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Encyclopedia > China and weapons of mass destruction
Weapons of mass destruction
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Radiological weapons Image File history File links Wiki_letter_w. ... Image File history File links Information_icon. ... For the album, see Weapons of Mass Destruction (album). ... Image File history File links WMD_world_map. ... For the use of biological agents by terrorists, see bioterrorism. ... Chemical warfare is warfare (and associated military operations) using the toxic properties of chemical substances to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter. ... A radiological weapon (or radiological dispersion device, RDD) is any weapon that is designed to spread radioactive contamination, either to kill, or to deny the use of an area (a modern version of salting the earth) and consists of a device (such as a nuclear or conventional explosive) which spreads...

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The People's Republic of China is estimated by the U.S. Government to have an arsenal of about 150 nuclear weapons as of 1999. Some sources suggest that China might have as many as 2000 nuclear warheads, but other sources estimate as low as 80. These various estimates are questionable because the Chinese government releases little information regarding its nuclear weapons other than stating that China possesses the smallest nuclear arsenal amongst the five major nuclear-weapon states. The Republic of China on Taiwan denies having chemical or nuclear weapons. ... The United Kingdom is one of the five official nuclear weapon states under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and has an independent nuclear deterrent. ... ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ...


China's first nuclear tests took place in 1964, continuing until 1996 when it signed the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). China denies having either biological or chemical weapons, having acceded to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BWC) in 1984, and ratified the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) in 1997. Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Opened for signature September 10, 1996[1] in New York Entered into force Not yet in force Conditions for entry into force The treaty will enter into force 180 days after it is ratified by all of the following 44 (Annex 2) countries: Algeria, Argentina, Australia... Biological warfare, also known as germ warfare, is the use of any organism (bacteria, virus or other disease_causing organism) or toxin found in nature, as a weapon of war. ... Dressing the wounded during a gas attack by Austin O. Spare, 1918. ... The Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction (usually referred to as just Biological Weapons Convention, abbreviation: BWC) was the first multilateral disarmament treaty banning the production of an entire category of weapons (with exceptions for medical... Chemical Weapons Convention Opened for signature January 13, 1993 in Paris Entered into force April 29, 1997 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by 50 states and the convening of a Preparatory Commission Parties 181 (as of Oct. ...

Contents

Chemical weapons

China signed the CWC (Chemical Weapons Convention) in January 13, 1993. The CWC was ratified April 25, 1997. [2]


Nuclear weapons

Nuclear weapons
One of the first nuclear bombs.

History of nuclear weapons
Nuclear warfare
Nuclear arms race
Weapon design / testing
Effects of nuclear explosions
Delivery systems
Nuclear espionage
Proliferation / Arsenals The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter. ... Image File history File links A picture of a mockup of the Fat Man nuclear device, from http://www. ... A nuclear fireball lights up the night in a United States nuclear test. ... The Titan II ICBM carried a 9 Mt W53 warhead, making it one of the most powerful nuclear weapons fielded by the United States during the cold war. ... US and USSR/Russian nuclear weapons stockpiles, 1945-2005. ... The first nuclear weapons, though large, cumbersome and inefficient, provided the basic design building blocks of all future weapons. ... Preparation for an underground nuclear test at the Nevada Test Site in the 1980s. ... A 23 kiloton tower shot called BADGER, fired on April 18, 1953 at the Nevada Test Site, as part of the Operation Upshot-Knothole nuclear test series. ... // Nuclear weapons delivery is the technology and systems used to place a nuclear weapon at the position of detonation, on or near its intended target. ... Nuclear espionage is the purposeful giving of state secrets regarding nuclear weapons to other states without authorization (espionage). ... World map with nuclear weapons development status represented by color. ... This is a list of nuclear weapons ordered by state and then type within the states. ...

States

US · Russia · UK · France
China · India · Pakistan
Israel · North Korea
South Africa This is a list of states with nuclear weapons. ... The United States was the first country in the world to successfully develop nuclear weapons, and is the only country to have used them in war against another nation. ...

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Nuclear policy

China is one of the five "nuclear weapons states" (NWS) under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, which China ratified in 1992. China is the only NWS to give an unqualified security assurance to non-nuclear-weapon states: Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Opened for signature July 1, 1968 in New York Entered into force March 5, 1970 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 40 other signatory states. ...

"China undertakes not to use or threaten to use nuclear weapons against non-nuclear-weapon states or nuclear-weapon-free zones at any time or under any circumstances." [3]

Chinese public policy has always been one of "no first use" while maintaining a deterrent retaliatory forced targeted for countervalue targets. Countervalue refers to the military strategy of targeting ones forces on what the enemy values most, such as infrastructure and civilians. ...


