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China

Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... “PRC” redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Republic_of_China. ... Anthem National Anthem of the Republic of China Capital (and largest city) Taipei1 Official languages Standard Mandarin (GuóyÇ”), Taiwanese, Aborigine Government Semi-presidential system  -  President Chen Shui-bian  -  Vice President Annette Lu  -  Premier Chang Chun-hsiung Establishment Xinhai Revolution   -  Independence declared October 10, 1911   -  Republic established January 1, 1912... // China may refer to: China, a civilization in East Asia States and regions Peoples Republic of China (PRC), a state governing Mainland China, Hong Kong, and Macau; often simply called China Mainland China, which is the territory governed by the PRC except for Hong Kong and Macau, is also... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 681 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (937 × 825 pixel, file size: 91 KB, MIME type: image/png) 中华人民共和国自2002年省级区划勘界结束以来的行政区划。 Administrative divisions of the Peoples Republic of China, since the definitive survey of provincial boundaries concluded in 2002. ...

Map of People's Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC)
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Simplified Chinese:
This article contains Chinese text.
Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Chinese characters.

China is a cultural region, ancient civilization, and nations in East Asia. It is one of the world's oldest civilizations, consisting of states and cultures dating back more than six millennia. The stalemate of the last Chinese Civil War has resulted in two political states using the name China: the People's Republic of China (PRC), commonly known as "China," which controls mainland China, Hong Kong, and Macau; and the Republic of China (ROC), commonly known as "Taiwan," which controls the island of Taiwan and its surrounding islands. See Political status of Taiwan. Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Hakka (Simplified Chinese: 客家话, Traditional Chinese: 客家話, Pronunciation in Hakka: Hak-ka-fa/-va, Pinyin: Kèjiāhuà) is a spoken variation of the Chinese language spoken predominantly in southern China by the Hakka ethnic group and descendants in diaspora throughout East and Southeast Asia and around the world. ... Guangdong Romanization refers to the four romanization schemes published by the Guangdong Provincial Education Department in 1960 for transliterating the Standard Cantonese, Teochew, Hakka, and Hainanese spoken varieties of Chinese. ... Standard Mandarin, also known as Standard Chinese, Modern Standard Chinese or Standard spoken Chinese, is the official modern Chinese spoken language used by the Peoples Republic of China, the Republic of China (Taiwan), and Singapore. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Tongyong Pinyin (Chinese: ; pinyin: Tōngyòng pÄ«nyÄ«n; literally Universal/General Usage Sound-combining) is the current official romanization of the Chinese language adopted by the national government (although not all local governments) of the Republic of China (Taiwan) since 2002. ... Wade-Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration) system for the Chinese language based on Mandarin. ... Image File history File links Zh-zhongguo. ... Min (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; POJ: Bân hong-giân; BUC: Mìng huŏng-ngiòng) is a general term for a group of dialects of the Chinese language spoken in the southeastern Chinese province of Fujian as well as by migrants from this province in Guangdong (around Chaozhou-Swatou... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... Cantonese is a major dialect group or language of the Chinese language, a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... Jyutping (sometimes spelled Jyutpin) is a romanization system for Standard Cantonese developed by the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong (LSHK) in 1993. ... Image File history File links Zhongwen. ... Japanese name Kanji: Kana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quoc Ngu: Hantu: A Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is a logogram used in writing Chinese, Japanese, sometimes Korean, and formerly Vietnamese. ... Chinese Opera, one of the many aspects of traditional Chinese culture The Culture of China (Chinese: 中國文化/中国文化) is home to one of the worlds oldest and most complex civilizations covering a history of over 5,000 years. ... Central New York City. ... A nation is an imagined community of people created by a national ideology, to which certain norms and behavior are usually attributed. ... East Asia Geographic East Asia. ... Central New York City. ... Chinese Opera, one of the many aspects of traditional Chinese culture The Culture of China (Chinese: 中國文化/中国文化) is home to one of the worlds oldest and most complex civilizations covering a history of over 5,000 years. ... Combatants Nationalist Party of China Communist Party of China Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949) 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) The Chinese Civil War... “PRC” redirects here. ... ... Anthem National Anthem of the Republic of China Capital (and largest city) Taipei1 Official languages Standard Mandarin (GuóyÇ”), Taiwanese, Aborigine Government Semi-presidential system  -  President Chen Shui-bian  -  Vice President Annette Lu  -  Premier Chang Chun-hsiung Establishment Xinhai Revolution   -  Independence declared October 10, 1911   -  Republic established January 1, 1912... This is a list of islands under the Republic of China administration (all claimed by the Peoples Republic of China). ... Taiwan Strait area The controversy regarding the political status of Taiwan hinges on whether Taiwan, including the Pescadores (Penghu), should remain the effective territory of the Republic of China (ROC), become unified with the territories now governed by the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), or become the Republic of...


China is one of the world's oldest continuous civilizations. It has the world's longest continuously used written language system, and the source of some of the world's great inventions, including the Four Great Inventions of ancient China: paper, the compass, gunpowder, and printing. The Chinese written language consists of a writing system stretching back nearly 4000 years. ... This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... One of the five major steps in the ancient Chinese papermaking process, first outlined by Cai Lun in the 2nd century. ... A blank sheet of paper Paper is a commodity of thin material produced by the amalgamation of fibers, typically vegetable fibers composed of cellulose, which are subsequently held together by hydrogen bonding. ... A compass (or mariners compass) is a navigational instrument for finding directions on the Earth. ... Smokeless powder Gunpowder is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot gas which can be used as a propellant in firearms and fireworks. ... For other uses, see Print. ...

Contents

Etymology

Main article: Names of China

China is most commonly called Zhōngguó ( or ) in Mandarin Chinese. The term can be literally translated into English as "Central Kingdom"[1] or "Central Country" [2], the less accurate translations are "Middle Country" and "Middle Kingdom". In ancient times the name referred to the "Central States" along the Yellow River valley and was not associated with any single political entity. The nomenclature gradually evolved to mean the lands under direct imperial rule. The different usages and names of China in world languages are generally consistent with how knowledge of Chinas existence first reached each culture. ... Standard Mandarin, also known as Standard Chinese, Modern Standard Chinese or Standard spoken Chinese, is the official modern Chinese spoken language used by the Peoples Republic of China, the Republic of China (Taiwan), and Singapore. ...


English and many other languages use various forms of the name "China" and the prefix "Sino-" or "Sin-". These forms are thought to derive from the name of the Qin Dynasty that first unified the country (221-206 BCE)."Qin" is pronounced as "Chin" which is considered the possible root of the word "China". [3] The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... In linguistics, a prefix is a type of affix that precedes the morphemes to which it can attach. ... Qin empire in 210 BC Capital Xianyang Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism Government Monarchy History  - Unification of China 221 BC  - Death of Qin Shi Huangdi 210 BC  - Surrender to Liu Bang 206 BC The Qin Dynasty (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Chao) (221 BC - 206 BC) was preceded... “Era Vulgaris” redirects here. ...


History

Main articles: History of China and Timeline of Chinese history
History of China
ANCIENT
3 Sovereigns and 5 Emperors
Xia Dynasty 2070–1600 BCE
Shang Dynasty 1600–1046 BCE
Zhou Dynasty 1122–256 BCE
  Western Zhou
  Eastern Zhou
    Spring and Autumn Period
    Warring States Period
IMPERIAL
Qin Dynasty 221 BCE–206 BCE
Han Dynasty 206 BCE–220 CE
  Western Han
  Xin Dynasty
  Eastern Han
Three Kingdoms 220–280 CE
  Wei, Shu & Wu
Jin Dynasty 265–420 CE
  Western Jin
  Eastern Jin 16 Kingdoms
304–439 CE
Southern & Northern Dynasties 420–589 CE
Sui Dynasty 581–619 CE
Tang Dynasty 618–907 CE
5 Dynasties &
10 Kingdoms

907–960 CE
Liao Dynasty
907–1125 CE
Song Dynasty
960–1279 CE
  Northern Song W. Xia Dyn.
  Southern Song Jin Dyn.
Yuan Dynasty 1271–1368 CE
Ming Dynasty 1368–1644 CE
Qing Dynasty 1644–1911 CE
MODERN
Republic of China 1911–present
People's Republic
of China
1949–present

Republic of China
(on Taiwan) The history of China is told in traditional historical records that go back to the Three sovereigns and five emperors about 5,000 years ago, supplemented by archaeological records dating to the 16th century BC. China is one of the worlds oldest continuous civilizations. ... The following is a timeline of the history of China. ... Image File history File links History_of_China. ... The history of China is told in traditional historical records that go back to the Three sovereigns and five emperors about 5,000 years ago, supplemented by archaeological records dating to the 16th century BC. China is one of the worlds oldest continuous civilizations. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Xia Dynasty (Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: hsia-chao), ca. ... Remnants of advanced, stratified societies dating back to the Shang period have been found in the Yellow River Valley. ... Boundaries of the Western Zhou Dynasty (1050 - 771 BC) in China The Zhou Dynasty (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chou Ch`ao; 1122 BC to 256 BC [1] preceded by the Shang Dynasty and followed by the Qin Dynasty in China. ... Alternative meaning: Zhou Dynasty (690 CE - 705 CE) The Zhou Dynasty (周朝; Wade-Giles: Chou Dynasty) (late 10th century BC to late 9th century BC - 256 BC) followed the Shang (Yin) Dynasty and preceded the Qin Dynasty in China. ... Alternative meaning: Zhou Dynasty (690 CE - 705 CE) The Zhou Dynasty (周朝; Wade-Giles: Chou Dynasty) (late 10th century BC to late 9th century BC - 256 BC) followed the Shang (Yin) Dynasty and preceded the Qin Dynasty in China. ... The Spring and Autumn Period (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) was a period in Chinese history, which roughly corresponds to the first half of the Eastern Zhou dynasty (from the second half of the 8th century BC to the first half of the 5th century). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Qin empire in 210 BC Capital Xianyang Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism Government Monarchy History  - Unification of China 221 BC  - Death of Qin Shi Huangdi 210 BC  - Surrender to Liu Bang 206 BC The Qin Dynasty (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Chao) (221 BC - 206 BC) was preceded... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication to Cao Wei 220... The Han Dynasty (Traditional Chinese characters: 漢朝, Simplified Chinese characters: 汉朝, pinyin Hàncháo 202 BC - AD 220) followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. ... The Xin Dynasty (Chinese: 新朝; Hanyu Pinyin: xÄ«n cháo; meaning New Dynasty; 8-23) was a dynasty (even though, contrary to the usual meaning of a dynasty, it had but one emperor) in Chinese history. ... The Han Dynasty (Traditional Chinese characters: 漢朝, Simplified Chinese characters: 汉朝, pinyin Hàncháo 202 BC - AD 220) followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. ... The Three Kingdoms period (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a period in the history of China, part of an era of disunity called the Six Dynasties. ... The territories of Cao Wei (in yellow), AD 262 Capital Luoyang Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 220 - 226 Cao Pi  - 226 - 239 Cao Rui  - 239 - 254 Cao Fang  - 254 - 260 Cao Mao  - 260 - 265 Cao Huan Historical era Three Kingdoms  - Cao Pi taking over the throne of the Later... The Kingdom of Shu (蜀 shǔ) (221 – 263) was one of the Three Kingdoms competing for control of China after the fall of the Han Dynasty. ... The territories of Eastern Wu (in green), AD 262 Capital Jianye Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 222 - 252 Sun Quan  - 252 - 258 Sun Liang  - 258 - 264 Sun Xiu  - 264 - 280 Sun Hao Historical era Three Kingdoms  - Establishment 222  - Sun Quan declares himself emperor 229  - Conquest of Wu by Jin... The Jìn Dynasty (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; 265–420), one of the Six Dynasties, followed the Three Kingdoms period and preceded the Southern and Northern Dynasties in China. ... The Jin Dynasty (晉 pinyin jìn, 265-420) followed the Three Kingdoms and preceded the Southern and Northern Dynasties in China. ... The Jin Dynasty (晉 pinyin jìn, 265-420) followed the Three Kingdoms and preceded the Southern and Northern Dynasties in China. ... The Sixteen Kingdoms, or less commonly the Sixteen States, were a collection of numerous short-lived sovereignities in the China proper and neighboring areas from AD 304 to 439 after the retreat of the Jin Dynasty (265-420) to South China and before the establishment of the Northern Dynasties. ... This article is about China. ... The Sui Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; 581-619[1]) followed the Southern and Northern Dynasties and preceded the Tang Dynasty in China. ... China under the Tang Dynasty (yellow) and its sphere of influence Capital Changan (618–904) Luoyang (904-907) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 618-626 Emperor Gaozu  - 684, 705-710 Emperor Zhongzong  - 684, 710-712 Emperor Ruizong  - 904-907 Emperor Ai History  - Li Yuan... Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (Traditional Chinese: 五代十國 Simplified Chinese: 五代十国 Hanyu pinyin: WÇ”dàishíguó) (907-960) was a period of political upheaval in China, between the Tang Dynasty and Song Dynasty. ... The Liao Dynasty (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: Liáo Cháo), 907-1125, also known as the Khitan Empire, was an empire in northern China that ruled over the regions of Manchuria, Mongolia, and parts of northern China proper. ... Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Kaifeng (960–1127) Linan (1127–1276) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 960-976 Emperor Taizu  - 1126–1127 Emperor Qinzong  - 1127–1162 Emperor Gaozong  - 1278–1279 Emperor Bing History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou... Alternative meaning: Song Dynasty (420-479) The Song dynasty (Chinese: 宋朝) was a ruling dynasty in China from 960-1279. ... Location of Western Xia in 1142 Capital Xingqing Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1038-1048 Emperor Jingzong  - 1226-1227 Emperor Modi History  - Established 1038  - Surrendered to the Mongol Empire 1227 Population  - peak est. ... Alternative meaning: Song Dynasty (420-479) The Song dynasty (Chinese: 宋朝) was a ruling dynasty in China from 960-1279. ... The JÄ«n Dynasty (Jurchen: Anchu; Chinese: 金朝; Pinyin: ; 1115-1234), also known as the Jurchen dynasty, was founded by the Wanyan (完顏 Wányán) clan of the Jurchen, the ancestors of the Manchus who established the Qing Dynasty some 500 years later. ... The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 Ukhaatu Khan History  - establishing the Yuan Dynasty 1271  - Fall of Dadu September 14, 1368 Population  - 1330 est. ... Ming China under the Yongle Emperor Capital Nanjing (1368-1421) Beijing (1421-1644) Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1368-1398 Hongwu Emperor  - 1627-1644 Chongzhen Emperor History  - Established in Nanjing January 23, 1368  - Fall of Beijing 1644  - End of the Southern Ming April, 1662 Population  - 1393 est. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Territory of Qing China in 1892 Capital Shengjing (1636-1644) Beijing (1644-1912) Language(s) Chinese Manchu Mongolian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1636-1643 Huang Taiji  - 1908-1912 Xuantong Emperor Prime Minister  - 1911 Yikuang  - 1911-1912 Yuan Shikai History  - Establishment of the Late... ‹ The template below (History of China - BC) is being considered for deletion. ... The history of the Peoples Republic of China details the history of mainland China since October 1, 1949, when, after a near complete victory by the Communist Party of China (CPC) in the Chinese Civil War, Mao Zedong proclaimed the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) from atop Tiananmen... National motto: None Official language Mandarin Chinese Capital and largest city Taipei President Chen Shui-bian Premier Frank Hsieh Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 138th 35,980 km² 2. ...


