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Encyclopedia > Chili pepper

The chili pepper, chilli pepper, or more simply just "chili", is the fruit of the plants from the Genus Capsicum and the nightshade family, Solanaceae. Chili (also spelled Chilli) may refer to: Chili pepper, the fruit and plant of any one of several hot species of the genus Capsicum Chili con carne or Chili sin carne, a spicy stew-like dish traditionally made with chili peppers and beef Cincinnati style chili Chili powder, a spice... Species C. annuum (incl. ... “Nightshade” redirects here. ... “Nightshade” redirects here. ...


The name, which is spelled differently in many regions (chili, chile or chilli), comes from Nahuatl via the Spanish word chile. The term chili in most of the world refers exclusively to the smaller, hot types of capsicum. The mild larger types are called bell pepper in the USA, simply pepper in Britain, Canada and Ireland, capsicum in India and Australasia and paprika in many European countries. Nahuatl ( [1] is a term applied to a group of related languages and dialects of the Aztecan [2] branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family, indigenous to central Mexico. ... Binomial name Capsicum annuum L. For green peppercorns, see Black pepper. ... Species C. annuum (incl. ... Species C. annuum (incl. ... Australasia Australasia is a term variably used to describe a region of Oceania: Australia, New Zealand, and neighbouring islands in the Pacific Ocean. ... Capsicum fruit which comes in various shapes and colours can be used to make paprika. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...

Chili peppers
Chili peppers

Chili peppers and their various cultivars originate in the Americas; they are now grown around the world because they are widely used as spices or vegetables in cuisine, and as medicine. Image File history File links Cubanelle_Peppers. ... Image File history File links Cubanelle_Peppers. ... This Osteospermum Pink Whirls is a successful cultivar. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... For other uses, see Spice (disambiguation). ... A plate of vegetables Vegetable is a culinary term which generally refers to an edible part of a plant. ... Cuisine (from French cuisine, cooking; culinary art; kitchen; ultimately from Latin coquere, to cook) is a specific set of cooking traditions and practices, often associated with a specific culture. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ...

Contents

History

Chili peppers have been a part of the human diet in the Americas since at least 7500 BC and perhaps earlier. There is archaeological evidence at sites located in southwestern Ecuador that chili peppers were already well domesticated more than 6000 years ago [1][2], and is one of the first cultivated crops in the Americas. Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... Domesticated animals, plants, and other organisms are those whose collective behavior, life cycle, or physiology has been altered as a result of their breeding and living conditions being under human control for multiple generations. ...


Chili peppers are thought to have been domesticated at least five times by prehistoric peoples in different parts of South and North America, from Peru in the south to Mexico in the north and parts of Colorado and New Mexico (Ancient Pueblo Peoples).[3] Cliff Palace, Mesa Verde National Park White House Ruins, Canyon de Chelly National Monument Ancient Pueblo People or Ancestral Puebloans were a prehistoric Native American culture centered around the present-day Four Corners area of the Southwest United States, noted for their distinctive pottery and dwelling construction styles. ...


In the publication Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift (1995), Professor Hakon Hjelmqvist published an article on pre-Columbian chili peppers in Europe. In an archaeological dig in the block of St. Botulf in Lund, archaeologists claimed to have found a Capsicum frutescens in a layer dating to the 13th century. Hjelmqvist also claims that Capsicum was described by the Greek Therophrasteus (370-286 BC). He also mentions other antique sources. The Roman poet Martialis (around the 1st century) described "Pipervee crudum" (raw pepper) to be long and containing seeds. The description of the plants does not fit pepper (Piper nigrum), which does not grow well in European climates. [4] Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift is a magazine for botanists publiched by Svenska Botaniska föreningen since 1907. ...   IPA: is a city in SkÃ¥ne in southern Sweden. ... Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... Theophrastus (Greek , 370 — about 285 BC), a native of Eressos in Lesbos, was the successor of Aristotle in the Peripatetic school. ... Martial (Marcus Valerius Martialis), Latin epigrammatist, was born in one of the years AD 38–41, for, in book x. ... Binomial name L. Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. ...


Christopher Columbus was one of the first Europeans to encounter them (in the Caribbean), and called them "peppers" because of their similarity in taste (though not in appearance) with the Old World peppers of the Piper genus. Columbus was keen to propose that he had in fact opened a new direct nautical route to Asia, contrary to reality and the expert consensus of the time, and it has been speculated that he was therefore inclined to denote these new substances as "pepper" in order to associate them with the known Asian spice.[citation needed] Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator and colonialist who is one of the first Europeans to discover the Americas, after the Vikings. ... West Indies redirects here. ... Binomial name L. Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. ... Species See text. ...


Chilis were cultivated around the globe after Columbus' time.[5] [6] Diego Álvarez Chanca, a physician on Columbus' second voyage to the West Indies in 1493, brought the first chili peppers to Spain, and first wrote about their medicinal effects in 1494. Diego Alvarez Chanca (b. ...


From Mexico, at the time the Spanish colony that controlled commerce with Asia, chili peppers spread rapidly into the Philippines and then to India, China, Korea and Japan with the aid of European sailors. The new spice was quickly incorporated into the local cuisines. This article is about the Korean peninsula and civilization. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


An alternate sequence for chili peppers' spread has the Portuguese picking up the pepper from Spain, and thence to India, as described by Lizzie Collingham in her book Curry.[7] The evidence provided is that the chili pepper figures heavily in the cuisine of the Goan region of India, which was the site of a Portuguese colony (e.g. Vindaloo, an Indian interpretation of a Portuguese dish). Collingham also describes the journey of chili peppers from India, through Central Asia and Turkey, to Hungary, where it became the national spice in the form of paprika. Pork vindalho, served in Lisbon, Portugal, in a goan restaurant Vindaloo also called Vindalho or Vindallo is a very popular Indian dish. ... Capsicum fruit which comes in various shapes and colours can be used to make paprika. ...


Currently India is the largest producer of chilis with around one million tons per year, where the Guntur-Market (largest in Asia) alone processes one million bags(100lb each) [8]. This article is about a city in India. ...


