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Encyclopedia > China Proper

China proper refers to the historical heartlands of China in the context of that paradigm which contrasts these heartlands with frontier regions of Outer China (including sections of Inner Asia and other regions). Territories often considered to be outside "China proper" include Xinjiang, Tibet, Manchuria (Northeast) and Inner Mongolia. The conception implicit within the term is the historical development of the Chinese political entity from a distinct "Chinese" social entity and historically later additions of other territories not originally forming part of this "Chinese" entity. Heartland is a most often a geopolitical term, often used to refer to a central area of Eurasia that is remote and inaccessible from the periphery. ... Xinjiang (Uyghur: (Shinjang); Chinese: æ–°ç–†; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsin1-chiang1; Postal Pinyin: Sinkiang), full name Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (Uyghur: شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى (Shinjang Uyghur Aptonom Rayoni); Simplified Chinese: 新疆维吾尔自治区; Traditional Chinese: 新疆維吾爾自治區; Pinyin: XÄ«njiāng Wéiwúěr ZìzhìqÅ«), is an autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Tibet (older spelling Thibet; Tibetan: བོད་, Bod, pronounced pö in Lhasa dialect; Chinese: 西藏, Pinyin: XÄ«zàng or Chinese: 藏区, Pinyin: ZàngqÅ« [the two names are used with different connotations; see Name section below]) is a region in Central Asia and the home of the Tibetan people. ... Extent of Manchuria according to Definition 1 (dark red), Definition 3 (dark red + medium red) and Definition 4 (dark red + medium red + light red) Manchuria (Manchu: Manju, Simplified Chinese: 满洲; Traditional Chinese: 滿洲; Pinyin: ) is a name given to a vast territorial region in northeast Asia. ... Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N i Měnggǔ Z qū) is an Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


"China proper" is a controversial concept. Within the People's Republic of China (PRC) it is generally accepted that territories such as Taiwan, Xinjiang, and Tibet are just as much a part of China as any other part of the country in every way. As a result, the concept of "China proper" is seen as obsolete and redundant, if not downright offensive, as it implies that some of China's territory is not as "proper", which can be used to justify separatism, a generally reviled idea. On the other hand, proponents of Taiwanese, Tibetan, Uyghur, or Inner Mongolian separatism would support such a distinction, as they want to make clear the difference between the concept of "China proper" and "China", merely a political entity. They go on to call China proper "China", and the regions for which they want to see independence the colonial acquisitions of China, not a part of China at all. However, the potential offensiveness of the term may be mitigated in the eyes of many if it is taken to mean, as it often is, the historical and cultural-anthropological center of the Chinese people, and not an intrinsically divisive political reference. Indeed, the historical evolution of China from a historical core to a later, larger entity is an indisputable fact. Xinjiang (Uyghur: (Shinjang); Chinese: æ–°ç–†; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsin1-chiang1; Postal Pinyin: Sinkiang), full name Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (Uyghur: شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى (Shinjang Uyghur Aptonom Rayoni); Simplified Chinese: 新疆维吾尔自治区; Traditional Chinese: 新疆維吾爾自治區; Pinyin: XÄ«njiāng Wéiwúěr ZìzhìqÅ«), is an autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Tibet (older spelling Thibet; Tibetan: བོད་, Bod, pronounced pö in Lhasa dialect; Chinese: 西藏, Pinyin: XÄ«zàng or Chinese: 藏区, Pinyin: ZàngqÅ« [the two names are used with different connotations; see Name section below]) is a region in Central Asia and the home of the Tibetan people. ... Separatism involves setting oneself or others apart. ... Taiwanese can refer to: A thing or a person originating from Taiwan (including Taiwanese aborigines, Han Chinese people of Hoklo or Hakka ethnicity, or more recent immigrants to Taiwan from Mainland China). ... The Tibetan people are a people living in Tibet and some surrounding areas. ... The Uyghur (Uyghur: ئۇيغۇر; Turkish: Uygur; Simplified Chinese: 维吾尔; Traditional Chinese: 維吾爾; Pinyin: Wéiwúěr) are a Turkic people, forming one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China. ... World map of colonialism at the end of the Second World War in 1945. ... The word culture comes from the Latin root colere (to inhabit, to cultivate, or to honor). ... Anthropology (from the Greek word άνθρωπος = human) consists of the study of humankind (see genus Homo). ...