Timeline of Chinese history
Dynasties in Chinese history
Military history of China
History of Chinese art
History of science and technology in China
History of Education in China
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Ancient China was one of the earliest centers of human civilization. Chinese civilization was also one of the few to invent writing independently, the others being Mesopotamia, Ancient India (Indus Valley Civilization), Maya Civilization, Ancient Greece (Minoan Civilization), and Ancient Egypt. The following is a timeline of the history of China. ... Below is a table of the dynasties in Chinese history. ... ... Chinese art is art that, whether ancient or modern, originated in or is practiced in China or by Chinese artists or performers. ... The history of science and technology in China is both long and rich with science and technological contribution. ... The Chinese education was accompanied with the birth of Chinese civilization. ... China is the worlds oldest continuous major civilization, with written records dating back about 3,500 years and with 5,000 years being commonly used by Chinese as the age of their civilization. ... Central New York City. ... Writing systems evolved in the Early Bronze Age (late 4th millennium BC) out of neolithic proto-writing. ... Mesopotamia refers to the region now occupied by modern Iraq, and parts of eastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, and southwest Iran. ... The History of India begins with the Indus Valley Civilization, which flourished in the north-western part of the Indian subcontinent from 3300 to 1700 BC. This Bronze Age civilization was followed by the Iron Age Vedic period, which witnessed the rise of major kingdoms known as the Mahajanapadas. ... The // (c. ... The Maya civilization is a Mesoamerican civilization, noted for the only known fully developed written language of the pre-Columbian Americas, as well as its spectacular art, monumental architecture, and sophisticated mathematical and astronomical systems. ... The Temple of Athena, the Parthenon Ancient Greece is a period in Greek history that lasted for around nine hundred years. ... The Minoan Civilisation was a pre-Hellenic Bronze Age civilization which arose on Crete, a Greek island in the Aegean Sea. ... Ancient Egypt was a long-standing civilization in northeastern Africa. ...


Prehistory

Archaeological evidence suggests that the earliest humans in China date to 2.24 million to 250,000 years ago.[4][5] A cave in Zhoukoudian (near present-day Beijing) has fossils dated at somewhere between 300,000 to 550,000 years. Zhoukoudian Peking Man Site - the Caves (taken in July 2004) Zhoukoudian or Choukoutien (周口店) is a cave system near Beijing in China. ... Beijing (Chinese: 北京; pinyin: BÄ›ijÄ«ng; Wade-Giles: Peiching or Pei-ching; IPA: ; literally Northern capital;  ), a metropolis in northern China, is the capital of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ...


The earliest evidence of a fully modern human in China comes from Liujiang County, Guangxi, where a cranium has been found and dated to approximately 67,000 years ago. Although much controversy persists over the dating of the Liujiang remains,[6][7] a partial skeleton from Minatogawa in Okinawa, Japan has been dated to 18,250 ± 650 to 16,600 ± 300 years ago, so modern humans must have reached China before that time. Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, a autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China, is made up of the following three levels of administrative division: 14 prefecture-level divisions all of which are prefecture-level cities 97 county-level divisions 7 county-level cities 56 counties 34 districts 12 ethnic... Guangxi (Zhuang: Gvangjsih; old orthography: ; Simplified Chinese: 广西; Traditional Chinese: 廣西; Pinyin: GuÇŽngxÄ«; Wade-Giles: Kuang-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Kwangsi), full name Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (Zhuang: Gvangjsih Bouxcuengh Swcigih; old orthography: ; Simplified Chinese: 广西壮族自治区; Traditional Chinese: 廣西壯族自治區; Pinyin: GuÇŽngxÄ« Zhuàngzú ZìzhìqÅ«) is a Zhuang autonomous region of... This article is about the prefecture. ...


Dynastic rule

Chinese tradition names the first dynasty Xia, but it was considered mythical until scientific excavations found early bronze-age sites at Erlitou in Henan Province.[8] Archaeologists have since uncovered urban sites, bronze implements, and tombs in locations cited as Xia's in ancient historical texts, but it is impossible to verify that these remains are of the Xia without written records from the period. Below is a table of the dynasties in Chinese history. ... The king or wang (王 wáng) was the Chinese head of state from the Zhou to Qin dynasties. ... // For other uses, see Dynasty (disambiguation). ... The Xia Dynasty (Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: hsia-chao), ca. ... The Bronze Age was a period in the civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use) consisted of techniques for smelting copper and tin from naturally occurring outcroppings of ore, and then alloying those metals in order to cast bronze. ... The Erlitou culture (二里頭文化) (1900 BC to 1500 BC) is a name given by archaeologists to an Early Bronze Age society that existed in China. ... Henan (Chinese: 河南; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-nan), is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located in the central part of the country. ...

Some of the thousands of life-size Terracotta Warriors of the Qin Dynasty, ca. 210 BC.

The second dynasty, the loosely feudal Shang, definitely settled along the Yellow River in eastern China from the 18th to the 12th century BCE. They were invaded from the west by the Zhou, who ruled from the 12th to the 5th century BCE. The centralized authority of the Zhou was slowly eroded by warlords. Many strong, independent states continually warring with each other in the Spring and Autumn period, only occasionally deferring to the Zhou king. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixels Full resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 255 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Terracotta Army detail, Xian, China Photo by Peter Morgan http://www. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixels Full resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 255 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Terracotta Army detail, Xian, China Photo by Peter Morgan http://www. ... The Terracotta Army (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; literally soldier and horse funerary statues) or Terracotta Warriors and Horses is a collection of 8,099 life-size Chinese terra cotta figures of warriors and horses located near the Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ). The figures were discovered... Qin empire in 210 BC Capital Xianyang Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism Government Monarchy History  - Unification of China 221 BC  - Death of Qin Shi Huangdi 210 BC  - Surrender to Liu Bang 206 BC The Qin Dynasty (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Chao) (221 BC - 206 BC) was preceded... Remnants of advanced, stratified societies dating back to the Shang period have been found in the Yellow River Valley. ... Yellow River (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: Huáng Hé ; Wade-Giles: Hwang-ho, sometimes simply called the River in ancient Chinese) is the second longest river in China (after the Yangtze River) and the seventh longest in the world, at 3,395 miles long [1]. Originating in the... Boundaries of the Western Zhou Dynasty (1050 - 771 BC) in China The Zhou Dynasty (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chou Ch`ao; 1122 BC to 256 BC [1] preceded by the Shang Dynasty and followed by the Qin Dynasty in China. ... The Spring and Autumn Period (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) was a period in Chinese history, which roughly corresponds to the first half of the Eastern Zhou dynasty (from the second half of the 8th century BC to the first half of the 5th century). ...


The first unified Chinese state was established by the Qin Dynasty in 221 BCE, when the office of the Emperor was set up and the Chinese language was forcibly standardized. This state did not last long, as its legalist policies soon led to widespread rebellion. Qin empire in 210 BC Capital Xianyang Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism Government Monarchy History  - Unification of China 221 BC  - Death of Qin Shi Huangdi 210 BC  - Surrender to Liu Bang 206 BC The Qin Dynasty (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Chao) (221 BC - 206 BC) was preceded... An emperor is a (male) monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. ... Legalism, in the Western sense, is an approach to the analysis of legal questions characterized by abstract logical reasoning focusing on the applicable legal text, such as a constitution, legislation, or case law, rather than on the social, economic, or political context. ...


The subsequent Han Dynasty ruled China between 206 BCE and 220 CE, and created a lasting Han cultural identity among its populace that would last to the present day. The Han Dynasty expanded China's territory considerably with military campaigns reaching Korea, Vietnam, Mongolia and Central Asia, and also helped establish the Silk Road in Central Asia. Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication to Cao Wei 220... Languages Chinese languages Religions Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ... Korea (Korean: 한국 in South Korea or ì¡°ì„  in North Korea, see below) is a geographic area, civilization, and former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... The Silk Road Silk Route redirects here. ...


After Han's collapse, another period of disunion followed, including the highly chivalric period of the Three Kingdoms. Independent Chinese states of this period also opened diplomatic relations with Japan, introducing the Chinese writing system there. In 580 CE, China was reunited under the Sui. However, the Sui Dynasty was short-lived after a failure in the Goguryeo-Sui Wars (598-614) weakened it. The Three Kingdoms period (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a period in the history of China, part of an era of disunity called the Six Dynasties. ... The Sui Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; 581-619[1]) followed the Southern and Northern Dynasties and preceded the Tang Dynasty in China. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ...

A 10th or 11th century Longquan stoneware vase from Zhejiang province, during the Song Dynasty.

Under the succeeding Tang and Song dynasties, Chinese technology and culture reached its zenith. The Song dynasty was the first government in world history to issue paper money and the first Chinese polity to establish a permanent standing navy. Between the 10th and 11th centuries, the population of China doubled in size. This growth came about through expanded rice cultivation in central and southern China, along with the production of abundant food surpluses. Within its borders, the Northern Song Dynasty had a population of some 100 million people. The Song Dynasty was a culturally rich period in China for the arts, philosophy, and social life. Landscape art and portrait paintings were brought to new levels of maturity and complexity since the Tang Dynasty, and social elites gathered to view art, share their own, and make trades of precious artworks. Philosophers such as Cheng Yi and Chu Hsi reinvigorated Confucianism with new commentary, infused Buddhist ideals, and emphasis on new organization of classic texts that brought about the core doctrine of Neo-Confucianism. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1920 × 2560 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1920 × 2560 pixel, file size: 1. ... Longquan celadon (龙泉青瓷) is a variety of celadon pottery produced in Longquan city, Zhejiang province, China. ... A Staffordshire stoneware plate from the 1850s with transferred copper print - (From the home of JL Runeberg) Stoneware is a category of clay and a type of ceramic distinguished primarily by its firing and maturation temperature (from about 1200°C to 1315 °C). ... Zhejiang (also spelled Chehkiang or Chekiang) is an eastern coastal province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Kaifeng (960–1127) Linan (1127–1276) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 960-976 Emperor Taizu  - 1126–1127 Emperor Qinzong  - 1127–1162 Emperor Gaozong  - 1278–1279 Emperor Bing History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou... China under the Tang Dynasty (yellow) and its sphere of influence Capital Changan (618–904) Luoyang (904-907) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 618-626 Emperor Gaozu  - 684, 705-710 Emperor Zhongzong  - 684, 710-712 Emperor Ruizong  - 904-907 Emperor Ai History  - Li Yuan... Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Kaifeng (960–1127) Linan (1127–1276) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 960-976 Emperor Taizu  - 1126–1127 Emperor Qinzong  - 1127–1162 Emperor Gaozong  - 1278–1279 Emperor Bing History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou... Polity (Greek: Πολιτεία or Πολίτευμα transliterated as Politeía or Políteuma) was originally a term used in Ancient Greece to refer to the many Greek city states that had an assembly of citizens as part of the political process. ... Landscape art depicts scenery such as mountains, valleys, trees, rivers, and forests. ... Roman-Egyptian funeral portrait of a young boy A portrait is a painting (portrait painting), photograph (portrait photography), or other artistic representation of a person, in which the face and its expression is predominant. ... For building painting, see painter and decorator. ... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... Cheng Yi (Wade-Giles: Cheng I; also known as Cheng Yichuan [Cheng I-chuan]; courtesy name: Zhengshu; 1033-1107) was a philosopher in China who worked with his older brother Cheng Hao. ... Zhu Xi (朱熹, Hanyu Pinyin: Zhū Xī, Wade-Giles: Chu Hsi) (1130 - 1200) was a Song Dynasty (960-1279) Confucian scholar who became one of most significant Neo-Confucians in China. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... Neo-Confucianism (Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is a form of Confucianism that was primarily developed during the Song Dynasty, but which can be traced back to Han Yu and Li Ao in the Tang Dynasty. ...