Species and cultivars

Cayenne chili pepper
Cayenne chili pepper
See also: List of capsicum cultivars

The most common species of chili peppers are: ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2856x1364, 1307 KB) Large Cayenne This image shows a Large Cayenne. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2856x1364, 1307 KB) Large Cayenne This image shows a Large Cayenne. ... This is a list of capsicum varieties, cultivars, and breeds. ...

Assorted bell pepper fruits from Mexico
Assorted bell pepper fruits from Mexico

Though there are only a few commonly used species, there are many cultivars and methods of preparing chili peppers that have different common names for culinary use. Bell peppers, for example, are the same cultivar of C. annuum; immature peppers being green and mature peppers being red. In the same species are the jalapeño, the poblano (when dried is referred to as ancho), New Mexico (which is also known as chile colorado), Anaheim, Serrano, and other cultivars. Binomial name L. Capsicum annuum is a domesticated species of the plant genus Capsicum native to Mexico, . // The plant is a herbaceous annual, with a densely branched stem. ... Binomial name Capsicum annuum L. For green peppercorns, see Black pepper. ... Capsicum fruit which comes in various shapes and colours can be used to make paprika. ... A large red cayenne The Cayenne is a hot red chili pepper used to flavor dishes, and for medicinal purposes. ... Binomial name The jalapeño is a large to giant-size chili pepper that is prized for the cold, burning sensation that it produces in the left kidney when eaten. ... Chiltepin is a wild chile pepper that grows in Mexico and the southwestern United States. ... Capsicum frutescens is a species of chile peppers that includes the following cultivar and varieties: Naga Jolokia pepper African birdseye, or African devil Cayenne pepper Tabasco sauce uses the tabasco variety This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... Trinomial name Capsicum frutescens var. ... Binomial name Capsicum chinense Jacq. ... Trinomial name Capsicum chinense Naga Jolokia The Naga Jolokia pepper is a chili pepper found naturally in the army garrison town of Tezpur, in the north-eastern state of Assam, India. ... A habanero chile A habanero plant with chiles The habanero chile (Capsicum chinense Jacquin) (Spanish, from Havana) is the most intensely spicy chile pepper of the Capsicum genus. ... Scotch Bonnet peppers in a Caribbean market The Scotch Bonnet (Capsicum chinense) is a variety of Chile Pepper similar to and of the same species as the habanero. ... Locoto peppers A Manzano pepper plant with ripe pods The rocoto, or locoto (Capsicum pubescens) is a medium sized round chili pepper common in Peru and Bolivia. ... Rocoto peppers A Manzano pepper plant with ripe pods Rocoto flower bud with lots of Trichomes, characteristic that gives this species its name. ... The Ají pepper, also known as Peruvian hot pepper, is a unique species of chili pepper, Capsicum baccatum, containing several different breeds. ... The Ají pepper, also known as Peruvian hot pepper, is a unique species of chili pepper, Capsicum baccatum, containing several different breeds. ... Download high resolution version (1024x1252, 157 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1024x1252, 157 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Binomial name Capsicum annuum L. For green peppercorns, see Black pepper. ... This Osteospermum Pink Whirls is a successful cultivar. ... Binomial name Capsicum annuum L. For green peppercorns, see Black pepper. ... Binomial name The jalapeño is a large to giant-size chili pepper that is prized for the cold, burning sensation that it produces in the left kidney when eaten. ... The Poblano is a mild chile pepper, just slightly more spicy than a bell pepper . ... The Anaheim pepper or New Mexican pepper is a pepper, ranging from 500 and 2,500 on the Scoville scale of chile heat. ... The Anaheim pepper or New Mexican pepper is a pepper, ranging from 500 and 2,500 on the Scoville scale of chile heat. ... A serrano pepper is a type of chile pepper that originated in the mountainous regions of Puebla and Hidalgo, Mexico. ...


Jamaicans, Scotch bonnets, and habaneros are common varieties of C. chinense. Scotch Bonnet peppers in a Caribbean market Scotch Bonnet The Scotch Bonnet (Capsicum chinense Jacq. ... A habanero chile A habanero plant with chiles The habanero chile (Capsicum chinense Jacquin) (Spanish, from Havana) is the most intensely spicy chile pepper of the Capsicum genus. ...


The species C. frutescens appears as chiles de árbol, aji, pequin, tabasco, cherry peppers, malagueta and others. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Trinomial name Capsicum frutescens var. ... Malagueta pepper (Capsicum frutescens var. ...


Peppers are commonly broken down into three groupings: bell peppers, sweet peppers, and hot peppers. Most popular pepper varieties are seen as falling into one of these categories or as a cross between them.


Intensity

Further information: Capsaicin, Scoville scale

The substances that gives chili peppers their intensity when ingested or applied topically are capsaicin (8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) and several related chemicals, collectively called capsaicinoids. Capsaicin is the primary ingredient in pepper spray. Capsaicin (8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) is the active component of chilli peppers, which are plants belonging to the genus Capsicum. ... Naga Jolokia (naga morich, bhut jolokia), the Indian chili tested hottest in the world at 1,040,000 SHU. The Red Savinaâ„¢ pepper, one of the hottest chilis, is rated at 580,000 SHU. Only Naga Jolokia and Dorset Naga are hotter. ... Capsaicin (8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) is the active component of chilli peppers, which are plants belonging to the genus Capsicum. ... Pepper spray (also known as OC spray (from Oleoresin Capsicum), OC gas, capsicum spray, or oleoresin capsicum) is a lachrymatory agent (a chemical compound that irritates the eyes to cause tears, pain, and even temporary blindness) that is used in riot control, crowd control and personal self-defense, including defense...


When consumed, capsaicinoids bind with pain receptors in the mouth and throat that are normally responsible for sensing heat. Once activated by the capsaicinoids, these receptors send a message to the brain that the person has consumed something hot. The brain responds to the burning sensation by raising the heart rate, increasing perspiration and releasing the body's natural painkilling chemical, endorphin. For other uses, see Endorphin (disambiguation). ...


