces lasted a year and covered 6000 km, and was touted as the Long March, which ended when the Communists reached the interior of Shaanxi. Zhang Guotao's army, which took a different route through northwest China, was largely destroyed by the forces of Chiang Kai-shek and his Chinese Muslim ally, the Ma clique. Along the way, the Communist army confiscated property and weapons from local warlords and landlords, while recruiting peasants and the poor, solidifying its appeal to the masses. Of the 80,000 people who began the Long March from the Soviet Chinese Republic, only around 7,000 made it to Shaanxi, and this included those who later joined the Red Army on the way. The remnants of Zhang's forces eventually joined Mao in Shaanxi, but with his army destroyed, Zhang, even as a founding member of the CCP, was never able to challenge Mao's authority. Essentially, the great retreat made Mao the undisputed leader of the Communist Party of China. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Nationalist Party of China and allied warlords Communist Party of China Commanders Chiang Kai-shek various, eventually Mao Zedong Strength over 300,000 First Front Red Army: 86,000 (October 1934) 7,000 (October 1935) The Long March (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) was a massive military retreat undertaken...   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ShÇŽnxÄ«; Wade-Giles: Shan-hsi; Postal map spelling: Shensi) is a north-central province of the Peoples Republic of China, and includes portions of the Loess Plateau on the middle reaches of the Yellow River as well as the Qinling Mountains across the... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Look up Hui in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Flag of Xibei San Ma The Ma clique (Traditional Chinese: 馬家軍; Simplified Chinese: 马家军; pinyin: MÇŽ JiājÅ«n; literally Ma family army) was a family of warlords who ruled the Chinese provinces of Qinghai, Gansu and Ningxia from the 1910s until 1949. ...


Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945)

Main article: Second Sino-Japanese War
Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek (pictured here in March 1945) was severely weakened in power by the Second Sino-Japanese War.

During the Japanese invasion and occupation of Manchuria, Chiang Kai-shek, who saw the Communists as a greater threat, refused to ally with the Communists to fight against the Japanese. On December 12, 1936, Kuomintang Generals Zhang Xueliang and Yang Hucheng kidnapped Chiang Kai-shek and forced him to a truce with the Communists. The incident became known as the Xi'an Incident. Both parties suspended fighting to form a Second United Front to focus their energies and fighting against the Japanese. In 1937, Japanese airplanes bombed Chinese cities and well-equipped troops overran north and coastal China. Combatants China  United States1 Soviet Union2  Empire of Japan Collaborationist Chinese Army3 Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Cheng, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren, Xue Yue, Bai Chongxi, Peng Dehuai, Joseph Stilwell, Claire Chennault, Aleksandr Vasilevsky Hirohito, Fumimaro Konoe, Hideki Tojo, Kotohito Kanin, Matsui Iwane, Hajime Sugiyama, Shunroku Hata... Chiang Kai-Shek from http://www. ... Chiang Kai-Shek from http://www. ... Generalissimo Francisco de Miranda Generalissimo or Generalissimus is a military rank of the highest degree, superior to a Field Marshal or Grand Admiral. ... Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was the Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925. ... Combatants China  United States1 Soviet Union2  Empire of Japan Collaborationist Chinese Army3 Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Cheng, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren, Xue Yue, Bai Chongxi, Peng Dehuai, Joseph Stilwell, Claire Chennault, Aleksandr Vasilevsky Hirohito, Fumimaro Konoe, Hideki Tojo, Kotohito Kanin, Matsui Iwane, Hajime Sugiyama, Shunroku Hata... The ensign of Imperial Japanese Navy was a prominent symbol of Imperial Japan. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Zhang Xueliang Zhang Xueliang or Chang Hsüeh-liang (Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chang Hsüeh-liang; English occasionally: Peter Hsueh Liang Chang) (3 June 1901 (according to other accounts in 1898 or 1900) in Haicheng County, Fengtian province of China – 14 October 2001 in Hawaii, United States... Yang Hu-cheng (d. ... Chiang Kai-shek and Zhang Xueliang around the time of the Xian Incident. ... The Second United Front was the alliance between the Kuomintang and Communists during the Second Sino-Japanese War that suspended the Chinese Civil War from 1937 to 1940. ...


The alliance that was created with the Communists was in name only and the Communists hardly ever engaged the Japanese in major battles but proved efficient in guerrilla warfare. The level of actual cooperation and coordination between the CCP and KMT during World War II was minimal. In the midst of the Second United Front, the Communists and the Kuomintang were still vying for territorial advantage in "Free China" (i.e. those areas not occupied by the Japanese or ruled by Japanese puppet governments). The situation came to a head in late 1940 and early 1941 when there were major clashes between the Communist and KMT forces. In December 1940, Chiang Kai-shek demanded that the CCP’s New Fourth Army evacuate Anhui and Jiangsu Provinces. Under intense pressure, the New Fourth Army commanders complied, but they were ambushed by Nationalist troops and soundly defeated in January 1941. This clash, which would be known as the New Fourth Army Incident, weakened the CCP position in Central China and effectively ended any substantive cooperation between the Nationalists and the Communists and both sides concentrated on jockeying for position in the inevitable civil war. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Free Area of the Republic of China. ... The New Fourth Army (新四軍 Pinyin: xin-si-jun) and the Eighth Route Army were the two main communist forces from 1938. ... Anhui (Chinese: 安徽; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: An-hui; Postal System Pinyin: Ngan-hui, Anhwei or An-hwei) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China. ...   (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chiang-su; Postal map spelling: Kiangsu) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located along the east coast of the country. ... The New Fourth Army Incident occurred during the Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945), during which the Chinese Civil War was in theory suspended, uniting the Communists and Nationalists against the Japanese. ...


In general, developments in the Second Sino-Japanese War were to the advantage of the Communists. Kuomintang's resistance to the Japanese proved costly to Chiang Kai-shek. The war against Japan greatly sapped the KMT's military resources, and Chiang's own central army was never to recover from the devastating losses it had sustained in the early stages of the war. In addition, in the last major Japanese offensive, Operation Ichigo of Fall 1944, the Japanese were able to maneuver far inland and destroy much of what remained of Chiang's material strength. In contrast, thanks to the brutal mass retaliation policies of the Imperial Japanese Armies, huge numbers of dispossessed villagers were able to be recruited to the Communist ranks. Although the guerrilla operations conducted by the Communists inside occupied China were of limited military value, they greatly heightened popular perception that the Communists were at the vanguard of the fight against the Japanese. By the end of the war, large portions of the peasant masses of occupied China were politically mobilized in support of the Communists; however, the Communists had a severe shortage of war material, including small arms. Combatants China  United States1 Soviet Union2  Empire of Japan Collaborationist Chinese Army3 Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Cheng, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren, Xue Yue, Bai Chongxi, Peng Dehuai, Joseph Stilwell, Claire Chennault, Aleksandr Vasilevsky Hirohito, Fumimaro Konoe, Hideki Tojo, Kotohito Kanin, Matsui Iwane, Hajime Sugiyama, Shunroku Hata... This article needs to be wikified. ... The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) (KyÅ«jitai: 大日本帝國陸軍, Shinjitai: , Romaji: Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun), or more officially Army of the Greater Japanese Empire was the official ground based armed force of Imperial Japan from 1867 to 1945. ...