In 1271, the Mongol leader and the fifth Khagan of the Mongol Empire Kublai Khan established the Yuan Dynasty, with the last remnant of the Song Dynasty falling to the Yuan in 1279. A peasant named Zhu Yuanzhang overthrew the Mongols in 1368 and founded the Ming Dynasty. Ming Dynasty thinkers such as Wang Yangming would further critique and expand Neo-Confucianism with ideas of individualism and innate morality that would have tremendous impact on later Japanese thought. Chosun Korea also became a nominal vassal state of Ming China and adopted much of its Neo-Confucian bureaucratic structure. China's capital was moved from Nanjing to Beijing during the early Ming Dynasty. The Ming fell to the Manchus in 1644, who then established the Qing Dynasty. An estimated 25 million people died during the Manchu conquest of Ming Dynasty (1616-1644).[9] Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... Khagan or Great Khan (Old Turkic , alternatively spelled Chagan, Khaghan, Kagan, Qagan, Qaghan), is a title of imperial rank in the Mongolian and Turkic languages equal to the status of emperor and someone who rules a Khaganate (empire, greater than an ordinary Khan, but often referred to as such in... Expansion of the Mongol Empire Another picture of Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Их Монгол Улс, literally meaning Greater Mongol Nation; 1206–1405) was the largest contiguous land empire in history, covering over 33 million km² [1] (12 million square miles) at its peak, with an estimated population of over 100 million... Kublai Khan, Khubilai Khan or the last of the Great Khans (September 23, 1215[8] - February 18, 1294[9]) (Mongolian: Хубилай хаан, Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ), was a Mongol military leader. ... The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 Ukhaatu Khan History  - establishing the Yuan Dynasty 1271  - Fall of Dadu September 14, 1368 Population  - 1330 est. ... The Hongwu Emperor (October 21, 1328 - June 24, 1398), personal name Zhu Yuanzhang, was the founder of the Ming Dynasty of China, and the first emperor of this dynasty from 1368 to 1398. ... Ming China under the Yongle Emperor Capital Nanjing (1368-1421) Beijing (1421-1644) Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1368-1398 Hongwu Emperor  - 1627-1644 Chongzhen Emperor History  - Established in Nanjing January 23, 1368  - Fall of Beijing 1644  - End of the Southern Ming April, 1662 Population  - 1393 est. ... Wang Yangming (王陽明, Japanese ÅŒ Yōmei, 1472–1529) was a Ming Chinese idealist Neo-Confucian scholar–official. ... Individualism is a term used to describe a moral, political, or social outlook that stresses human independence and the importance of individual self-reliance and liberty. ... Territory of Joseon after Jurchen conquest of King Sejong Capital Hanseong Language(s) Korean Religion Neo-Confucianism Government Monarchy Wang  - 1392 - 1398 Taejo (first)  - 1863 - 1897 Gojong (last)1 Yeong-uijeong  - 1431 - 1449 Hwang Hui  - 1466 - 1472 Han Myeonghoe  - 1592 - 1598 Ryu Seongryong  - 1894 Kim Hongjip History  - Coup of 1388... “Nanking” redirects here. ... Beijing (Chinese: 北京; pinyin: BÄ›ijÄ«ng; Wade-Giles: Peiching or Pei-ching; IPA: ; literally Northern capital;  ), a metropolis in northern China, is the capital of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... The Manchu (manju in Manchu; 滿族 (pinyin: mǎnzú) in Chinese, often shortened to 滿 (pinyin: mǎn) are an ethnic group who originated in northeastern Manchuria. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Territory of Qing China in 1892 Capital Shengjing (1636-1644) Beijing (1644-1912) Language(s) Chinese Manchu Mongolian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1636-1643 Huang Taiji  - 1908-1912 Xuantong Emperor Prime Minister  - 1911 Yikuang  - 1911-1912 Yuan Shikai History  - Establishment of the Late...

A corner tower of the Forbidden City at night; the palace served as the residence for the imperial family since the reign of the Yongle Emperor in the 15th century, up until the fall of the Qing Dynasty in 1912.
A corner tower of the Forbidden City at night; the palace served as the residence for the imperial family since the reign of the Yongle Emperor in the 15th century, up until the fall of the Qing Dynasty in 1912.

The Qing Dynasty, which lasted until 1912, was the last dynasty in China. In the 19th century the Qing Dynasty adopted a defensive posture towards European imperialism, even though it engaged in imperialistic expansion into Central Asia itself. At this time China awoke to the significance of the rest of the world, in particular the West. As China opened up to foreign trade and missionary activity, opium produced by British India was forced onto Qing China. Two Opium Wars with Britain weakened the Emperor's control. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Forbidden City (disambiguation). ... The Yongle Emperor (May 2, 1360 – August 12, 1424), born Zhu Di (Chu Ti) , was the third emperor of the Ming Dynasty of China from 1402 to 1424. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Territory of Qing China in 1892 Capital Shengjing (1636-1644) Beijing (1644-1912) Language(s) Chinese Manchu Mongolian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1636-1643 Huang Taiji  - 1908-1912 Xuantong Emperor Prime Minister  - 1911 Yikuang  - 1911-1912 Yuan Shikai History  - Establishment of the Late... For the computer game, see Imperialism (computer game). ... Western imperialism in Asia traces its roots back to the late 15th century with a series of voyages that sought a sea passage to India in the hope of establishing direct trade between Europe and Asia in spices. ... This article does not adequately cite its references. ... Anthem God Save The Queen/King British India, circa 1860 Capital Calcutta (1858-1912), New Delhi (1912-1947) Language(s) Hindi, Urdu, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1877-1901 Victoria  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - January-December 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George... There were two Opium Wars between Britain and China. ...


One result was the Taiping Civil War which lasted from 1851 to 1862. It was led by Hong Xiuquan, who was partly influenced by a misinterpretation of Christianity. Hong believed himself to be the son of God and the younger brother of Jesus. Although the Qing forces were eventually victorious, the civil war was one of the bloodiest in human history, costing at least twenty million lives (more than the total number of fatalities in the First World War), with some estimates up to two-hundred million. In addition, more costly rebellions in terms of human lives and economics followed the Taiping Rebellion such as the Punti-Hakka Clan Wars (1855-1867), Nien Rebellion (1851-1868), Muslim Rebellion (1862-1877), Panthay Rebellion (1856-1873) and the Miao Rebellion (1854-1873).[10] [11] These rebellions resulted in an estimated loss of several million lives for each rebellion and in disastrous results for the economy and the countryside.[12][13] [14] The flow of British opium led to more decline. Combatants Qing Empire United Kingdom France (United Kingdom and France join the war later) Taiping Heavenly Kingdom Commanders Xianfeng Emperor Tongzhi Emperor Empress Dowager Cixi Charles George Gordon Frederick Townsend Ward Hong Xiuquan Yang Xiuqing Xiao Chaogui Feng Yunshan Wei Changhui Shi Dakai Li Xiucheng Strength 2,000,000-5... A statue of Hong Xiuquan Hóng Xiùquán (洪秀全, Wade-Giles: Hung Hsiu-chüan, born Hong Renkun 洪仁坤, Courtesy name Huoxiu 火秀; January 10, 1812-June 1, 1864) was a Hakka Chinese Christian who led the Taiping Rebellion and established the Heavenly Kingdom of Taiping, in which he was known... Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... Punti-Hakka Clan Wars or Hakka-Punti Clan Wars (客家本地宗族戰爭 pinyin: kejia bendi zongzu zhanzheng) refers to battles or conflicts between the Hakka and Punti in Guangdong (廣東), China circa the 1850s, during the reign of the Qing Dynasty (清朝). Hakka literally means guest family, and Punti literally means original land. ... The Nien Rebellion (Chinese: 捻軍起義; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: nien-chün chi-yi; Western historians have traditionally used the Wade-Giles transcription Nien, rather than Hanyu Pinyin Nian) was a large armed uprising that took place in northern China from 1851 to 1868. ... The Dungan Revolt is also known as the Hui Minorities War and the Muslim Rebellion. ... The Panthay Rebellion (known in Chinese as the Du Wenxiu Qiyi 杜文秀起义 (1856 - 1873) was a separatist movement of the Hui people, Chinese Muslims, against the imperial Qing Dynasty in southwestern Yunnan Province, China. ...


While China was torn by continuous war, Meiji Japan succeeded in rapidly modernizing its military with its sights on Korea and Manchuria. Maneuvered by Japan, Korea declared independence from Qing China's suzerainty in 1894, leading to the First Sino-Japanese War, which resulted in China's humiliating secession of both Korea and Taiwan to Japan. Following these series of defeats, a reform plan for Qing China to become a modern Meiji-style constitutional monarchy was drafted by the Emperor Guangxu in 1898, but was opposed and stopped by the Empress Dowager Cixi, who placed Emperor Guangxu under house arrest in a coup d'état. Further destruction followed the ill-fated 1900 Boxer Rebellion against westerners in Beijing. By the early 20th century, mass civil disorder had begun, and calls for reform and revolution were heard across the country. The 38 year old Emperor Guangxu died under house arrest on November 14, 1908, suspiciously just a day before Cixi. With the throne empty, he was succeeded by Cixi's handpicked heir, his two year old nephew Puyi, who became the Xuantong Emperor, the last Chinese emperor. Guangxu's consort, who became the Empress Dowager Longyu, signed the abdication decree as regent in 1912, ending two thousand years of imperial rule in China. She died, childless, in 1913. The Meiji period ) denotes the 45-year reign of Emperor Meiji, running from 8 September 1868 (in the Gregorian calendar, 23 October 1868) to 30 July 1912. ... Korea (Korean: 한국 in South Korea or ì¡°ì„  in North Korea, see below) is a geographic area, civilization, and former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. ... Suzerainty refers to a situation in which a region or people is a tributary to a more powerful entity which allows the tributary some limited domestic autonomy but controls its foreign affairs. ... Combatants Qing Empire (China) Empire of Japan Commanders Li Hongzhang Yamagata Aritomo Strength 630,000 men Beiyang Army Beiyang Fleet 240,000 men Imperial Japanese Army Imperial Japanese Navy Casualties 35,000 dead or wounded 13,823 dead, 3,973 wounded The First Sino-Japanese War (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese... The Hundred Days Reform (Chinese: 戊戌变法, wùxÅ« biànfÇŽ, or 百日維新, bÇŽirì wéixÄ«n) was a 103-day reform from 11 June to 21 September 1898. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... The Guangxu Emperor (August 14, 1871–November 14, 1908), born Zaitian(載湉), was the tenth emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty, and the ninth Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1875 to 1908. ... Empress Dowager Cixi Empress Dowager Cixi (Chinese: 慈禧太后; Wade-Giles: Tzu-hsi) (November 29, 1835–November 15, 1908), popularly known in China as the Western Empress Dowager (西太后), and officially known posthumously as Empress Xiaoqin Xian (孝欽顯皇后), was a... Combatants Eight-Nation Alliance (ordered by contribution): Empire of Japan Russian Empire British Empire France United States German Empire Kingdom of Italy Austro-Hungarian Empire Righteous Harmony Society Chinese Empire Commanders Edward Seymour Alfred Graf von Waldersee Ci Xi Strength 20,000 initially 49,000 total 50,000-100,000... Beijing (Chinese: 北京; pinyin: BÄ›ijÄ«ng; Wade-Giles: Peiching or Pei-ching; IPA: ; literally Northern capital;  ), a metropolis in northern China, is the capital of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... PÇ”yí (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ) (February 7, 1906–October 17, 1967) of the Manchu Aisin-Gioro ruling family was the last Emperor of China between 1908 and 1924 (ruling emperor between 1908 and 1911, and non-ruling emperor between 1911 and 1924), the twelfth emperor of the Qing Dynasty... Yehenara, Empress Xiao Ding Jing (Chinese: 孝定景皇后叶赫那拉氏); is better known as the Empress Dowager Longyu (Chinese: 隆裕皇后), (given name: Jingfen 靜芬) (1868 - 1913). ...


Republic of China (1912-1949)

Main article: History of the Republic of China
See also: History of Taiwan

On January 1, 1912, the Republic of China was established, heralding the end of the Qing Dynasty. Sun Yat-sen of the Kuomintang (KMT or Nationalist Party), was proclaimed provisional president of the republic. However, Yuan Shikai, a former Qing general who had defected to the revolutionary cause, soon usurped the presidency by forcing Sun to step aside. Yuan then attempted to have himself instated emperor of a new dynasty, but died of natural causes before securing power over all of the Chinese empire. ‹ The template below (History of China - BC) is being considered for deletion. ... This article discusses the history of Taiwan (including the Pescadores). ... Anthem National Anthem of the Republic of China Capital (and largest city) Taipei1 Official languages Standard Mandarin (GuóyÇ”), Taiwanese, Aborigine Government Semi-presidential system  -  President Chen Shui-bian  -  Vice President Annette Lu  -  Premier Chang Chun-hsiung Establishment Xinhai Revolution   -  Independence declared October 10, 1911   -  Republic established January 1, 1912... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Territory of Qing China in 1892 Capital Shengjing (1636-1644) Beijing (1644-1912) Language(s) Chinese Manchu Mongolian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1636-1643 Huang Taiji  - 1908-1912 Xuantong Emperor Prime Minister  - 1911 Yikuang  - 1911-1912 Yuan Shikai History  - Establishment of the Late... Dr. Sun Yat-sen (November 12, 1866 – March 12, 1925) was a Chinese revolutionary and political leader often referred to as the father of modern China. Sun played an instrumental role in the eventual overthrow of the Qing Dynasty in 1911. ... The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chung1-kuo2 Kuo2-min2-tang3) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China, now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in... Yuan Shikai (Courtesy Weiting 慰亭; Pseudonym: Rongan 容庵 Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: Yuán ShìkÇŽi; Wade-Giles: Yüan Shih-kai) (September 16, 1859[1] – June 6, 1916) was a Chinese military official and politician during the late Qing Dynasty and the early Republic of China. ... China is the worlds oldest continuous major civilization, with written records dating back about 3,500 years and with 5,000 years being commonly used by Chinese as the age of their civilization. ...


