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Encyclopedia > Chimpanzee
Chimpanzees[1]

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Primates
Family: Hominidae
Subfamily: Homininae
Tribe: Hominini
Subtribe: Panina
Genus: Pan
Oken, 1816
Type species
Simia troglodytes
Blumenbach, 1775

distribution of Pan spp.
Species

Pan troglodytes
Pan paniscus Image File history File links Download high resolution version (667x768, 532 KB) Rescued chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) near Djoum, South Province, Cameroon. ... Binomial name (Blumenbach, 1775) distribution of Common Chimpanzee. ... The South Province (French Province du Sud) is located in the southwestern and south-central portion of the Republic of Cameroon. ... Scientific classification or biological classification refers to how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes Subphylum Urochordata - Tunicates Ascidiacea Thaliacea Larvacea Subphylum Cephalochordata - Lancelets Subphylum Myxini - Hagfishes Subphylum Vertebrata - Vertebrates Petromyzontida - Lampreys Placodermi (extinct) Chondrichthyes - Cartilaginous fishes Acanthodii (extinct) Actinopterygii - Ray-finned fishes Actinistia - Coelacanths Dipnoi - Lungfishes Amphibia - Amphibians Reptilia - Reptiles Aves - Birds Mammalia - Mammals Chordates (phylum Chordata) include the vertebrates, together with... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including milk producing sweat glands, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... Families 15, See classification A primate is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all the species commonly related to the lemurs, monkeys, and apes, with the latter category including humans. ... Genera The hominids are the members of the biological family Hominidae (the great apes), which includes humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans. ... Tribes Gorillini Hominini and see text Homininae is a subfamily of Hominidae, including Homo sapiens and some extinct relatives, as well as the gorillas and the chimpanzees. ... Genera Subtribe Panina Pan (chimpanzees) Subtribe Hominina Homo (humans) †Paranthropus †Australopithecus †Sahelanthropus †Orrorin †Ardipithecus †Kenyanthropus For an explanation of very similar terms see Hominid Hominini is the tribe of Homininae that only includes humans (Homo), chimpanzees (Pan), and their extinct ancestors. ... Lorenz Oken (August 1, 1779 - August 11, 1851), was a German naturalist, real name Lorenz Ockenfuss. ... In biology, a type is that which fixes a name to a taxon. ... Binomial name (Blumenbach, 1775) distribution of Common Chimpanzee. ... Johann Friedrich Blumenbach Johann Friedrich Blumenbach (May 11, 1752 - January 22, 1840) was a German physiologist and anthropologist. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (969x424, 105 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (Blumenbach, 1775) distribution of Common Chimpanzee. ... For other uses, see Bonobo (disambiguation). ...

Chimpanzee, often shortened to chimp, is the common name for the two extant species of apes in the genus Pan. The better known chimpanzee is Pan troglodytes, the Common Chimpanzee, living primarily in West, and Central Africa. Its cousin, the Bonobo or "Pygmy Chimpanzee" as it is known archaically, Pan paniscus, is found in the forests of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The Congo River forms the boundary between the two species.[2] Chimpanzees are members of the Hominidae family, along with gorillas, humans, and orangutans, and the two chimpanzee species are the closest living relatives to humans. In biology, extant taxon is commonly used in discussions of living and fossil species. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... This article is about the biological superfamily. ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (Blumenbach, 1775) distribution of Common Chimpanzee. ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ... For other uses, see Bonobo (disambiguation). ... The Congo River (for a time known as Zaire River) is the largest river in Western Central Africa. ... Genera The hominids are the members of the biological family Hominidae (the great apes), which includes humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans. ... Type species Troglodytes gorilla Savage, 1847 distribution of Gorilla Species Gorilla gorilla Gorilla beringei The gorilla, the largest of the living primates, is a ground-dwelling omnivore that inhabits the forests of Africa. ... This article is about modern humans. ... This article is about the primate. ...

Contents

Measurements

A full grown adult male chimpanzee can weigh from 35-70 kilograms (75-155 lb) and stand 0.9-1.2 metres (3-4 ft) tall, while females usually weigh 26-50 kg (57-110 lb) and stand 0.66-1 m (2-3½ ft) tall. Kg redirects here. ... Look up pound in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ...


