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Encyclopedia > Chinese Buddhism
Seated Buddha, from the Chinese Tang Dynasty, Hebei province, ca. 650 CE.

Chinese Buddhism (traditional Chinese: 漢傳佛教; simplified Chinese: 汉传佛教) refers collectively to the various schools of Buddhism that have flourished in China since ancient times. These schools integrated the ideas of Confucianism, Taoism and other indigenous philosophical systems so that what was initially a foreign religion (the buddhadharma) came to be a natural part of Chinese civilisation albeit with its own unique character.Buddhism has played an enormous role in shaping the mindset of the Chinese people affecting as it has aesthetics, politics, literature, philosophy and medicine. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1493x2016, 961 KB) From Hebei, Tang Dynasty. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1493x2016, 961 KB) From Hebei, Tang Dynasty. ... Media:Example. ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... Hebei (Chinese: 河北; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-pei; Postal System Pinyin: Hopeh) is a northern province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ... A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ... A Confucian temple in Wuwei, Peoples Republic of China. ... Taoism (or Daoism) is the English name referring to a variety of related Chinese philosophical traditions and concepts. ... The word dharma (Sanskrit; धर्म in the Devanagari script) or dhamma (Indian origin, Dharmic faiths, namely Hinduism (Sanatana Dharma), Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism. ... Aesthetics is commonly perceived as the study of sensory or sensori-emotional values, sometimes called judgments of sentiment and taste. ... State power within the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) is divided among three bodies: the Party, the State, and the Army. ... Chinese literature spans back thousands of years, from the earliest recorded dynastic court archives to the matured fictional novel arising in the medieval period to entertain the masses of literate Chinese. ... Yin Yang symbol and Ba gua paved in a clearing outside of Nanning City, Guangxi province, China. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ...


During the Tang Dynasty while at its peak of vitality, Chinese Buddhism produced numerous spiritual masters.[1][2] For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ...

Contents

History of Buddhism in China

Arrival along the Silk Road

Fresco describing Emperor Han Wudi (156-87 BCE) worshiping two statues of the Golden Man as described, Mogao Caves, Dunhuang, ca. 8th century CE.

An 8th century Chinese mural in Dunhuang describes an Emperor Wu of Han (156-87 BCE) worshiping the Golden Man statues; "golden men brought in 120 BC by a great Han general in his campaigns against the nomads". However, there is no such mention of Emperor Wu of Han worshiping the Buddha in Chinese historical literature.[3] Blue-eyed Central Asian and East-Asian Buddhist monks, Bezaklik, Eastern Tarim Basin, 9th-10th century. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (643x974, 578 KB)8th century frescoe at Mogao Caves near Dunhuang in the Tarim Basin. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (643x974, 578 KB)8th century frescoe at Mogao Caves near Dunhuang in the Tarim Basin. ... Emperor Wu of Han (156 BC*–March 29, 87 BC), personal name Liu Che, was the sixth emperor of the Chinese Han Dynasty, ruling from 141 BC to 87 BC. A military compaigner, Han China reached its greatest expansion under his reign, spanning from Kyrgyzstan in the west, Northern Korea... The Mogao Caves, or Mogao Grottoes (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) form a system of 492 temples 25km (15. ... Location of Dunhuang Dunhuang (Chinese: , also written as 燉煌 till early Qing Dynasty; Pinyin: ) is a city in Jiuquan, Gansu province, China. ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... Location of Dunhuang Dunhuang (Chinese: , also written as 燉煌 till early Qing Dynasty; Pinyin: ) is a city in Jiuquan, Gansu province, China. ... Emperor Wu of Han (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), (156 BC[1]–March 29, 87 BC), personal name Liu Che (劉徹), was the seventh emperor of the Han Dynasty in China, ruling from 141 BC to 87 BC. Emperor Wu is best remembered for the vast territorial expansion that occurred under... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC - 120s BC - 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC Years: 125 BC 124 BC 123 BC 122 BC 121 BC - 120 BC - 119 BC 118 BC...


The Hou Hanshu then records the visit of Yuezhi envoys to the Chinese capital in 2 BCE, who gave oral teachings on Buddhist sutras to a student, suggesting that some Yuezhi had already started to disseminate the Buddhist faith in eastern Asia during the 1st century BCE (Baldev Kumar (1973), exact source needed). The Book of Later Han (Chinese: 後漢書; pinyin: ) is a history of the Chinese Empire which was compiled by Fan Yeh (范晔; 398-445), using a number of earlier histories as sources. ... Languages Unknown, although the epigraphy ranges from Greek language to Bactrian, and often considered to have spoken a Tocharian language. ... (Redirected from 2 BCE) Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC - 0s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s 7 BC 6 BC 5 BC 4 BC 3 BC 2 BC 1 BC 1 2 3 4 Events... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by...