From left to right: US diplomat Patrick J. Hurley, Chiang Ching-kuo, Chiang Kai-shek, Wang Shi Jie (王世杰), Mao Zedong
From left to right: US diplomat Patrick J. Hurley, Chiang Ching-kuo, Chiang Kai-shek, Wang Shi Jie (王世杰), Mao Zedong

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Patrick Jay Hurley (January 8, 1883, Choctaw Nation, Indian Territory — July 30, 1963, Santa Fe, NM) was an American soldier, statesman, and diplomat. ... Chiang Ching-kuo (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: Jiǎng Jīngguó; Wade-Giles: Chiang Ching-kuo) (April 271, 1910 – January 13, 1988), Kuomintang (KMT) politician and leader, was the son of President Chiang Kai-shek and held numerous posts in the government of the Republic of China (from... Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was the Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925. ... Mao redirects here. ...

Immediate post-war clashes (1945–1946)

The dropping of the atomic bomb and Soviet entry in the Pacific World War II theatre caused Japan to surrender much more quickly than anyone in China had imagined. Under the terms of the Japanese unconditional surrender dictated by the United States, Japanese troops were ordered to surrender to Nationalist troops and not to the Communists present in some of the occupied areas, especially in Manchuria. However, as the Nationalists had no forces in Manchuria and very few or no forces in the most of the rest of the Japanese-occupied area, while the communist guerrillas were the only Chinese force present in the area, the communists were able to take over most of Manchuria before the Nationalists could send troops there. Even after sending sufficient forces, it would still take the Nationalists months of fighting to drive the communists out of major cities in Manchuria. As the communists were the only Chinese forces left in the region that had engaged the Japanese in guerrilla warfare, it was difficult for the Nationalists though to receive local popular support in Manchuria and other parts of China, because local Chinese residents blamed the Nationalists for allowing the Japanese invaders to conquer the local area, such as in the case of Manchuria 14 years previously. The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... Unconditional surrender refers to a surrender without conditions, except for those provided by international law. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Immediately after World War II, Chiang Kai-shek made a fatal mistake in trying to simultaneously solve the warlord problem and exterminate communism. Many of the warlords who sided with the Nationalists were only interested in keeping their own power, and defected to the Japanese side when the Japanese offered to let them keep their power in exchange for their cooperation. After World War II, these former Japanese puppet regimes once again joined the Nationalists. The Warlord era represents the period in the history of the Republic of China from 1916 to the mid-1930s when the country was divided by various military cliques, and this division continued until the fall of the nationalist government in mainland China in many regions, such as in Sichuan...


Obviously, it was difficult for Chiang to immediately get rid of these warlords for good, as soon as they surrendered to Chiang and rejoined the Nationalists, because such a move would alienate other factions within the Nationalists; furthermore, these former warlords could still provide much-needed military assistance to the Nationalists.


As Chiang had neither sufficient force nor sufficient time to deploy his own troops in the former Japanese controlled regions, these warlords were given titles and ranks in the Nationalist forces and ordered to "keep order" in their areas of control by not surrendering to the communists, and by fighting off the communists if necessary. Chiang and his followers had hoped that these warlords would be able to resist the communists and hold on to the former Japanese-occupied regions long enough for Chiang to deploy his own troops there. If the communists were victorious in such conflicts, however, the result would still be of benefit to Chiang and China because the power of these warlords would be reduced as their military forces were smashed by the communists, and the warlord problem plaguing China for so long could thus be greatly reduced, while at the same time, the communists would be weakened by the fights and Chiang's own troops would have an easier time taking control. The ensuing battles between the communists and these warlords resulted mostly in communist victories, exactly as Chiang and his followers had predicted, and their attempt to greatly reduce the problem of the warlords resulted in success.


However, this success came at a huge cost in the Nationalists' loss of popular support in these Japanese-dominated regions, because the local population already blamed them for losing the regions to the Japanese, while reassigning these former Japanese puppet regime forces as Nationalist forces to fight alongside of Japanese soldiers against the communists only further alienated the local populace and strengthened the popular resentment towards Chiang Kai-shek and the Nationalists. The first post-war peace negotiation, attended by both Chiang Kai-shek and Mao Zedong in Chongqing from Aug 28, 1945 to Oct 11, 1945 had little effect in stopping these clashes between the communists and the warlords. Battles between the two sides continued even as the peace negotiation was in progress, until the agreement was reached in January 1946. However, large campaigns and full scale confrontations between the communists and Chiang's own troops were temporarily avoided. Chongqing (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Postal map spelling: Chungching, also Chungking) is the largest and most populous of the Peoples Republic of Chinas four provincial-level municipalities, and the only one in the less densely populated western half of China. ...


In the last month of World War II in East Asia, Soviet forces launched the mammoth Operation August Storm in Manchuria. This operation destroyed the fighting capability of the Kwantung Army and left the USSR in occupation of all of Manchuria at the end of the war. Consequently, the 700,000 Japanese troops stationed in the region surrendered. Later in the year, Chiang Kai-shek came to the painful realization that he lacked the resources to prevent a CCP takeover of Manchuria following the scheduled Soviet departure. He therefore made a deal with the Russians to delay their withdrawal until he had moved enough of his best-trained men and modern material into the region. Nationalist troops were then airlifted by the United States to occupy key cities in North China, while the countryside was already dominated by the CCP. The Soviets spent the extra time systematically dismantling the extensive Manchurian industrial base (worth up to 2 billion dollars) and shipping it back to their war-ravaged country.[1] East Asia Geographic East Asia. ... Combatants Soviet Union Peoples Republic of Mongolia Japan Manchukuo Mengjiang Commanders Aleksandr Vasilevsky Otsuzo Yamada Strength Soviet Union 1,577,225 men, 26,137 artillery, 1,852 sup. ... The Kwantung Army or Guandong Army (関東軍 Japanese: Kantōgun) was a unit of the Imperial Japanese Army that originated from a Guandong garrison established in 1906 to defend the Kwantung Leased Territory and the areas adjacent to the South Manchurian Railway. ... Antonov An-124 loading a container for the Dutch military A large military cargo aircraft: the Boeing C-17A Globemaster III An airlift is the organized delivery of supplies primarily via aircraft. ...


The truce fell apart in June 1946 when full scale war broke out on June 26, and although negotiations continued, Marshall was recalled in January 1947, the same time when the last Communist envoys in Nationalist controlled regions were recalled back to Yan'an.


Fighting on mainland China (1946–1950)

With the breakdown of talks, an all out war resumed. This stage is referred to in Communist media and historiography as the "War of Liberation" (simplified Chinese: 解放战争; pinyin: Jiěfàng Zhànzhēng). Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ...