After Yuan Shikai's death, China was politically fragmented, with an internationally recognized, but virtually powerless, national government seated in Beijing. Warlords in various regions exercised actual control over their respective territories. In the late 1920s, the Kuomintang, under Chiang Kai-shek, was able to reunify the country under its own control, moving the nation's capital to Nanjing (Nanking) and implementing "political tutelage", an intermediate stage of political development outlined in Sun Yat-sen's program for transforming China into a modern, democratic state. Effectively, political tutelage meant one-party rule by the Kuomintang. Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was the Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925. ... “Nanking” redirects here. ...


The Sino-Japanese War of 1937-1945 (part of World War II) forced an uneasy alliance between the Nationalists and the Communists as well as causing around 10 million Chinese civilian deaths. With the surrender of Japan in 1945, China emerged victorious but financially drained. The continued distrust between the Nationalists and the Communists led to the resumption of the Chinese Civil War. In 1947, constitutional rule was established, but because of the ongoing Civil War many provisions of the ROC constitution were never implemented on the mainland. The Second Sino-Japanese War was a major invasion of eastern China by Japan preceding and during World War II. It ended with the surrender of Japan in 1945. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Combatants Nationalist Party of China Communist Party of China Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949) 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) The Chinese Civil War...


The People's Republic of China and the Republic of China (1949-Present)

See also: History of Hong Kong, History of Macau, and History of Taiwan

After its victory in the Chinese Civil War, the Communist Party of China, led by Mao Zedong, gained control of most of the Mainland China. On October 1, 1949, they established the People's Republic of China, laying claim as the successor state of the ROC. The central government of the Chinese Nationalist Party led by Chiang Kai-shek was forced to retreat to the island of Taiwan, establishing the Republic of China there. Major armed hostilities ceased in 1950 but both sides are technically still at war. The history of the Peoples Republic of China details the history of mainland China since October 1, 1949, when, after a near complete victory by the Communist Party of China (CPC) in the Chinese Civil War, Mao Zedong proclaimed the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) from atop Tiananmen... The History of Hong Kong began as a coastal island geographically located in southern China. ... This article details the history of Macau. ... This article discusses the history of Taiwan (including the Pescadores). ... Combatants Nationalist Party of China Communist Party of China Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949) 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) The Chinese Civil War... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China, a position guaranteed by the countrys constitution. ... “Mao” redirects here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Succession of states. ...


Beginning in the late 1970s, the Republic of China began the implementation of full, multi-party, representative democracy in the territories still under its control (Taiwan Province, Kaohsiung and some offshore islands of Fujian province). Today, the ROC has active political participation by all sectors of society. The main cleavage in ROC politics is the issue of eventual unification with China vs. formal independence. Representative democracy is a form of government founded on the principles of popular sovereignty by the peoples representatives. ... Taiwan Province (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ) is one of the two administrative divisions, referred to as provinces, under effective control of the Republic of China, after the relocation of its government to the national capital of Taipei following the Chinese Civil War. ... Nickname: Coordinates: Country Region Southern Taiwan Capital Lingya Dist (苓雅區) Government  - Mayor Chen Chu (陳菊) Area  - City 154 km²  (59. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Fu-chien; Postal map spelling: Fukien, Foukien; local transliteration Hokkien from Min Nan Hok-kiàn) is one of the provinces on the southeast coast of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


After the Chinese Civil War, mainland China underwent a series of disruptive socioeconomic movements starting in the late 1950s with the Great Leap Forward and continued in the 1960s with the Cultural Revolution that left much of its education system and economy in shambles. With the death of its first generation Communist Party leaders such as Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai, the PRC began implementing a series of political and economic reforms advocated by Deng Xiaoping that eventually formed the foundation for mainland China's rapid economic development starting in the 1990s. Socioeconomics is the study of the social and economic impacts of any product or service offering, market intervention or other activity on an economy as a whole and on the companies, organization and individuals who are its main economic actors. ... The Great Leap Forward (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) was an economic and social plan used from 1958 to 1960 which aimed to use Chinas vast population to rapidly transform mainland China from a primarily agrarian economy dominated by peasant farmers... The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; literally Proletarian Cultural Great Revolution; often abbreviated to 文化大革命 wénhuà dà gémìng, literally Great Cultural Revolution, or even simpler, to 文革 wéngé, Cultural Revolution) in the Peoples Republic of China was a struggle for power within the... “Mao” redirects here. ... Zhou Enlai (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chou En-lai) (March 5, 1898 – January 8, 1976), a prominent Communist Party of China leader, was Premier of the Peoples Republic of China from 1949 until his death in January 1976, and Chinas foreign minister from 1949 to... Deng Xiaoping   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Teng Hsiao-ping; August 22, 1904–February 19, 1997) was a leader in the Communist Party of China (CCP). ...


Post-1978 reforms on the mainland have led to some relaxation of control over many areas of society. However, the Chinese government still has almost absolute control over politics, and it continually seeks to eradicate threats to the social, political and economic stability of the country. Examples include the fight against terrorism, jailing of political opponents and journalists, custody regulation of the press, regulation of religion, and suppression of independence/secessionist movements. In 1989, the student protests at Tiananmen Square were violently put to an end by the Chinese military after 15 days of martial law. In 1997 Hong Kong was returned to the PRC by the United Kingdom and in 1999 Macau was returned by Portugal. Terrorist redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A journalist is a person who practices journalism. ... Student flag-waver at the Tiananmen Square protests, May 1989, Tiananmen Square, Beijing. ... Tiananmen Square as seen from the Tianan Gate Tiananmen Square (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is the large plaza near the center of Beijing, China, named after the Tiananmen (literally, Gate of Heavenly Peace) which sits to its north, separating it from the Forbidden City. ...


Today, the People's Republic of China represents all of mainland China while the Republic of China continues to exist on Taiwan. The PRC is governed under the one-party system by the Chinese Communist Party, but the ROC has moved towards a more democratic government. Both states are still officially claiming to be the sole legitimate ruler of all of "China". The ROC had more international support immediately after 1949, but most international diplomatic recognitions have shifted to the PRC. The ROC representative to the United Nations was replaced by the PRC representative in 1971. The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ...


The ROC has not formally renounced its claim to all of China, or changed its official maps on which its territories include the mainland and Mongolia, but it has moved away from this identity and increasingly identifies itself as "Taiwan". Presently, the ROC does not pursue any of its claims. The PRC claims to have succeeded the ROC as the legitimate governing authority of all of China including Taiwan. Both regimes use diplomatic and economic means to compete for recognition in the international arena. Currently, the PRC is recognised by most world organisations, and has prevented official recognition of the ROC by organisations such as the World Health Organization and the International Olympic Committee. Today, there are 24 U.N. member states that maintain official diplomatic relations with the ROC while the majority of the U.N. member states maintain official diplomatic relations with the PRC. The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that acts as a coordinating authority on international public health. ... Stamp The International Olympic Committee (French: Comité International Olympique) is an organization based in Lausanne, Switzerland, created by Pierre de Coubertin and Demetrios Vikelas on June 23, 1894. ... The Republic of China (ROC) , now only constituting the island of Taiwan and a few smaller islands, is currently recognized by 24 states, including the Holy See of Vatican City. ...


Territory and environment

Historical political divisions

Main article: History of the political divisions of China

Top-level political divisions of China have altered as administrations changed. Top levels included circuits and provinces. Below that, there have been prefectures, subprefectures, departments, commanderies, districts, and counties. Recent divisions also include prefecture-level cities, county-level cities, towns and townships. This article talks about the history of the political divisions of China. ... Circuits in the common law In law, a circuit is an appellate judicial district commonly seen in the court systems of many nations. ... A province, in the context of China, is a translation of sheng (省 shÄ›ng), which is an administrative division of China. ... Prefecture, in the context of China, is used to refer to several unrelated political divisions in both ancient and modern China. ... Subprefecture is an administrative level that is below prefecture or province. ... A department is geographic area of a centralized country which functions as an administrative unit. ... Commandry (British English), or commandery (American English), was the smallest division of the European landed estate or manor under the control of a commendator, or commander, of an order of knights. ... District, in the context of China, is used to refer to several unrelated political divisions in both ancient and modern China. ... In the context of Political divisions of China, county is the standard English translation of 县 (xiàn). ... A prefecture-level city (地级市 Pinyin: dìjí shì, literally region-level city) or prefecture-level municipality is an administrative division of the Peoples Republic of China. ... A county-level city (县级市 Pinyin: xiànjí shì) is a county-level administrative division of mainland China. ... When referring to Political Divisions of China, town is the standard English translation of the Chinese 镇 (zhèn). ... When referring to Political Divisions of China, township is the standard English translation of the Chinese 乡 (xiāng). ...


Most Chinese dynasties were based in the historical heartlands of China, known as China proper. Various dynasties also expanded into peripheral territories like Inner Mongolia, Manchuria, Xinjiang, and Tibet. The Manchu-established Qing Dynasty and its successors, the ROC and the PRC, incorporated these territories into China. China proper is generally thought to be bounded by the Great Wall and the edge of the Tibetan Plateau. Manchuria and Inner Mongolia are found to the north of the Great Wall of China, and the boundary between them can either be taken as the present border between Inner Mongolia and the northeast Chinese provinces, or the more historic border of the World War II-era puppet state of Manchukuo. Xinjiang's borders correspond to today's administrative Xinjiang. Historic Tibet occupies all of the Tibetan Plateau. China is traditionally divided into the boundary being the Huai River and Qinling Mountains. China proper refers to the historical heartlands of China in the context of that paradigm which contrasts these heartlands with frontier regions of Outer China (including sections of Inner Asia and other regions). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... Tibet (see Name section below for other spellings) is a plateau region in Central Asia and the indigenous home to the Tibetan people. ... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Territory of Qing China in 1892 Capital Shengjing (1636-1644) Beijing (1644-1912) Language(s) Chinese Manchu Mongolian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1636-1643 Huang Taiji  - 1908-1912 Xuantong Emperor Prime Minister  - 1911 Yikuang  - 1911-1912 Yuan Shikai History  - Establishment of the Late... The Great Wall in the winter The Great Wall of China (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: Wànlǐ Chángchéng; literally The long wall of 10,000 Li (里)¹) is a Chinese fortification built from the 5th century BC until the beginning of the 17th century, in order to protect... Tibet Autonomous Region, Qinghai Province and Sichuan Province of China lie on the Tibetan Plateau. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N... The Great Wall of China (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; literally Long wall) or (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; literally The long wall of 10,000 Li (里)[1]) is a series of stone and earthen fortifications in China, built, rebuilt, and maintained between the 5th century BC and the 16th... Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N... Approximate extent Northeast China (Simplified Chinese: 东北; Traditional Chinese: 東北; pinyin: Dōngběi; literally east-north), historically known as Manchuria, is the name of a region (ca. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ... Flag Anthem National Anthem of Manchukuo Map of Manchukuo Capital Hsinking Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1932 - 1934 Datong (Chief Executive) (Aisingioro Puyi)  - 1934 - 1945 Kangde-Emperor (Aisingioro Puyi) Prime Minister  - 1932 - 1935 Zheng Xiaoxu  - 1935 - 1945 Zhang Jinghui Historical era World War II  - Established 1932  - Disestablished 1945 Manchukuo (1932–1945... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... Tibet (see Name section below for other spellings) is a plateau region in Central Asia and the indigenous home to the Tibetan people. ... Tibet Autonomous Region, Qinghai Province and Sichuan Province of China lie on the Tibetan Plateau. ... Huai He The Huai River (Chinese: 淮河; pinyin: ) is about mid-way between the Yellow River (Huang He) and the Yangtze River. ... The Qinling Mountains (Chinese Simplified 秦岭, Chinese Traditional 秦嶺) are a major mountain range in central China. ...


Geography and climate

Main article: Geography of China
Main geographic features and regions of China.
Composite satellite photo
Composite satellite photo

China ranges from mostly plateaus and mountains in the west to lower lands in the east. Principal rivers flow from west to east, including the Yangtze (central), the Huang He (Yellow river, north-central), and the Amur (northeast), and sometimes toward the south (including the Pearl River, Mekong River, and Brahmaputra), with most Chinese rivers emptying into the Pacific Ocean. NASA composite satellite photo The geography of China stretches some 5,026 kilometers across the East Asian landmass bordering the East China Sea, Korea Bay, Yellow Sea, and South China Sea, between North Korea and Vietnam in a changing configuration of broad plains, expansive deserts, and lofty mountain ranges, including... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x733, 1391 KB) The Geography of China The map was drawn by Alan Mak based on a world map in Wikimedia Commons. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x733, 1391 KB) The Geography of China The map was drawn by Alan Mak based on a world map in Wikimedia Commons. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x958, 226 KB) NASA World Wind screenshot. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x958, 226 KB) NASA World Wind screenshot. ... For alternate uses of the term, see Plateau (disambiguation). ... Mount Cook, a mountain in New Zealand A mountain is a landform that extends above the surrounding terrain in a limited area. ... This bridge across the Danube River links Hungary with Slovakia. ... The Yangtze River or Chang Jiang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), or Drichu in Tibetan (Tibetan: འབ; Wylie: bri chu) is the longest river in Asia and the third longest in the world, after the Nile in Africa, and the Amazon in South America. ... For other Yellow Rivers, see Yellow River (disambiguation). ... The Amur River or Heilong Jiang (Russian: Амур; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , or Black Dragon River; Mongolian: , Khar Mörön or Black River; Manchu: Sahaliyan Ula, literal meaning Black River) is the worlds eighth longest river, forming the border between the Russian Far East and Northeastern China. ... Pearl River in Guangzhou Pearl River at night, Guangzhou The Zhu Jiang, (珠江 Pinyin: ZhÅ« Jiāng), or Pearl River, is Chinas third longest river (2,200 km, after the Yangtze River and the Yellow River), and second largest by volume (after the Yangtze). ... View of the Mekong before the sunset The Mekong is one of the worlds major rivers. ... The Brahmaputra is one of the major rivers of Asia. ...