The Hou Hanshu describes the enquiry about Buddhism made around 70 CE by the Han Emperor Ming (58-75 CE): The Book of Later Han (Chinese: 後漢書; pinyin: ) is a history of the Chinese Empire which was compiled by Fan Yeh (范晔; 398-445), using a number of earlier histories as sources. ... Format of naming convention in English is under discussion at Wikipedia talk:Naming conventions (Chinese). ...

"There is a current tradition that Emperor Ming dreamed that he saw a tall golden man the top of whose head was glowing. He questioned his group of advisors and one of them said: “In the West there is a god called Buddha. His body is sixteen chi high (3.7 metres or 12 feet), and is the colour of true gold.” The Emperor, to discover the true doctrine, sent an envoy to Tianzhu (Northwestern India) to inquire about the Buddha’s doctrine, after which paintings and statues [of the Buddha] appeared in the Middle Kingdom." (Hou Hanshu, trans. John Hill)

This encounter is further described in a 6th century CE account by Yang Xuanzhi: The 6th century is the period from 501 - 600 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Yang Xuanzhi (Chinese:楊衒之) was a Chinese writer and translator of Mahayana Buddhist texts into the Chinese language, during the 6th century, under the Northern Wei Dynasty. ...

"The establishment of the Báimǎ-Sì (White Horse Temple by Emperor Ming (58-75 CE) of the Han marked the introduction of Buddhism into China. The temple was located on the south side of the Imperial Drive, three leagues (li) outside the Xiyang Gate. The Emperor dreamt of the golden man sixteen Chinese feet tall, with the aureole of sun and moon radiating from his head and his neck. A "golden god", he was known as Buddha. The emperor dispatched envoys to the Western Regions in search of the god, and, as a result, acquired Buddhist scriptures and images. At the time, because the scriptures were carried into China on the backs of white horses, White Horse was adopted as the name of the temple." (Translation: Ulrich Theobald).


These Chinese emissaries are said to have visited the country of the Yuezhi and to have brought back with them two missionaries named Dharmaraksa and Kasyapa Matanga together with sutras written with 600,000 Sanskrit words. The two missionaries wrote “The Sutra of forty-two sections spoken by the Buddha" to provide guidance on the ideas of Buddhism and the conduct of monks. It is the first Buddhist text in the Chinese language, although its authenticity is a matter of debate. White Horse Temple (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; also White Horse Ministry) was the first Buddhist temple in China, established under the patronage of Emperor Ming in the Eastern Han capital Luoyang in the year 68. ... Format of naming convention in English is under discussion at Wikipedia talk:Naming conventions (Chinese). ... Languages Unknown, although the epigraphy ranges from Greek language to Bactrian, and often considered to have spoken a Tocharian language. ... The Sutra of Forty-two Chapters (Also called the Sutra of Forty-two Sections, Chinese: 四十二章經) is the earliest surviving Buddhist sutra translated into Chinese. ...


Their arrival in 67 CE marks Buddhism's official introduction in China. Historians generally agree that by the middle of the 1st century, the religion had penetrated to areas north of the Huai River. Emperor Ming's brother Liu Ying the Prince of Chu was the first high-profile believer of Buddhism, although there is some evidence that Emperor Ming himself might have been as well. Liu Ying (劉英) was a son of Emperor Guangwu of Han, and half-brother of Emperor Ming. ...


The first documented translation of Buddhist scriptures into Chinese occurs in 148 CE, with the arrival of the Parthian missionary An Shih Kao in China, probably on the heels of the Kushan expansion into the Tarim Basin. An Shi Kao established Buddhist temples in Loyang and organized the translation of Buddhist scriptures into Chinese, testifying to the beginning of a wave of Central Asian Buddhist proselytism that was to last several centuries. Traces of Buddhist iconography can also be seen in works of art from this period. Events Change of Patriarch of Constantinople from Patriarch Athendodorus to Patriarch Euzois An Shih Kao arrives in China. ... An Shih-kao (?-~168) (安世高; pinyin Ä€n Shígāo) was a prince of Parthia, nicknamed the Parthian Marquis, who renounced his prospect as a contender for the royal throne of Parthia in order to serve as a Buddhist missionary monk. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... Taklamakan Desert in the Tarim Basin. ... Luoyang (Simplified Chinese: 洛阳; Traditional Chinese: 洛陽; pinyin: Luòyáng) is a city in Henan province, China. ...


By the end of the second century, a prosperous community had been settled at Pengcheng (modern Xuzhou, Jiangsu). Xuzhou (Chinese: 徐州; Hanyu Pinyin: ), known as Pengcheng (Chinese: 彭城; Hanyu Pinyin: ) in ancient times, is a prefecture-level city in northwestern Jiangsu province, Peoples Republic of China. ...   (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chiang-su; Postal map spelling: Kiangsu) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located along the east coast of the country. ...