2005 white paper

In 2005, the Chinese Foreign Ministry released a white paper stating that the government would not be the first to use nuclear weapons at any time and in any circumstances. In addition, the paper went on to state that this "no first use" policy would remain unchanged in the future and that China would not use or threaten to use nuclear weapons against any non-nuclear-weapon states or nuclear-weapon-free zones. A white paper is an authoritative report; a government report outlining policy; or a document for the purpose of educating industry customers or collecting leads for a company. ...


Nuclear weapon history

The fireball from the "596" test.
The fireball from the "596" test.

Because of strict secrecy it is very difficult to determine the exact size and composition of China's nuclear forces. Several declassified U.S. government reports give historical estimates. The 1984 Defense Intelligence Agency's Defense Estimative Brief estimates the Chinese nuclear stockpile as consisting of between 150 and 160 warheads [4]. A 1993 National Security Council report estimated that China's nuclear deterrent force relied on 60 to 70 nuclear armed ballistic missiles [5]. The Defense Intelligence Agency's The Decades Ahead: 1999 - 2020 report estimates the 1999 Nuclear Weapons' Inventory as between 140 and 157 [6]. In 2004 the U.S. Department of Defense assessed that China had about 20 intercontinental ballistic missiles capable of targeting the United States [7]. In 2006 a U.S. Defense Intelligence Agency estimate presented to the Senate Armed Services Committee was that "China currently has more than 100 nuclear warheads." [8] Image File history File links 596_nuclear_test. ... Image File history File links 596_nuclear_test. ... 596 is the codename of the Peoples Republic of Chinas first nuclear weapons test. ... The Defense Intelligence Agency, or DIA, is a major producer and manager of military intelligence for the United States Department of Defense. ... In military preparation, to stockpile is to move materiel, personnel, and command and control infrastructure to a suitable location in preparation for deployment, or to move such materials into the theatre of war in preparation for combat. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Defense Intelligence Agency, or DIA, is a major producer and manager of military intelligence for the United States Department of Defense. ... The United States Department of Defense (DOD or DoD) is the federal department charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government relating directly to national security and the military. ... A Minuteman III ICBM test launch from Vandenberg AFB, California, United States. ... Overview The Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), designated in 1986 as a United States Department of Defense combat support intelligence agency was established in 1961. ... The Committee on Armed Services is a committee of the United States Senate empowered with legislative oversight of the nations military, including the Department of Defense, military research and development, nuclear energy (as pertaining to national security), benefits for members of the military, the Selective Service System and other...


China's first test of a nuclear device took place on October 16, 1964, at the Lop Nur test site. China's last nuclear test was on July 29, 1996. According to the Australian Geological Survey Organization in Canberra, the yield of the 1996 test was 1-5 kilotons. This was China's 22nd underground test and 45th test overall. Lop Nur (ear-shaped) from space, September 1992 Lop Nur (Lake Lop; alternately Lop Nor, Lo-pu po or Taitema Lake) is a group of small, now seasonal salt lakes and marshes between the Taklamakan and Kuruktag deserts in the southeastern portion of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region in northwestern China... For other uses, see Canberra (disambiguation). ...


China has made significant improvements in its miniaturization techniques since the 1980s. There have been accusations, notably by the Cox Commission, that this was done primarily by covertly acquiring the U.S.'s W88 nuclear warhead design as well as guidance ballistic missile technology. Chinese scientists have stated that they have made advances in these areas, but insist that these advances were made without espionage. Miniaturization is a continuing trend in technology toward ever-smaller scales for first mechanical, then optical and most recently electronic devices. ... U.S. Representative Chris Cox (Republican-California) chaired the Committee that produced the report. ... In 1999, information came out implying that in some U.S. designs, the primary (top) is prolate, while the secondary (bottom) is spherical. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945 lifted nuclear fallout some 18 km (60,000 feet) above the epicenter. ... A guided missile is a military rocket that can be directed in flight to change its flight path. ... Diagram of V-2, the first ballistic missile. ...


Although the total number of nuclear weapons in the Chinese arsenal is unknown, as of 2005 the various estimates vary from as low as 80 to as high as 2000. In 2004, China stated "among the nuclear-weapon states, China...possesses the smallest nuclear arsenal," implying China has fewer than the United Kingdom's 200 nuclear weapons.[9]. Several non-official sources estimate that China has around 400 nuclear warheads. However U.S. intelligence estimates suggest a much smaller nuclear force than many non-governmental organizations. [10] 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The United Kingdom was the third country to test an independently developed nuclear weapon in October 1952. ...