The United States assisted the Nationalists with hundreds of millions of dollars worth of new surplus military supplies and generous loans of hundreds of millions of dollars worth of military equipment.[2] They also airlifted many Nationalist troops from central China to Manchuria. Nevertheless, the Communists, who had already situated themselves in the north and northeast, were poised to strike.


General Marshall himself stated that he knew of no evidence that the Chinese communists were being supplied by the Soviet Union.[3] The Communists did benefit indrectly from the elimination of the Japanese Kwantung Army but the Soviets did not provide direct support to the Communists during this period as they expected either a power-sharing arrangement or a Koumintang victory. The Communists were able to capture a number of weapons abandoned by the Japanese and Koumintang including some tanks but it was not until large numbers of well trained nationalist troops joined the communist force that the communists were finally able to master the hardware.[4] Anti-Japanese Koreans also played an important role, with 30-40 thousand Korean troops participating in the war on the Communist side. Koreans are also credited with repairing Manchurian railroads and bridges which were used by Mao.[5]


Belatedly, the Nationalist government sought to enlist popular support through internal reforms. The effort was in vain, however, because of rampant corruption in government and accompanying political and economic chaos including massive hyperinflation. By late 1948, the Nationalist position was bleak. Chiang Kai Shek attempted to eliminate the Communists in the North by using troops belonging to northern warlords who had sided with Chiang during the Civil War and then switched sides to join the Japanese during the invasion. This strategy backfired as the effort to suppress the Communists who the peasants remembered as the enemies of the Japanese by using troops who had assisted the hated invaders further eroded any base of popular support which Chiang might have hoped for. Although the Nationalists had an advantage in their numbers and weapons, and benefited from considerable international support, their low morale hindered their ability to fight. Furthermore, though they administered a larger and more populous territory, their corruption effectively stifled any civilian support. Certain figures in this article use scientific notation for readability. ...


The Communists were ultimately able to seize Manchuria after struggling through numerous set-backs while trying to take the cities, with the decisive Liaoshen Campaign. The capture of large Nationalist formations provided them with the tanks, heavy artillery, and other combined-arms assets needed to prosecute offensive operations south of the Great Wall. The Huaihai Campaign of late 1948 and early 1949 secured east-central China for communist forces, while the Beiping-Tianjin Campaign resulted in the Communist conquest of northern China, including Beiping (now Beijing), which was taken by the Communists without a fight on January 31, 1949. On April 21, Communist forces crossed the Yangtze River, capturing Nanjing, capital of the Nationalist's Republic of China, two days later. In most cases, the surrounding countryside and small towns had come under Communist influence long before the cities. The Liaoshen Campaign was an important series of battles in the Chinese Civil War fought in the north-eastern province of Liaoning. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Combatants National Revolutionary Army Peoples Liberation Army Northeast and North China Field Army Commanders Fu Zuoyi Lin Biao, Luo Ronghuan Strength ~500,000 1,000,000 Casualties ~520,000 (including non-combat losses) 40,000 Pingjin Campaign (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: PíngjÄ«n Zhànyì), known as... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Yangtze River or Chang Jiang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), or Drichu in Tibetan (Tibetan: འབ; Wylie: bri chu) is the longest river in Asia and the third longest in the world, after the Nile in Africa, and the Amazon in South America. ...


By late 1949, the People's Liberation Army was pursuing remnants of Nationalist forces southwards in southern China. On October 1, 1949, Mao Zedong proclaimed the People's Republic of China with its capital at Beiping, which was renamed Beijing. Chiang Kai-shek and 600,000 Nationalist troops and 2,000,000 refugees, predominantly from the government and business community, retreated from the mainland to the island of Taiwan, and there remained only isolated pockets of resistance, particularly in the far south. A PRC attempt to take the ROC controlled island of Kinmen was thwarted in the Battle of Kuningtou halting the PLA advance towards Taiwan. In December 1949, Chiang proclaimed Taipei, Taiwan, the temporary capital of the Republic of China and continued to assert his government as the sole legitimate authority in China. The last of the fighting ended with the Landing Operation on Hainan Island which resulted in the Communist conquest of Hainan Island in May 1950. However, no legal document to officially end the Chinese Civil War has ever been signed. Legally speaking, with both contending governments PRC and ROC still existing, the Chinese Civil War has not been resolved. is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... ... Kinmen (Traditional Chinese: 金門; Hanyu Pinyin: JÄ«nmén; Tongyong Pinyin: Jinmén; Wade-Giles: Chin-men; POJ: Kim-mnÌ‚g; also romanized Quemoy from Southern Min (in early Spanish romanization); literally Golden Door or Golden Gate), located at 24. ... Combatants Republic of China, National Revolutionary Army Peoples Republic of China, Peoples Liberation Army Commanders Tang Enbo Ye Fei Strength Roughly 40,000 garrisoned troops from the ROC 18th Army, air support from ROC Air Force, maritime support from ROC Navy. ... This article is about the city. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... Not to be confused with the unrelated provinces of Henan and Hunan Hainan (海南; pinyin: Hǎinán) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located at the southern end of the country. ...


According to the Communists, from the beginning of July 1946 through June 1950, the communists managed to destroy a total of 8.07 million nationalist troops (including capturing/accepting the surrender of 4.59 million nationalist troops), while losing 1.52 million of its own, including 260,000 fatalities, 1.06 million wounded, 20,000 captured by the enemy, and 180,000 missing and desertions.[citation needed] The Kuomintang disagrees with the CCP's claim on the nationalist losses, claiming the figure is improbable.


Relationship between the two sides since 1950

Most observers expected Chiang's government to eventually fall in response to a Communist invasion of Taiwan, and the United States initially showed no interest in supporting Chiang's government in its final stand. Things changed radically with the onset of the Korean War. At this point, allowing a total Communist victory over Chiang became politically impossible in the United States, and President Harry S. Truman ordered the U.S. 7th Fleet into the Taiwan straits, ending any immediate possibility for a successful Communist invasion. Belligerents United Nations: Republic of Korea Australia Belgium Canada Colombia Ethiopia France Greece Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Philippines South Africa Thailand Turkey United Kingdom United States Medical staff: Denmark Italy Norway India Sweden Communist: Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Peoples Republic of China Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee... For other persons named Harry Truman, see Harry Truman (disambiguation). ... The United States 7th Fleet is a naval military unit based in Yokosuka, Japan, with units positioned near South Korea and Japan. ... Taiwan Strait Area The Taiwan Strait or Formosa Strait is a 180km-wide Strait between mainland China and the island of Taiwan. ...