Lifespan

Chimpanzees rarely live past the age of 40 in the wild, but have been known to reach the age of more than 60 in captivity. Cheeta, star of Tarzan is still alive as of 2008 at the age of 76, making him the oldest known chimpanzee in the world.[3] Cheeta aka Jiggs (born April 9, 1932) is a male chimpanzee noted for appearing in numerous movies and television shows, most famously many Hollywood Tarzan films of the 1930s and 1940s, in which he portrayed a fictional chimp of the same name. ... For other uses, see Tarzan (disambiguation). ... 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Chimpanzee differences

Bonobo

Anatomical differences between the Common Chimpanzee and the Bonobo are slight, but in sexual and social behaviour there are marked differences. Common Chimpanzees have an omnivorous diet, a troop hunting culture based on beta males led by an alpha male, and highly complex social relationships. Bonobos, on the other hand, have a mostly frugivorous diet and an egalitarian, matriarchal, sexually receptive behaviour. The exposed skin of the face, hands and feet varies from pink to very dark in both species, but is generally lighter in younger individuals, darkening as maturity is reached. Bonobos have proportionately longer upper limbs and tend to walk upright more often than the Common Chimpanzee. A University of Chicago Medical Centre study has found significant genetic differences between chimpanzee populations.[4] Different groups of Chimpanzees also have different cultural behaviour with preferences for types of tools.[5] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1855x1484, 2554 KB) Photo taken by Kabir Bakie at the Cincinnati Zoo May 2005 File links The following pages link to this file: Bonobo Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1855x1484, 2554 KB) Photo taken by Kabir Bakie at the Cincinnati Zoo May 2005 File links The following pages link to this file: Bonobo Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Pigs are omnivores. ... In nutrition, the diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism. ... Predator and Prey redirect here. ... An alpha male or alpha female is the individual in the community to whom the others follow and defer. ... A frugivore is an animal that feeds on fruit. ... Egalitarianism is the moral doctrine that equality ought to prevail among some group along some dimension. ... A matriarchy is a tradition (and by extension a form of government) in which community power lies with the eldest mother of a community. ...


History of human interaction

Africans have had contact with chimpanzees for millennia. Chimpanzees have been kept as domesticated pets for centuries in a few African villages, especially in Congo. The first recorded contact of Europeans with chimps took place in present-day Angola during the 1600s. The diary of Portuguese explorer Duarte Pacheco Pereira (1506), preserved in the Portuguese National Archive (Torre do Tombo), is probably the first European document to acknowledge that chimpanzees built their own rudimentary tools. World map showing location of Africa A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second_largest continent in both area and population, after Asia. ... Domesticated animals, plants, and other organisms are those whose collective behavior, life cycle, or physiology has been altered as a result of their breeding and living conditions being under human control for multiple generations. ... This article is about animals kept for companionship. ... Duarte Pacheco Pereira, (15th century) mysterious Portuguese captain and explorer of the Atlantic, his travels in the central Atlantic west of Cape Verde probably are more important than traditional history states. ...


The first use of the name "chimpanzee", however, did not occur until 1738. The name is derived from a Tshiluba language term "kivili-chimpenze", which is the local name for the animal and translates loosely as "mockman" or possibly just "ape". The colloquialism "chimp" was most likely coined some time in the late 1870s[citation needed]. Biologists applied Pan as the genus name of the animal. Chimps as well as other apes had also been purported to have been known to Western writers in ancient times, but mainly as myths and legends on the edge of Euro-Arabic societal consciousness, mainly through fragmented and sketchy accounts of European adventurers. Apes are mentioned variously by Aristotle, as well as the Bible, where apes and baboons are described as having been collected by Solomon in 1 Kings 10:22. Contents // Categories: Bantu languages | Languages of the Democratic Republic of the Congo | Language stubs ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Baboon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Biblical figure. ... (Redirected from 1 Kings) The Books of Kings (also known as [The Book of] Kings in Hebrew: Sefer Melachim מלכים) is a part of Judaisms Tanakh, the Hebrew Bible. ...