In the east, along the shores of the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea there are extensive and densely populated alluvial plains. On the edges of the Inner Mongolian plateau in the north, grasslands can be seen. Southern China is dominated by hills and low mountain ranges. In the central-east are the deltas of China's two major rivers, the Huang He and Yangtze River. Most of China's arable lands lie along these rivers; they were the centers of China's major ancient civilizations. Other major rivers include the Pearl River, Mekong, Brahmaputra and Amur. Yunnan Province is considered a part of the Greater Mekong Subregion, which also includes Myanmar, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, and Vietnam[15]. ... The East China Sea is a marginal sea and part of the Pacific Ocean. ... Alluvium is soil land deposited by a river or other running water. ... The Himalaya as seen from the International Space Station A mountain range is a group of mountains bordered by lowlands or separated from other mountain ranges by passes or rivers. ... Nile River delta, as seen from Earth orbit. ... For other Yellow Rivers, see Yellow River (disambiguation). ... The Yangtze River or Chang Jiang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), or Drichu in Tibetan (Tibetan: འབ; Wylie: bri chu) is the longest river in Asia and the third longest in the world, after the Nile in Africa, and the Amazon in South America. ... The are two Pearl Rivers: The Pearl River (China) (See also the Pearl River Delta) The Pearl River in the U.S. states of Mississippi and Louisiana Pearl River is also the name of some places in the United States of America: Pearl River, Louisiana Pearl River, Mississippi Pearl River... The Mekong is one of the worlds major rivers. ... The Brahmaputra is one of the major rivers of Asia. ... The Amur River or Heilong Jiang (Russian: Амур; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , or Black Dragon River; Mongolian: , Khar Mörön or Black River; Manchu: Sahaliyan Ula, literal meaning Black River) is the worlds eighth longest river, forming the border between the Russian Far East and Northeastern China. ...


In the west, the north has a great alluvial plain, and the south has a vast calcareous tableland traversed by hill ranges of moderate elevation, and the Himalayas, containing Earth's highest point, Mount Everest. The northwest also has high plateaus with more arid desert landscapes such as the Takla-Makan and the Gobi Desert, which has been expanding. During many dynasties, the southwestern border of China has been the high mountains and deep valleys of Yunnan, which separate modern China from Burma, Laos and Vietnam. Calcareous formed from or containing a high proportion of Calcium carbonate. ... In geology and earth science, a plateau (alternatively spelt in a false French spelling plâteau, the real spelling in French being plateau) is an area of highland, usually consisting of relatively flat open country if the uplift was recent in geologic history. ... The panoramic view from Connors Hill, near Swifts Creek, Victoria A hill is a landform that extends above the surrounding terrain, in a limited area. ... Perspective view of the Himalaya and Mount Everest as seen from space looking south-south-east from over the Tibetan Plateau. ... “Everest” redirects here. ... This article is about arid terrain. ... The Taklamakan is a desert of Central Asia, in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Gobi Desert lies in the territory of the Peoples Republic of China and the Country of Mongolia. ... Lyskamm, 4 527 m, Pennine Alps Blue Ridge Mountains in Shenandoah national park, Virginia A mountain is a landform that extends above the surrounding terrain in a limited area. ... Yunan redirects here. ...


The Paleozoic formations of China, excepting only the upper part of the Carboniferous system, are marine, while the Mesozoic and Tertiary deposits are estuarine and freshwater or else of terrestrial origin. Groups of volcanic cones occur in the Great Plain of north China. In the Liaodong and Shandong Peninsulas, there are basaltic plateaus. The Paleozoic Era (from the Greek palaio, old and zoion, animals, meaning ancient life) is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic eon. ... The Carboniferous is a major division of the geologic timescale that extends from the end of the Devonian period, about 359. ... For the three letter acronym, see SEA. For the ancient Jewish unit of volume, see Seah (unit). ... The Mesozoic Era is one of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic eon. ... Tertiary geological time interval covers roughly the time span between the demise of the non-avian dinosaurs and beginning of the most recent Ice Age, approximately 65 million to 1. ... Estuaries and coastal waters are among the most productive ecosystems on Earth, providing numerous ecological, economic, cultural, and aesthetic benefits and services. ... For the village on the Isle of Wight, see Freshwater, Isle of Wight. ... For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... The Liaodong Peninsula (sim. ...   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shan-tung) is a coastal province of eastern Peoples Republic of China. ... Basalt Basalt (IPA: ) is a common gray to black extrusive volcanic rock. ...


The climate of China varies greatly. The northern zone (containing Beijing) has summer daytime temperatures of more than 30 degrees Celsius and winters of Arctic severity. The central zone (containing Shanghai) has a temperate continental climate with very hot summers and cold winters. The southern zone (containing Guangzhou) has a subtropical climate with very hot summers and mild winters. The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, commonly used to define the Arctic region border Satellite image of the Arctic surface The Arctic is the region around the Earths North Pole, opposite the Antarctic region around the South Pole. ... Shanghai (Chinese: ; pinyin:  ; Wu (Long-short): ZÃ¥nhae; Shanghainese (IPA): ), situated on the banks of the Yangtze River Delta in East China, is the largest city of the Peoples Republic of China and the seventh largest in the world. ... For the usage in virology, see temperate (virology). ... Regions containing a continental climate exist in portions of Northern Hemisphere continents, and also at higher elevations in certain other parts of the world. ... Guangzhou is the capital and the sub-provincial city of Guangdong Province in the southern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Subtropical (or semitropical) areas are those adjacent to the tropics, usually roughly defined as the ranges 23. ...


Due to a prolonged drought and poor agricultural practices, dust storms have become usual in the spring in China.[16] Dust has blown to southern China and Taiwan, and has even reached the West Coast of the United States. Water, erosion, and pollution control have become important issues in China's relations with other countries. Fields outside Benambra, Victoria suffering from drought conditions A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply. ... A sandstorm approaching Singapore, Florida, just before nightfall on April 27 2005. ... Severe soil erosion in a wheat field near Washington State University, USA. For erosion as an operation of Mathematical morphology, see Erosion (morphology) Erosion is displacement of solids (soil, mud, rock and other particles) by the agents of ocean currents, wind, water, or ice by downward or down-slope movement...

See also: Environment of China

Beijing air on a day after rain and a sunny but polluted day One of the serious negative consequences of the Peoples Republic of Chinas rapid industrial development has been increased pollution and degradation of natural resources. ...

Economy

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Society

Culture

Main article: Culture of China

During the 1970s China had a Pro Natal policy regarding birthrates. However in 1978 a two child policy was infixed in order to stabilise the soaring birth rates. In 1979 this was updated to a one child policy. The Chinese population is expected to stabilise by 2050.[citation needed] Chinese Opera, one of the many aspects of traditional Chinese culture The Culture of China (Chinese: 中國文化/中国文化) is home to one of the worlds oldest and most complex civilizations covering a history of over 5,000 years. ... The one-child policy is the current birth control policy of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Confucianism was the official philosophy throughout most of Imperial China's history, and mastery of Confucian texts was the primary criterion for entry into the imperial bureaucracy. China's traditional values were derived from various versions of Confucianism. A number of more authoritarian strains of thought have also been influential, such as Legalism. There was often conflict between the philosophies, e.g. the Song Dynasty Neo-Confucians believed Legalism departed from the original spirit of Confucianism. Examinations and a culture of merit remain greatly valued in China today. In recent years, a number of New Confucians (not to be confused with Neo-Confucianism) have advocated that democratic ideals and human rights are quite compatible with traditional Confucian "Asian values".[17] China is the worlds oldest continuous major civilization, with written records dating back about 3,500 years and with 5,000 years being commonly used by Chinese as the age of their civilization. ... The Imperial examinations (Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) in Imperial China determined who among the population would be permitted to enter the states bureaucracy. ... Wenmiao Temple, a Confucian Temple in Wuwei, Gansu, China Confucian temple in Kaohsiung, Republic of China (Taiwan). ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article applies to political and organizational ideologies. ... Legalism, in the Western sense, is an approach to the analysis of legal questions characterized by abstract logical reasoning focusing on the applicable legal text, such as a constitution, legislation, or case law, rather than on the social, economic, or political context. ... Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Kaifeng (960–1127) Linan (1127–1276) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 960-976 Emperor Taizu  - 1126–1127 Emperor Qinzong  - 1127–1162 Emperor Gaozong  - 1278–1279 Emperor Bing History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou... Neo-Confucianism (Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is a form of Confucianism that was primarily developed during the Song Dynasty, but which can be traced back to Han Yu and Li Ao in the Tang Dynasty. ... Legalism, in the Western sense, is an approach to the analysis of legal questions characterized by abstract logical reasoning focusing on the applicable legal text, such as a constitution, legislation, or case law, rather than on the social, economic, or political context. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... New Confucianism (當代新儒學 or 當代新儒學 Contemporary New Confucianism) is a new movement of Confucianism since the twentieth century. ...

Wang Yangming, a highly influential Neo-Confucian.

With the rise of Western economic and military power beginning in the mid-19th century, non-Chinese systems of social and political organization gained adherents in China. Some of these would-be reformers totally rejected China's cultural legacy, while others sought to combine the strengths of Chinese and Western cultures. In essence, the history of 20th century China is one of experimentation with new systems of social, political, and economic organization that would allow for the reintegration of the nation in the wake of dynastic collapse. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Wang Yangming (王陽明, Japanese ÅŒ Yōmei, 1472–1529) was a Ming Chinese idealist Neo-Confucian scholar–official. ... Neo-Confucianism (理學 Pinyin: Lǐxué) is a term for a form of Confucianism that was primarily developed during the Song dynasty, but which can be traced back to Han Yu and Li Ao in the Tang dynasty. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... Politics is the process by which decisions are made within groups. ...

See also: Chinese law, Chinese philosophy, and Confucianism

Chinese law is one of the oldest legal traditions in the world. ... Yin Yang symbol and Ba gua paved in a clearing outside of Nanning City, Guangxi province, China. ... Wenmiao Temple, a Confucian Temple in Wuwei, Gansu, China Confucian temple in Kaohsiung, Republic of China (Taiwan). ...

Arts, scholarship, and literature

Chinese calligraphy by Mifu, Song Dynasty, ca. 1100 CE
Chinese calligraphy by Mifu, Song Dynasty, ca. 1100 CE
A bamboo book copy of Sun Tzu's The Art of War, a 20th century reprint of a Qianlong imperial edition.
A bamboo book copy of Sun Tzu's The Art of War, a 20th century reprint of a Qianlong imperial edition.

Chinese characters have had many variants and styles throughout Chinese history. Tens of thousands of ancient written documents are still extant, from Oracle bones to Qing edicts. This literary emphasis affected the general perception of cultural refinement in China, e.g. the view that calligraphy was a higher art form than painting or drama. Manuscripts of the Classics and religious texts (mainly Confucian, Taoist, and Buddhist) were handwritten by ink brush. Calligraphy later became commercialized, and works by famous artists became prized possessions. Chinese Art (Simplified Chinese: ) has varied throughout its ancient history, divided into periods by the ruling dynasties of China and changing technology. ... Chinese art is art that, whether ancient or modern, originated in or is practiced in China or by Chinese artists or performers. ... Image File history File links Mifu01. ... Image File history File links Mifu01. ... Calligraphy is an art dating back to the earliest day of history, and widely practiced throughout China to this day. ... Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Kaifeng (960–1127) Linan (1127–1276) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 960-976 Emperor Taizu  - 1126–1127 Emperor Qinzong  - 1127–1162 Emperor Gaozong  - 1278–1279 Emperor Bing History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 518 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1866 × 2160 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 518 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1866 × 2160 pixel, file size: 1. ... The Art of War is a Chinese military treatise written during the 6th century BC by Sun Tzu. ... The Qianlong Emperor (born Hongli, September 25, 1711 – February 7, 1799) was the fifth emperor of the Manchu Qing Dynasty, and the fourth Qing emperor to rule over China. ... Japanese name Kanji: Kana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quoc Ngu: Hantu: A Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is a logogram used in writing Chinese, Japanese, sometimes Korean, and formerly Vietnamese. ... Categories: Stub ... Calligraphy is an art dating back to the earliest day of history, and widely practiced throughout China to this day. ... Confucianism (儒家 Pinyin: rújiā The School of the Scholars), sometimes translated as the School of Literati, is an East Asian ethical, religious and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of Confucius. ... For other uses of the words tao and dao, see Dao (disambiguation). ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... Ink brushes (筆, in Japanese fude) are speciality brushes used in East Asian calligraphy. ...