Relation to Confucianism and Taoism

Most of the Chinese gentry were indifferent to the Central Asian travelers and their religion. Not only was their religion unknown, but much of it seemed alien and amoral to Chinese sensibilities. Concepts such as monasticism and individual spiritual enlightenment directly contradicted the core Confucian principles of family and emperor. Confucianism promoted social stability, order, strong families, and practical living. Chinese officials questioned how a monk's personal attainment of nirvana (total state of peace and happiness) benefited the empire. Buddhism was less antithetical to Taoism, the other major religion of China. Indeed, upon first encountering Buddhism, many Chinese scholars regarded it as merely a foreign branch of Taoism. Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Monasticism (from Greek: monachos — a solitary person) is the religious practice in which one renounces worldly pursuits in order to fully devote ones life to spiritual work. ... Look up enlightenment, Enlightenment in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the Buddhist concept. ... Taoism (or Daoism) is the English name referring to a variety of related Chinese philosophical traditions and concepts. ...


Kang-nam Oh (2000: p.286) frames the mutual influential dialogue of Buddhism and Taoism within China and mentions Kumarajiva: Kumārajīva (Chinese: 鳩摩羅什; Jiumoluoshi; also Kiu-kiu-lo, Kiu-mo-lo-che, Kiu-mo-to-tche-po, Tang-cheu) was a Kuchean Buddhist monk and scholar whose father was originally from an Indian noble family, and whose mother was a princess. ...

It is a well-known fact that since its introduction into China, Buddhism has had a close relationship with Taoism, more specifically with Neo-Taoism. As a result of this there developed the method of “matching the concepts” of Buddhism and Taoism, which was known as ko-i.[4] By this method of analogy Buddhists adopted many Taoist terms and ideas to explain their concepts. Although this somewhat superficial and arbitrary method of matching was discarded as useless and misleading after the great translator and scholar Kumārajiiva arrived in 401 C.E., Taoist influence on Buddhism in general was not, and could not be, totally eliminated.[5]

Local interpretation of Indian texts

Sakyamuni Buddha teaching. Zhang Shengwen, Yunnan, 1173-1176 AD.
Jing'an Temple in downtown Shanghai. Recently rebuilt, it was established in the Three Kingdoms era (Wu Kingdom).

To thrive in China, Buddhism had to transform itself into a system that could exist within the Chinese way of life. Thus highly regarded Indian sutras that advocated filial piety became core texts in China. Buddhism was made compatible with ancestor worship and participation in China's hierarchical system. Works were written arguing that the salvation of an individual was a benefit to that individual's society and family and monks thus contributed to the greater good. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x1688, 434 KB) Description: Title: de: Der lehrende Budha Sakyamuni Technique: de: Tusche und Farben auf Seide Dimensions: de: 30,4 cm hoch Country of origin: de: China Current location (city): de: Formosa Current location (gallery): de: Palastsammlung Other notes: de... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x1688, 434 KB) Description: Title: de: Der lehrende Budha Sakyamuni Technique: de: Tusche und Farben auf Seide Dimensions: de: 30,4 cm hoch Country of origin: de: China Current location (city): de: Formosa Current location (gallery): de: Palastsammlung Other notes: de... Standing Buddha, ancient region of Gandhara, northern Pakistan, 1st century CE. Gautama Buddha was a South Asian spiritual leader who lived between approximately 563 BCE and 483 BCE. Born Siddhartha Gautama in Sanskrit, a name meaning descendant of Gotama whose aims are achieved/who is efficacious in achieving aims, he... Yunan redirects here. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (960x1280, 278 KB) Summary Photo by 3water. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (960x1280, 278 KB) Summary Photo by 3water. ... Jingan Temple (靜安寺, lit. ... For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ... The Three Kingdoms period (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a period in the history of China, part of an era of disunity called the Six Dynasties. ... The Kingdom of Wu (Chinese: 吳, pinyin: wú) refers to a nation and several states throughout Chinese history of around the same region in China. ... SÅ«tra (sex) (Sanskrit) or Sutta (Pāli) literally means a rope or thread that holds things together, and more metaphorically refers to an aphorism (or line, rule, formula), or a collection of such aphorisms in the form of a manual. ... Filial piety is extended into the afterlife. ...