Some American historians have theorized that the loss of mainland China to the Communists enabled Joseph McCarthy to purge the China Hands from the U.S. State Department.[citation needed] In turn, it is possible that John F. Kennedy lacked the advice of any real experts on East Asia when he was trying to formulate a policy on Vietnam, which would imply that the Chinese Civil War can be linked causally to the Vietnam War. In addition, Lyndon Johnson's belief that the loss of China cost Truman and the Democratic Party its political support made Johnson determined to uphold South Vietnam at all costs. ... This article is about the U.S. senator from Wisconsin (1947-1957). ... The China Hands were a group of American diplomats and soldiers who were known for their experience with and knowledge of China before, during, and after the World War II. The terminology China Hand originally referenced 19th Century merchants in the treaty ports of China, but evolved to reflect men... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... East Asia Geographic East Asia. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908–January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was an American politician. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... Anthem Thanh niên Hành Khúc (Call to the Citizens) Capital Saigon Language(s) Vietnamese Government Republic Last President¹ Duong Van Minh Last Prime minister Vu Van Mau Historical era Cold War  - Regime change June 14, 1955  - Dissolution April 30, 1975 Area  - 1973 173,809 km² 67,108...


Meanwhile, throughout the 1950s and 1960s, intermittent skirmishes occurred throughout the mainland's coastal and peripheral regions, though American reluctance to be drawn into a larger conflict left Chiang Kai-shek too weak to "retake the mainland" as he constantly vowed. ROC fighter aircraft bombed mainland targets and commandos, sometimes numbering up to 80, landed repeatedly on the mainland to kill PLA soldiers, kidnap CCP cadres, destroy infrastructure, and seize documents. The ROC lost about 150 men in one raid in 1964.


The ROC navy conducted low intensity naval raids, and lost some ships in several small battles with the PLA. In June 1949, the ROC declared a "closure" of all mainland ports and its navy attempted to intercept all foreign ships, mainly of British and Soviet-bloc origin. Since the mainland's railroad network was underdeveloped, north-south trade depended heavily on sea lanes. ROC naval activity also caused severe hardship for mainland fishermen.


After losing the mainland, a group of approximately 12,000 KMT soldiers escaped to Burma and continued launching guerrilla attacks into south China. Their leader, General Li Mi, was paid a salary by the ROC government and given the nominal title of Governor of Yunnan. Initially, the United States supported these remnants and the Central Intelligence Agency provided them with aid. After the Burmese government appealed to the United Nations in 1953, the U.S. began pressuring the ROC to withdraw its loyalists. By the end of 1954, nearly 6,000 soldiers had left Burma and Li Mi declared his army disbanded. However, thousands remained, and the ROC continued to supply and command them, even secretly supplying reinforcements at times. Raids into mainland China gradually ended by the late 1960s as PLA infrastructure improved. Remnants of these KMT loyalists remain in the area and are active in the opium trade.[citation needed] Yunan redirects here. ... CIA redirects here. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... Opium is a narcotic drug which is obtained from the unripe seed pods of the opium poppy . ...


After the Republic of China complained to the United Nations against the Soviet Union supporting the Chinese communists, the UN General Assembly Resolution 505 was adopted on February 1, 1952 to condemn the Soviet Union. The UN General Assembly Resolution 505 is titled Threats to the political independence and territorial integrity of China and to the peace of the Far East, resulting from Soviet violations of the Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Alliance of 14 August 1945 and from Soviet violations of the Charter... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Though viewed as a military liability by the United States, the ROC viewed its remaining islands in Fujian as vital for any future campaign to retake the mainland. On September 3, 1954, the First Taiwan Strait crisis began when the PLA started shelling Quemoy and threatened to take the Dachen Islands. On January 20, 1955, the PLA took nearby Yijiangshan Island, with the entire ROC garrison of 720 troops killed or wounded defending the island. On January 24 of the same year, the United States Congress passed the Formosa Resolution authorizing the President to defend the ROC's offshore islands. Instead of committing to defend the ROC's offshore islands, President Eisenhower pressured Chiang Kai-shek to evacuate his 11,000 troops and 20,000 civilians from the Dachen Islands, leaving them for PLA takeover. Nanchi Island was abandoned as well, leaving Quemoy and Matsu the only major islands remaining. The First Taiwan Straits crisis ended in March 1955 when the PLA ceased its bombardment, amid United States threats of escalation and use of nuclear weapons. Fujian Province (Tongyong Pinyin spelling; Fu-chien according to Wades-Giles and Fukien according to Postal System Pinyin; Chinese: 福建省) is a province on the coast of southeastern China. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Taiwan Strait The First Taiwan Strait Crisis (also called the 1954-1955 Taiwan Strait Crisis or the 1955 Taiwan Strait Crisis) was a short armed conflict that took place between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC) governments. ... Quemoy, Kinmen, or Chinmen (金門, pinyin: Jīnmén, POJ: Kim-mn̂g) (pop. ... Tachen Islands (or Dàchén Qúndǎo) is a group of islands off the coast of Zhejiang, the Peoples Republic of China. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... Yigianshan Island (一江山島) is a small island eight miles from the Tachen group, located between Shanghai and Keelung in the Taiwan Strait. ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... The Formosa Resolution was a bill enacted by the U.S. Congress on January 29, 1955 that established an American commitment to defend Formosa, (now called Taiwan). ... The Matsu Islands (Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) are a minor archipelago of 19 islands and islets in the Taiwan Strait administered as Lienchiang County (連江 Pinyin: Liánjiāng), Fukien Province of the Republic of China (ROC, now based on Taiwan). ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ...


The Second Taiwan Strait Crisis began on August 23, 1958 with air and naval engagements between PRC and ROC forces, leading to intense artillery bombardment of Quemoy (by the PRC) and Amoy (by the ROC), and ended on November of the same year. PLA patrol boats blockaded the islands from ROC supply ships. Though the United States rejected Chiang Kai-shek's proposal to bomb mainland artillery batteries, it quickly moved to supply fighter jets and anti-aircraft missiles to the ROC. It also provided amphibious assault ships to land supply, as a sunken ROC naval vessel was blocking the harbor. On September 7, the United States escorted a convoy of ROC supply ships and the PRC refrained from firing. On October 25, the PRC announced an "even-day ceasefire" — the PLA would only shell Quemoy on odd-numbered days. By the end of the crisis, Quemoy had been struck with 500,000 artillery rounds and 3000 civilians and 1000 soldiers had been killed or wounded. Quemoy and Matsu were major campaign issues in the 1960 U.S. presidential election. Gradually through the 1960s live artillery was replaced by propaganda. Taiwan Strait The Second Taiwan Strait Crisis, also called the 1958 Taiwan Strait Crisis, was a conflict that took place between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC) governments in which the PRC was accused by Taiwan of shelling the islands of Matsu and... {| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... Quemoy, Kinmen, or Chinmen (金門, pinyin: Jīnmén, POJ: Kim-mn̂g) (pop. ... A view of the Xiamen University campus Xiamen (Simplified Chinese: 厦门; Traditional Chinese: 廈門; Hanyu Pinyin: ) is a coastal sub-provincial city in southeastern Fujian province, Peoples Republic of China. ... It has been suggested that Landing operation be merged into this article or section. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States presidential election of 1960 marked the end of Dwight D. Eisenhowers two terms as President. ...