Generally speaking, the idea of "China proper" is quite volatile from time to time and its definition often changes depending on the context. Territories that are incorporated or ceded can affect the contemporary interpretation of "China Proper". It should be noted in this light that the government of the Republic of China (on Taiwan) has never formally rescinded its claim that the territory now forming Mongolia, an independent nation, is rightfully a part of China. National motto: None Official language Mandarin Chinese Capital and largest city Taipei President Chen Shui-bian Vice President Annette Lu Premier Su Tseng-chang Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 138th 35,980 km² 2. ...

Contents


Origin of the Concept

It is not clear when the concept of "China Proper" was created. According to Harry Harding, it can date back to the year of 1827 (see Harding 1993). But as early as in 1795, William Winterbotham adopted this concept in his book (see Winterbotham, 1795). When describing the Chinese empire, Winterbotham divided it into three parts: China Proper, Chinese Tartary, and the States Tributary to China. He adopted the opinions of Du Halde and Grosier and suspected that the name of "China" came from Qin empire. He then said: "China, properly so called,... comprehends from north to south eighteen degrees; its extent from east to west being somewhat less..." Harry Harding (1946 --) is a leading China specialist in the United States. ... Naval Battle of Navarino by Carneray 1827 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Tartary or Great Tartary (Latin: Tartaria or Tataria Magna) was a name used by Europeans from the Middle Ages until the twentieth century to designate a great tract of northern and central Asia stretching from the Caspian Sea and the Urinal Mountains to the Pacific Ocean inhabited by Turkic and... A tribute (from Latin tribulum, contribution) is wealth one party gives to another as a sign of respect or, as was often case in historical contests, of submission or allegiance. ... The Qin Dynasty (Wade-Giles) (秦朝 221 BC - 207 BC) was preceded by the Zhou Dynasty and followed by the Han Dynasty in China. ...


However, to introduce China proper, Winterbotham still used the outdated 15-province system, which had been specifically used between 1645 and 1662 in the early Qing Dynasty. Although Ming Dynasty also had 15 basic local divisions (Buzhengshi Si; Chinese: 布政使司; Pinyin: Bùzhèngshǐ Sī), Winterbotham uses the name of Kiang-nan (江南, Jiāngnán) province, which had been called Nan-Zhili (南直隶, Nán-Zhílì) in Ming Dynasty and was renamed to Kiang-nan (i.e., Jiangnan) in 1645, the second year after Manchu conquered China. This 15-province system was gradually replaced by the 18-province system between 1662 to 1667. Use of 15-province system and the name of Kiang-nan Province indicates that the concept of "China Proper" probably had appeared between 1645 and 1662. The Qing Dynasty (Manchu: daicing gurun; Chinese: 清朝; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: ching chao), sometimes known as the Manchu Dynasty, was a dynasty founded by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro, in what is today northeast China, expanded into China proper and the surrounding territories of Inner Asia, establishing the... The Míng Dynasty (Chinese: 明朝; Pinyin: Míng Cháo) was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644. ... Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: 汉语拼音; Traditional Chinese: 漢語拼音; Hanyu Pinyin: , lit. ... The Míng Dynasty (Chinese: 明朝; Pinyin: Míng Cháo) was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644. ... The Manchu (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: 满族; Traditional Chinese: 滿族; Hanyu pinyin: ) are a Tungusic people who originated in Northeastern Asia, collectively known in English as Manchuria. ...


Extent of "China" and "China proper"