It is conjectured that the shocking collapse of the Han Dynasty in 220 and the resulting period of social upheaval and political unrest known as the Three Kingdoms period may have helped the spread of Buddhism. Buddhism was a minor force, however, compared with Daoism which was directly associated with efforts to defy the emperor (cf. Yellow Turban Rebellion). The Daoist Zhang family self-governed the Hanzhong Commandry for nearly 20 years until invasion by the renowned Chinese warlord Cao Cao. Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication to Cao Wei 220... Events Han Xiandi abdicates his throne to Cao Pi, symbolizing the end of the Han Dynasty and the beginning of the Three Kingdoms period in China. ... The Three Kingdoms period (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a period in the history of China, part of an era of disunity called the Six Dynasties. ... Combatants Yellow Turbans Han Dynasty Commanders Zhang Jiao Zhang Bao Zhang Liang He Jin Huangfu Song Lu Zhi Zhu Jun Dong Zhuo Cao Cao Strength 360,000 Various Casualties Unknown Unknown The Yellow Turban Rebellion, sometimes also translated as the Yellow Scarves Rebellion, (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) was a... Zhang (Traditional Chinese: 張, Simplified Chinese: 张, pinyin: Zhāng, Wade-Giles: Chang, Yale: Jeung, Jyutping: Zoeng1, Hong Kong Government: Cheung) is among the most common Chinese surnames. ... A warlord is a person with power who has de facto military control of a subnational area due to armed forces loyal to the warlord and not to a central authority. ... Cáo Cāo (155 – March 15, 220, pronounced Tsau Tsau) was a regional warlord and the second last Chancellor of the Eastern Han Dynasty who rose to great power during its final years in ancient China. ...


A reason for the lack of interest mostly stemmed from the ruling entity and gentry. All the rulers were Han Chinese and had simply never heard of or knew too little of the religion. The Nine-grade controller system, by which prominent individuals in each local administrative area were given the authority to rank local families and individuals in nine grades according to their potential for government service, further consolidated the importance of Confucianism. Daoism too remained a strong force among the population and philosophers. Language(s) Chinese languages Religion(s) Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ... For other uses of the words tao and dao, see Dao (disambiguation). ...


Buddhism gains political traction in the north

Subsequent chaotic periods of Sixteen Kingdoms and Southern and Northern Dynasties changed the situation, resulting in state support of Buddhism. Most rulers of the Wu, Hu, and the Northern dynasties originated from more than ten distinct ethnic groups including either non-Han Chinese "barbarians", or Han Chinese after generations of "barbarian" influence. They did not propagate nor trust the combined philosophical concept of Confucianism and Daoism as zealously as their rivals in the south. Official support of Buddhism would eventually mould a new Chinese populace with a common ideology out of the diversely ethnic population, which would in turn consolidate these dynasties. The Sixteen Kingdoms, or less commonly the Sixteen States, were a collection of numerous short-lived sovereignities in the China proper and neighboring areas from AD 304 to 439 after the retreat of the Jin Dynasty (265-420) to South China and before the establishment of the Northern Dynasties. ... This article is about China. ... Language(s) Chinese languages Religion(s) Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ... A Confucian temple in Wuwei, Peoples Republic of China. ... For other uses of the words tao and dao, see Dao (disambiguation). ...


It is instructive that Buddhism propagated faster in northern China than in the south. Social upheaval in northern China worked to break down cultural barriers between the elite ruling families and the general populace, in contrast to the south where elite clans and royal families firmly monopolized politics. Daoist and Confucian political ideology had long consolidated the political status of elite clans in the south. Support of another religion would have unknown and possibly adverse effects, for which these clans would not risk their privileges. Furthermore pro-Buddhist policy would not be backed by the bureaucracy, which had been staffed by members of the clans. Southern rulers were in weaker positions to strive for their legitimacy - some were even installed by the clans. It was not until the reign of Emperor Wu of the Liang Dynasty that saw the official support of Buddhism. Rebellion of Hou Jing near the end of Emperor Wu's reign wreaked havoc on the political and social privileges of the elite clans, which indirectly assisted the spread of Buddhism. But Buddhism spread pretty well in the peasant populace, both in the north and the south. Liang Dynasty (梁朝 (Pinyin: Liáng cháo)) (502-557), also known as Southern Liang Dynasty (南梁), was the third of Southern dynasties in China, followed by the Chen Dynasty. ... Hou Jing (侯景) (d. ...


Monks and rulers join forces

Sui Dynasty Bodhisattva, sandstone, Tianlongshan Grottoes, Shanxi, 6th century.

