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Encyclopedia > Chimurenga

Chimurenga is a Shona word for 'struggle'. The word's modern interpretation has been extended to describe a struggle for human rights, political dignity and social justice,[1] specifically used for the African insurrections against British colonial rule 1896-1897 (First Chimurenga) and the guerrilla war against the British settler's minority regime of Rhodesia 1966-1980 (Second Chimurenga). Shona (or ChiShona) is a native language of Zimbabwe and southern Zambia; the term is also used to identify those Kintu speaking peoples in Southern Africa who speak one of the Shona languages. ... Year 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar). ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants Rhodesia ZANLA ZIPRA Government of Botswana Government of Tanzania Government of Zambia Mozambican Liberation Front [1] Commanders Ian Smith P. K. van der Byl Peter Walls ZANU: Robert Mugabe ZAPU: Joshua Nkomo Casualties unknown unknown Civilians killed = Around 30,000 The Rhodesian Bush War —­ as it was known at... Southern Rhodesia, todays Zimbabwe. ... 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1966 calendar). ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ...


The concept is also occasionally used in reference to the conflict between the government of Zimbabwe and the Movement for Democratic Change (so-called Third Chimurenga). The Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) is a Zimbabwean political party led by Morgan Tsvangirai. ...


King Sororenzou Murenga, a Shona King of the 1890s, was renowned for his military prowess and for leading his people successfully in an armed conflict with the British. "Chi-murenga" is broken down into "chi-" for depersonification and nounification to a "thing" and "-murenga" becomes "the virtues and characteristics of Ishe/Lord/King Murenga."


The expression is also used in context with modern Zimbabwean music, Chimurenga music. Chimurenga music is a Zimbabwean popular music genre coined by and popularised by Thomas Mapfumo. ...

Contents

First Chimurenga

Main article: Second Matabele War

The First Chimurenga is now celebrated in Zimbabwe as the First War of Independence, but it is best known in the anglosaxon world as the Second Matabele War. This conflict refers to the 1896-1897 Ndebele-Shona revolt against colonial rule by the British South Africa Company. Burnham & Armstrong after the assassination of Mlimo. ... Burnham & Armstrong after the assassination of Mlimo. ... Year 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar). ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... There are two versions of Ndebele in South Africa, they both belong to the Nguni group of Bantu Languages. ... Shona is the principle language of Zimbabwe, in southern Africa. ... The flag of the British South Africa Company The British South Africa Company (BSAC) was established by Cecil Rhodes through the amalgamation of the Central Search Association and the Exploring Company, Ltd. ...


Mlimo, the Matabele spiritual/religious leader, is credited with formenting much of the anger that led to this confrontation. He convinced the Ndebele and Shona that the white settlers (almost 4,000 strong by then) were responsible for the drought, locust plagues and the cattle disease rinderpest ravaging the country at the time. Mlimo's call to battle was well timed. Only a few months earlier, the British South Africa Company's Administrator General for Matabeleland, Leander Starr Jameson, had sent most of his troops and armaments to fight the Transvaal Republic in the ill-fated Jameson Raid. This left the country’s defenses in disarray. The Ndebele began their revolt in March 1896, and in June 1896 they were joined by the Shona. Matabeleland is a region in the west and south-west of Zimbabwe, between the Limpopo and Zambezi rivers. ... An 1895 cartoon of Jameson from Vanity Fair Sir Leander Starr Jameson, 1st Baronet, KCMG (February 9, 1853 РNovember 26, 1917), also known as Doctor Jim, was a British colonial statesman who was best known for his involvement in the Jameson Raid. ... The South African Republic (Dutch: Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek), often informally known as the Transvaal Republic, not to be confused with the Republic of South Africa, occupied the area later known as the province of Transvaal, first from 1857 to 1877, and again, after a successful Afrikaner rebellion against British rule... The Jameson Raid (December 29, 1895 - January 2, 1896) was a raid on Paul Krugers Transvaal Republic carried out by Sir Leander Starr Jameson and his Rhodesian and Bechuanaland policemen over the New Year weekend of 1895-96. ...