When chimpanzees first began arriving on the European continent, European scientists noted the inaccuracy of some ancient descriptions, which often reported that chimpanzees had horns and hooves[citation needed]. The first of these early trans-continental chimpanzees came from Angola and were presented as a gift to Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange in 1640, and were followed by a few of its brethren over the next several years. Scientists who examined these rare specimens were baffled[citation needed], and described these first chimpanzees as "pygmies", and noted the animals' distinct similarities to humans. The next two decades would see a number of the creatures imported into Europe, mainly acquired by various zoological gardens as entertainment for visitors. Frederick Henry (January 29, 1584–March 14, 1647), Prince of Orange, the youngest child of William the Silent, was born at Delft about six months before his fathers assassination. ... Baka dancers in the East Province of Cameroon Batwa dancers in Uganda This article is about the Pygmy people. ...


Darwin's theory of evolution (published in 1859) spurred scientific interest in chimpanzees, as in much of life science, leading eventually to numerous studies of the animals in the wild and captivity. The observers of chimpanzees at the time were mainly interested in behaviour as it related to that of humans. This was less strictly and disinterestedly scientific than it might sound, with much attention being focused on whether or not the animals had traits that could be considered 'good'; the intelligence of chimpanzees was often significantly exaggerated.[citation needed] At one point there was even a scheme drawn up to domesticate chimpanzees in order to have them perform various menial tasks (i.e. factory work)[citation needed]. By the end of the 1800s chimpanzees remained very much a mystery to humans, with very little factual scientific information available. For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... This article is about biological evolution. ... Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology is the science of life (from the Greek words bios = life and logos = word). ... Behavior or behaviour refers to the actions or reactions of an object or organism, usually in relation to the environment. ... Dogs and sheep were among the first animals to be domesticated. ...

Chimpanzee at the Los Angeles Zoo

The 20th century saw a new age of scientific research into chimpanzee behaviour. Prior to 1960, almost nothing was known about chimpanzee behaviour in their natural habitat. In July of that year, Jane Goodall set out to Tanzania's Gombe forest to live among the chimpanzees. Her discovery that chimpanzees made and used tools was ground breaking, as humans were previously believed to be the only species to do so. The most progressive early studies on chimpanzees were spearheaded primarily by Wolfgang Köhler and Robert Yerkes, both of whom were renowned psychologists. Both men and their colleagues established laboratory studies of chimpanzees focused specifically on learning about the intellectual abilities of chimpanzees, particularly problem-solving. This typically involved basic, practical tests on laboratory chimpanzees, which required a fairly high intellectual capacity (such as how to solve the problem of acquiring an out-of-reach banana). Notably, Yerkes also made extensive observations of chimpanzees in the wild which added tremendously to the scientific understanding of chimpanzees and their behaviour. Yerkes studied chimpanzees until World War II, while Köhler concluded five years of study and published his famous Mentality of Apes in 1925 (which is coincidentally when Yerkes began his analyses), eventually concluding that "chimpanzees manifest intelligent behaviour of the general kind familiar in human beings ... a type of behaviour which counts as specifically human" (1925).[6] Image File history File links Common Chimpanzee also known as Vlad Raskin could be found in greater Boston or greater Tbilisi area depending on the season By Aaron Logan, from http://www. ... Image File history File links Common Chimpanzee also known as Vlad Raskin could be found in greater Boston or greater Tbilisi area depending on the season By Aaron Logan, from http://www. ... A summer crowd of the LA Zoo The Los Angeles Zoo is a large zoo located in Los Angeles, California. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... Dame Jane Goodall, DBE, PhD, (born 3 April 1934 as Valerie Jane Morris Goodall) is an English UN Messenger of Peace, primatologist, ethologist, and anthropologist. ... Gombe Streams National Park in Tanzania is the smallest of that countrys national parks and was formed in 1968 to give protection to the thousands of chimpanzees that live there, made famous by the primatologist Jane Goodall. ... Problem solving forms part of thinking. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Common Chimpanzees have been known to attack humans on occasion.[7][8] There have been many attacks in Uganda by chimpanzees against human children; the results are sometimes fatal for the children. Some of these attacks are presumed to be due to chimpanzees being intoxicated (from alcohol obtained from rural brewing operations) and mistaking human children[9] for the Western Red Colobus, one of their favourite meals.[10] The dangers of careless human interactions with chimpanzees are only aggravated by the fact that many chimpanzees perceive humans as potential rivals,[11] and by the fact that the average chimpanzee has over 5 times the upper-body strength of a human male.[12][13] As a result virtually any angered chimpanzee can easily overpower and potentially kill even a fully grown man, as shown by the attack and near death of former NASCAR driver Saint James Davis.[14][15] Binomial name Piliocolobus badius (Kerr, 1792) The Western Red Colobus (Piliocolobus) is a species of Old World monkey. ... Jeff Burton (99), Elliott Sadler (38), Ricky Rudd (21), Dale Jarrett (88), Sterling Marlin (40), Jimmie Johnson (48), and Casey Mears (41) practice for the 2004 Daytona 500 The National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR) is the largest sanctioning body of motorsports in the United States. ...