Chinese literature has a long past; the earliest classic work in Chinese, the I Ching or "Book of Changes" dates to around 1000 BCE. A flourishing of philosophy during the Warring States Period produced such noteworthy works as Confucius's Analects and Laozi's Tao Te Ching. (See also the Chinese classics.) Dynastic histories were often written, beginning with Sima Qian's seminal Records of the Historian written from 109 BCE to 91 BCE. The Tang Dynasty witnessed a poetic flowering, while the Four Great Classical Novels of Chinese literature were written during the Ming and Qing Dynasties. // [edit] Classical texts Main article: Chinese classic texts China has a wealth of classical literature, both poetry and prose, dating from the Eastern Zhou Dynasty (770-256 BCE) and including the Classics attributed to Confucius. ... Alternative meaning: I Ching (monk) The I Ching (Traditional Chinese: 易經, pinyin y jīng; Cantonese IPA: jɪk6gɪŋ1; Cantonese Jyutping: jik6ging1; alternative romanizations include I Jing, Yi Ching, Yi King) is the oldest of the Chinese classic texts. ... -1... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Analects (論語 Pinyin: Lúnyǔ), or Analects of Confucius, written in twenty chapters, is thought to be a composition of the late Spring and Autumn Period. ... Laozi (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Lao Tzu; also Lao Tse, Laotze, Lao Zi, and in other ways) was an ancient Chinese philosopher. ... The Tao Te Ching (道德經, Pinyin: D Jīng, thus sometimes rendered in recent works as Dao De Jing; archaic pre-Wade-Giles rendering: Tao Teh Ching; roughly translated as The Book of the Way and its Virtue (see dedicated chapter below on translating the title)) is... China has a wealth of classical literature, both poetry and prose, dating from the Eastern Zhou Dynasty (1122 BC _ 256 BC) and including the Chinese classics texts, or Chinese canonical texts. ... Sima Qian Si Ma Qian (司馬遷) (c. ... First page of the Shiji in manuscript. ... (Redirected from 109 BCE) Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC - 100s BC - 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC Years: 114 BC 113 BC 112 BC 111 BC 110 BC - 109 BC... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC - 90s BC - 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC Years: 96 BC 95 BC 94 BC 93 BC 92 BC - 91 BC - 90 BC 89 BC 88... Quatrain on Heavenly Mountain by Emperor Gaozong Hand-painted Chinese New Years duilian (對聯 couplet), a by-product of Chinese poetry, pasted on the sides of doors leading to peoples homes, at Lijiang City, Yunnan Poetry is the most highly regarded literary genre in ancient China. ... The Four Great Classical Novels (四大名著) of Chinese literature, not to be confused with the Four Books of Confucianism, in order of publication, are: Romance of the Three Kingdoms (三國演義) (1330) Water Margin (水滸傳) (also known as Outlaws of the Marsh) (1573?) Journey to the West (西遊記) (1590) Dream of the Red Chamber (紅樓夢)(1792...


Printmaking in the form of movable type was developed during the Song Dynasty. Academies of scholars sponsored by the empire were formed to comment on the classics in both printed and handwritten form. Royalty frequently participated in these discussions as well. The Song Dynasty was also a period of great scientific literature, such as Su Song's Xin Yixiang Fayao and Shen Kuo's Dream Pool Essays. There were also enormous works of historiography and large encyclopedias, such as Sima Guang's Zizhi Tongjian of 1084 CE or the Four Great Books of Song fully compiled and edited by the 11th century. Printmaking is the process of making artworks by printing, normally on paper. ... A case of cast metal type pieces and typeset matter in a composing stick Movable type is the system of printing and typography using movable pieces of metal type, made by casting from matrices struck by letterpunches. ... Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Kaifeng (960–1127) Linan (1127–1276) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 960-976 Emperor Taizu  - 1126–1127 Emperor Qinzong  - 1127–1162 Emperor Gaozong  - 1278–1279 Emperor Bing History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou... Su Song 蘇頌 (1020 – 1101), style Zirong 子容, was a Chinese engineer. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Shen Shen Kuo or Shen Kua (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) (1031–1095 AD) was a polymath Chinese scientist of the Song Dynasty (960–1279 AD). ... Shen Kuo (沈括) (1031-1095 AD) The Dream Pool Essays (Pinyin: Meng Xi Bi Tan; Wade-Giles: Meng Chi Pi Tan Chinese: 梦溪笔谈) was an extensive book written by the polymath Chinese scientist and statesman Shen Kuo (1031-1095) by 1088 AD, during the Song Dynasty (960-1279) of China. ... Sima Guang (Chinese:司马光; Wade-Giles:Szuma Kuang, 1019-1086) was a Chinese historian, scholar and statesman of the Song Dynasty. ... Zizhi Tongjian (traditional Chinese character: 資治通鑑; simplified Chinese character: 资治通鉴; pinyin Zīzhì Tōngjìan, Wade-Giles Tzu-chih tung-chien) is known to be a important Chinese history text of annual chronology. ... The Four Great Books of Song (Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) was compiled by Li Fang and others during the Song Dynasty (960-1279). ...


For centuries, economic and social advancement in China could be provided by high performance on the imperial examinations. This led to a meritocracy, although it was available only to males who could afford test preparation. Imperial examinations required applicants to write essays and demonstrate mastery of the Confucian classics. Those who passed the highest level of the exam became elite scholar-officials known as jinshi, a highly esteemed socio-economic position. The Imperial examinations (Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) in Imperial China determined who among the population would be permitted to enter the states bureaucracy. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Chinese philosophers, writers, and poets were highly respected, and played key roles in preserving and promoting the culture of the empire. Some classical scholars, however, were noted for their daring depictions of the lives of the common people, often to the displeasure of authorities.


The Chinese invented numerous musical instruments, such as the zheng (zither with movable bridges), qin (bridgeless zither), sheng (free reed mouth organ), and xiao (vertical flute) and adopted and developed others such the erhu (alto fiddle or bowed lute) and pipa (pear-shaped plucked lute), many of which have later spread throughout East Asia and Southeast Asia, particularly to Japan, Korea, and Vietnam. A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified with the purpose of making music. ... The guzheng, or gu zheng (Chinese: ; pinyin: gÇ”zhÄ“ng) or zheng (箏) (gu- means ancient) is a traditional Chinese musical instrument. ... This article is becoming very long. ... The Chinese sheng (Chinese: 笙, Pinyin shēng) is a mouth-blown free reed instrument (the first) consisting essentially of vertical tubes, in the Chinese orchestra. ... Xiao blowing hole (the hole faces away from the player, against the lower lip, when the instrument is played) The xiao (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: hsiao) is a Chinese vertical end-blown flute. ... Side view of an erhu. ... A woman plays the pipa in the New York City Subways Times Square Station, 2004. ... East Asia Geographic East Asia. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ...

See also: Chinese art, Chinese painting, Chinese paper art, Chinese calligraphy, Chinese poetry, Cinema of China, and Music of China

Chinese Art (Simplified Chinese: ) has varied throughout its ancient history, divided into periods by the ruling dynasties of China and changing technology. ... Wall scroll painted by Ma Lin in 1246. ... Chinese paper art In a culture that invented paper back in the 1st century AD (Cai Lun, during the Han Dynasty), Chinese paper arts have existed for thousands of years, spanning from painted or pattern cut paper fans, lanterns, to decorative designs and structures accomplished by folding and/or cutting. ... Calligraphy is an art dating back to the earliest day of history, and widely practiced throughout China to this day. ... Quatrain on Heavenly Mountain by Emperor Gaozong Hand-painted Chinese New Years duilian (對聯 couplet), a by-product of Chinese poetry, pasted on the sides of doors leading to peoples homes, at Lijiang City, Yunnan Poetry is the most highly regarded literary genre in ancient China. ... The history of Chinese language cinema has three separate threads of development: Cinema of Hong Kong, Cinema of China, and Cinema of Taiwan. ... The music of China dates back to the dawn of Chinese civilization with documents and artifacts providing evidence of a well-developed musical culture as early as the Zhou Dynasty (1122 BC - 256 BC). ...

Demography

Hundreds of ethnic groups have existed in China throughout its history. The largest ethnic group in China by far is the Han. This group is diverse in itself and can be divided into smaller ethnic groups that share some traits. Any non clear-cut connection is denoted by a question mark (?) beside the equivalences. ... Ethnolinguistic map of China For a list of ethnic groups in China, see List of ethnic groups in China. ... Demographics of China, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands. ... Languages Chinese languages Religions Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ...


Over the last three millennia, many previously distinct ethnic groups in China have been Sinicized into a Han identity, which over time dramatically expanded the size of the Han population. However, these assimilations were usually incomplete and vestiges of indigenous language and culture often are still retained in different regions of China. Because of this, many within the Han identity have maintained distinct linguistic and cultural traditions, though still identifying as Han. Several ethnicities have also dramatically shaped Han culture, e.g. the Manchurian clothing called the qipao became the new "Chinese" fashion after the 17th century, replacing earlier Han styles of clothing such as the Hanfu. The term Chinese nation (Zhonghua Minzu) is usually used to describe a notion of a Chinese nationality that transcends ethnic divisions. Sinicization, or Sinification, is to make things Chinese. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Han Chinese clothing, or Hanfu (TC: 漢服; SC: 汉服; pinyin: hànfú;; literally Clothing of the Han people) refers to the pre-17th century traditional clothing of the Han Chinese, the predominant ethnic group of China. ... This Zhonghua Minzu does not cite its references or sources. ...


Languages

Main article: Languages of China

Most languages in China belong to the Sino-Tibetan language family, spoken by 29 ethnicities. There are also several major dialects within the Chinese language itself. The most spoken dialects are Mandarin (spoken by over 70% of the population), Wu (Shanghainese), Yue (Cantonese), Min, Xiang, Gan, and Hakka. Non-Sinitic languages spoken widely by ethnic minorities include Zhuang (Thai), Mongolian, Tibetan, Uyghur (Turkic), Hmong and Korean.[18] Map of Linguistic Groups (showing areas under effective control of the Peoples Republic of China (including Hong Kong and Macau) and Republic of China combined) Chinas many different ethnic groups speak many different languages, collectively called Zhōngguó YÇ”wén (中国语文), literally speech and writing of China which... Sino-Tibetan languages form a language family of about 250 languages of East Asia, in number of speakers worldwide second only to Indo-European. ... A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος) is a variant, or variety, of a language spoken in a certain geographical area. ... Chinese (written) language (pinyin: zhōngw n) written in Chinese characters The Chinese language (汉语/漢語, 华语/華語, or 中文; Pinyin: H nyǔ, Hu yǔ, or Zhōngw n) is a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... This article is on all of the Northern and Southwestern Chinese dialects. ... Wu (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is one of the major divisions of the Chinese language. ... This article is on all of the Yue dialects. ... Min (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; POJ: Bân hong-giân; BUC: Mìng huŏng-ngiòng) is a general term for a group of dialects of the Chinese language spoken in the southeastern Chinese province of Fujian as well as by migrants from this province in Guangdong (around Chaozhou-Swatou... Xiang (湘語/湘语), also Hunan, Hunanese, or Hsiang, is a subdivision of spoken Chinese. ... Gàn (赣语) is one of the major divisions of spoken Chinese, a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages, concentrated in and typical of Jiangxi Province. ... Hakka (Simplified Chinese: 客家话, Traditional Chinese: 客家話, Pronunciation in Hakka: Hak-ka-fa/-va, Pinyin: Kèjiāhuà) is a spoken variation of the Chinese language spoken predominantly in southern China by the Hakka ethnic group and descendants in diaspora throughout East and Southeast Asia and around the world. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Tibetan language is spoken primarily by the Tibetan people who live across a wide area of eastern Central Asia bordering South Asia, as well as by large number of Tibetan refugees all over the world. ... Uyghur (‎/Uyghurche//, or ‎/Uyghur tili//)[1] is a Turkic language spoken by the Uyghur people in Xinjiang (also called East Turkestan or Uyghurstan), formerly also “Sinkiang” and “Chinese Turkestan,” a Central Asian region administered by China. ... |familycolor=Hmong-Mien |states=Sichuan, Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, and USA. |speakers=over 4 million[1] |fam1=Hmong-Mien |iso2=hmn| |lc1=hmn|ld1=Hmong (generic)|ll1=none |lc2=mww|ld2=Hmong Daw (Laos, China)|ll2=none |lc3=hmv|ld3=Hmong Do (Vietnam)|ll3=none |lc4=hmf|ld4=Hmong Don (Vietnam...


Classical Chinese was the written standard used for thousands of years in China before the 20th century and allowed for written communication between speakers of various unintelligible languages and dialects in China. Vernacular Chinese or baihua is the written standard based on the Mandarin dialect first popularized in Ming dynasty novels and was adopted (with significant modifications) during the early 20th century as the national vernacular. Classical Chinese is still part of the high school curriculum and is thus intelligible to some degree to many Chinese. Classical Chinese or Literary Chinese is a traditional style of written Chinese based on the grammar and vocabulary of very old forms of Chinese , making it very different from any modern spoken form of Chinese. ... Vernacular Chinese (pinyin: báihuà; Wade-Giles: paihua) is a style or register of the written Chinese language essentially modeled after the spoken language and associated with Standard Mandarin. ... A novel is an extended work of written, narrative, prose fiction, usually in story form; the writer of a novel is a novelist. ...