The extent of "China proper" is generally accepted to be that of ancient Han Chinese dynasties. This, however, is a highly ambiguous definition, since different dynasties had very different borders, some extending deep into territory that would not be considered part of China proper (or even China), while others relinquished huge areas (including all of North China on several occasions) to non-Han Chinese neighbours. A convenient guideline for the bounds of "China proper" are the 18 provinces under the Manchu Qing Dynasty, which used a different administrative structure for each of the 5 regions it governed: Manchuria, China proper, Mongolia, Xinjiang, and Tibet. This guideline, however, is rough at best, since the cultural, ethnic, and political reality of China is much more complicated than what 5 regions with distinct defined borders can explain or illustrate. Another source of ambiguity arises from changes in extent that the 18 provinces themselves went through: many border areas, such as Taiwan, eastern Kham, central Inner Mongolia, and frontier regions bordering Burma were part of the 18 provinces for only part of the Qing Dynasty, and / or their status was ambiguous at best for part or all of the period. Han Chinese (Simplified Chinese: 汉族; Traditional Chinese: 漢族; Pinyin: hànzú) is a term which refers to the majority ethnic group within China and the largest single human ethnic group in the world. ... Northern Peoples Republic of China region. ... Han Chinese (Simplified Chinese: 汉族; Traditional Chinese: 漢族; Pinyin: hànzú) is a term which refers to the majority ethnic group within China and the largest single human ethnic group in the world. ... The Manchu (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: 满族; Traditional Chinese: 滿族; Hanyu pinyin: ) are a Tungusic people who originated in Northeastern Asia, collectively known in English as Manchuria. ... The Qing Dynasty (Manchu: daicing gurun; Chinese: 清朝; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: ching chao), sometimes known as the Manchu Dynasty, was a dynasty founded by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro, in what is today northeast China, expanded into China proper and the surrounding territories of Inner Asia, establishing the... Extent of Manchuria according to Definition 1 (dark red), Definition 3 (dark red + medium red) and Definition 4 (dark red + medium red + light red) Manchuria (Manchu: Manju, Simplified Chinese: 满洲; Traditional Chinese: 滿洲; Pinyin: ) is a name given to a vast territorial region in northeast Asia. ... Xinjiang (Uyghur: (Shinjang); Chinese: æ–°ç–†; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsin1-chiang1; Postal Pinyin: Sinkiang), full name Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (Uyghur: شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى (Shinjang Uyghur Aptonom Rayoni); Simplified Chinese: 新疆维吾尔自治区; Traditional Chinese: 新疆維吾爾自治區; Pinyin: XÄ«njiāng Wéiwúěr ZìzhìqÅ«), is an autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Tibet (older spelling Thibet; Tibetan: བོད་, Bod, pronounced pö in Lhasa dialect; Chinese: 西藏, Pinyin: XÄ«zàng or Chinese: 藏区, Pinyin: ZàngqÅ« [the two names are used with different connotations; see Name section below]) is a region in Central Asia and the home of the Tibetan people. ... Kham (Wylie transliteration: Khams, Tibetan: ཁམས, Simplified Chinese: 康, Pinyin: Kāng) province is one of several provinces comprising traditional Tibet (the others Amdo and Ãœ-Tsang). ... Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N i Měnggǔ Z qū) is an Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


The general rough extent given for China proper is as follows: it is bounded north by Inner Mongolia, west by Tibet and Xinjiang, southwest by Burma, south by Tonkin (northern Vietnam) and the Gulf of Tonkin, southeast by the South China Sea, east by the East China Sea, the Yellow Sea, Bohai Sea and Manchuria. Its area is approximately 4,000,000 km². Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N i Měnggǔ Z qū) is an Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Tibet (older spelling Thibet; Tibetan: བོད་, Bod, pronounced pö in Lhasa dialect; Chinese: 西藏, Pinyin: XÄ«zàng or Chinese: 藏区, Pinyin: ZàngqÅ« [the two names are used with different connotations; see Name section below]) is a region in Central Asia and the home of the Tibetan people. ... Xinjiang (Uyghur: (Shinjang); Chinese: æ–°ç–†; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsin1-chiang1; Postal Pinyin: Sinkiang), full name Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (Uyghur: شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى (Shinjang Uyghur Aptonom Rayoni); Simplified Chinese: 新疆维吾尔自治区; Traditional Chinese: 新疆維吾爾自治區; Pinyin: XÄ«njiāng Wéiwúěr ZìzhìqÅ«), is an autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Tonkin, also spelled Tongkin or Tongking, is the northernmost part of Vietnam, south of Chinas Yunnan and Guangxi Provinces, east of northern Laos, and west of the Gulf of Tonkin. ... The Gulf of Tonkin is located to the east of Vietnam. ... The South China Sea, showing surrounding countries and neighbouring seas and oceans The South China Sea is a marginal sea, part of the Pacific Ocean, encompassing an area from Singapore to the Strait of Taiwan of around 3,500,000 km². It is the largest sea body after the five... The East China Sea is a marginal sea and part of the Pacific Ocean. ... ... A map showing the location of the Bohai Sea. ... Extent of Manchuria according to Definition 1 (dark red), Definition 3 (dark red + medium red) and Definition 4 (dark red + medium red + light red) Manchuria (Manchu: Manju, Simplified Chinese: 满洲; Traditional Chinese: 滿洲; Pinyin: ) is a name given to a vast territorial region in northeast Asia. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ...