The "heat" of chili peppers is measured in Scoville units (SHU). Bell peppers rank at 0 (SHU), New Mexico green chilis at about 1,500 SHU, jalapeños at 3,000–6,000 SHU, and habaneros at 300,000 SHU. The record for the hottest chili pepper was assigned by the Guinness Book of Records to the Naga Jolokia, measuring over 1,000,000 SHU. Pure capsaicin, which is a hydrophobic, colorless, odorless, crystalline to waxy solid at room temperature, measures 16,000,000 SHU. Naga Jolokia (naga morich, bhut jolokia), the Indian chili tested hottest in the world at 1,040,000 SHU. The Red Savinaâ„¢ pepper, one of the hottest chilis, is rated at 580,000 SHU. Only Naga Jolokia and Dorset Naga are hotter. ... Binomial name Capsicum annuum L. For green peppercorns, see Black pepper. ... Suresh Joachim, minutes away from breaking the ironing world record at 55 hours and 5 minutes, at Shoppers World, Brampton. ... Trinomial name Capsicum chinense Naga Jolokia The Naga Jolokia pepper is a chili pepper found naturally in the army garrison town of Tezpur, in the north-eastern state of Assam, India. ... Capsaicin (8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) is the active component of chilli peppers, which are plants belonging to the genus Capsicum. ...


Culinary use

Thai pepper. Similar in variety as the African birdseye, it is considerably strong for its size.
Thai pepper. Similar in variety as the African birdseye, it is considerably strong for its size.

The chili has a long association with Mexican cuisine as later adapted into Tex-Mex cuisine. Although unknown in Asia until Europeans introduced it there, chili has also become a part of the Korean, Indian, Indonesian, Szechuan, Thai and other cooking traditions. Its popularity has seen it adopted into many cuisines of the World. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3072x2048, 2218 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Capsicum Chili pepper Thai pepper Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3072x2048, 2218 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Capsicum Chili pepper Thai pepper Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... For a similar variety of Capiscum frutescens better known as peri-peri, refer African birdseye. ... Trinomial name Capsicum frutescens African Devil African birdseye (or African devil or African red devil) is a cultivar of the chile pepper that grows both wild and domesticated. ... This topic should not be confused with Tex-Mex, which is often referred to as Mexican food in the U.S. Mexican food is a style of food that originated in Mexico. ... Tex-Mex is a term for a type of American food which is used primarily in Texas and the Southwestern United States to describe a regional cuisine which blends food products available in the United States and the culinary creations of Mexican-Americans that are influenced by the cuisines of... Szechuan cuisine, Szechwan cuisine, or Sichuan cuisine (Chinese: ) is a style of Chinese cuisine originating in Sichuan Province of southwestern China which has an international reputation for being hot and numbing (麻辣), because of the common ingredient Sichuan peppercorn (花椒). Although the region Sichuan is now romanized as Sichuan, the cuisine is...


Chili fruit

The fruit is eaten raw or cooked for its fiery hot flavour which is concentrated along the top of the pod. The stem end of the pod has glands which produce the capsaicin, which then flows down through the pod. The white pith, that surrounds the seeds, contains the highest concentrations of capsaicin. Removing the seeds and inner membranes is thus effective at reducing the heat of a pod.

Fresh Indian Green Chilis sold in HAL market, Bangalore
Fresh Indian Green Chilis sold in HAL market, Bangalore

Chili is often sold worldwide as a spice in dried and powdered form. In the United States, it is often made from the Mexican chile ancho variety, but with small amounts of cayenne added for heat. In the Southwest United States, dried ground chili peppers, cumin, garlic and oregano is often known as chili powder. Chipotles are dry, smoked red (ripe) jalapeños. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3264 × 2448 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3264 × 2448 pixel, file size: 2. ... For other uses, see Bangalore (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Spice (disambiguation). ... The Southwest region of the United States is drier than the adjoining Midwest in weather; the population is less dense and, with strong Spanish-American and Native American components, more ethnically varied than neighboring areas. ... Chili powder (also called chili mix) is a spice mix consisting of various ratios of dried ground chile peppers, cumin, garlic, and oregano. ... This article is about the chile pepper. ...


Chili peppers are also often used around the world to make a wide variety of sauces, known as hot sauce, chili sauce, or pepper sauce. There are countless recipes. For the streetball player, see Philip Champion. ...


Indian cooking has multiple uses for chilis, from snacks like bajji where the chilis are dipped in batter and fried to the infamously hot vindaloo. Chilis are also dried and roasted and salted for later use as a side dish for rice varieties like vadam (a kind of pappad). In Turkish or Ottoman cuisine, chilis are widely used where it is known as Kırmızı Biber (Red Pepper) or Acı Biber (Hot Pepper). Sambal is dipping sauce made from chili peppers with many other ingredients such as garlic, onion, shallots, salt, vinegar and sugar, which is very popular in Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore. Chili powder is an important spice in Persian cuisine and is used moderately in a variety of dishes. Bajji (also see Bonda) is a snack item that is popular all over India. ... Pork vindalho, served in Lisbon, Portugal, in a goan restaurant Vindaloo also called Vindalho or Vindallo is a very popular Indian dish. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iranian cuisine. ...


Chili leaves

The leaves of the chili pepper plant, which are mildly bitter, are cooked as greens in Filipino cuisine, where they are called dahon ng sili (literally "chili leaves"). They are often used in the chicken soup dish known as tinola.[1] In Korean cuisine, the leaves are also used to produce kimchi (풋고추잎 깍두기).[9] Fresh Swiss chard Fresh water spinach Creamed spinach Steamed kale Leaf vegetables, also called potherbs, greens, or leafy greens, are plant leaves eaten as a vegetable, sometimes accompanied by tender petioles and shoots. ... Filipino Cuisine is a unique blend of Asian and Western influences, especially from China, Spain, and the United States, which are the countries that have greatly influenced the culture of the Philippines. ... Tinola is a soup-based dish served as a viand or main entree in the Philippines. ... Kimchi, also spelled gimchi or kimchee, is a traditional Korean fermented dish made of some select vegetables with varied seasonings, and a majority of kimchi recipes are based on baechoo( hangul:배추) and muwoo( hangul:무우 radish,similar to daikon but a different subspecies). ...