Arrivals of several prestigious monks in the early 5th century also contributed to the propagation of the religion and were welcomed by rulers of the Sixteen Kingdoms and Northern Dynasties. Fo Tu Cheng was entrusted by the tyrant Shi Hu of Later Chao. Kumarajiva was invited by Lü Guang, the founder of Later Liang, and later by Yao Xing, second ruler of Later Qin. Biographies of these monks, among others, were the subject of the Memoirs of Eminent Monks. Download high resolution version (408x618, 119 KB)Sui Dynasty Bodhisattva, sandstone, Tianlongshan Grottoes, Shanxi, 6th century. ... Download high resolution version (408x618, 119 KB)Sui Dynasty Bodhisattva, sandstone, Tianlongshan Grottoes, Shanxi, 6th century. ... Lands Bhutan â€¢ China â€¢ Korea Japan â€¢ Tibet â€¢ Vietnam Taiwan â€¢ Mongolia Doctrine Bodhisattva â€¢ Bodhicitta Karuna â€¢ Prajna Sunyata â€¢ Buddha Nature Trikaya â€¢ Eternal Buddha Scriptures Prajnaparamita Sutra Avatamsaka Sutra Lotus Sutra Nirvana Sutra VimalakÄ«rti Sutra Lankavatara Sutra History 4th Buddhist Council Silk Road â€¢ Nagarjuna Asanga â€¢ Vasubandhu Bodhidharma      A statue of a Bodhisattva, Akasagarbha. ... Shanxi (Chinese: 山西; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shan-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Shansi) is a province in the northern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The 6th century is the period from 501 - 600 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... The Sixteen Kingdoms, or less commonly the Sixteen States, were a collection of numerous short-lived sovereignities in the China proper and neighboring areas from AD 304 to 439 after the retreat of the Jin Dynasty (265-420) to South China and before the establishment of the Northern Dynasties. ... The Northern Dynasties (北朝 bei3 zhao1) included Northern Wei Dynasty, Eastern Wei Dynasty, Western Wei Dynasty, Northern Qi Dynasty, Northern Zhou Dynasty. ... Shi Hu (石虎) (295-349), courtesy name Jilong (季龍), formally Emperor Wu of (Later) Zhao ((後)趙武帝), was an emperor of the Chinese/Jie state Later Zhao. ... The Later Zhao (Simplified Chinese character: 后赵, Traditional Chinese character: 後趙, Hanyu pinyin Hòuzhào) (319-351) was a state of the Sixteen Kingdoms during the Jin Dynasty (265-420) in China. ... KumārajÄ«va (Chinese: 鳩摩羅什; Jiumoluoshi; also Kiu-kiu-lo, Kiu-mo-lo-che, Kiu-mo-to-tche-po, Tang-cheu) was a Kuchean Buddhist monk and scholar whose father was originally from an Indian noble family, and whose mother was a princess. ... Lü Guang (å‘‚å…‰) (337-400), courtesy name Shiming (世明), formally Emperor Yiwu of (Later) Liang ((後)涼懿武帝), was the founding emperor of the Chinese/Di state Later Liang (although during most of his reign, he used the title Heavenly Prince (Tian Wang)). He was initially a Former Qin general, but in light of Former... The Later Liang (Simplified Chinese character: 后凉, Traditional Chinese character: 後凉, Hanyu pinyin Hòu Liáng) (320-376) was a state of the Sixteen Kingdoms during the Jin Dynasty (265-420) in China. ... Yao Xing (姚興) (366-416), courtesy name Zilue (子略), formally Emperor Wenhuan of (Later) Qin ((後)秦文桓帝), was an emperor of the Chinese/Qiang state Later Qin. ... The Later Qin (Simplified Chinese character: 后秦, Traditional Chinese character: 後秦, pinyin Hòuqín) (384-417) was a state of Qiang ethnicity of the Sixteen Kingdoms during the Jin Dynasty (265-420) in China. ... The Memoirs of Eminent Monks (Simplified Chinese: 高僧传, Hanyu Pinyin Gāosēngzhuàn) is a compilation in AD 519 of biographies of monks in China from the introduction of Buddhism to China up to the Northern Wei Dynasty. ...


The direct experiential impact of contact with practicing monks should not be underestimated. Confucianism had no equivalent to holy men — the archetypical best and brightest was a wise government minister, not a saint. Daoist priests were more immediate, but given to relativism. It is notable that when another "foreign " religion, Nestorianism, sought to extol the virtues of one of its main benefactors they claimed he was so moral that "...even among the most pure and self-denying of the Buddhists, such excellence was never heard of;" (cf. Nestorian Stele). Through the actions and example of monks, Buddhists successfully laid claim to the high moral ground in society. Nestorianism is the doctrine that Jesus exists as two persons, the man Jesus and the divine Son of God, or Logos, rather than as a unified person. ... Detail of the stele The Nestorian Stele, Nestorian Stone, formally the Memorial of the Propagation in China of the Luminous Religion from Daqin (大秦景教流行中國碑; pinyin: Dàqín Jǐngjiào liúxíng Zhōngguó béi, abbreviated 大秦景教碑), and also known as the Hsi-an Monument, is a Tang Chinese...


In this way Buddhism grew to become a major religion in China. By the start of the 6th century, Buddhism had grown in popularity to rival Daoism. We know they were successful because the monks were soon accused of falling into extravagance and their lands and properties confiscated by Emperor Wu of the Northern Zhou dynasty and Wuzong of the Tang Dynasty. The 6th century is the period from 501 - 600 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... For other uses of the words tao and dao, see Dao (disambiguation). ... Emperor Wu can refer to: Emperor Wu of Han China Emperor Wu of Jin China This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Northern Zhou Dynasty followed the Western Wei, and ruled northern China from 557 to 581. ... Emperor Tang Wuzong (武宗 814-846), born Li Yan, was a later emperor of the Tang dynasty of China. ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ...