Intelligence

Chimpanzees make tools and use them to acquire foods and for social displays; they have sophisticated hunting strategies requiring cooperation, influence and rank; they are status conscious, manipulative and capable of deception; they can learn to use symbols and understand aspects of human language including some relational syntax, concepts of number and numerical sequence. [16] Young chimpanzees have outperformed human college students in tasks requiring remembering numbers.[17]


Tool use

Modern chimpanzees use tools, and recent research indicates that chimpanzee stone tool use dates to at least 4300 years ago.[18] A recent study revealed the use of such advanced tools as spears, which Common Chimpanzees in Senegal sharpen with their teeth, being used to spear Senegal Bushbabies out of small holes in trees.[19][20] Prior to the discovery of tool use in chimps, it was believed that humans were the only species to make and use tools, but several other tool-using species are now known.[21][22] Binomial name (Blumenbach, 1775) distribution of Common Chimpanzee. ... Binomial name Galago senegalensis É. Geoffroy, 1796 The Senegal Bushbaby (Galago senegalensis), also known as the Senegal Galago, the Lesser Galago or the Lesser Bush Baby, is a small, nocturnal primate, a member of the galago family Galagidae (sometimes called Galagonidae). ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ...


Altruism

Recent studies have shown that chimpanzees engage in apparently altruistic behaviour.[23][24] For the ethical doctrine, see Altruism (ethics). ...


Studies of language

Main article: Great ape language
Side profile of a Chimpanzee

Scientists have long been fascinated with the studies of language, as it was potentially the most uniquely human cognitive ability. To test the hypothesis of the human-uniqueness of language, scientists have attempted to teach several species of great apes language. One early attempt was performed by Allen and Beatrice Gardner in the 1960s, in which they spent 51 months attempting to teach a chimpanzee, named Washoe, American Sign Language. Washoe reportedly learned 151 signs in those 51 months.[25] Over a longer period of time, Washoe reportedly learned over 800 signs.[26] Numerous other studies including one involving a chimpanzee named Nim Chimpsky have been conducted since with varying levels of success. There is ongoing debate among some scientists, notably Noam Chomsky and David Premack, about the great apes' ability to learn language. Research into non-human great ape language has involved teaching gorillas, chimpanzees, and orangutans to communicate with human beings and with each other using sign language, physical tokens, and lexigrams; see Yerkish. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 722 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (779 × 647 pixel, file size: 177 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 722 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (779 × 647 pixel, file size: 177 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Genera Subfamily Ponginae Pongo - Orangutans Gigantopithecus (extinct) Sivapithecus (extinct) Subfamily Homininae Gorilla - Gorillas Pan - Chimpanzees Homo - Humans Paranthropus (extinct) Australopithecus (extinct) Sahelanthropus (extinct) Ardipithecus (extinct) Kenyanthropus (extinct) Pierolapithecus (extinct) (tentative) The Hominids (Hominidae) are a biological family which includes humans, extinct species of humanlike creatures and the other great apes... Washoe (around September of 1965[1] - October 30, 2007) was a chimpanzee who was the first non-human to learn American Sign Language. ... It has been suggested that ASL Grammar be merged into this article or section. ... Nim Chimpsky (November 21, 1973 – March 10, 2000) was a chimpanzee who was the subject of an extended study of animal language acquisition (codenamed 6. ... Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, political activist, author, and lecturer. ... David Premack is currently emeritus professor of psychology at the University of Pennsylvania. ...


Laughter in non-human apes

Laughter might not be confined or unique to humans, despite Aristotle's observation that "only the human animal laughs". The differences between chimpanzee and human laughter may be the result of adaptations that have evolved to enable human speech. Self-awareness of one's situation such as the monkey-mirror experiments below, or the ability to identify with another's predicament (see mirror neurons), are prerequisites for laughter, so animals may be laughing in the same way that we do. For other uses, see Laughter (disambiguation). ... Mirror neurons are active when a primate performs an action, but also when it observes that action. ...


Chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans show laughter-like vocalizations in response to physical contact, such as wrestling, play chasing, or tickling. This is documented in wild and captive chimpanzees. Chimpanzee laughter is not readily recognizable to humans as such, because it is generated by alternating inhalations and exhalations that sound more like breathing and panting. There are instances in which non-human primates have been reported to have expressed joy. One study analysed and recorded sounds made by human babies and bonobos (also known as pygmy chimpanzees) when tickled. It found, that although the bonobo’s laugh was a higher frequency, the laugh followed a pattern similar to that of human babies and included similar facial expressions. Humans and chimpanzees share similar ticklish areas of the body, such as the armpits and belly. The enjoyment of tickling in chimpanzees does not diminish with age. [27] Species Gorilla gorilla Gorilla beringei The gorilla, the largest of the primates, is a ground-dwelling herbivore that inhabits the forests of central Africa. ... For the chess opening, see Sokolsky Opening. ... A young girl tickles her sibling, evoking a pleasurable response in the child being tickled. ...


Chimps in laboratories

Enos the space chimp before being inserted into the Mercury-Atlas 5 capsule in 1961.

As of November 2007, there were 1,300 chimpanzees housed in 10 U.S. laboratories (out of 3,000 great apes living in captivity there), either wild-caught, or acquired from circuses, animal trainers, or zoos.[28] Most of the labs either conduct or make the chimps available for invasive research,[29] defined as "inoculation with an infectious agent, surgery or biopsy conducted for the sake of research and not for the sake of the chimpanzee, and/or drug testing".[30] Two federally funded laboratories use chimps: Yerkes National Primate Research Laboratory at Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia, and the Southwest National Primate Center in San Antonio, Texas.[31] Five hundred chimps have been retired from laboratory use in the U.S. and live in sanctuaries in the U.S. or Canada.[29] Image File history File links NASAchimp. ... Image File history File links NASAchimp. ... Enos being prepared for insertion into the Mercury-Atlas 5 capsule in 1961. ... Mercury-Atlas 5 was an American unmanned spaceflight of the Mercury program. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Emory University is a private university located in the metropolitan area of the city of Atlanta and in western unincorporated DeKalb County, Georgia, United States. ...


Chimpanzees used in biomedical research tend to be used repeatedly over decades, rather than used and killed as with most laboratory animals. Some individual chimps currently in U.S. laboratories have been used in experiments for over 40 years.[32] According to Project R&R, a campaign to release chimps held in U.S. labs — run by the New England Anti-Vivisection Society in conjunction with Jane Goodall and other primate researchers — the oldest known chimp in a U.S. lab is Wenka, who was born in a laboratory in Florida on May 21, 1954. She was removed from her mother on the day of birth to be used in a vision experiment that lasted 17 months, then sold as a pet to a family in North Carolina. She was returned to the Yerkes National Primate Research Center in 1957 when she became too big to handle. Since then, she has given birth six times, and has been used in research into alcohol use, oral contraceptives, ageing, and cognitive studies.[33] Dame Jane Goodall, DBE, PhD, (born 3 April 1934 as Valerie Jane Morris Goodall) is an English UN Messenger of Peace, primatologist, ethologist, and anthropologist. ...


With the publication of the chimpanzee genome, there are reportedly plans to increase the use of chimps in labs, with some scientists arguing that the federal moratorium on breeding chimps for research should be lifted.[34][31] A five-year moratorium was imposed by the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) in 1996, because too many chimps had been bred for HIV research, and it has been extended annually since 2001.[31] The Chimpanzee Genome Project is an effort to determine the DNA sequence of the genome of the closest living human relatives. ...


Other researchers argue that chimps are unique animals and either should not be used in research, or should be treated differently. Pascal Gagneux, an evolutionary biologist and primate expert at the University of California, San Diego, argues that, given chimpanzees' sense of self, tool use, and genetic similarity to human beings, studies using chimps should follow the ethical guidelines that are used for human subjects unable to give consent.[31] Stuart Zola, director of the Yerkes National Primate Research Laboratory, disagrees. He told National Geographic: "I don't think we should make a distinction between our obligation to treat humanely any species, whether it's a rat or a monkey or a chimpanzee. No matter how much we may wish it, chimps are not human."[31] The University of California, San Diego (popularly known as UCSD, or sometimes UC San Diego) is a highly selective, research-oriented[1] public university located in La Jolla, a seaside resort community of San Diego, California. ...