Religion

A Chinese Tang Dynasty (618-907) sculpture of the Buddha seated in meditation.
A Chinese Tang Dynasty (618-907) sculpture of the Buddha seated in meditation.
Main article: Religion in China

The "official" orthodox faith system held by most dynasties of China until the overthrow of the last dynasty is a panentheism system, centering on the worship of "Heaven" as an omnipotent force. This faith system pre-dated the development of Confucianism and Taoism or the introduction of Buddhism and Christianity. It has features of a monotheism in that Heaven is seen as an omnipotent entity, endowed with personality but no corporeal form. "Heaven" as a supernatural force was variously referred to as Shangdi (literally "Emperor Above"). Worship of Heaven includes the erection of shrines, the last and greatest being the Altar of Heaven in Beijing, and the offering of prayers. Manifestation of the powers of Heaven include weather and natural disasters. Although it gradually diminished in popular belief after the advent of Taoism and Buddhism, among others, some of its concepts remained in use throughout the pre-modern period and have been incorporated in later religions of China. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1493x2016, 961 KB) From Hebei, Tang Dynasty. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1493x2016, 961 KB) From Hebei, Tang Dynasty. ... China under the Tang Dynasty (yellow) and its sphere of influence Capital Changan (618–904) Luoyang (904-907) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 618-626 Emperor Gaozu  - 684, 705-710 Emperor Zhongzong  - 684, 710-712 Emperor Ruizong  - 904-907 Emperor Ai History  - Li Yuan... Events End of the Sui Dynasty and beginning of the Tang Dynasty in China. ... Events Oleg leads Kievan Rus in a campaign against Constantinople Yelü Abaoji establishes Liao (Khitan) dynasty Births Deaths Categories: 907 ... Standing Buddha sculpture, ancient region of Gandhara, northern Pakistan, 1st century CE, Musée Guimet. ... For other senses of this word, see Meditation (disambiguation). ... Chinese monk lighting incense in a temple in Beijing. ... Panentheism (from Greek (pân) all; (en) in; ; and (Theós) god; all-in-God) is the theological position that God is immanent within the Universe, but also transcends it. ... Tian (天 Pinyin Tiān) is the Chinese character for heaven or sky. ... Wenmiao Temple, a Confucian Temple in Wuwei, Gansu, China Confucian temple in Kaohsiung, Republic of China (Taiwan). ... Taoism (Daoism) is the English name referring to a variety of related Chinese philosophical and religious traditions and concepts. ... A silhouette of Buddha at Ayutthaya, Thailand. ... Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch... For the Celtic Frost album, see Monotheist (album) In theology, monotheism (from Greek one and god) is the belief in the existence of one deity or God, or in the oneness of God. ... Shangdi or Shang Ti (Wade-Giles) (上帝, pinyin Shàngdì), literally translated, Lord Above or Sovreign Above, in Chinese culture, is the name used both in traditional Chinese religion as well as Christianity for a supreme deity. ... Hall of Annual Prayer, the largest building in the Temple of Heaven The Temple of Heaven, literally the Altar of Heaven (Traditional Chinese: 天壇; Simplified Chinese: 天坛; pinyin: ) is situated in south eastern urban Beijing, in Xuanwu District. ...


Taoism is an indigenous religion of China and is traditionally traced to the composition of Lao Zi's Tao Te Ching (The Book of Tao and Its Virtues) or to seminal works by Zhang Daoling. The philosophy of Taoism is centered on "the way"; an understanding of which can be likened to recognizing the true nature of the universe. Taoism in its unorganized form is also considered a folk religion of China. More secular derivatives of Taoist ideas include Feng Shui, Sun Tzu's Art of War, and acupuncture. Lao Zi (Chinese 老子, also spelled Laozi, Lao Tzu, or Lao Tse) is a major figure in Chinese philosophy whose historical existence is debated. ... The Tao Te Ching (道德經, Pinyin: D Jīng, thus sometimes rendered in recent works as Dao De Jing; archaic pre-Wade-Giles rendering: Tao Teh Ching; roughly translated as The Book of the Way and its Virtue (see dedicated chapter below on translating the title)) is... Celestial Master Zhang Daoling Zhang Daoling (Chang Tao-ling), aka Zhang Ling. ... DAO and Dao may refer to: ... Fēng Shuǐ (風水 – literally, wind and water pronounced fung shuway), which may be more than 3000 years old, is the ancient practice of placement to achieve harmony with the environment. ... The Art of War (Chinese: 孫子兵法 sūn zi bīng fǎ) was a Chinese military text written during the 6th century BC by Sun Tzu. ... Acupuncture chart from Hua Shou (fl. ...


Buddhism was introduced from South and Central Asia during the Han dynasty and became very popular among Chinese of all walks of life, embraced particularly by commoners, and sponsored by emperors in certain dynasties. Mahayana (大乘, Dacheng) is the predominant form of Buddhism practiced in China, where it was largely Sinicized and later exported to Korea, Japan and Vietnam. Some subsets of Mahayana popular in China include Pure Land (Amidism) and Zen. Buddhism is the largest organized faith in China and the country has the most Buddhist adherents in the world, followed by Japan. Many Chinese, however, identify themselves as both Taoist and Buddhist at the same time. Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication to Cao Wei 220... Relief image of the bodhisattva Kuan Yin from Mt. ... Sinicization, or less commonly Sinification, is to make things Chinese. ... The Buddha Amitabha, 13th century, Kamakura, Japan. ... The Buddha Amitabha, 13th century, Kamakura, Japan. ... Zen is a school of Mahāyāna Buddhism notable for its emphasis on practice and experiential wisdom—particularly as realized in the form of meditation known as zazen—in the attainment of awakening. ...


Ancestor worship is a major religious theme shared among all Chinese religions. Traditional Chinese culture, Taoism, Confucianism, and Chinese Buddhism all value filial piety as a top virtue, and the act is a continued display of piety and respect towards departed ancestors. The Chinese generally offer prayers and food for the ancestors, light incense and candles, and burn offerings of Joss paper. These activities are typically conducted at the site of ancestral graves or tombs, at an ancestral temple, or at a household shrine. Ancestor worship, also ancestor veneration, is a religious practice based on the belief that ones ancestors possess supernatural powers. ... Filial piety is extended into the afterlife. ... Personification of virtue (Greek ἀρετή) in Celsus Library in Ephesos, Turkey Virtue (Latin virtus; Greek ) is moral excellence of a person. ... Incense is a preparation of aromatic organic materials, intended to release fragrant smoke when burned. ... Joss paper Joss paper (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally gold paper), also known as ghost money, are sheets of paper that are burned in traditional Chinese deity or ancestor worship ceremonies during special holidays. ...


Judaism, Islam and Christianity first arrived in China after the 7th century CE during the Tang Dynasty. Islam was later spread by merchants and craftsmen as trade routes improved along the Silk Road, while Christianity began to make significant inroads in China after the 16th century through Jesuit and later protestant missionaries. In the first half of the 20th century, many Jews arrived in Shanghai and Hong Kong during those cities' periods of economic expansion and also sought refuge from the Holocaust in Europe. Shanghai was particularly notable for its volume of Jewish refugees, as it was the only port in the world then to accept them without an entry visa. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... China under the Tang Dynasty (yellow) and its sphere of influence Capital Changan (618–904) Luoyang (904-907) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 618-626 Emperor Gaozu  - 684, 705-710 Emperor Zhongzong  - 684, 710-712 Emperor Ruizong  - 904-907 Emperor Ai History  - Li Yuan... The Silk Road Silk Route redirects here. ... The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... A missionary is a propagator of religion, often an evangelist or other representative of a religious community who works among those outside of that community. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Shanghai (Chinese: ; pinyin:  ; Wu (Long-short): ZÃ¥nhae; Shanghainese (IPA): ), situated on the banks of the Yangtze River Delta in East China, is the largest city of the Peoples Republic of China and the seventh largest in the world. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ...


Sports and recreation

Dragon boat racing, a popular traditional Chinese sport.
Dragon boat racing, a popular traditional Chinese sport.
Main article: Sports in China

Many historians believe that football (soccer) originated in China, where a form of the sport may have appeared around 1000 CE.[19] Other popular sports include martial arts, table tennis, badminton, and more recently, golf. Basketball is now popular among young people in crowded urban centers. In Taiwan, baseball is more popular due to American and Japanese influences. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x769, 614 KB) Dragon boat racing in China Photo by Mr. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x769, 614 KB) Dragon boat racing in China Photo by Mr. ... Dragon boat racing is a team paddling sport which utilises the dragon boat. ... Known as the land of martial arts, Sport in China today refers to the variety of competitive sports played in China, including Mainland China, Hong Kong and Macau. ... A player (wearing the red kit) has penetrated the defence (in the white kit) and is taking a shot at goal. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Wang Liqin, 2007 World Champion Table tennis is a sport in which two or four players hit a lightweight ball back and forth to each other with bats (also sometimes called racquets or paddles). ... The Danish Olympic badminton player Peter Gade Badminton is a racquet sport played by either two opposing players (singles) or two opposing pairs (doubles), who take positions on opposite halves of a rectangular court that is divided by a net. ... This article is about the sport. ... Basketball is a team sport in which two teams of five active players each try to score points against one another by throwing a ball through a high hoop (the basket) under organized rules. ...


There are also many traditional sports. Chinese dragon boat racing occurs during the Duan Wu festival. In Inner Mongolia, Mongolian-style wrestling and horse racing are popular. In Tibet, archery and equestrian sports are part of traditional festivals.[20] Dragon boat racing is a team paddling sport which utilises the dragon boat. ... A more specific term for dragon boat as a sport is dragon boat race, which is a team paddling sport on water, using painted boats to which are attached decorative dragon heads and tails. ... Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N... Horse-racing is an equestrian sporting activity which has been practiced over the centuries; the chariot races of Roman times were an early example, as was the contest of the steeds of the god Odin and the giant Hrungnir in Norse mythology. ... Tibet (see Name section below for other spellings) is a plateau region in Central Asia and the indigenous home to the Tibetan people. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


China has become a sports power, especially in Asia. It has finished first in medal counts in each of the Asian Games since 1982,[21] and in the top four in medal counts in each of the Summer Olympic Games since 1992.[22] The 2008 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXIX Olympiad, will be held in Beijing. This ensures that China will be building new structures and perfect their crowd management skills to help with the crowds and space needed to control the Olympic following. The 2008 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXIX Olympiad, were awarded to Beijing, China after an exhaustive ballot of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) on July 13, 2001. ... Beijing (Chinese: 北京; pinyin: BÄ›ijÄ«ng; Wade-Giles: Peiching or Pei-ching; IPA: ; literally Northern capital;  ), a metropolis in northern China, is the capital of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ...


Physical fitness is highly regarded. It is common for the elderly to practice Tai Chi Chuan and qigong in parks. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Tai chi chuan (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: tàijíquán; Wade-Giles: tai4 chi2 chüan2) is an internal Chinese martial art often practiced with the aim of promoting health and longevity. ... A woman performs a Qigong routine outdoors. ...


Board games such as International Chess, Go (Weiqi), and Xiangqi (Chinese chess) are also common and have organized formal competitions. A board game is any game played with a premarked surface, with counters or pieces that are moved across the board. ... For other meanings, see Chess (disambiguation). ... Go is a strategic East Asian board game for two players. ... Xiangqi (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: hsiang4-chi2;  ), is a two-player strategic Chinese board game in the same family as Western chess, chaturanga, shogi and janggi. ...


Science and technology

Remains of an ancient Chinese handheld crossbow, 2nd century BC.