During the early Tang dynasty the monk Xuanzang journeyed to Nalanda in India and other important sites to bring back scriptures. He sought to expand influence of Mahayana over Theravada, though the Yogacara school he preferred differs significantly from the later Chinese Mahayana schools that developed such as Pure Land (see Journey to the West). The Tang capital of Chang'an (today's Xi'an) became an important center for Buddhist thought. From there Buddhism spread to Korea, and Japanese embassies of Kentoshi helped gain footholds in Japan. Buddhist ideology began to merge with Confucianism and Daoism, due in part to the use of existing Chinese philosophical terms in the translation of Buddhist scriptures. Various Confucian scholars of the Song dynasty, including Zhu Xi (wg: Chu Hsi), sought to redefine Confucianism as Neo-Confucianism. For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... A portrait of Xuanzang Xuanzang (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsüan-tsang; CantoneseIPA: jyn4tsɔŋ1; CantoneseJyutping: jyun4zong1) was a famous Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar, traveler and translator that brought up the interaction between China and India in the early Tang period. ... This article is about the ancient town and university. ... Relief image of the bodhisattva Kuan Yin from Mt. ... Theravada (Pāli: theravāda (cf Sanskrit: स्थविरवाद sthaviravāda); literally, the Teaching of the Elders, or the Ancient Teaching) is the oldest surviving Buddhist school, and for many centuries has been the predominant religion of Sri Lanka (about 70% of the population[1]) and most of continental Southeast Asia (Cambodia... Yogācāra (Sanskrit: yoga practice), also spelled yogāchāra, is an influential school of philosophy and psychology that developed in Indian Mahayana Buddhism starting sometime in the fourth to fifth centuries C.E., also commonly known as consciousness-only or mind-only (Sanskrit: cittamātra) (although scholars increasingly... The Buddha Amitabha, 13th century, Kamakura, Japan. ... The four heroes of the story, left to right: SÅ«n Wùkōng, Xuánzàng, ZhÅ« Bājiè, and Shā Wùjìng. ... For other uses, see Changan (disambiguation). ... Xian redirects here. ... This article is about the Korean civilization. ... Imperial embassies to China were missions to China for importing the technologies and culture of China to Japan. ... A Confucian temple in Wuwei, Peoples Republic of China. ... For other uses of the words tao and dao, see Dao (disambiguation). ... Confucius (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kung-fu-tzu), lit. ... Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Bianjing (汴京) (960–1127) Linan (臨安) (1127–1276) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 960–976 Emperor Taizu  - 1126–1127 Emperor Qinzong  - 1127–1162 Emperor Gaozong  - 1278–1279 Emperor Bing History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou... Zhu Xi or Chu Hsi (born October 18, 1130, Yuxi, Fujian province, China – died April 23, 1200, China) was a Song Dynasty (960-1279) Confucian scholar who became the leading figure of the School of Principle and the most influential rationalist Neo-Confucian in China. ... Wade-Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration) system for the Chinese language based on Mandarin. ... Zhu Xi (朱熹, Hanyu Pinyin: Zhū Xī, Wade-Giles: Chu Hsi) (1130 - 1200) was a Song Dynasty (960-1279) Confucian scholar who became one of most significant Neo-Confucians in China. ... Neo-Confucianism (traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: )/(traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a form of Confucianism that was primarily developed during the Sung Dynasty, but which can be traced back to Han Yu and Li Ao in the Tang Dynasty. ...

A Tang Dynasty Amitabha sculpture in the Hidden Stream Temple Cave, Longmen Grottoes, China.