An increasing number of governments are enacting a Great Ape research ban forbidding the use of chimpanzees and other great apes in research or toxicology testing.[35] As of 2006, Austria, New Zealand, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the UK had introduced such bans.[36] A Great Ape research ban, or severe restrictions on the use of non-human great apes in research, is currently in place in the Netherlands, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, Sweden, Germany and Japan, and has been proposed in Austria. ... Genera Subfamily Ponginae Pongo - Orangutans Gigantopithecus (extinct) Sivapithecus (extinct) Subfamily Homininae Gorilla - Gorillas Pan - Chimpanzees Homo - Humans Paranthropus (extinct) Australopithecus (extinct) Sahelanthropus (extinct) Ardipithecus (extinct) Kenyanthropus (extinct) Pierolapithecus (extinct) (tentative) The Hominids (Hominidae) are a biological family which includes humans, extinct species of humanlike creatures and the other great apes... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent...


Taxonomic relationships

The taxonomic relationships of Hominoidea

The genus Pan is now considered to be part of the subfamily Homininae to which humans also belong. These two species are the closest living evolutionary relatives to humans. Humans shared a common ancestor with chimpanzees five to eight million years ago.[37] Ground breaking research by Mary-Claire King in 1973 found 99% identical DNA between human beings and chimpanzees,[38] although research since has modified that finding to about 94%[39] commonality, with at least some of the difference occurring in 'junk' DNA. It has even been proposed that troglodytes and paniscus belong with sapiens in the genus Homo, rather than in Pan. One argument for this is that other species have been reclassified to belong to the same genus on the basis of less genetic similarity than that between humans and chimpanzees. Tribes Gorillini Hominini and see text Homininae is a subfamily of Hominidae, including Homo sapiens and some extinct relatives, as well as the gorillas and the chimpanzees. ... This article is about modern humans. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... This article is about modern humans. ... The Pliocene epoch (spelled Pleiocene in some older texts) is the period in the geologic timescale that extends from 5. ... The Miocene Epoch is a period of time that extends from about 23. ... Mary-Claire King (1946- ) is an American human geneticist. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... Species Homo sapiens See text for extinct species. ...


A study published by Clark and Nielsen of Cornell University in the December 2003 issue of the journal Science highlights differences related to one of humankind's defining qualities — the ability to understand language and to communicate through speech. These macro-phenotypic differences, however, may owe less to physiology than might be assumed given that Homo sapiens developed modern cultural features long after the modern physiological features were in place and indeed competed averagely against other species of Homo with regard to tools, etc for many millennia. Differences also exist in the genes for smell, in genes that regulate the metabolism of amino acids and in genes that may affect the ability to digest various proteins. See the history of hominoid taxonomy for more about the history of the classification of chimpanzees. See Human evolutionary genetics for more information on the speciation of humans and great apes. Cornell redirects here. ... Science is the academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and is considered one of the worlds most prestigious scientific journals. ... This article is about the biological superfamily. ... Human evolutionary genetics studies how one human genome differs from the other, the evolutionary past that gave rise to it, and its current effects. ...


Fossils

Many human fossils have been found, but chimpanzee fossils were not described until 2005. Existing chimpanzee populations in West and Central Africa do not overlap with the major human fossil sites in East Africa. However, chimpanzee fossils have now been reported from Kenya. This would indicate that both humans and members of the Pan clade were present in the East African Rift Valley during the Middle Pleistocene.[37] For the history of humans on Earth, see History of the world. ... A clade is a term belonging to the discipline of cladistics. ... African Rift Valley. ... The Pleistocene epoch (IPA: ) on the geologic timescale is the period from 1,808,000 to 11,550 years BP. The Pleistocene epoch had been intended to cover the worlds recent period of repeated glaciations. ...