The BSAC immediately sent troops to suppress the Ndebele and the Shona, but it took months for the British to re-capture their major colonial fortifications under siege by native warriors. Mlimo was eventually assassinated in his temple in Matobo Hills by the American scout Frederick Russell Burnham. Upon learning of the death of Mlimo, Cecil Rhodes boldly walked unarmed into the native's stronghold and persuaded the impi to lay down their arms.[2] The First Chimurenga thus ended on October 1897 and Matabeleland and Mashonaland were later renamed Rhodesia. The British Sub-Aqua Club or BSAC is the governing body of Britain. ... Matobo landscape. ... Frederick Russell Burnham, DSO (1861-1947), an American scout and world travelling adventurer is best known for his service to the British Army in Colonial Africa and for teaching woodcraft (i. ... Cecil Rhodes. ... Mashonaland is a region in northern Zimbabwe. ...


Second Chimurenga (1966-1979)

Main article: Rhodesian Bush War

The Second Chimurenga, also known as the Rhodesian Bush War or as Zimbabwe's liberation war, refers to the guerrilla war of 1966-1979 which led to the end of white-minority rule in Rhodesia and to the de-facto independence of Zimbabwe. It was a conflict between the minority white settler government of Ian Smith Rhodesian Front and the African nationalists of the Patriotic Front alliance of KANU (mainly Shona) and ZAPU (mainly Ndebele) movements, led by Robert Mugabe and Joshua Nkomo respectively.[3] [4] Combatants Rhodesia ZANLA ZIPRA Government of Botswana Government of Tanzania Government of Zambia Mozambican Liberation Front [1] Commanders Ian Smith P. K. van der Byl Peter Walls ZANU: Robert Mugabe ZAPU: Joshua Nkomo Casualties unknown unknown Civilians killed = Around 30,000 The Rhodesian Bush War —­ as it was known at... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1966 calendar). ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Southern Rhodesia, todays Zimbabwe. ... The Rt Hon Ian Smith, Prime Minister of Rhodesia, 1964 (official portrait) Ian Douglas Smith GCLM ID (born 8 April 1919) was the Premier of the British Crown Colony of Southern Rhodesia from 13 April 1964 to 11 November 1965, and Prime Minister of Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) from 11 November... The Rhodesian Front (RF) was a political party in Southern Rhodesia, later known as Rhodesia, now called Zimbabwe, when the country was under white minority rule. ... The Patriotic Front can mean: Patriotic Front (Austria) Patriotic Front (Iraq) Patriotic Front (Rwanda) Patriotic Front (Zambia) Patriotic Front (Zimbabwe) Category: ... There are three meanings for Kanu: KANU - the Kenya African National Union Kanu, Nwankwo - Nigerian footballer KANU FM 91. ... Shona is the principle language of Zimbabwe, in southern Africa. ... The Zimbabwe African Peoples Union was a political party in Zimbabwe. ... There are two versions of Ndebele in South Africa, they both belong to the Nguni group of Bantu Languages. ... Robert Gabriel Mugabe KCB (born on February 21, 1924) is the President of Zimbabwe. ... Joshua Mqabuko Nyongolo Nkomo (June 19, 1917 – July 1, 1999) was a Zimbabwean nationalist leader and revolutionary, a member of the Ndebele (or Matebele) ethnic group, and the leader and founder of the Zimbabwe African Peoples Union (ZAPU). ...