The popularization of Buddhism in this period is evident in the many scripture-filled caves and structures surviving today. The Mogao Caves near Dunhuang in Gansu province, the Longmen Grottoes near Luoyang in Henan and the Yungang Grottoes near Datong in Shanxi are the most renowned of the Northern, Sui and Tang Dynasties. The Leshan Giant Buddha, carved out of a hillside in the 8th century during Tang Dynasty and looking down on the confluence of three rivers, is still the largest stone Buddha statue in the world. As a side note, duplications of Buddhist texts were considered to bring meritorious karma. Printing from individually carved wooden blocks[2], from movable clay type and from movable metal type[3], proved much more efficient and eventually eclipsed hand copying. The Diamond Sutra of AD 868, a Buddhist scripture discovered in AD 1907 inside the Mogao Caves, was the first dated example of block printing. Download high resolution version (570x746, 93 KB)Hidden Stream Temple Cave Amitabha figure, Longmen Grottoes, Luoyang, Henan, China. ... Download high resolution version (570x746, 93 KB)Hidden Stream Temple Cave Amitabha figure, Longmen Grottoes, Luoyang, Henan, China. ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... Amitabha Buddha pictured in the Ushiku Daibutsu in Japan Amitābha (Sanskrit: अमिताभः, Amitābhaḥ; Chinese: 阿彌陀佛, Ä’mítuó Fó; Japanese: 阿弥陀如来, Amida Nyorai; Vietnamese: 阿彌陀佛, A Di Ðà Phật; Tibetan: འོད་དཔག་མེད་; Lhasa dialect IPA: [; Mongolian: CaÉ£lasi ügei gerel-tü) is a celestial buddha described in the scriptures of the Mahāyāna school... The Longmen Grottoes (ch. ... The Mogao Caves, or Mogao Grottoes (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) form a system of 492 temples 25km (15. ... Location of Dunhuang Dunhuang (Chinese: , also written as 燉煌 till early Qing Dynasty; Pinyin: ) is a city in Jiuquan, Gansu province, China. ... Gansu (Simplified Chinese: 甘肃; Traditional Chinese: 甘肅; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kan-su, Kansu, or Kan-suh) is a province located in the northwest of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Longmen Grottoes (ch. ... Luoyang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city in western Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Henan (Chinese: 河南; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-nan), is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located in the central part of the country. ... The Yungang Grottoes (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) are ancient Buddhist temple grottoes near the city of Datong in the Chinese province of Shanxi. ... Alternative meaning: Datong (Taipei City), Datong (Company) Datong (Chinese: 大同, Hanyu Pinyin: Dàtóng, WG: Ta-tung) is a city in the northern Shanxi Province in China. ... Shanxi (Chinese: 山西; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shan-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Shansi) is a province in the northern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Northern Dynasties (北朝 bei3 chao2) included Northern Wei Dynasty, Eastern Wei Dynasty, Western Wei Dynasty, Northern Qi Dynasty, Northern Zhou Dynasty. ... The Sui Dynasty of China amongst the Asian, African, and European spheres of the world, 600 AD. The Sui Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; 581-618 AD[1]) followed the Southern and Northern Dynasties and preceded the Tang Dynasty in China. ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... The Leshan Giant Buddha (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is the tallest stone Buddha statue in the world. ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... For other uses, see Karma (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Print. ... The Chinese Diamond Sutra, the oldest known dated printed book in the world, printed in the 9th year of Xiantong Era of the Tang Dynasty, i. ... Events 11 May: Printing of The Diamond Sutra, the oldest dated printed book. ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Modern Chinese Buddhism (Branches and Sects)

Today the most popular form of Buddhism in both mainland China and Taiwan is a mix of the Pure Land and Chán schools. Its central scripture, the Amitabha Sutra was first brought to China by An Shigao, circa 147, however the school did not become popular until later. Theravada Buddhism and Vajrayana Buddhism exist mainly among ethnic minorities in the southwest and north, respectively. ... The Buddha Amitabha, 13th century, Kamakura, Japan. ... For other uses, see Zen (disambiguation). ... The Amitabha Sutra, or Shorter Sukhavativyuha Sutra, is a Mahayana Buddhist text associated with Pure Land Buddhism. ... An Shih-kao (?-~168) (安世高; pinyin Ä€n Shígāo) was a prince of Parthia, nicknamed the Parthian Marquis, who renounced his prospect as a contender for the royal throne of Parthia in order to serve as a Buddhist missionary monk. ... Events First year of Jianhe of the Chinese Han Dynasty Births Deaths Categories: 147 ...


Opposition to Ancient Chinese Buddhism

Not all people in the Chinese community were with Buddhism, although Buddhism had already attained many followers. Buddhist temples and monasteries grew rich from donations. Tang rulers at first accepted Buddhism. Other Tang rulers viewed Buddhism as a threat.


There were several components that lead to opposition of Buddhism. One factor is the foreign origins of Buddhism, unlike Taoism and Confucianism. Han Yu wrote, "Buddha was a man of the barbarians who did not speak the language of China and wore clothes of a different fashion. His sayings did not concern the ways of our ancient kings, nor did his manner of dress conform to their laws. He understood neither the duties that bind sovereign and subject, nor the affections of father and son." Taoism (or Daoism) is the English name referring to a variety of related Chinese philosophical traditions and concepts. ... A Confucian temple in Wuwei, Peoples Republic of China. ...


Other components included the Buddhists' withdrawal from society, since the Chinese believed that Chinese people should be involved with family life. Wealth and power of the Buddhist temples and monasteries also annoyed many critics.