Outer China was the homeland of many non-Han Chinese tribes, like the Xiongnu and other minority ethnic groups in Chinese history, some of which tried to invade China proper, but sometimes became partially or wholly Sinicized, such as the Manchus. Han Chinese (Simplified Chinese: 汉族; Traditional Chinese: 漢族; Pinyin: hànzú) is a term which refers to the majority ethnic group within China and the largest single human ethnic group in the world. ... A Xiongnu belt buckle. ... Any non clear-cut connection is denoted by a question mark (?) beside the equivalences. ... Sinicization, or less commonly Sinification, is to make things Chinese. ... The Manchu (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: 满族; Traditional Chinese: 滿族; Hanyu pinyin: ) are a Tungusic people who originated in Northeastern Asia, collectively known in English as Manchuria. ...


The term in Chinese

The Eighteen Provinces of China proper in 1875. Twenty years later in 1895, Taiwan was ceded to Japan in the Treaty of Shimonoseki. Note also the northwestern parts of Yunnan province, now a part of Myanmar, and the northwestern frontiers of Gansu province stretching deep into modern-day Xinjiang.
The Eighteen Provinces of China proper in 1875. Twenty years later in 1895, Taiwan was ceded to Japan in the Treaty of Shimonoseki. Note also the northwestern parts of Yunnan province, now a part of Myanmar, and the northwestern frontiers of Gansu province stretching deep into modern-day Xinjiang.

There is no direct translation for the term China proper in the Chinese language. China proper no longer corresponds to ethnic, demographic, or administrative boundaries in China, and the concept is generally unfamiliar to contemporary Chinese; moreover, the concept of "China proper" may imply that China proper is "separate" from Manchuria, Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang, or Tibet, or that areas outside of China proper are somehow less a part of China; many Chinese would find this idea offensive. Contemporary Chinese usually think in terms of modern political divisions of China, which do not correspond well to the boundaries of these historical regions. Download high resolution version (652x844, 122 KB) source[1] S.E. ASIA & FAR EAST China Milner (Thomas) 1875 China Proper. ... Download high resolution version (652x844, 122 KB) source[1] S.E. ASIA & FAR EAST China Milner (Thomas) 1875 China Proper. ... The Shunpanrō hall where the Treaty of Shimonoseki was signed The Treaty of Shimonoseki (Japanese: 下関条約, Shimonoseki Jōyaku), known as the Treaty of Maguan (T. Chinese: 馬關條約, S. Chinese: 马关条约;) in China, was signed at the Shunpanrō hall on April 17, 1895 between the Empire of Japan and the Qing Empire. ... Yunnan (Simplified Chinese: 云南; Traditional Chinese: 雲南; Hanyu pinyin: ) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located in the far southwestern corner of the country. ... Gansu (Simplified Chinese: 甘肃; Traditional Chinese: 甘肅; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kan-su, Kansu, or Kan-suh) is a province located in the northwest of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Xinjiang (Uyghur: (Shinjang); Chinese: æ–°ç–†; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsin1-chiang1; Postal Pinyin: Sinkiang), full name Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (Uyghur: شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى (Shinjang Uyghur Aptonom Rayoni); Simplified Chinese: 新疆维吾尔自治区; Traditional Chinese: 新疆維吾爾自治區; Pinyin: XÄ«njiāng Wéiwúěr ZìzhìqÅ«), is an autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Chinese (written) language (pinyin: zhōngw n) written in Chinese characters The Chinese language (汉语/漢語, 华语/華語, or 中文; Pinyin: H nyǔ, Hu yǔ, or Zhōngw n) is a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... Extent of Manchuria according to Definition 1 (dark red), Definition 3 (dark red + medium red) and Definition 4 (dark red + medium red + light red) Manchuria (Manchu: Manju, Simplified Chinese: 满洲; Traditional Chinese: 滿洲; Pinyin: ) is a name given to a vast territorial region in northeast Asia. ... Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N i Měnggǔ Z qū) is an Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Xinjiang (Uyghur: (Shinjang); Chinese: æ–°ç–†; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsin1-chiang1; Postal Pinyin: Sinkiang), full name Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (Uyghur: شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى (Shinjang Uyghur Aptonom Rayoni); Simplified Chinese: 新疆维吾尔自治区; Traditional Chinese: 新疆維吾爾自治區; Pinyin: XÄ«njiāng Wéiwúěr ZìzhìqÅ«), is an autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Tibet (older spelling Thibet; Tibetan: བོད་, Bod, pronounced pö in Lhasa dialect; Chinese: 西藏, Pinyin: XÄ«zàng or Chinese: 藏区, Pinyin: ZàngqÅ« [the two names are used with different connotations; see Name section below]) is a region in Central Asia and the home of the Tibetan people. ... Due to Chinas large population and area, the political divisions of China have always consisted of several levels since ancient times. ...