Among the scientific accomplishments of ancient China were paper (not papyrus) and papermaking, woodblock printing and movable type printing, the early lodestone and magnetic compass, gunpowder, toilet paper, early seismological detectors, matches, dry docks, pound locks, sliding calipers, the double-action piston pump, blast furnace and cast iron, the iron plough, the multi-tube seed drill, the wheelbarrow, the suspension bridge, the parachute, natural gas as fuel, the escapement mechanism for clocks, the differential gear for the South Pointing Chariot, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere, the hydraulic-powered trip hammer, the mechanical chain drive, the mechanical belt drive, the raised-relief map, the propeller, the crossbow, the cannon, the rocket, the multistage rocket, etc. Chinese astronomers were among the first to record observations of a supernova. The work of the astronomer Shen Kuo (1031-1095) alone was most impressive, as he theorized that the sun and moon were spherical, corrected the position of the polestar with his improved sighting tube, discovered the concept of true north, wrote of planetary motions such as retrogradation, and compared the orbital paths of the planets to points on the shape of a rotating willow leaf. With evidence for them, he also postulated geological theories for the processes of land formation in geomorphology and climate change in paleoclimatology. Yet there were many other astronomers than Shen Kuo, such as Gan De, Shi Shen, Zhang Heng, Yi Xing, Zhang Sixun, Su Song, etc. Chinese mathematics evolved independently of Greek mathematics and is therefore of great interest in the history of mathematics. The Chinese were also keen on documenting all of their technological achievements, such as in the Tiangong Kaiwu encyclopedia written by Song Yingxing (1587-1666). Download high resolution version (527x683, 127 KB)Ancient Chinese crossbow (2nd century BCE). ... Download high resolution version (527x683, 127 KB)Ancient Chinese crossbow (2nd century BCE). ... 15th century French soldier wearing a helmet and a hauberk, carrying a crossbow/arbalest and a pavise. ... The history of science and technology in China is both long and rich with science and technological contribution. ... This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... China is the worlds oldest continuous major civilization, with written records dating back about 3,500 years and with 5,000 years being commonly used by Chinese as the age of their civilization. ... A blank sheet of paper Paper is a commodity of thin material produced by the amalgamation of fibers, typically vegetable fibers composed of cellulose, which are subsequently held together by hydrogen bonding. ... Papyrus plant Cyperus papyrus at Kew Gardens, London Papyrus is an early form of paper produced from the pith of the papyrus plant, Cyperus papyrus, a wetland sedge that was once abundant in the Nile Delta of Egypt. ... The Diamond Sutra of the Chinese Tang Dynasty, the oldest dated printed book in the world, found at Dunhuang, from 868 AD. Papermaking is the process of making paper, a material which is ubiquitous today for writing and packaging. ... Yuan Dynasty woodblock edition of a Chinese play For the use of the technique in art, see Woodcut on the technique, and Old master print for the history in Europe and woodblock printing in Japan. ... A case of cast metal type pieces and typeset matter in a composing stick Movable type is the system of printing and typography using movable pieces of metal type, made by casting from matrices struck by letterpunches. ... For the article on the development of printing in Europe, see History of western typography. ... A compass (or mariners compass) is a navigational instrument for finding directions on the Earth. ... Smokeless powder Gunpowder is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot gas which can be used as a propellant in firearms and fireworks. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Seismometers (in Greek seismos = earthquake and metero = measure) are used by seismologists to measure and record the size and force of seismic waves. ... An igniting match A match is a consumable tool for producing fire under controlled circumstances on demand. ... U.S. Navy submarine USS Greeneville in dry dock following collision with a fishing boat. ... A pound lock is type of canal lock which is used almost exclusively today. ... A caliper is a device used in the metalworking field of mechanical engineering, to measure the distance between two symmetrically opposing sides. ... piston pump ... Blast furnace in Sestao, Spain. ... Cast iron usually refers to grey cast iron, but can mean any of a group of iron-based alloys containing more than 2% carbon (alloys with less carbon are carbon steel by definition). ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... The traditional way: a German farmer works the land with a horse and plough. ... Seeder redirects here. ... A common wheelbarrow Older wheelbarrow Wheelbarrows on the Belomorkanal A wheelbarrow is a small one-wheeled, hand-propelled vehicle, designed to be pushed and guided by a single person using two handles to the rear. ... A suspension bridge is a type of bridge that has been created since ancient times as early as 100 AD. Simple suspension bridges, for use by pedestrians and livestock, are still constructed, based upon the ancient Inca rope bridge. ... The Apollo 15 capsule landed safely despite a parachute failure. ... Natural gas is a gaseous fossil fuel consisting primarily of methane but including significant quantities of ethane, butane, propane, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, helium and hydrogen sulfide. ... A simple escapement. ... A platform clock at Kings Cross railway station in London A clock is an instrument for measuring and indicating the time. ... In an automobile and other four-wheeled vehicles, a differential is a device, usually consisting of gears, that allows each of the driving wheels to rotate at different speeds, while supplying equal torque to each of them. ... South Pointing Chariot (replica) Supposedly invented sometime around 2600BC in China by the Yellow Emperor Huang Di, the South Pointing Chariot (Zhi Nan Ju 指南車) is widely regarded as the most complex geared mechanism of the ancient Chinese civilization. ... Hydraulics is a branch of science and engineering concerned with the use of liquids to perform mechanical tasks. ... Armillary sphere An armillary sphere (variations known as a spherical astrolabe, armilla, or armil) is a model of the celestial sphere, invented by the ancient Greek Eratosthenes in 255 BC. Its name comes from the Latin armilla (circle, bracelet), since it has a skeleton made of graduated metal circles linking... A triphammer is a massive power hammer, usually raised by a cam and then released to fall under the force of gravity. ... Roller chain and sprocket Mack AC delivery truck at the Petersen Automotive Museum with chain drive visible Chain drive was a popular power transmission system from the earliest days of the automobile. ... v-belt flat belt Belts are used to mechanically link two or more rotating items. ... A raised-relief map or terrain model is a three dimensional representation, usually of terrain. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... 15th century French soldier wearing a helmet and a hauberk, carrying a crossbow/arbalest and a pavise. ... Not to be confused with Canon. ... A Soyuz rocket, at Baikonur launch pad. ... The second stage of a Minuteman III rocket A multistage (or multi-stage) rocket is, like any rocket, propelled by the recoil pressure of the burning gases it emits as it burns fuel. ... A giant Hubble mosaic of the Crab Nebula, a supernova remnant Astronomy (also frequently referred to as astrophysics) is the scientific study of celestial objects (such as stars, planets, comets, and galaxies) and phenomena that originate outside the Earths atmosphere (such as the cosmic background radiation). ... Multiwavelength X-ray image of the remnant of Keplers Supernova, SN 1604. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Shen Shen Kuo or Shen Kua (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) (1031–1095 AD) was a polymath Chinese scientist of the Song Dynasty (960–1279 AD). ... Events Collapse of the Moorish Caliphate of Córdoba. ... Events The country of Portugal is established for the second time. ... The Sun (Latin: ) is the star at the center of the Solar System. ... Apparent magnitude: up to -12. ... This article is in need of attention. ... True Pizza is a navigational term referring to the direction of the North Pole relative to the navigators position. ... ... Prograde motion is the rotational or orbital motion of a body in a direction similar to that of other bodies within a given system, and is sometimes called direct motion. ... Two bodies with a slight difference in mass orbiting around a common barycenter. ... Species About 350, including: Salix acutifolia - Violet Willow Salix alaxensis - Alaska Willow Salix alba - White Willow Salix alpina - Alpine Willow Salix amygdaloides - Peachleaf Willow Salix arbuscula - Mountain Willow Salix arbusculoides - Littletree Willow Salix arctica - Arctic Willow Salix atrocinerea Salix aurita - Eared Willow Salix babylonica - Peking Willow Salix bakko Salix barrattiana... Geology (from Greek γη- (ge-, the earth) and λογος (logos, word, reason)) is the science and study of the Earth, its composition, structure, physical properties, history, and the processes that shape it. ... Surface of the Earth Geomorphology is the study of landforms, including their origin and evolution, and the processes that shape them. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ... Paleoclimatology is the study of climate change taken on the scale of the entire history of the Earth. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Shi Shen (Chinese: ; Wade-Giles: Shih Shen, fl. ... For other uses, see Zhang Heng (disambiguation). ... Yi Xing (Yi-xing) (一行) (683 – 727) was a Chinese astronomer and buddhist monk of the Tang Dynasty. ... An artists interpretation of the astronomical clock tower of Su Song (1020-1101) Zhang Sixun (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: chang ssu hsün) was a 10th century Chinese astronomer and engineer during the Song Dynasty (960-1279 AD). ... Su Song 蘇頌 (1020 – 1101), style Zirong 子容, was a Chinese engineer. ... Knowledge of Chinese mathematics before 100 BC is somewhat fragmentary, but there are elements that seem consistent. ... Greek mathematics, as that term is used in this article, is the mathematics written in Greek, developed from the 6th century BC to the 5th century AD around the Eastern shores of the Mediterranean. ... For a list of biographies of mathematicians, see list of mathematicians. ... Brockhaus Konversations-Lexikon, 1902 An encyclopedia, encyclopaedia or (traditionally) encyclopædia[1] is a comprehensive written compendium that contains information on all branches of knowledge or a particular branch of knowledge. ... Song Yingxing (Traditional Chinese:宋應星; Simplified Chinese:宋应星; Wade Giles: Sung Ying-Hsing; 1587-1666 AD) was a Chinese scientist and encyclopedist who lived during the late Ming Dynasty (1368-1644). ... 1587 was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1666 is often called Annus Mirabilis. ...


China's science and technology fell behind that of Europe by the 17th century. Political, social and cultural reasons have been given for this, although recent historians focus more on economic causes, such as the high level equilibrium trap. Since the PRC's market reforms China has become better connected to the global economy and is placing greater emphasis on science and technology. Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... The high level equilibrium trap is a concept developed by Mark Elvin to explain why China never underwent an indigenous Industrial Revolution, despite its wealth, stability and scientific advancement. ...


See also

China Portal
Find more information on China by searching Wikipedia's sister projects
Dictionary definitions from Wiktionary
Textbooks from Wikibooks
Quotations from Wikiquote
Source texts from Wikisource
Images and media from Commons
News stories from Wikinews
Learning resources from Wikiversity

Image File history File links Portal. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... The Chinese calendar is a lunisolar calendar, akin to the Hebrew calendar & Hindu Calendar, incorporating elements of a lunar calendar with those of a solar calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Thai name Thai: Vietnamese name Quoc Ngu: Han Tu: The Chinese dragon is a mythical Chinese creature that also appears in other East Asian cultures, and is also sometimes called the Oriental (or Eastern) dragon. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The May Fourth Movement in 1919 marked a turning point in the history of Chinese nationalism. ... Chinese New Year (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), or Spring Festival or the Lunar New Year (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most important of the traditional Chinese holidays. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... The Chinese units (Chinese: 市制; Hanyu Pinyin: ; literally market system) are the customary and traditional units of measure used in China. ... Knowledge of Chinese mathematics before 100 BC is somewhat fragmentary, but there are elements that seem consistent. ... Traditional Chinese medicine shop in Tsim Sha Tsui, Hong Kong. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Liuhe Pagoda of Hangzhou, China, built in 1165 AD. Chinese architecture refers to a style of architecture that has taken shape in Asia over the centuries. ... Chinese Opera, one of the many aspects of traditional Chinese culture The Culture of China (Chinese: 中國文化/中国文化) is home to one of the worlds oldest and most complex civilizations covering a history of over 5,000 years. ... Fenghuang sculpture, Nanning city, Guangxi, China. ... The story of the postage stamps and postal history of China is complicated by the gradual decay of imperial China and the years of civil war and Japanese occupation in the 1930s and 1940s. ... This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... . ... The following is a list of tributaries of Imperial China. ... ... Languages various Religions Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ... Agriculture is the most important economic sector of China, employing over 300 million farmers- nearly half of its work force. ...

References

  1. ^ Mao's China and the Cold War. UNC Press. ISBN 0-8078-4932-4
  2. ^ The Chinese Have a Word for It." McGraw-Hill Professional ISBN 0658010786 / 9780658010781
  3. ^ The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed (AHD4). Boston and New York, Houghton-Mifflin, 2000, entries china, Qin, Sino-.
  4. ^ "Early Homo erectus Tools in China" by Archaeological Institute of America
  5. ^ List of Chinese fossil hominids at ChinesePrehistory.org
  6. ^ The Liujiang skeleton
  7. ^ "Chinese Roots: Skull may complicate human-origins debate" at Science News Online
  8. ^ "Bronze Age China" by National Gallery of Art
  9. ^ Twentieth Century Atlas - Historical Body Count
  10. ^ Jenks, R.D. Insurgency and Social Disorder in Guizhou: The Miao ‘Rebellion’, 1854-1873. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. 1994.
  11. ^ Cf. William J. Peterson, The Cambridge History of China Volume 9 (Cambridge University Press, 2002)
  12. ^ Damsan Harper, Steve Fallon, Katja Gaskell, Julie Grundvig, Carolyn Heller, Thomas Huhti, Bradley Maynew, Christopher Pitts. Lonely Planet China. 9. 2005. ISBN 1-74059-687-0
  13. ^ Gernet, Jacques. A History of Chinese Civilization. 2. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
  14. ^ Perry, Elizabeth. Rebels and Revolutionaries in Northern China, 1845-1945 (Stanford, CA: Stanford UP, 1980).
  15. ^ Greater Mekong Subregion Atlas of the Environment published by Asian Development Bank
  16. ^ "Beijing hit by eighth sandstorm". BBC news. Accessed 17 April, 2006.
  17. ^ Bary, Theodore de. "Constructive Engagement with Asian Values". Columbia University.
  18. ^ Languages. 2005. GOV.cn. URL accessed 3 May 2006.
  19. ^ Origins of the Great Game. 2000. Athleticscholarships.net. Accessed 23 April 2006.
  20. ^ Qinfa, Ye. Sports History of China. About.com. Retrieved April 21, 2006.
  21. ^ http://www.dohaasiangames.org/en/asian_games_2006/history.html
  22. ^ http://www.olympic.org/uk/games/index_uk.asp

“NY” redirects here. ...

External links

  • U.S. Department of State, Background Note on China
  • Interactive China map with province and city guides.
  • China Digital Times Online China news portal, run by the Graduate School of Journalism of University of California at Berkeley.
  • China Worker
  • NY Inquirer: China's 21st Century
  • The Chinese Superpower-Historical Background, Dr Rivka Shpak-Lissak


  Results from FactBites:
 
People's Republic of China - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6314 words)
The PRC asserts the Republic of China to be an illegitimate and supplanted entity and administratively categorizes Taiwan as a province of the PRC.
A major reason for this is that for much of China's history, the state had been ruled by some form of centralized imperial monarchy, which was followed by a chaotic succession of largely authoritarian Chinese Nationalist governments as well as warlord-held administrations since the last few years of the Qing dynasty in 1912.
China's territorial disputes have led to several localized wars in the last 50 years, including the Sino-Indian War in 1962, the Sino-Soviet border conflict in 1969 and the Sino-Vietnam War in 1979.
China - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6065 words)
China is also traditionally thought of as comprising Northern China (北方) and Southern China (南方), the geographic boundary between which north and south is largely generalized as Huai River (淮河) and Qinling Mountains (秦嶺).
China is composed of a vast variety of highly different landscapes, with mostly plateaus and mountains in the west, and lower lands on the east.
For centuries China stood as a leading civilization, outpacing the rest of the world in the arts and sciences, but in the 19th and early 20th centuries, the country was beset by civil unrest, major famines, military defeats, and foreign occupation.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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