Decoration

Chili peppers can also be used decoratively
Chili peppers can also be used decoratively

There are entire breeds of chili pepper which are not intended for consumption at all, but are grown only for their decorative qualities, generally referred to as "ornamental peppers". Some of them are too hot for most common cooking techniques, or simply don't taste good. Some are grown for both decoration and food. Either way, they tend to have peppers of unusual shapes or colors. Examples of these include Thai Ornamental, Black Pearl, Marble, Numex Twilight, and the Medusa pepper. Numex Twilight is a green plant which produces fruit starting purple, then ripening to yellow, orange, and red. Black Pearl has black leaves and round red fruit. In India, the chili, along with lime is used to ward off evil spirits and is often seen in vehicles and in homes to that effect. It is also used to check the evil eye and remove its effects in Hinduism as people will also be asked to spit into a handful of chilis kept in that plate, which are then thrown into fire. If the chilis make a noise - as they should - then there is no case of "drishti" (evil eye); if on the other hand they don't make any sound, then the spell of the evil eye is removed in the fire. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1944x2592, 2568 KB)Decorative chili peppers for sale at Seattle, Washingtons Pike Place Market. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1944x2592, 2568 KB)Decorative chili peppers for sale at Seattle, Washingtons Pike Place Market. ... Thai pepper refers to any of three cultivars of chili pepper: Thai Hot peppers The hottest form, which rates a 100,000 on the scoville pungency scale, has peppers which point downward and go directly from green to red. ... Numex Twilights rainbow Numex twilight is one of the most unusual varieties of chili pepper developed at New Mexico State University (which creates all NuMex breeds of plant). ... Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... This article is about the paranormal. ... John Phillip, The Evil Eye (1859), a self-portrait depicting the artist sketching a Spanish gypsy who thinks she is being given the evil eye The evil eye a folklore belief that the envy elicited by the good luck of fortunate people may result in their misfortune, whether it is...


Popularity

Scotch bonnet chili peppers in a Caribbean market
Scotch bonnet chili peppers in a Caribbean market

Chili peppers are popular in food. They are rich in vitamin C and are believed to have many beneficial effects on health. Psychologist Paul Rozin suggests that eating chilis is an example of a "constrained risk" like riding a roller coaster, in which extreme sensations like pain and fear can be enjoyed because individuals know that these sensations are not actually harmful.[10] Hot peppers in Brixton market. ... Hot peppers in Brixton market. ... This article is about the nutrient. ... Paul Rozin is a psychology professor at the University of Pennsylvania. ... A typical roller coaster The roller coaster is a popular amusement ride developed for amusement parks and modern theme parks. ...

Chili peppers drying in Kathmandu, Nepal
Chili peppers drying in Kathmandu, Nepal

Birds do not have the same sensitivity to capsaicin as mammals, as capsaicin acts on a specific nerve receptor in mammals, and avian nervous systems are rather different. Chili peppers are in fact a favorite food of many birds living in the chili peppers' natural range. The flesh of the peppers provides the birds with a nutritious meal rich in vitamin C. In return, the seeds of the peppers are distributed by the birds, as they drop the seeds while eating the pods or the seeds pass through the digestive tract unharmed. This relationship is theorized to have promoted the evolution of the protective capsaicin. Products based on this substance have been sold to treat the seeds in bird feeders, in order to deter squirrels and other mamallian vermin without also deterring birds. Download high resolution version (1184x773, 136 KB)I, John Hill, took this photo myself in 1993 File links The following pages link to this file: Chile (capsicum) Categories: GFDL images ... Download high resolution version (1184x773, 136 KB)I, John Hill, took this photo myself in 1993 File links The following pages link to this file: Chile (capsicum) Categories: GFDL images ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including those that produce milk, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... Capsaicin (8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) is the active component of chilli peppers, which are plants belonging to the genus Capsicum. ... This article is about the nutrient. ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... For the Physics term GUT, please refer to Grand unification theory The gastrointestinal or digestive tract, also referred to as the GI tract or the alimentary canal or the gut, is the system of organs within multicellular animals which takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and... This article is about evolution in biology. ...


Spelling and usage

The three primary spellings are chili, chile and chilli, all of which are recognized by dictionaries.

  • Chili is widely used, but this spelling is discouraged by some, since it is more commonly used to refer to a popular Southwestern-American dish (also known as chili con carne (literally chili with meat), the official state dish of Texas[11]), as well as to the mixture of cumin and other spices (chili powder) used to flavor it. Chili powder and chile powder, on the other hand, can both refer to dried, ground chili peppers.
  • Chile is the American spelling (uncommon elsewhere) which refers specifically to this plant and its fruit. This orthography is common in much of the Spanish-speaking world, although in much of South America the plant and its fruit are better known as ají and locoto or rocoto. In the American southwest (particularly northern New Mexico), chile also denotes a thick, spicy, un-vinegared sauce, which is available in red and green varieties and which is often served over most New Mexican cuisine.

The name of this plant bears no relation to Chile, the country, which is named after the Quechua chin ("cold"), tchili ("snow"), or chilli ("where the land ends"). Chile is one of the Spanish-speaking countries where chilis are known as ají, a word of Taíno origin. A bowl of chili con carne with beans and tortilla chips. ... Chili powder (also called chili mix) is a spice mix consisting of various ratios of dried ground chile peppers, cumin, garlic, and oregano. ... Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Largest metro area Albuquerque metropolitan area Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ... Languages can be romanized in a variety of ways, as shown here with Mandarin Chinese In linguistics, romanization (or Latinization, also spelled romanisation or Latinisation) is the representation of a word or language with the Roman (Latin) alphabet, or a system for doing so, where the original word or language... Nahuatl ( [1] is a term applied to a group of related languages and dialects of the Aztecan [2] branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family, indigenous to central Mexico. ... The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is the most successful dictionary of the English language, (not to be confused with the one-volume Oxford Dictionary of English, formerly New Oxford Dictionary of English, of... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Quechuan languages. ... For other uses, see Taino (disambiguation). ...


There is some disagreement about whether it is proper to use the word "pepper" when discussing chili peppers because "pepper" originally referred to the genus Piper, not Capsicum. Despite this dispute, a sense of pepper referring to Capsicum is supported by English dictionaries, including the Oxford English Dictionary (sense 2b of pepper) and Merriam-Webster.[13] Furthermore, the word "pepper" is commonly used in the botanical and culinary fields in the names of different types of chili peppers. Species See text. ... The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is the most successful dictionary of the English language, (not to be confused with the one-volume Oxford Dictionary of English, formerly New Oxford Dictionary of English, of... Merriam-Webster, originally known as the G. & C. Merriam Company of Springfield, Massachusetts, is a United States company that publishes reference books, especially dictionaries that are descendants of Noah Websters An American Dictionary of the English Language (1828). ...