To express the concept, one way is to refer to zhongguo benbu (中国本部) or zhongguo bentu (中国本土), the same construction used to distinguish countries like the United Kingdom and France from their colonial empires. However, this is immediately and deeply offensive to most mainland Chinese, and will likely be construed as an insult on the nation of China. A second way is to refer to "areas populated by Han Chinese", or hanzu qu (汉族区); but this circumlocution would include most of Manchuria, much of Inner Mongolia, and scattered parts of Xinjiang and Tibet, but would in turn exclude much of southwestern China that was traditionally part of China proper but is populated by various non-Han Chinese minority groups. Another possibility is zhongyuan (中原), which literally means "Central Realm". Ancient texts often describe successful foreign conquest of China proper (Mongols or Manchus for example), as annexation of 'zhongyuan' . However, in geographic usage, zhongyuan is a narrow term that usually refers to only the North China Plain, or, even more narrowly, the central parts of Henan province. One final possibility is the Eighteen Provinces (一十八行省 Pinyin: Yishiba Xingsheng, or 十八省 Shiba Sheng), which were the eighteen provinces under the Qing Dynasty that roughly corresponded to China proper. But the term "eighteen provinces" would be incomprehensible to a contemporary Chinese, because the People's Republic of China now administers 33 province-level divisions (of which 22 are provinces). Han Chinese (Simplified Chinese: 汉族; Traditional Chinese: 漢族; Pinyin: hànzú) is a term which refers to the majority ethnic group within China and the largest single human ethnic group in the world. ... Extent of Manchuria according to Definition 1 (dark red), Definition 3 (dark red + medium red) and Definition 4 (dark red + medium red + light red) Manchuria (Manchu: Manju, Simplified Chinese: 满洲; Traditional Chinese: 滿洲; Pinyin: ) is a name given to a vast territorial region in northeast Asia. ... Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N i Měnggǔ Z qū) is an Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Xinjiang (Uyghur: (Shinjang); Chinese: æ–°ç–†; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsin1-chiang1; Postal Pinyin: Sinkiang), full name Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (Uyghur: شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى (Shinjang Uyghur Aptonom Rayoni); Simplified Chinese: 新疆维吾尔自治区; Traditional Chinese: 新疆維吾爾自治區; Pinyin: XÄ«njiāng Wéiwúěr ZìzhìqÅ«), is an autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Tibet (older spelling Thibet; Tibetan: བོད་, Bod, pronounced pö in Lhasa dialect; Chinese: 西藏, Pinyin: XÄ«zàng or Chinese: 藏区, Pinyin: ZàngqÅ« [the two names are used with different connotations; see Name section below]) is a region in Central Asia and the home of the Tibetan people. ... Han Chinese (Simplified Chinese: 汉族; Traditional Chinese: 漢族; Pinyin: hànzú) is a term which refers to the majority ethnic group within China and the largest single human ethnic group in the world. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... The Manchu (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: 满族; Traditional Chinese: 滿族; Hanyu pinyin: ) are a Tungusic people who originated in Northeastern Asia, collectively known in English as Manchuria. ... The North China Plain (Chinese: 华北平原; pinyin: ) also called the Middle Plain (Chinese: 中原; pinyin: ), is made of the deposits of the Huang He (Yellow River) and is the largest alluvial plain of eastern Asia. ... Henan (Chinese: 河南; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-nan), is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located in the central part of the country. ... Due to Chinas large population and area, the political divisions of China have always consisted of several levels since ancient times. ... Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: 汉语拼音; Traditional Chinese: 漢語拼音; Hanyu Pinyin: , lit. ... The Qing Dynasty (Manchu: daicing gurun; Chinese: 清朝; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: ching chao), sometimes known as the Manchu Dynasty, was a dynasty founded by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro, in what is today northeast China, expanded into China proper and the surrounding territories of Inner Asia, establishing the...