References

  1. ^ Groves, Colin (16 November 2005). in Wilson, D. E., and Reeder, D. M. (eds): Mammal Species of the World, 3rd edition, Johns Hopkins University Press, 182-183. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 
  2. ^ ADW:Pan troglodytes:information. Animal Diversity Web (University of Michigan Museum of Zoology). Retrieved on 2007-08-11.
  3. ^ Moehringer, J.R. (2007-04-22). Cheeta speaks. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved on 2007-04-22.
  4. ^ "Gene study shows three distinct groups of chimpanzees", EurekAlert, April 20 2007. Retrieved on 2007-04-23. 
  5. ^ Chimp Behavior. Jane Goodall Institute. Retrieved on 2007-08-11.
  6. ^ Goodall, Jane (1986). The Chimpanzees of Gombe: Patterns of Behavior. ISBN 0-674-11649-6. 
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General references

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Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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See also

Advocates of Great Ape personhood consider common chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, and orangutans (the hominid apes) to be persons. ... This is a list of apes of encyclopedic interest. ... The Chimpanzee Genome Project is an effort to determine the DNA sequence of the genome of the closest living human relatives. ...

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Type species Troglodytes gorilla Savage, 1847 distribution of Gorilla Species Gorilla gorilla Gorilla beringei The gorilla, the largest of the living primates, is a ground-dwelling omnivore that inhabits the forests of Africa. ... Binomial name Gorilla gorilla Savage, 1847 Subspecies G. g. ... Binomial name Gorilla beringei Matschie, 1903 Subspecies G. b. ... Binomial name (Blumenbach, 1775) distribution of Common Chimpanzee. ... For other uses, see Bonobo (disambiguation). ... Species Homo sapiens See text for extinct species. ... This article is about modern humans. ... Families Hylobatidae Hominidae Apes are the members of the Hominoidea superfamily of primates, including humans. ... Research into non-human great ape language has involved teaching gorillas, chimpanzees, and orangutans to communicate with human beings and with each other using sign language, physical tokens, and lexigrams; see Yerkish. ... The Great Ape Trust is a 200-acre ape sanctuary and language study in Des Moines, Iowa that houses orangutans and bonobos. ... Dian Fossey (January 16, 1932 – December 26, 1985) was an American zoologist who completed an extended study of eight gorilla groups. ... Dr Biruté Marija Filomena Galdikas, OC Ph. ... Dame Jane Goodall, DBE, PhD, (born 3 April 1934 as Valerie Jane Morris Goodall) is an English UN Messenger of Peace, primatologist, ethologist, and anthropologist. ... The Chimpanzee Genome Project is an effort to determine the DNA sequence of the genome of the closest living human relatives. ... The Human Genome Project (HGP) is an international scientific research project. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 537 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1466 × 1636 pixel, file size: 307 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Original caption: Skelett des Menschen (1) und des Gorillas (2), unnatürlich gestreckt. ... Families 15, See classification A primate is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all the species commonly related to the lemurs, monkeys, and apes, with the latter category including humans. ... Advocates of Great Ape personhood consider common chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, and orangutans (the hominid apes) to be persons. ... A Great Ape research ban, or severe restrictions on the use of non-human great apes in research, is currently in place in the Netherlands, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, Sweden, Germany and Japan, and has been proposed in Austria. ... The Great Ape Project, founded by Italian philosopher Paola Cavalieri and Australian philosopher Peter Singer, is campaigning to have the United Nations endorse a Declaration on Great Apes. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... The logo of The Great Ape Project, which aims to expand moral equality to great apes, and to foster greater understanding of them by humans. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Ape extinction, particularly great ape extinction, is one of the most widely held biodiversity concerns. ... This is a list of apes of encyclopedic interest. ... This is a list of fictional apes (Bonobos, Chimpanzees, Gorillas, Orangutans, and Gibbons) and other non-human higher primates. ... For the history of humans on Earth, see History of the world. ... Mythic humanoids are mythic creatures that are human-like, half-human, or fictional apes. ... A hominid is any member of the biological family Hominidae (the great apes), including the extinct and extant humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans. ... This article is about the book. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Chimpanzee - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1307 words)
Chimpanzee, often shortened to chimp, is the common name for the two extant species in the genus Pan.
Its cousin, the Bonobo or Pygmy Chimpanzee, Pan paniscus, is found in the forests of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Chimpanzees rarely live past the age of 40 in the wild, but have been known to reach the age of 60 in captivity, although Tarzan star Cheeta is still alive as of 2006 at the age of 74.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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