Estimates

2006 FAS & NRDC Report

The following table is an overview of PRC Nuclear forces taken from a November 2006 report[1] by Hans M. Kristensen Robert S. Norris, and Matthew G. McKinzie of the Federation of American Scientists and the National Resource Defense Council titled Chinese Nuclear Forces and and U.S. Nuclear War Planning. Further notes with regards to the table can be found by examining the report. The Federation of American Scientists is a non-profit organization dedicated to the proper use of science and technology for the benefit of mankind. ...

Chinese Nuclear Forces, 2006
China Designation U.S./NATO Designation Year Deployed Range (kilometers) Warhead x yield Missiles deployed Warheads deployed
Land-based missiles
DF-3A CSS-2 1971 3,100 1 x 3.3 Mt 16 16
DF-4 CSS-3 1980 5500 1 x 3.3 Mt 22 22
DF-5A CSS-4 Mod 2 1981 13,000 1 x 4-5 Mt 20 20
DF-21A CSS-5 Mod 1/2 1991 2,150 1 x 200-300 kt 35 35
DF-31 (CSS-X-10) 2006? 7,250+ 1 x ? n.a. n.a.
DF-31A n.a. 2007-2009 11,270+ 1 x ? n.a. n.a.
Subtotal 93 93
Submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs)**
JL-1 CSS-NX-3 1986 1,770+ 1 x 200-300 kt 12 12
JL-2 CSS-NX-4 2008-2010 ? 8,000+ 1 x ? n.a. n.a.
Subtotal 12 12
Total strategic ballistic missiles 105 105
Aircraft***
Hong-6 B-6 1965 3,100 1-3 x bomb 100 20
Attack (Q-5, others?) 1 x bomb 20
Subtotal 40
Short-range tactical weapons
DF-15 CSS-6 1990 600 1 x low ~300  ?
DH-10? (LACM) 2006-2007 ? ~1,500 ? 1 x low ? n.a. n.a.
Total ~145

2006 DoD Annual PRC Military Report

The following are estimates from the United States Department of Defense 2006 report to congress concerning the Military Power of the People's Republic of China

China’s Missile Inventory

Total

Launchers/

Missiles

Estimated Range
CSS-4 ICBM 20/20 8,460+ km
CSS-3 ICBM 10-14/20-24 5,470+ km
CSS-2 IRBM 6-10/14-18 2,790+ km
CSS-5 MRBM Mod 1/2 34-38/19-50 1,770+ km
JL-1 SLBM 10-14/10-14 1,770+ km
CSS-6 SRBM 70-80/275-315 600 km
CSS-7 SRBM 100-120/435-475 300 km
JL-2 SLBM DEVELOPMENTAL 8,000+ km
DF-31 ICBM DEVELOPMENTAL 7,250+ km
DF-31A ICBM DEVELOPMENTAL 11,270+ km

The Dongfeng 5 or DF-5 is a 3 stage Chinese ICBM. It has a length 32. ... The Dong Feng 4 or DF-4 (also known as the CSS-3) is a long-range two-stage Chinese Intermediate-range ballistic missile with liquid fuel (Nitric acid/UDMH). ... The Dong-Feng 21 represents Chinas first solid-fuel land-based missile. ... The Dong-Feng 15 (a. ... The JL-2 is a Chinese Submarine-launched ballistic missile with a range of 8,000 kilometers, currently in development for use in a new SSBN, Type 094. ... The Dong Feng 31 (a. ... The Dong Feng 31 (a. ...