The 18 provinces were:

These provinces still exist today, but their boundaries have changed. Beijing and Tianjin were eventually split from Hebei, Shanghai from Jiangsu, Chongqing from Sichuan, and Hainan from Guangdong. Guangxi is now an autonomous region. Hebei (Chinese: 河北; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-pei; Postal System Pinyin: Hopeh) is a northern province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... In politics, a capital (also called capital city or political capital — although the latter phrase has an alternative meaning based on an alternative meaning of capital) is the principal city or town associated with its government. ... Henan (Chinese: 河南; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-nan), is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located in the central part of the country. ... Shandong (Simplified Chinese: 山东; Traditional Chinese: 山東; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shan-tung) is a coastal province of eastern Peoples Republic of China. ... Shanxi (Chinese: 山西; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shan-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Shansi) is a province in the northern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Shaanxi (Simplified Chinese: 陕西; Traditional Chinese: 陝西; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shan-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Shensi, pronounced like Shahn-shee) is a north-central province of the Peoples Republic of China, and includes portions of the Loess Plateau on the middle reaches of the Yellow River as well as the Qinling... Gansu (Simplified Chinese: 甘肃; Traditional Chinese: 甘肅; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kan-su, Kansu, or Kan-suh) is a province located in the northwest of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Hubei (Chinese: 湖北; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hu-pei; Postal System Pinyin: Hupeh) is a central province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Hunan (Chinese: 湖南; Hanyu Pinyin: ) is a province of China, located in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and south of Lake Dongting (hence the name Hunan, meaning south of the lake). Hunan is sometimes called 湘 (pinyin: Xiāng) for short, after the Xiang River which runs through the province. ... Guangdong (Simplified Chinese: 广东; Traditional Chinese: 廣東; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kuang-tung; Postal System Pinyin: Kwangtung or Canton Province, Jyutping: gwong2 dung1), is a province on the south coast of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Guangxi (Zhuang: Gvangjsih; old orthography: ; Simplified Chinese: 广西; Traditional Chinese: 廣西; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kuang-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Kwangsi), full name Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (Zhuang: Gvangjsih Bouxcuengh Swcigih; old orthography: ; Simplified Chinese: 广西壮族自治区; Traditional Chinese: 廣西壯族自治區; Hanyu pinyin: ) is a Zhuang autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Sichuan (Chinese: 四川; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ssu-ch`uan; Postal Pinyin: Szechwan and Szechuan) is a province in central-western China with its capital at Chengdu. ... Yunnan (Simplified Chinese: 云南; Traditional Chinese: 雲南; Hanyu pinyin: ) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located in the far southwestern corner of the country. ... Guizhou (Simplified Chinese: 贵州; Traditional Chinese: è²´å·ž; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kuei-chou; also spelled Kweichow) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China located in the southwestern part of the country. ... Jiangsu (Simplified Chinese: 江苏; Traditional Chinese: 江蘇; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chiang-su; Postal System Pinyin: Kiangsu) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located along the east coast of the country. ... Jiangxi (Chinese: 江西; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chiang-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Kiangsi) is a southern province of the Peoples Republic of China, spanning from the banks of the Yangtze River in the north into hillier areas in the south. ... Zhejiang (Chinese: 浙江; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Che-chiang; Postal System Pinyin: Chehkiang or Chekiang) is an eastern coastal province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Fujian (Chinese: 福建; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Fu-chien; Postal System Pinyin: Fukien, Foukien; local transliteration Hokkien from Min Nan Hok-kiàn) is one of the provinces on the southeast coast of China. ... Anhui (Chinese: 安徽; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: An-hui; Postal System Pinyin: Ngan-hui, Anhwei or An-hwei) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Beijing (Chinese: 北京, , IPA:), a city in northern China (formerly spelled in English as Peking or Peiking), is the capital of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... Tianjin (Chinese: 天津; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Postal System Pinyin: Tientsin) is one of the four municipalities of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Shanghai (Chinese: 上海 pinyin: ; Shanghainese: Zanhe ), situated on the banks of the Yangtze River Delta in East China, is Chinas largest city. ... Chongqing (Simplified Chinese: 重庆; Traditional Chinese: 重慶; Pinyin: Chóngqìng; Wade-Giles: Chung-ching; Postal System Pinyin: Chungking) is the largest and most populous of the Peoples Republic of Chinas four provincial-level municipalities, and the only one in the less densely populated western half of China. ... Sichuan (Chinese: 四川; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ssu-ch`uan; Postal Pinyin: Szechwan and Szechuan) is a province in central-western China with its capital at Chengdu. ... Hainan (Chinese: 海南; Hanyu Pinyin: ) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located at the southern end of the country. ... An autonomous region, used in the context of China, translates for zizhiqu (自治区 z qū), which are province-level divisions with a designated ethnic minority, and are guaranteed more rights under the constitution than provinces. ...