In January 1979, the PRC announced it would stop shelling Quemoy and Matsu. Though the PRC conducted missile tests in 1995–96 and escalated tensions, armed clashes between the two sides have ceased. Since the late 1980s, there has been growing economic exchanges on both sides while the Taiwan straits remain a dangerous flash point. Beginning in the early 21st century, there has been a significant warming of relations between the Kuomintang and the Communist Party of China with high level exchanges such as the 2005 meeting between party leaders Lien Chan and Hu Jintao, and with both parties willing to put aside past differences to limit the influence of the Taiwan independence movement. Taiwan Strait The Third Taiwan Strait Crisis, also called the 1995-1996 Taiwan Strait Crisis or the 1996 Taiwan Strait Crisis, was the effect of a series of missile tests conducted by the Peoples Republic of China in the waters surrounding Taiwan including the Taiwan Strait from July 21... Taiwan Strait Area The Taiwan Strait or Formosa Strait is a 180km-wide Strait between mainland China and the island of Taiwan. ... The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China (ROC), now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in terms of seats in the Legislative Yuan, and the oldest political party in the... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China, a position guaranteed by the countrys constitution. ... Dr. Lien Chan Lien Chan (連戰, in pinyin: Lián Zhàn) (born August 27, 1936, in Xian) is a Taiwanese politician. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Hu Hu Jintao (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; born December 21, 1942) is currently the Paramount Leader of the Peoples Republic of China, holding the titles of General Secretary of the Communist Party of China since 2002, President of the... Taiwan independence (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: , Pe̍h-oÄ“-jÄ«: Tâi-oân To̍k-li̍p Å«n-tōng; abbreviated to 台獨, Táidú, Tâi-to̍k) is a political movement whose goal is primarily to create an independent and sovereign Republic of Taiwan out of the...


Commanders during the Civil War

Chinese Nationalist Party (Kuomintang)

  • Chiang Kai-shek (Commander-In-Chief)
  • Chen Cheng
  • Wang Ching-wei (During the Second Sino-Japanese War, he betrayed Chiang and joined the Japanese Forces)
  • Liu Chih
  • Tu Yü-ming
  • Fu Tso-yi
  • Sun Li-jen
  • Li Tsung-jen

Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was the Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Chen Chen Cheng (Traditional Chinese: 陳誠; Simplified Chinese: 陈诚; Hanyu Pinyin: Chén Chéng) (January 4, 1897 - March 5, 1965), Chinese political and military leader, was one of the main Kuomintang (KMT) commanders during the Second Sino-Japanese War and the Chinese... Wang Jingwei (Traditional Chinese: 汪精衛, Simplified Chinese: 汪精卫, Hanyu Pinyin: Wāng Jīngwèi, Wade-Giles: Wang Ching-wei) (1883 - November 1944), was a member of the left wing of the Kuomintang and is most noted from breaking with Chiang Kai-Shek and forming a Japanese supported collaborationist government in Nanjing. ... Liu Chih (pinyin: Liu Zhi; 1892-1972) was a Kuomintang military and political leader in the Republic of China After service in numerous regional armies, Liu joined the faculty of the Whampoa Military Academy in 1924 and became a field commander during the Northern Expedition. ... Du Yuming (py) or Tu Yü-ming (wg) (杜聿明) (1903-1981) was a Kuomintang field commander active in the Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945) theatre of World War II and in the Chinese civil war from 1945 to 1949. ... Fu Zuoyi or Fu Tso-yi (1895-1974) was a Chinese military leader. ... General Sun Li-jen Sun Li-jen (Traditional Chinese: 孫立人; Hanyu Pinyin: SÅ«n Lìrén) (November 19, 1899–November 19, 1990) was a Kuomintang general, best known for his leadership in the Second Sino-Japanese War and the Chinese Civil War. ... General Li Tsung-jen 南哥的姑公(1890–1969) Li Tsung-jen (南哥的姑公) (李宗仁 Pinyin: Lǐ Zōngrén) (August 13, 1890 - January 13, 1969), courtesy name Delin (å¾·é„°), was vice-president and acting president of the Republic of China and adversary of Chiang Kai-shek. ...

Communist Party of China

Mao redirects here. ... Zhu De ZhÅ« Dé (朱德, Wade-Giles: Chu Teh, zi: YùjiÄ“ 玉阶) (December 1, 1886 – July 6, 1976) was a Chinese Communist military leader and statesman. ... Zhou Enlai (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chou En-lai) (March 5, 1898 – January 8, 1976), a prominent Communist Party of China leader, was Premier of the Peoples Republic of China from 1949 until his death in January 1976, and Chinas foreign minister from 1949... An artistic rendition of Mao Zedong and Lin Biao as his heir apparent in the style of socialist realism in the prime of the Cultural Revolution. ... Peng Dehuai . Péng Déhuái (T. Chinese: 彭德懷, S. Chinese: 彭德怀, Wade-Giles: Peng Te-huai) (October 24, 1898 - November 29, 1974) was a prominent Chinese Communist military leader. ... Statue of Chen Yi Chen Yi (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Chén Yì; August 26, 1901 - June 6, 1972) was a Chinese communist military commander and politician. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Nie Rongzhen (Simplified Chinese: 聂荣臻, Traditional Chinese: 聶榮臻, py: Niè Róngzhēn Wade-Giles:Nieh Jung-chen) (1899-1992) was a Chinese Communist military leader. ...

Warlords

  • Zhang Zuolin (Killed in a train bombing by the Japanese, his son Zhang Xueliang took over his lands)
  • Zhang Xueliang (Son of Zhang Zuolin, in the Xian Incident, he and Yang Hu Cheng forced Chiang Kaishek to end his war against the Communists and ally with them against the Japanese. He was then jailed by Chiang until 1989.)
  • Feng Yuxiang (Changed his support to Kuomintang in 1925, then fought them in 1930 Central Plains War and lost. Organized the Chahar People's Anti-Japanese Army in cooperation with north China Communists and changed again to CPC in 1945 and visited the USSR).
  • Yen Hsi-shan (Ruled Shanxi Province until 1948)
  • Ma clique
  • Chen Jitang