Nutritional value

Red chilis contain some amounts of vitamin C and provitamin A. Yellow and especially green chilis (which are essentially unripe fruit) contain a considerably lower amount of both substances. In addition, peppers are a good source of most B vitamins, and vitamin B6 in particular. They are very high in potassium and high in magnesium and iron. Their high vitamin C content can also substantially increase the uptake of non-heme iron from other ingredients in a meal, such as beans and grains. This article is about the nutrient. ... β-Carotene represented by a 3-dimensional stick diagram Carotene is responsible for the orange colour of the carrots and many other fruits and vegetables. ... The B vitamins are eight water-soluble vitamins that play important roles in cell metabolism. ... Pyridoxine Pyridoxal phosphate Vitamin B6 is a water-soluble vitamin. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... Green beans Bean is a common name for large plant seeds of several genera of Fabaceae (formerly Leguminosae) used for food or feed. ... The word grain has several meanings, most being descriptive of a small piece or particle. ...


Possible health benefits

All chili peppers contain phytochemicals known collectively as capsaicinoids. Phytochemicals are sometimes referred to as phytonutrients and these terms are often used interchangeably. ... The chemical compound capsaicin (8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) is the active component of chile peppers ( Capsicum). ...

  • Capsaicin was shown, in laboratory settings, to cause cancer cell apoptosis in rats.[14]
  • Recent research in mice shows that chili (capsaicin in particular) may offer some hope of weight loss for people suffering from obesity.[15][16]
  • Canadian researchers used capsaicin from chillies to kill nerve cells in the pancreases of mice with Type 1 diabetes, thus allowing the insulin producing cells to start producing insulin again.[17][18]
  • Research in humans found that "after adding chili to the diet, the LDL, or bad cholesterol, actually resisted oxidation for a longer period of time, (delaying) the development of a major risk for cardiovascular disease".[19][20]
  • Australian researchers at the University of Tasmania found that the amount of insulin required to lower blood sugar after a meal is reduced if the meal contains chili pepper.[21]
  • Chilli peppers are being probed as a treatment for alleviating chronic pain.[22][23]
  • Spices, including chilli, are theorized to control the microbial contamination levels of food in countries with minimal or no refrigeration.[24]
  • Hot peppers can provide symptomatic relief from rhinitis and possibly bronchitis by thinning and clearing mucus from stuffed noses or congested lungs.[citation needed]
  • Several studies found that capsaicin could have an anti-ulcer protective effect on stomachs infected with H. pylori by affecting the chemicals the stomach secretes in response to infection.[25][26][27]
  • By combining an anesthetic with capsaicin, researchers can block pain in rat paws without causing temporary paralysis. This anesthetic may one day allow patients to be conscious during surgery and may also lead to the development of more effective chronic pain treatments.[28][29]

Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... A section of mouse liver showing an apoptotic cell indicated by an arrow Apoptosis (pronounced apo tō sis) is a process of suicide by a cell in a multicellular organism. ... Weight loss, in the context of medicine or health or physical fitness, is a reduction of the total body weight, due to a mean loss of fluid, body fat or adipose tissue and/or lean mass, namely bone mineral deposits, muscle, tendon and other connective tissue. ... This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ... Not to be confused with inulin. ... Rhinitis is the medical term describing irritation and inflammation of the nose. ... Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchi (medium-size airways) in the lungs. ... Mucus is a slippery secretion of the lining of the mucous membranes in the body. ... The heart and lungs (from an older edition of Grays Anatomy) The lung is an organ belonging to the respiratory system and interfacing to the circulatory system of air-breathing vertebrates. ... Helicobacter pylori is a bacterium that infects the mucus lining of the human stomach. ...

Possible health disbenefits <----'disbenefits' is not a word

  • A high consumption of chili is associated with stomach cancer.[30][31][32][33]
  • Chilis may sometimes be adulterated with Sudan I, II, III IIV, para-Red, and other illegal carcinogenic dyes.[34]
  • Aflatoxins and N-nitroso compounds, which are carcinogenic, are frequently found in chili powder.[35][36][37][38][39]
  • Chronic ingestion of chili products may induce gastroesophageal reflux (GER).[40]
  • Chili may increase the number of daily bowel movements and lower pain thresholds for people with irritable bowel syndrome.[41]
  • Chilis should never be swallowed whole; there are cases where unchewed chilis have caused bowel obstruction and perforation.[42]
  • Consumption of red chilis after anal fissure surgery should be forbidden to avoid postoperative symptoms.[43]
  • Ingestion of even small amounts of hot chilis may temporarily aggravate the symptoms affecting hemorrhoid patients, such as pain, itching, and bleeding.

Stomach cancer (also called gastric cancer) can develop in any part of the stomach and may spread throughout the stomach and to other organs; particularly the esophagus and the small intestine. ... Chemical structure of aflatoxin B1 Aflatoxins are naturally occurring mycotoxins that are produced by many species of Aspergillus, a fungus, most notably Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. ... Structure of the nitrosamino group Nitrosamines are chemical compounds of the chemical structure R1N(-R2)-N=O, some of which are carcinogenic. ... Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD, or GORD when -oesophageal, the BE form, is substituted) is injury to the esophagus that develops from chronic exposure of the esophagus to acid coming up from the stomach (reflux). ... An anal fissure is an unnatural crack or tear in the anus skin. ... Hemorrhoids (AmE), haemorrhoids (BrE), emerods, or piles are varicosities or swelling and inflammation of veins in the rectum and anus. ...