Taiwan

Since both China proper and Taiwan are controversial topics, the question of whether Taiwan is included within "China proper" is thorny as well.


In general, people who support independence for Taiwan, whether Taiwanese or outside observers, would argue that Taiwan is not a part of China at all, let alone China proper, from historical, cultural, or other grounds. Such a point of view often bears a strong affinity with sympathy to other independence movements such as those in Tibet and Xinjiang, and would promote receptivity to the concept of "China proper" as an entity separate and different from "China." Tibet (older spelling Thibet; Tibetan: བོད་, Bod, pronounced pö in Lhasa dialect; Chinese: 西藏, Pinyin: Xīzàng or Chinese: 藏区, Pinyin: Zàngqū [the two names are used with different connotations; see Name section below]) is a region in Central Asia and the home of the Tibetan people. ... Xinjiang (Uyghur: (Shinjang); Chinese: 新疆; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsin1-chiang1; Postal Pinyin: Sinkiang), full name Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (Uyghur: شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى (Shinjang Uyghur Aptonom Rayoni); Simplified Chinese: 新疆维吾尔自治区; Traditional Chinese: 新疆維吾爾自治區; Pinyin: Xīnjiāng Wéiwúěr Zìzhìqū), is an autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Note, however, that the exclusion of Taiwan from China proper is on a different basis to the exclusion of Tibet, xinjiang, and Manchuria. The claim of exclusion for Taiwan is based on modern political history - the different regimes ruling mainland China and Taiwan since 1949. By contrast, the exclusion of Tibet, Xinjiang, and Manchuria is based on ethnicity, culture, and geography. Tibet (older spelling Thibet; Tibetan: བོད་, Bod, pronounced pö in Lhasa dialect; Chinese: 西藏, Pinyin: Xīzàng or Chinese: 藏区, Pinyin: Zàngqū [the two names are used with different connotations; see Name section below]) is a region in Central Asia and the home of the Tibetan people. ... Xinjiang (Uyghur: (Shinjang); Chinese: 新疆; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsin1-chiang1; Postal Pinyin: Sinkiang), full name Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (Uyghur: شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى (Shinjang Uyghur Aptonom Rayoni); Simplified Chinese: 新疆维吾尔自治区; Traditional Chinese: 新疆維吾爾自治區; Pinyin: Xīnjiāng Wéiwúěr Zìzhìqū), is an autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Extent of Manchuria according to Definition 1 (dark red), Definition 3 (dark red + medium red) and Definition 4 (dark red + medium red + light red) Manchuria (Manchu: Manju, Simplified Chinese: 满洲; Traditional Chinese: 滿洲; Pinyin: ) is a name given to a vast territorial region in northeast Asia. ... The highlighted area in the map is what is commonly known as mainland China. Mainland China (Simplified Chinese: 中国大陆; Traditional Chinese: 中國大陸; Pinyin: Zhōnggúo Dàlù, lit. ... Tibet (older spelling Thibet; Tibetan: བོད་, Bod, pronounced pö in Lhasa dialect; Chinese: 西藏, Pinyin: Xīzàng or Chinese: 藏区, Pinyin: Zàngqū [the two names are used with different connotations; see Name section below]) is a region in Central Asia and the home of the Tibetan people. ... Xinjiang (Uyghur: (Shinjang); Chinese: 新疆; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsin1-chiang1; Postal Pinyin: Sinkiang), full name Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (Uyghur: شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى (Shinjang Uyghur Aptonom Rayoni); Simplified Chinese: 新疆维吾尔自治区; Traditional Chinese: 新疆維吾爾自治區; Pinyin: Xīnjiāng Wéiwúěr Zìzhìqū), is an autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Extent of Manchuria according to Definition 1 (dark red), Definition 3 (dark red + medium red) and Definition 4 (dark red + medium red + light red) Manchuria (Manchu: Manju, Simplified Chinese: 满洲; Traditional Chinese: 滿洲; Pinyin: ) is a name given to a vast territorial region in northeast Asia. ...