Land-based intercontinental ballistic missiles

Although unconfirmed, most Western analysts believe China has deployed anywhere from 18 to 36 Dongfeng 5 ("East Wind") intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBM) since the 1980s. The Dongfeng 5 is a single-warhead, three-stage, liquid-fueled missile with a range of 12,000-15,000 km. In 2000, General Eugene Habiger of the U.S. Air Force, then-commander of the U.S. Strategic Command, testified before Congress that China has 18 silo-based DF-5s. [11] Since the early 21st century, the Second Artillery Corps have also deployed 12+ Solid-fueled mobile DF-31 ICBM with a range of 8,000-10,000km and up to 3 MIRV[12]. China is also developing the DF-41, an intercontinental ballistic missile with a range of 10,000-13,000 km and an estimated 3-6 multiple independently targetable reentry vehicle (MIRV) capability. The U.S. Department of Defense assessed in 2004 that the DF-41 would be deployed sometime before 2020. However, due to the lessening of political tensions, the DF-41 development may have been postponed or even completely ceased development. The DF-5 is a 3 stage Chinese ICBM. It has a length 32. ... The second stage of a Minuteman III rocket A multistage (or multi-stage) rocket is, like any rocket, propelled by the recoil pressure of the burning gases it emits as it burns fuel. ... Liquid fuels are those combustible or energy-generating molecules that can be harnessed to create mechanical energy, usually producing kinetic energy; they also must take the shape of their container. ... The maximal total range is the distance an aircraft can fly between takeoff and landing as limited by its fuel capacity. ... Army shoulder insignia for a full General General is the most senior rank currently used in the United States Army, United States Air Force and United States Marine Corps. ... The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial-warfare branch of the United States armed forces and one of the seven uniformed services. ... USSTRATCOM emblem The LeMay building United States Strategic Command (USSTRATCOM) is one of nine Unified Combatant Commands of the United States Department of Defense which controls the nuclear weapons assets of the United States military. ... A missile silo is a underground vertical cylindrical container for the storage and launching of ICBMs. ... The Dong Feng 31 (a. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The MIRVed U.S. Peacekeeper missile, with the re-entry vehicles highlighted in red. ...


Medium Range Ballistic Missiles

Approximately 55% of China's missiles are in the medium range category, targeted at regional theater targets. In warfare, a theater or theatre is normally used to define a specific geographic area within which armed conflict occurs. ...


DF-3A/CSS-2

Main article: DF-3A

According to the U.S. Department of Defense, the DF-3A represents Chinas main missile system. ...

DF-21/CSS-5

Main article: DF-21

The Dong-Feng 21 represents Chinas first solid-fuel land-based missile. ...

Long Range Ballistic Missiles

The Chinese categorize long range ballistic missiles as ones with a range between 3000-8000km[1]


DF-4/CSS-3

Main article: DF-4

The Dong Feng 4 or DF-4 (also known as the CSS-3) is a long-range two-stage Chinese Intermediate-range ballistic missile with liquid fuel (Nitric acid/UDMH). It was thought to be deployed in limited numbers in underground silos beginning in the 1970s and early 1980s. The Dong Feng 4 has a takeoff thrust of 1,224.00 kN, a takeoff weight of 82000 kg, a diameter of 2.25 m, a length of 28.05 m and a fin span of 2.74 m. The range of the Dong Feng 4, which is equipped with a 2190 kg nuclear warhead with 3300 kt explosive yield, is 4,750km. The missile uses inertial guidance, resulting in a relatively poor CEP of 1,500 meters. Dong Feng 4 is a two-stage Chinese medium-range missile with liquid fuel (Nitric acid/UDMH). ...


Intercontinental Range Ballistic Missiles

DF-5A/CSS-4 Mod 2

Main article: DF-5

The Dongfeng 5 or DF-5 is a 3 stage Chinese ICBM. It has a length 32.6 m and a diameter of 3.35 m. It weighs in at 183,000 kilograms and it has an estimated range of 12,000 to 15,000 kilometers. The DF-5 had its first flight in 1971 and was in operational service 10 years later. One of the downsides of the missile was that it took between 30 and 60 minutes to fuel. The DF-5 is a 3 stage Chinese ICBM. It has a length 32. ...


DF-31/CSS-X-10

Main article: DF-31

The Dong Feng 31 (a.k.a. CSS-9) is a medium-range, three stage, solid propellant intercontinental ballistic missile developed by the People's Republic of China. It is a land-based variant of the submarine launched JL-2. It is operated by the Second Artillery Corps (SAC) which is estimated to have 8-12 missiles in inventory[2]. The Dong Feng 31 (a. ...


Nuclear Cruise Missiles

The US DoD estimated in 2006 that the PRC was developing ground and air launched cruise missiles that could easily be converted to carry nuclear warheads once developed[2].