See also

Species C. annuum (incl. ... Capsaicin (8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) is the active component of chilli peppers, which are plants belonging to the genus Capsicum. ... Naga Jolokia (naga morich, bhut jolokia), the Indian chili tested hottest in the world at 1,040,000 SHU. The Red Savinaâ„¢ pepper, one of the hottest chilis, is rated at 580,000 SHU. Only Naga Jolokia and Dorset Naga are hotter. ... Herbs: basil Herbs (IPA: hÉ™()b, or É™b; see pronunciation differences) are seed-bearing plants without woody stems, which die down to the ground after flowering. ... For other uses, see Spice (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Angelica archangelica L. Garden Angelica (Angelica archangelica) is a biennial plant from the umbelliferous family Apiaceae. ... For other uses, see Basil (disambiguation). ... Binomial name L. Synonyms Ocimum sanctum L. Ocimum tenuifolium (known as Holy basil in English, and Tulasi in Sanskrit), is a well known aromatic plant in the family Lamiaceae. ... Thai Basil is a cultivar of basil and is a major ingredient in many Thai dishes. ... bay leaves Bay leaf in Greek Daphni (plural bay leaves) is the aromatic leaf of several species of the Laurel family (Lauraceae). ... Boldo (Peumus boldus Molina) is a plant native to the coastal region of Chile. ... Binomial name Borago officinalis L. Borage (Borago officinalis), also known as starflower, is an annual herb native to central and eastern Europe. ... Look up Cannabis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Binomial name Anthriscus cerefolium (L.) Hoffm. ... Binomial name Allium schoenoprasum L. Chives (Allium schoenoprasum), is the smallest species of the onion family[1] Alliaceae, native to Europe, Asia and North America[2]. They are referred to only in the plural, because they grow in clumps rather than as individual plants. ... For other uses, see Coriander (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Murraya koenigii (L.) Sprengel The Curry Tree or Curry-leaf Tree (Murraya koenigii; syn. ... For other uses, see Dill (disambiguation). ... Binomial name L. Epazote, Wormseed, Jesuits Tea, Mexican Tea, or Herba Sancti Mariæ (Chenopodium ambrosioides) is an herb native to Central America, South America, and southern Mexico. ... Binomial name L. Eryngium foetidum (also known as Bhandhanya, Chandon benit, Culantro, Culantro Coyote, (Fitweed, Long coriander, Mexican coriander, Wild coriander, Recao, Shado beni (English-speaking Caribbean), Spiritweed, (Ngò gai (Vietnam), Sawtooth), )Saw-leaf herb, or Cilantro cimarron) is a tropical perennial and annual herb in the family Apiaceae. ... Binomial name Piper auritum Kunth Hoja santa (Piper auritum, synonymous with Piper sanctum[1]) is an aromatic herb with a heart shaped leaf which grows in tropic Mesoamerica. ... Genera See text. ... Species See text Hyssop (Hyssopus) is a genus of about 10-12 species of herbaceous or semi-woody plants in the family Lamiaceae, native from the Mediterranean east to central Asia. ... Binomial name Lavandula officinalis Mill. ... Binomial name Melissa officinalis Linnaeus Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis), not to be confused with bee balm, Monarda species, is a perennial herb in the mint family Lamiaceae, native to southern Europe and the Mediterranean region. ... Species About 55, see text Cymbopogon (lemon grass, lemongrass, citronella grass or fever grass) is a genus of about 55 species of grasses, native to warm temperate and tropical regions of the Old World. ... Binomial name Aloysia triphylla (LHér. ... Binomial name Limnophila aromatica (Lam. ... Binomial name Levisticum officinale L. Koch. ... Binomial name L. Marjoram (Origanum majorana, Lamiaceae) is a somewhat cold-sensitive perennial herb or undershrub with sweet pine and citrus flavours. ... “Mint” redirects here. ... Species See text. ... Binomial name Origanum vulgare L. Oregano or Pot Marjoram (Origanum vulgare) is a species of Origanum, native to Europe, the Mediterranean region and southern and central Asia. ... This article is about the herb. ... Perilla is a genus of annual herb that is a member of the mint family, Lamiaceae. ... For other uses, see Rosemary (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Ruta graveolens L. The Common Rue (Ruta graveolens), also known as Herb-of-grace, is a species of rue grown as a herb. ... Binomial name L. Sage leaves - first variety Sage leaves - second variety Common sage (Salvia officinalis) is a small evergreen subshrub, with woody stems, grayish leaves, and blue to purplish flowers native to southern Europe and the Mediterranean region. ... Species About 30, see text Satureja is a genus of aromatic plants of the family Lamiaceae, related to rosemary and thyme. ... Binomial name Rumex acetosa L. The common sorrel, or spinach dock, Ambada bhaji is a perennial herb, which grows abundantly in meadows in most parts of Europe and is cultivated as a leaf vegetable. ... Species About 150 species, including: Stevia eupatoria Stevia ovata Stevia plummerae Stevia rebaudiana Stevia salicifolia Stevia serrata Stevia is a genus of about 150 species of herbs and shrubs in the sunflower family (Asteraceae), native to subtropical and tropical South America and Central America. ... This article is about the herb; for the Freedom Call CD see Taragon. ... Species About 350 species, including: Thymus adamovicii Thymus altaicus Thymus amurensis Thymus bracteosus Thymus broussonetii Thymus caespititius Thymus camphoratus Thymus capitatus Thymus capitellatus Thymus camphoratus Thymus carnosus Thymus cephalotus Thymus cherlerioides Thymus ciliatus Thymus cilicicus Thymus cimicinus Thymus comosus Thymus comptus Thymus curtus Thymus disjunctus Thymus doerfleri Thymus glabrescens Thymus... Binomial name Persicaria odorata Lour. ... Binomial name Galium odoratum (L.) Scop. ... The term Grains of Selim refers to the seeds of a shrubby tree, Xylopia aethiopica, found in Africa. ... Ajwain seeds Ajwain (also known as carom seeds or bishops weed), is an uncommon spice except in certain areas of Asia. ... The Aleppo Pepper is a variety of Capsicum annuum named after the town Aleppo in northern Syria. ... Binomial name (L.) Merr. ... Species