On the other hand, a stance not supporting independence for Taiwan, and in favour of a unified China, are more likely to consider Taiwan a part of China in every respect. In fact, this perspective would lead those who hold it to deny the very viability of "China proper" as a concept, since they are likely to equate "China proper" with "China", and consider every part of China, Han Chinese or otherwise, to be equally integral and indivisible. Han Chinese (Simplified Chinese: 汉族; Traditional Chinese: 漢族; Pinyin: hànzú) is a term which refers to the majority ethnic group within China and the largest single human ethnic group in the world. ...


See Political status of Taiwan for more on the dispute over Taiwan's status. Taiwan Strait Area The controversy regarding the political status of Taiwan hinges on whether Taiwan, including the Pescadores (Penghu), should remain the effective territory of the Republic of China (ROC), become unified with the territories now governed by the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), or become the Republic of...


See also

Greater China (Traditional Chinese: 大中華地區; Simplified Chinese: 大中华地区; Pinyin: Dà Zhōnghuá Dìqū) is a term referring collectively to mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, and territories administered by the Republic of China (Taiwan), usually in the context of their financial markets and economies. ... The North China Plain (Chinese: 华北平原; pinyin: ) also called the Middle Plain (Chinese: 中原; pinyin: ), is made of the deposits of the Huang He (Yellow River) and is the largest alluvial plain of eastern Asia. ... The Sinocentric World: The area of usage of Chinese characters at its maximum extent (to a considerable extent following the borders of the Qing dynasty). ... Outer Mongolia makes up Mongolia (presently a sovereign state) and Tannu Uriankhai (the majority of which is the modern-day Tuva Republic, a federal subject of the Russian Federation), while Inner Mongolia (内蒙古; Nèi Měnggǔ) is an autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Outer Manchuria is in light red on this map. ... Annam, literally meaning Pacified South, is a region of central Vietnam that fell under Chinese rule in 111 BC as Annan (安南). Known locally as Trung Bộ, meaning Central Boundary, it was formerly a kingdom the size of Sweden with its capital at Huế. It had been seized by the French... Zhonghua Minzu (Traditional Chinese: 中華民族; Simplified Chinese: 中华民族; Hanyu Pinyin: ), is a Mandarin Chinese term that in modern China, describes a notion of a Chinese nationality transcending ethnic divisions- in other words, a civic nationality as opposed to an ethnic one, with a central loyalty to China as a whole. ...

References

  • Du Halde (1736). The General History of China. Containing a geographical, historical, chronological, political and physical description of the empire of China, Chinese-Tartary, Corea and Thibet..., London: J. Watts.
  • Grosier (1788). A General Description of China. Containing the topography of the fifteen provinces which compose this vast empire, that of Tartary, the isles, and other tributary countries..., London: G.G.J. and J. Robinson.
  • Winterbotham, William (1795). An Historical, Geographical, and Philosophical View of the Chinese Empire..., London: Printed for, and sold by the editor; J. Ridgway; and W. Button. (pp.35-37: General Description of the Chinese Empire → China Proper→ 1. Orgin of its Name, 2. Extent, Boundaries, &c.)
  • Darby, William (1827). Darby's Universal Gazetteer, or, A New Geographical Dictionary. ... Illustrated by a ... Map of the United States (p.154),. Philadelphia: Bennett and Walton.
  • Harding, Harry (1993). "The Concept of 'Greater China': Themes, Variations, and Reservations", in The China Quarterly, 1993, pp.660-686.

Harry Harding (1946 --) is a leading China specialist in the United States. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
China proper - definition of China proper in Encyclopedia (868 words)
A convenient guideline for the bounds of "China proper" are the 18 provinces under the Manchu Qing Dynasty, which used a different administrative structure for each of the 5 regions it governed: Manchuria, China proper, Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang, and Tibet.
The general rough extent given for China proper is as follows: it is bounded north by Inner Mongolia, west by Tibet and Xinjiang, southwest by Burma, south by Tonkin (northern Vietnam) and the Gulf of Tonkin, southeast by the South China Sea, east by the East China Sea, the Yellow Sea, Bohai Sea and Manchuria.
The Eighteen Provinces of China proper in 1875.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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