Official perspective

This conflict is seen by the present day Zimbabwean Government and to some extent the official MDC opposition as a war of national and racial liberation. At the time of the conflict, the then Wilson Government in London and Patriotic Front (former military alliance of ZAPU-PF and ZANU-PF) shared this view, along with the OAU, United Nations and many members of the Commonwealth of Nations such as Canada, India, Kenya and New Zealand, China the European Union and the former Eastern Block states. MDC can stand for: Multiple Description Coding Major Diagnostic Category Mega-Damage Capacity, a measure of the toughness and structural integrity of armored vehicles in the Palladium Books role-playing system MetaData Coalition - see metadata (computing) Modification Detection Code Movement for Democratic Change - A Zimbabwean political party MDC - a hardcore... The Patriotic Front can mean: Patriotic Front (Austria) Patriotic Front (Iraq) Patriotic Front (Rwanda) Patriotic Front (Zambia) Patriotic Front (Zimbabwe) Category: ... The Zimbabwe African National Union - Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF) has been the ruling party in Zimbabwe since independence in 1980, led by Robert Mugabe, first as Prime Minister with the party simply known as ZANU, and then as President from 1988 after taking over ZAPU and renaming the party ZANU... Flag of the Organisation of African Unity, later also used by the African Union. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... During the Cold War, the Eastern Bloc (or Soviet Bloc) comprised the following Central and Eastern European countries: Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, East Germany, Poland, Albania (until the early 1960s, see below), the Soviet Union, and Czechoslovakia. ...


Perspective of the Rhodesian Front

At the time, however, the Rhodesian government saw the conflict as a fight between one part of the country's population (the whites) on behalf of the whole country, including the majority blacks against another, externally financed party made up of predominately black radicals and communists in defence of the country and of Western ideals. The Nationalists saw their country as having been occupied and dominated by a foreign power, namely, Britain, since 1890 - even though the British Government, in the person of the Governor General had been expelled in 1964 by the Rhodesian Front government of Ian Smith and had only ruled since the end of the British South Africa Company in the 1920s. The minority Settler-dominated Rhodesian Government saw the Nationalists as Communist agents and their conflict as part of the defence of Western values (Christianity, the rule of Law and - ironically - democracy); they refused to compromise on most political, economic and social grievances as raised by the Nationalists who claimed to represent the majority black Shona and Ndebele population, in part because the Smith Administration saw the traditional chiefs as the legitimate voice of the Shona and Ndebele population and the Nationalists as dangerous usurpers. With no end in sight the Smith Administration attempted to weaken the power of the nationalists cause by acceding to an "Internal Settlement" which ended formal white rule, changed the name of the country to Zimbabwe-Rhodesia and created the country's first black head of government, Abel Muzorewa. However, unsatisfied with this and spurned on by Britain's refusal to recognise the new order, the Nationalist forces persisted.[5] The Rhodesian Front (RF) was a political party in Southern Rhodesia, later known as Rhodesia, now called Zimbabwe, when the country was under white minority rule. ... The Rt Hon Ian Smith, Prime Minister of Rhodesia, 1964 (official portrait) Ian Douglas Smith GCLM ID (born 8 April 1919) was the Premier of the British Crown Colony of Southern Rhodesia from 13 April 1964 to 11 November 1965, and Prime Minister of Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) from 11 November... The flag of the British South Africa Company The British South Africa Company (BSAC) was established by Cecil Rhodes through the amalgamation of the Central Search Association and the Exploring Company, Ltd. ... The 1920s is a decade that is sometimes referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ... Flag Capital Salisbury Language(s) English Government Republic President Josiah Zion Gumede Prime Minister Abel Muzorewa Historical era Cold War  - Established June 1, 1979  - Disestablished December 12, 1979 Area  - 1978 390,580 km2 150,804 sq mi Population  - 1978 est. ... Bishop Abel Muzorewa Abel Tendekayi Muzorewa (born 1925 in former Rhodesia), a Methodist bishop and nationalist leader, was prime minister of the short-lived coalition government in what was called Zimbabwe Rhodesia; he held office for only a few months in 1979. ...