As mentioned earlier, persecution came during the reign of Emperor Wuzong in the Tang Dynasty. Wuzong was said to hate the sight of Buddhist monks. In 845, he ordered the destruction of 4,600 Buddhist monasteries and 40,000 temples. Another 250,000 Buddhist monks and nuns had to give up their Buddhist lives. Wuzong cited that Buddhism was an alien religion, which is the reason he also persecuted the Christians in China. Ancient Chinese Buddhism never fully recovered from the persecution. Emperor Tang Wuzong (武宗 814-846), born Li Yan, was a later emperor of the Tang dynasty of China. ... Events March 28 - Paris is sacked by Viking raiders, probably under Ragnar Lodbrok, who collect a huge ransom in exchange for leaving. ... This article is about the religous people known as Christians. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Chinese Buddhism
  2. ^ The Spread of Buddhism Among the Chinese
  3. ^ Shiji, vol. and Book of Han, vol.
  4. ^ For this interesting topic, see T’ang, Yung-t’ung, “On ‘Ko-I’,” in Inge, et al., ed., Radhakrishnan, Comparative Studies in Philosophy (London: Allen and Unwin, 1951), pp.276-286, K. Ch’en, op.cit., pp.68 f.
  5. ^ Oh, Kang-nam (2000). The Taoist Influence on Hua-yen Buddhism: A Case of the Sinicization of Buddhism in China. Chung-Hwa Buddhist Journal, No. 13, (2000). Source: [1] (accessed: January 28, 2008) p.286

The Records of the Grand Historian or the Records of the Grand Historian of China was the magnum opus of Sima Qian, in which he recounted Chinese history from the time of the mythical Yellow Emperor until his own time. ... The Book of Han (Chinese: 漢書/汉书) is a classic Chinese historical writing covering the history of Western Han from 206 BC to 25. ...

References

  1. Han, Yu. "Sources of Chinese Tradition. Circa 800
  2. Chen, Kenneth Kuan Sheng. Buddhism in China: A historical survey. Princeton, N.J. , Princeton University Press, 1964.
  3. Welch, Holmes. The practice of Chinese Buddhism. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1967.
  4. Welch, Holmes. The Buddhist revival in China. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1968.
  5. Welch, Holmes. Buddhism under Mao. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1972.

Further reading

A wooden Bodhisattva from the Song Dynasty (960-1279 AD)
  • Huai-Chin, Nan (tr. Thomas Cleary); The Story of Chinese Zen. Charles E. Tuttle Company, 1995.

Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 658 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Wood Bodhisattva, Song Dynasty, photoed by Mountain at Shanghai Museum File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 658 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Wood Bodhisattva, Song Dynasty, photoed by Mountain at Shanghai Museum File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other... Lands Bhutan â€¢ China â€¢ Korea Japan â€¢ Tibet â€¢ Vietnam Taiwan â€¢ Mongolia Doctrine Bodhisattva â€¢ Bodhicitta Karuna â€¢ Prajna Sunyata â€¢ Buddha Nature Trikaya â€¢ Eternal Buddha Scriptures Prajnaparamita Sutra Avatamsaka Sutra Lotus Sutra Nirvana Sutra VimalakÄ«rti Sutra Lankavatara Sutra History 4th Buddhist Council Silk Road â€¢ Nagarjuna Asanga â€¢ Vasubandhu Bodhidharma      A statue of a Bodhisattva, Akasagarbha. ... Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Bianjing (汴京) (960–1127) Linan (臨安) (1127–1276) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 960–976 Emperor Taizu  - 1126–1127 Emperor Qinzong  - 1127–1162 Emperor Gaozong  - 1278–1279 Emperor Bing History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou... Events Edgar the Peaceable crowned King of England. ... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ...

External links

See also

A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ... Several Buddhist terms and concepts lack direct translations into English that cover the breadth of the original term. ... Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z The following is a List of Buddhist topics: A Abhidharma Ahimsa Ajahn Ajahn Chah Ajanta Aksobhya Alexandra David-Néel... The History of Buddhism spans from the 6th century BCE to the present, starting with the birth of the Buddha Siddhartha Gautama. ... 563 BCE: Siddhārtha Gautama, Buddha-to-be, is born in Lumbini, Ancient India. ... There are many divisions and subdivisions of the schools of Buddhism. ... Chinese Song Period Maha-prajna-paramita Sutra Page The texts can be categorized in a number of ways, but the most fundamental division is that between canonical and non-canonical texts. ... Buddhism - Percentage by country The percentage of Buddhist population of each country was taken from the US State Departments International Religious Freedom Report 2004 [1]. Other sources used were CIA Factbook [2] and adherents. ... The cultural elements of Buddhism vary by region and include: Buddhist cuisine Buddhist art Buddharupa Art and architecture of Japan Greco-Buddhism Tibetan Buddhist sacred art Buddhist music Buddhist chant Shomyo Categories: Buddhism-related stubs ... Mahabodhi Temple Complex at Bodh Gaya Buddhist temples, monasteries, stupas, and pagodas sorted by location. ...

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