Chang Tso-Lin (WG) (Chinese: 張作霖, pinyin: Zhāng Zuòlín) (1873 – June 4, 1928), nicknamed the Old Marshall or Mukden Tiger, was a Chinese warlord in Manchuria in the early 20th century. ... Zhang Xueliang Zhang Xueliang or Chang Hsüeh-liang (Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chang Hsüeh-liang; English occasionally: Peter Hsueh Liang Chang) (3 June 1901 (according to other accounts in 1898 or 1900) in Haicheng County, Fengtian province of China – 14 October 2001 in Hawaii, United States... The Xian Incident (西安事变 Xīān shìbiàn) occurred in Xian on December 12, 1936. ... Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887–April 5, 1975) was a Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925. ... Feng Yü-hsiang (Traditional Chinese:馮玉祥, Simplified Chinese: 冯玉祥, pinyin: Féng Yùxíang; 1882-1948) was a warlord during the early years of the Republic of China. ... Combatants Forces of Chiang Kai-shek Forces of the coalition of Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang and Li Zongren Commanders Han Fuqu, Liu Zhi Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren Strength 600,000 800,000 Casualties ~95,000+ ~150,000+ Central Plains War (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) was a civil... The Chahar Peoples Anti-Japanese Army consisted mostly of former Northwestern Army units under Feng Yuxiang, troops from Fang Zhenwus Resisting Japan and Saving China Army, remnants of the provincial forces from Jehol, Anti-Japanese volunteers from Manchuria and local forces from Chahar and Suiyuan. ... Yen Hsi-shan Yen Hsi-shan, Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Yen Hsi-shan (8 October 1883–22 July 1960) was a Chinese warlord who served in the government of the Republic of China. ... Shanxi (Chinese: 山西; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shan-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Shansi) is a province in the northern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Flag of Xibei San Ma The Ma clique (Traditional Chinese: 馬家軍; Simplified Chinese: 马家军; pinyin: MÇŽ JiājÅ«n; literally Ma family army) was a family of warlords who ruled the Chinese provinces of Qinghai, Gansu and Ningxia from the 1910s until 1949. ... This October 2006 does not cite its references or sources. ...

See also

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Image File history File links Zhongwen. ... The UTF-8-encoded Japanese Wikipedia article for mojibake, as displayed in ISO-8859-1 encoding. ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Hán tá»±: A Chinese character or Han character (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a logogram used in writing Chinese, Japanese, sometimes Korean, and formerly Vietnamese. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... The following is a list of Chinese wars and battles, organized by date. ... The History of China is told in traditional historical records that refer as far back as the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors about 5,000 years ago, supplemented by archaeological records dating to the 16th century BC. China is one of the worlds oldest continuous civilizations. ... ‹ The template below (History of China - BC) is being considered for deletion. ... The history of the Peoples Republic of China details the history of mainland China since October 1, 1949, when, after a near complete victory by the Communist Party of China (CPC) in the Chinese Civil War, Mao Zedong proclaimed the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) from atop Tiananmen... The National Revolutionary Army (NRA) (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: , sometimes shortened to 國軍 or National Army) was the party army of the Kuomintang (KMT) from 1925 until 1947, as well as the national army of the Republic of China during the KMTs period of party rule beginning in 1928. ... Peoples Liberation Army redirects here. ... The Chinese Military Academy emblem includes its motto, which was first proclaimed by Sun Yat-sen at the Whampoa Academys opening in 1924. ... The Republic of China (commonly known as Taiwan) maintains a large military establishment, which accounted for 16. ... Since the establishment of the Peoples Republic of China in 1949, the Military of the Peoples Republic of China has grown to include the active and reserve forces of the Peoples Liberation Army, the Peoples Liberation Army Navy, the Peoples Armed Police and the Militia... The Warlord era represents the period in the history of the Republic of China from 1916 to the mid-1930s when the country was divided by various military cliques, and this division continued until the fall of the nationalist government in mainland China in many regions, such as in Sichuan... Combatants Forces of Chiang Kai-shek Forces of the coalition of Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang and Li Zongren Commanders Han Fuqu, Liu Zhi Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren Strength 600,000 800,000 Casualties ~95,000+ ~150,000+ Central Plains War (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) was a civil... Taiwan Strait area The controversy regarding the political status of Taiwan hinges on whether Taiwan, including the Pescadores (Penghu), should remain the effective territory of the Republic of China (ROC), become unified with the territories now governed by the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), or become the Republic of... Mans Fate cover Written by Andre Malraux in 1933, La Condition Humaine, or Mans Fate is novel about the failed communist revolution that took place in Shanghai in 1927, and the existential quandaries facing a diverse group of people associated with the revolution. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Lilley, James. China hands : nine decades of adventure, espionage, and diplomacy in Asia , PublicAffairs, New York, 2004
  2. ^ p23, U.S. Military and CIA Interventions Since World War II, William Blum, Zed Books 2004 London.
  3. ^ New York Times, 12 Jan 1947, p44.
  4. ^ Zeng Kelin, Zeng Kelin jianjun zishu (General Zeng Kelin Tells his story), Liaoning renmin chubanshe, Shenyang, 1997. p. 112-3
  5. ^ Tikhomirov, V.V., & Tsukanov, A. M., "Komandirovka v Manchzhuriyu" (Assignment to Manchuria), in Akimov