The Second Chimurenga/Bush War ended when the white-ruled government of Rhodesia returned power to the British government at the 1979 Lancaster House Constitutional Conference, at the behest of both South Africa (its major backer) and the US, multi-ethnic elections were subsequently held in early 1980. Britain recognised this new government and the newly, internationally recognised, independent country was renamed as Zimbabwe. The Lancaster House Agreement was the independence agreement for Rhodesia, now known as Zimbabwe. ...


Third Chimurenga

The present era in Zimbabwe is called the Third Chimurenga, by the ruling ZANU-PF. The Mugabe administration claims that colonial social and economic structures remained largely intact in the years after the end of Rhodesian rule, with a small minority of white farmers owning the vast majority of the country's arable land (many parties within Zimbabwe question the extent and validity of these assertions, considering twenty years of ZANU-PF rule, the "Willing Buyer-Willing Seller" policy paid for by Britain and the diminished size of Zimbabwe's white population). By 2000 ZANU militants proclaimed violent struggle for land reform the "Third Chimurenga." The beginning of the "Third Chimurenga" is often attributed to the need to distract Zimbabwean electorate from the poorly conceived war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and deepening economic problems blamed on graft and ineptitude in the ruling party. In Zimbabwe, the question of land distribution and redistribution (land reform) is perhaps the most crucial and the most bitterly contested political issue today. ...


The opposition briefly used the term to describe Zimbabwe's current struggles aimed at removing the ZANU government, resolving the Land Question, the establishment of democracy, rebuilding the rule of law and good governance, as well as the eradication of corruption in Government. The term is no longer in vogue amongst Zimbabwe's urban population and lacks the gravitas it once had so was dropped from the opposition's lexicon.


In music

Main article: Chimurenga music

'Chimurenga' also refers to a style of music first branded by Thomas Mapfumo, who mixed African rhythmic patterns and instruments such as Mbira (thumb piano), drums, gourd rattles with Western styles (e-guitar) in songs that achieved wide popularity among the protest movement against white minority rule. Today the term Chimurenga music refers to popular Shona music from Zimbabwe. Chimurenga music is a Zimbabwean popular music genre coined by and popularised by Thomas Mapfumo. ... Thomas Mapfumo is a Zimbabwean musician known as The Lion of Zimbabwe for his immense popularity and for the political influence he wields through his music. ... Mbira Dzavadzimu in deze (top), Mbira Nyunga Nyunga (bottom), Hosho (bottom left). ... Chimurenga music is a Zimbabwean popular music genre coined by and popularised by Thomas Mapfumo. ... Shona is the principle language of Zimbabwe, in southern Africa. ...


References

  1. ^ What is Chimurenga?
  2. ^ Farwell, Byron (2001). The Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-Century Land Warfare: An Illustrated World View. W. W. Norton & Company, 539. ISBN 0393047709. 
  3. ^ King Chung, Fay (2006). Re-living the Second Chimurenga: Memories from Zimbabwes Liberation Struggle. Stockholm: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet. 
  4. ^ David, Martin (1981). The Struggle for Zimbabwe: The Chimurenga War. Harare: Zimbabwe Publishing Company. 
  5. ^ Smith, Ian Douglas (2001). The Bitter Harvest - Autobiographie. John Blake Publishing Limited. 

  Results from FactBites:
 
Chimurenga - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (333 words)
Chimurenga is a word that translates from the Shona language as 'struggle'.
The Second Chimurenga refers to the guerrilla war of 1972-1980, which led to the end of white-minority rule in Rhodesia and to the independence of Zimbabwe.
The present era in Zimbabwe is widely known as the Third Chimurenga.
Chimurenga: Cape Town Now! (1853 words)
The term Chimurenga is also used to describe the music that fuelled the struggle against British colonialism and the white supremacist regime that replaced it during the 1970s in Zimbabwe.
Chimurenga was created as a platform to end the "noise control" by media monopolies in South Africa.
Chimurenga wants to articulate the experiences of African peoples wherever they may be located and I wish very much for readers in North America-- and beyond --to get involved, to contribute.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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