About 35 species, including: Mangifera altissima Mangifera applanata Mangifera caesia Mangifera camptosperma Mangifera casturi Mangifera decandra Mangifera foetida Mangifera gedebe Mangifera griffithii Mangifera indica Mangifera kemanga Mangifera laurina Mangifera longipes Mangifera macrocarpa Mangifera mekongensis Mangifera odorata Mangifera pajang Mangifera pentandra Mangifera persiciformis Mangifera quadrifida Mangifera siamensis Mangifera similis Mangifera... This article is about the Pimpinella species, but the name anise is frequently applied to Fennel. ... Binomial name (Linn. ... Binomial name L. Asafoetida (Ferula assafoetida, family Apiaceae), alternative spelling asafetida (also known as devils dung, stinking gum, asant, food of the gods, hing, and giant fennel) is a species of Ferula native to Iran. ... Binomial name Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Sieb. ... Categories: | | | | ... This article is about the herbs. ... Binomial name Amomum subulatum Roxb. ... Binomial name Cinnamomum aromaticum Nees Cassia (Cinnamomum aromaticum, synonym ), also called Chinese cinnamon, is an evergreen tree native to southern China and mainland Southeast Asia west to Myanmar. ... A large red cayenne The Cayenne is a hot red chili pepper used to flavor dishes, and for medicinal purposes. ... Binomial name L. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Binomial name J.Presl Cassia (Chinese cinnamon) is also commonly called (and sometimes sold as) cinnamon. ... Binomial name (L.) Merrill & Perry A single dried clove flower bud Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum, syn. ... For other uses, see Coriander (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Piper cubeba L. Cubeb (Piper cubeba), or tailed pepper, is a plant in genus Piper, cultivated for its fruit and essential oil. ... Geerah redirects here. ... Binomial name Bunium persicum (Boiss. ... For other uses, see Dill (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Foeniculum vulgare Mill. ... Binomial name Trigonella foenum-graecum L. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) belongs to the family Fabaceae. ... Binomial name (L.) Mansf. ... Binomial name Alpinia galanga (L.) Willd. ... This article lacks an appropriate taxobox. ... Binomial name L. Allium sativum L., commonly known as garlic, is a species in the onion family Alliaceae. ... For other uses, see Ginger (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Aframomum melegueta K. Schum. ... Binomial name P.G. Gaertn. ... Juniper berries, here still attached to a branch, are actually modified conifer cones. ... Binomial name L. Liquorice or licorice (see spelling differences) (IPA: , or ) is the root of Glycyrrhiza glabra, from which a sweet flavour can be extracted. ... For other uses, see Nutmeg (disambiguation). ... Mahlab, Mahleb, or Mahlepi, is an aromatic spice from the puverized pit of the black cherry, Cerasus mahaleb or (Prunus mahaleb). ... Malabathrum, also known as Malabar leaf is the name used in classical and medieval texts for the leaf of the plant Cinnamomum tamala. ... Binomial name Brassica nigra L. Black mustard (Brassica nigra) is an annual weedy plant cultivated for its seeds, which are commonly used as a spice. ... Binomial name Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. ... Binomial name Sinapis alba White mustard (Sinapis alba) is a plant of the family Cruciferae. ... Species About 80 species, see text. ... Binomial name L. Nigella sativa is an annual flowering plant, native to southwest Asia. ... For other uses, see Nutmeg (disambiguation). ... Capsicum fruit which comes in various shapes and colours can be used to make paprika. ... Binomial name L. Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. ... Binomial name L. Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. ... Binomial name Piper longum L. Long pepper (Piper longum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. ... Binomial name Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi Brazilian Pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius; also known as Aroeira or Florida Holly) is a sprawling shrub or small tree 7-10 m tall, native to subtropical and tropical South America, in southeastern Brazil, northern Argentina and Paraguay. ... Binomial name Schinus molle Raddi Peruvian Pepper (Schinus molle, also known as California pepper tree, molle, pepper tree, pepperina, Peruvian mastictree and Peruvian peppertree) is a tree or shrub that grows to between 5 and 18 m tall. ... Binomial name L. Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. ... Binomial name L. For the color see: Pomegranate (color) The Pomegranate (Punica granatum) is a fruit-bearing deciduous shrub or small tree growing to 5–8 m tall. ... This article is about the plant. ... Binomial name Crocus sativus L. Saffron (IPA: ) is a spice derived from the flower of the saffron crocus (Crocus sativus), a species of crocus in the family Iridaceae. ... Binomial name Killip & Morton Sarsaparilla (Smilax regelii and other closely related species of Smilax) is a plant that comes in vine and, in the case of Aralia nudicaulis L., bush variants that bears roots with many useful properties. ... This article is about the Sassafras tree. ... Binomial name Sesamum indicum L. Sesame (Sesamum indicum) is a flowering plant in the genus Sesamum. ... Sichuan pepper (or Szechuan pepper) is the outer pod of the tiny fruit of a number of species in the genus Zanthoxylum (most commonly Zanthoxylum piperitum, Zanthoxylum simulans, and Zanthoxylum sancho), widely grown and consumed in Asia as a spice. ... Binomial name Hook. ... Species About 250 species; see text Rhus is a genus approximately 250 species of woody shrubs and small trees in the family Anacardiaceae. ... Species (not a complete list) Tasmannia is a genus of woody, evergreen flowering plants of the family Winteraceae. ... Binomial name Tamarindus indica L. This article refers to the tree – for other uses see Tamarindo (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Linnaeus Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family, Zingiberaceae which is native to tropical South Asia. ... Binomial name Matsum. ... Binomial name Curcuma zedoaria (Christm. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Perry, L. et al. 2007. Starch fossils and the domestication and dispersal of chili peppers (Capsicum spp. L.) in the Americas. Science 315: 986-988.