DH-10

Main article: DH-10

The DongHai 10 (DH-10) is a cruise missile developed in the People's Republic of China. According to Jane's Defense Weekly, the DH-10 is a second-generation land-attack cruise missile (LACM), with over 1,500 km range, integrated inertial navigation system, GPS, terrain contour mapping system, and digital scene-matching terminal-homing system. The missile is estimated to have a circular error probable (CEP) of 10 meters. The DongHai 10 (DH-10) is a cruise missile developed in the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Sea-based weapons

The submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) stockpile of the People's Liberation Army Navy (PLAN) is thought to be relatively new. China launched its first second-generation nuclear submarine in April 1981. The navy currently has a 1 Type 092 Xia class SSBN at roughly 8000 tons displacement. A second Type 092 was reportedly lost in an accident in 1985. The Type 092 is equipped with 12 JL-1 SLBMs with a range of 2150-2500 km. The JL-1 is a modified DF-21 missile. French M45 SLBM and M51 SLBM Submarine-launched ballistic missiles or SLBMs are ballistic missiles delivering nuclear weapons that are launched from submarines. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... USS Los Angeles A submarine is a specialized watercraft that can operate underwater. ... The 6,500-ton Type 092 (US Dept of Defense designation Xia-class) submarine was the first ballistic missile-carrying, nuclear-powered submarine class (SSBN) deployed by the Peoples Liberation Army Navy. ... In fluid mechanics, displacement occurs when an object is immersed in a fluid, pushing it out of the way and taking its place. ... The Dong-Feng 21 represents Chinas first solid-fuel land-based missile. ...


The Chinese navy is developing the Type 094 ballistic missile submarine, it is reported at least 1 of these have been completed. This submarine will be capable of carrying 16 of the longer ranged, more modern JL-2s with a range of approximately 8000 km. The Type 094 is a designation given (it is also referred to by the NATO reporting name Jin-class) to a new class of SSBN being developed by the Peoples Liberation Army Navy. ... The Redoutable, a French SNLE (now a museum) A ballistic missile submarine is a submarine equipped to launch ballistic missiles (SLBMs), such as the Russian SS-N-18 or the American Trident. ... The JL-2 is a Chinese Submarine-launched ballistic missile with a range of 8,000 kilometers, currently in development for use in a new SSBN, Type 094. ...


Heavy bomber group

The Xian JH-7 fighter-bomber
The Xian JH-7 fighter-bomber

China's bomber force is mostly comprised of Chinese-made versions of Soviet aircraft. The People's Liberation Army Air Force currently has 120 H-6s (a variant of the Tupolev Tu-16). These bombers are outfitted to carry nuclear as well as conventional weapons. The Chinese have also produced the Xian JH-7 Flying Leopard fighter-bomber (currently about 80 are in service) capable of delivering a nuclear strike. China has also bought the more advanced Sukhoi Su-30 from Russia; currently, about 100 Su-30s (MKK and MK2 variants) have been purchased by China. The Su-30 is capable of carrying tactical nuclear weapons. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1200x600, 238 KB) Summary Xian JH-7 From http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1200x600, 238 KB) Summary Xian JH-7 From http://www. ... The Xian JH-7 fighter-bomber The Xian Jian Hong (JH)-7, also known as the FBC-1 Flying Leopard, is a two-seater (tandem), twin-engine fighter-bomber in service with the Peoples Liberation Army Naval Air Force (PLANAF), and possibly the Peoples Liberation Army Air Force... Flag of the Peoples Liberation Army Air Force The Peoples Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF) (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Zhōngguó Rénmín Jiěfàngjūn Kōngjūn) is the aviation branch of the Peoples Liberation Army, the military of the Peoples... Tupolev Tu-16 3-view The Tupolev Tu-16 (NATO codename: Badger) was a twin-engine jet bomber used by the Soviet Union. ... A bomber is a military aircraft designed to attack ground targets, primarily by dropping boobs. ... The Xian JH-7 fighter-bomber The Xian Jian Hong (JH)-7, also known as the FBC-1 Flying Leopard, is a two-seater (tandem), twin-engine fighter-bomber in service with the Peoples Liberation Army Naval Air Force (PLANAF), and possibly the Peoples Liberation Army Air Force... The Sukhoi Su-30 (NATO reporting name Flanker-C) is a highly-agile military aircraft developed by Russias Sukhoi Aviation Corporation in 1996. ... Sukhoi-30 (Nato: Flanker-C) The Sukhoi Su-30 is a military aircraft that was produced by the Russian company Sukhoi in 1996. ... American scientists examine a mockup of a W48 155-millimeter nuclear shell, a very small tactical nuclear weapon. ...


Notes

  1. ^ a b The Federation of American Scientists & The Natural Resources Defense Council Chinese Nuclear Forces and U.S. Nuclear War Planning 202, 67 [1]
  2. ^ U.S. Department of Defense, Office of the Secretary of Defense, Military Power of the People’s Republic of China, 2006, May 23, 2006, pp. 26, 27.

See also

This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...

External links


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