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Image File history File links White_sun,_blue_sky. ... The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China (ROC), now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in terms of seats in the Legislative Yuan, and the oldest political party in the... Image File history File links Danghui. ... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China, a position guaranteed by the countrys constitution. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... This article is about the military alliance. ... Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005). ... Not to be confused with the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement about airlines financial liability and the Treaty of Warsaw (1970) between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ... The Big Three at the Yalta Conference, Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin. ... Harry S. Truman and Joseph Stalin meeting at the Potsdam Conference on July 18, 1945. ... Gouzenko wearing his white hood for anonymity Igor Sergeyevich Gouzenko (January 13, 1919, Rogachev, Soviet Union – June 28, 1982, Mississauga, Canada) was a cipher clerk for the Soviet Embassy to Canada in Ottawa, Ontario. ... This concerns the Soviet occupation of Iran, not the Iran hostage crisis. ... Combatants Hellenic Army, Royalist forces, Republicans United Kingdom Communist Party of Greece (ELAS, DSE) Commanders Alexander Papagos, Thrasyvoulos Tsakalotos, James Van Fleet Markos Vafiadis Strength 150,000 men 50,000 men and women Casualties 15,000 killed 32,000+ killed or captured The Greek Civil War (Ελληνικός εμφύλιος πόλεμος [ellinikos emfilios polemos]) was... Restatement of Policy on Germany is a famous speech by James F. Byrnes, then United States Secretary of State, held in Stuttgart on September 6, 1946. ... The Truman Doctrine was a proclamation by U.S. president Harry S. Truman on March 12, 1947. ... Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. ... The Czechoslovak coup détat of 1948 (often simply the Czech coup) (Czech: , meaning February 1948; in Communist historiography known as Victorious February (Czech: )) was an event late that February in which the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, with Soviet backing, assumed undisputed control over the government of Czechoslovakia, ushering in... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Informbiro. ... Occupation zones after 1945. ... Belligerents United Nations: Republic of Korea Australia Belgium Canada Colombia Ethiopia France Greece Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Philippines South Africa Thailand Turkey United Kingdom United States Medical staff: Denmark Italy Norway India Sweden Communist: Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Peoples Republic of China Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee... Combatants French Union France State of Vietnam Cambodia Laos Viet Minh Commanders French Expeditionary Corps Philippe Leclerc de Hauteclocque (1945-46) Jean-Étienne Valluy (1946-8) Roger Blaizot (1948-9) Marcel-Maurice Carpentier (1949-50) Jean de Lattre de Tassigny (1950-51) Raoul Salan (1952-3) Henri Navarre (1953-4... In the 1953 Iranian coup détat, the administration of U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower orchestrated the overthrow of the democratically-elected administration of Prime Minister Mohammed Mosaddeq and his cabinet from power. ... Former president Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán on the cover of TIME magazine in June 1954 after his overthrow Operation PBSUCCESS was a CIA-organized covert operation that overthrew the democratically-elected President of Guatemala, Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán in 1954. ... Protesters marching through the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin The Uprising of 1953 in East Germany took place in June and July 1953. ... Taiwan Strait The First Taiwan Strait Crisis (also called the 1954-1955 Taiwan Strait Crisis or the 1955 Taiwan Strait Crisis) was a short armed conflict that took place between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC) governments. ... Combatants Anti-communist labourers and other civilian protesters Communist LWP KBW and UB Commanders Unknown, probably none Gen. ... Combatants Soviet Union; ÁVH (Hungarian State Security Police) Ad hoc local Hungarian militias Commanders Ivan Konev Various independent militia leaders Strength 150,000 troops, 6,000 tanks Unknown number of militia and rebelling soldiers Casualties 722 killed, 1,251 wounded[1] 2,500 killed 13,000 wounded[2] The Hungarian... Combatants Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Abdel Hakim Amer Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 650 KIA[1... Sputnik 1 The Sputnik crisis was a turn point of the Cold War that began on October 4, 1957 when the Soviet Union launched the Sputnik 1 satellite. ... Taiwan Strait The Second Taiwan Strait Crisis, also called the 1958 Taiwan Strait Crisis, was a conflict that took place between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC) governments in which the PRC was accused by Taiwan of shelling the islands of Matsu and... Belligerents 26th of July Movement Cuba Commanders Fidel Castro Che Guevara Raul Castro Fulgencio Batista The Cuban Revolution refers to the revolution that led to the overthrow of General Fulgencio Batistas regime on January 1, 1959 by the 26th of July Movement and other revolutionary elements within the country. ... Combatants Congo ONUC Cuba Belgium Katanga South Kasai CIA Commanders Patrice Lumumba Pierre Mulele Laurent-Désiré Kabila Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi Che Guevara Moise Tshombe Joseph Mobutu Mike Hoare Charles Laurent Albert Kalonji Early history Migration & states Colonization Stanley (1867–1885) Congo Free State Leopold II (1885–1908) Belgian Congo... The Sino-Soviet split was a major diplomatic conflict between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), beginning in the late 1950s, reaching a peak in 1969 and continuing in various ways until the late 1980s. ... The U–2 Crisis of 1960 occurred when an American U–2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union. ... Combatants Cubans trained by Soviet advisors Cuban exiles trained by United States Commanders Fidel Castro José Ramón Fernández Ernesto Che Guevara Francisco Ciutat de Miguel Grayston Lynch Pepe San Roman Erneido Oliva Strength 51,000 1,500 Casualties various estimates; over 1,600 dead[1] to 5,000... President Kennedy in a crowded Cabinet Room during the Cuban Missile Crisis. ... View in 1986 from the west side of graffiti art on the walls infamous death strip Walls poster in memory of the fall. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... The Brazilian military coup of 1964 was a bloodless coup détat held against left-wing President Joao Goulart by the Brazilian military on the night of 31 March 1964. ... Combatants  United States (IAPF) Inter-American Peace Force (CEFA) Dominican Armed Forces Training Center (SIM) Dominican Military Intelligence Service Dominican Armed Forces Constitutionalists PRD irregulars Commanders Lyndon B. Johnson Gen. ... Combatants Republic of Angola, Republic of Cuba, SWAPO, USSR, East Germany, Republic of Zambia Republic of South Africa, UNITA Scope of operations Operational Area: The South African Border War The South African Border War refers to the conflict that took place from 1966 to 1989 in South-West Africa (now... Indonesias Transition to the New Order occurred over 1965-67. ... ASEAN Declaration or Bangkok Declaration is the founding document of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). ... “Secret War” redirects here. ... The Greek military junta of 1967-1974, alternatively The Regime of the Colonels (Greek: ), or in Greece The Junta (Greek: ) and The Seven Years (Greek: ) are terms used to refer to a series of right-wing military governments that ruled Greece from 1967 to 1974. ... People in a café watch Soviet tanks roll past The Prague Spring (Czech: Pražské jaro, Slovak: Pražská jar, Russian: пражская весна) was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia starting January 5, 1968 when Alexander Dubček came to power, and running until August 20 of that year when the... Goulash Communism (Hungarian: gulyáskommunizmus) is a term sometimes used to denote the variety of socialism as practised in the Hungarian Peoples Republic between 1962-63 and 1989. ... Détente is a French term, meaning a relaxing or easing; the term has been used in international politics since the early 1970s. ... Combatants People’s Republic of China Soviet Union Commanders Mao Tse-Tung Leonid Brezhnev Strength 814,000 658,000 Casualties 800 killed, 620 wounded, 1 lost [1] 58 killed, 94 wounded [2] The Sino-Soviet border conflict of 1969 was a series of armed clashes between the Soviet Union and... Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Opened for signature July 1, 1968 in New York Entered into force March 5, 1970 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 40 other signatory states. ... Combatants Khmer Republic, United States, Republic of Vietnam Khmer Rouge, Democratic Republic of Vietnam, National Liberation Front of South Vietnam (NLF) Strength ~250,000 FANK troops ~100,000 (60,000) Khmer Rouge Casualties ~600,000 dead, 1,000,000+ wounded[1] The Cambodian Civil War was a conflict that pitted... Three-Time World Mens Singles Champion Zhuang Zedong (left) and U.S. team member Glenn Cowan (right) on the Chinese team bus in Nagoya, Japan, 1971. ... The Four Power Agreement on Berlin[1] was signed on 3 September 1971 by the foreign ministers of the four powers, United Kingdom, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, France, and the United States. ... Richard Nixon (right) meets with Mao Zedong in 1972. ... Prisoners outside the La Moneda Palace after their surrender during the coup (1973). ... Combatants  Israel  Egypt,  Syria,  Iraq Commanders Moshe Dayan, David Elazar, Ariel Sharon, Shmuel Gonen, Benjamin Peled, Israel Tal, Rehavam Zeevi, Aharon Yariv, Yitzhak Hofi, Rafael Eitan, Abraham Adan, Yanush Ben Gal Saad El Shazly, Ahmad Ismail Ali, Hosni Mubarak, Mohammed Aly Fahmy, Anwar Sadat, Abdel Ghani el-Gammasy, Abdul Munim... The Strategic Arms Limitation Treaties refers to two rounds of bilateral talks and corresponding international treaties between the Soviet Union and United States, the Cold War superpowers, on the issue of armament control. ... Combatants MPLA Republic of Cuba AAF Mozambique[1] UNITA FNLA South Africa Republic of Zaire Commanders José Eduardo dos Santos Jonas Savimbi Casualties Over 500,000 militants[2] and hundreds of thousands of civilians The Angolan Civil War began when Angola won its war for independence in 1975 with the... The Mozambican Civil War started in Mozambique during the 1970s following independence in 1975. ... Combatants Ethiopia Cuba South Yemen Somalia WSLF Commanders Mengistu Haile Mariam Vasily Petrov[1][2] Siad Barre Strength 217,000 Ethiopians 1,500 Soviet advisors 15,000 Cubans 2,000 South Yemenis SNA 60,000 WSLF 15,000 Casualties Unknown 20,000 killed or wounded 1/2 of the Air... Combatants Peoples Republic of China Socialist Republic of Vietnam Commanders Yang Dezhi Văn Tiến DÅ©ng Strength 300,000+[1] 100,000+ from regular army divisions and divisions of the Public Security Army Casualties Disputed. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Iranian Revolution (also known as the Islamic Revolution,[1][2][3][4][5][6] Persian: انقلاب اسلامی, Enghelābe Eslāmi) was the revolution that transformed Iran from a monarchy under Shah Mohammad Reza... Belligerents DRA USSR Mujahideen of Afghanistan al-Qaeda supported by[1] United States United Kingdom Pakistan Saudi Arabia Commanders Soviet forces: Sergei Sokolov Valentin Varennikov Boris Gromov DRA: Babrak Karmal Mohammad Najibullah Abdul Rashid Dostum Abdul Haq Jalaluddin Haqqani Gulbuddin Hekmatyar Ismail Khan Ahmad Shah Massoud Strength Soviet forces: 80... TIME magazine cover depicting Lech WaÅ‚Ä™sa and the Solidarity movement shaking up communism shows that Solidarity received wide international recognition. ... Beginning in the late 1970s, major civil wars erupted in the Central American region, and became one of the major foreign policy crises of the 1980s. ... Able Archer 83 was a ten-day NATO exercise starting on November 2, 1983 that spanned the continent of Europe and simulated a coordinated nuclear release. ... The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was proposed by U.S. President Ronald Reagan on March 23, 1983[1] to use ground-based and space-based systems to protect the United States from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic missiles. ... Combatants  United States  Antigua and Barbuda  Barbados  Dominica  Jamaica  Saint Lucia  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines  Grenada  Cuba Commanders Ronald Reagan Joseph Metcalf H. Norman Schwarzkopf Hudson Austin Pedro Tortolo Strength 7,300 Grenada: 1,500 regulars Cuba: about 722 (mostly military engineers)[1] Casualties 19 killed; 116 wounded[2... The Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, commonly referred to as the Tiananmen Square Massacre,[1] were a series of demonstrations led by students, intellectuals, and labor activists in the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) between April 15 and June 4, 1989. ... Baltic Way, reflecting the peak of the Singing Revolution The Singing Revolution is the common title for events between 1987 and 1990 that led to the regaining of independence of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. ... View in 1986 from the west side of graffiti art on the walls infamous death strip Walls poster in memory of the fall. ... The Eastern Bloc prior to the political upheavals of 1989. ... An animated series of maps showing the breakup of the second Yugoslavia; The different colors represent the areas of control. ... This is a history of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. ... Senator John W. Bricker, the sponsor of the proposed constitutional amendment to limit the treaty power of the United States government. ... //   (Russian: IPA: ) is politics of maximal openness, transparency of activity of all official (governmental) institutes, and freedom of information. ... Warsaw Pact countries to the east of the Iron Curtain are shaded red; NATO members to the west of it — blue. ... A 1947 comic book published by the Catechetical Guild Educational Society warning of the dangers of a Communist takeover. ... For other uses of Operation Condor, please see Operation Condor (disambiguation) Operation Condor (Spanish: Operación Cóndor, Portuguese: Operação Condor) was a campaign of political repressions involving assassination and intelligence operations officially implemented starting in 1975 by the right-wing dictatorships that dominated the Southern Cone in South... Emblem of Gladio, Italian branch of the NATO stay-behind paramilitary organizations. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... CIA redirects here. ... A Soviet poster reading COMECON: Unity of Goals, Unity of Action The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON / Comecon / CMEA / CEMA), 1949 – 1991, was an economic organization of communist states and a kind of Eastern Bloc equivalent to—but more inclusive than—the European Economic Community. ... The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... This article is about the KGB of the Soviet Union. ... Logo of East Germanys Ministerium für Staatssicherheit (MfS or Stasi) / Ministry for State Security This article is about Stasi, the secret police of East Germany. ... The term arms race in its original usage describes a competition between two or more parties for military supremacy. ... U.S. and USSR/Russian nuclear weapons stockpiles, 1945-2006. ... For other uses, see Space Race (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... For architecture, see Stalinist architecture. ... Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Brezhnev Doctrine was a Soviet policy doctrine, introduced by Leonid Brezhnev in a speech at the Fifth Congress of the Polish United Workers Party on November 13, 1968, which stated: When forces that are hostile to socialism try to turn the development of some socialist country towards capitalism, it... The Ulbricht Doctrine, named after East German leader Walter Ulbricht, was the assertion that normal diplomatic relations between East Germany and West Germany could only occur if both states fully recognised each others sovereignty. ... The Carter Doctrine was proclaimed by President Jimmy Carter in his State of the Union Address on 23 January 1980. ... This article is about foreign policy. ... The domino theory was a mid-20th century foreign policy theory, promoted by the government of the United States, that speculated that if one land in a region came under the influence of communism, then the surrounding countries would follow in a domino effect. ... The Eisenhower Doctrine, given in a message to the United States Congress on January 5, 1957, was the foreign policy of U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower. ... The Johnson Doctrine, enunciated by U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson. ... The Kennedy Doctrine refers to foreign policy initiatives of the 35th President of the United States, John Fitzgerald Kennedy, towards Latin America during his term in office between 1961 and 1963. ... The Nixon Doctrine was put forth in a press conference in Guam on July 25, 1969 by Richard Nixon. ... Ostpolitik or Eastern Politics describes the realisation of the Change through Rapprochement principle, verbalised by Egon Bahr in 1963, by the effort of Willy Brandt, Chancellor of West Germany, to normalize relations with Eastern European nations including East Germany. ... Peaceful coexistence was a theory developed during the Cold War among Communist states that they could peacefully coexist with capitalist states. ... The Reagan Doctrine was a strategy orchestrated and implemented by the United States to oppose the global influence of the Soviet Union during the final years of the Cold War. ... Rollback was a term used by American foreign policy thinkers during the Cold War. ... The Truman Doctrine was a proclamation by U.S. president Harry S. Truman on March 12, 1947. ... Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. ... // At its simplest, the Cold War is said to have begun in 1947. ...

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