  2. ^ BBC News Online. 2007. Chillies heated ancient cuisine. Friday, 16 February. Available from: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/6367299.stm. Accessed 16 February 2007.
  3. ^ Bosland, P.W. 1996. Capsicums: Innovative uses of an ancient crop. p. 479-487. In: J. Janick (ed.), Progress in new crops. ASHS Press, Arlington, VA.
  4. ^ Hjelmqvist, Hakon. "Cayennepeppar från Lunds medeltid", Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, vol 89, pp. 193-. 
  5. ^ Heiser Jr., C.B. 1976. Pp. 265-268 in N.W. Simmonds (ed.). Evolution of Crop Plants. London: Longman.
  6. ^ Eshbaugh, W.H. 1993. Pp. 132-139 in J. Janick and J.E. Simon (eds.). New Crops. New York: Wiley.
  7. ^ Collingham, Elizabeth (2006). Curry. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-09-943786-4. 
  8. ^ Major Chilli-producing countries. Online edition of Commodities. Indian Commodity News. Retrieved on 2007-08-24.
  9. ^ http://sfood.info/cuisine/kimchi/k35.htm
  10. ^ Paul Rozin1 and Deborah Schiller. "The nature and acquisition of a preference for chili pepper by humans". Motivation and Emotion 4 (1): 77-101. Retrieved on 2007-09-20. Journal Publisher ISSN 0146-7239 (Print) 1573-6644 (Online) Issue Volume 4, Number 1 / March, 1980 DOI 10.1007/BF00995932 Pages Subject Collection Behavioral Science SpringerLink Date Wednesday, January 19, 2005
  11. ^ http://www.tsl.state.tx.us/ref/abouttx/symbols.html
  12. ^ http://www.kakawachocolates.com/index.php?main_page=page_4
  13. ^ http://www.m-w.com/cgi-bin/dictionary?book=Dictionary&va=pepper
  14. ^ Athanasiou A, Smith PA, Vakilpour S, et al (2007). "Vanilloid receptor agonists and antagonists are mitochondrial inhibitors: how vanilloids cause non-vanilloid receptor mediated cell death". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 354 (1): 50–5. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2006.12.179. PMID 17214968. 
  15. ^ Hsu CL, Yen GC (2007). "Effects of capsaicin on induction of apoptosis and inhibition of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells". J. Agric. Food Chem. 55 (5): 1730–6. doi:10.1021/jf062912b. PMID 17295509. 
  16. ^ extract may stop fat cell growth By Stephen Daniells 3/1/2007
  17. ^ Razavi R, Chan Y, Afifiyan FN, et al (2006). "TRPV1+ sensory neurons control beta cell stress and islet inflammation in autoimmune diabetes". Cell 127 (6): 1123–35. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.10.038. PMID 17174891. 
  18. ^ Chili extract makes diabetes go awayDecember 15, 2006 The Vancouver Sun
  19. ^ Chili peppers can improve your health 9/9/2007 Daily Herald
  20. ^ Ahuja KD, Ball MJ (2006). "Effects of daily ingestion of chilli on serum lipoprotein oxidation in adult men and women". Br. J. Nutr. 96 (2): 239–42. PMID 16923216. 
  21. ^ Blood sugar and spice Science News - Find Articles. Retrieved on 2007-09-19.
  22. ^ BBC NEWS. Retrieved on 2007-09-19.
  23. ^ Great Moments in Science - Chilli - Nuclear Food 3. Retrieved on 2007-09-19.
  24. ^ Billing J, Sherman PW (1998). "Antimicrobial functions of spices: why some like it hot". The Quarterly review of biology 73 (1): 3–49. PMID 9586227. 
  25. ^ Lee IO, Lee KH, Pyo JH, Kim JH, Choi YJ, Lee YC (2007). "Anti-inflammatory effect of capsaicin in Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric epithelial cells". Helicobacter 12 (5): 510–7. doi:10.1111/j.1523-5378.2007.00521.x. PMID 17760719. 
  26. ^ Satyanarayana MN (2006). "Capsaicin and gastric ulcers". Critical reviews in food science and nutrition 46 (4): 275–328. doi:10.1080/1040-830491379236. PMID 16621751. Retrieved on 2007-10-18. 
  27. ^ O'Mahony R, Al-Khtheeri H, Weerasekera D, et al (2005). "Bactericidal and anti-adhesive properties of culinary and medicinal plants against Helicobacter pylori". World J. Gastroenterol. 11 (47): 7499–507. PMID 16437723. Retrieved on 2007-10-18. 
  28. ^ Binshtok AM, Bean BP, Woolf CJ (2007). "Inhibition of nociceptors by TRPV1-mediated entry of impermeant sodium channel blockers". Nature 449 (7162): 607–10. doi:10.1038/nature06191. PMID 17914397. 
  29. ^ Using Hot Chili Peppers To Relieve Pain. CBS News (2007). Retrieved on 2007-10-20.
  30. ^ Mathew A, Gangadharan P, Varghese C, Nair MK (2000). "Diet and stomach cancer: a case-control study in South India". Eur. J. Cancer Prev. 9 (2): 89–97. PMID 10830575. 
  31. ^ López-Carrillo L, López-Cervantes M, Robles-Díaz G, et al (2003). "Capsaicin consumption, Helicobacter pylori positivity and gastric cancer in Mexico". Int. J. Cancer 106 (2): 277–82. doi:10.1002/ijc.11195. PMID 12800206. 
  32. ^ Archer VE, Jones DW (2002). "Capsaicin pepper, cancer and ethnicity". Med. Hypotheses 59 (4): 450–7. PMID 12208187. 
  33. ^ López-Carrillo L, Hernández Avila M, Dubrow R (1994). "Chili pepper consumption and gastric cancer in Mexico: a case-control study". Am. J. Epidemiol. 139 (3): 263–71. PMID 8116601. 
  34. ^ Gajda J, Switka A, Kuźma K, Jarecka J (2006). "[Sudan and other illegal dyes--food adulteration]" (in Polish). Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny 57 (4): 317–23. PMID 17713194. 
  35. ^ (2007) "Final report on the safety assessment of capsicum annuum extract, capsicum annuum fruit extract, capsicum annuum resin, capsicum annuum fruit powder, capsicum frutescens fruit, capsicum frutescens fruit extract, capsicum frutescens resin, and capsaicin". Int. J. Toxicol. 26 Suppl 1: 3–106. doi:10.1080/10915810601163939. PMID 17365137. 
  36. ^ Fazekas B, Tar A, Kovács M (2005). "Aflatoxin and ochratoxin A content of spices in Hungary". Food additives and contaminants 22 (9): 856–63. doi:10.1080/02652030500198027. PMID 16192072. 
  37. ^ Vrabcheva TM (2000). "[Mycotoxins in spices]" (in Russian). Voprosy pitaniia 69 (6): 40–3. PMID 11452374. 
  38. ^ Reddy SV, Mayi DK, Reddy MU, Thirumala-Devi K, Reddy DV (2001). "Aflatoxins B1 in different grades of chillies (Capsicum annum L.) in India as determined by indirect competitive-ELISA". Food additives and contaminants 18 (6): 553–8. PMID 11407753. 
  39. ^ Tricker AR, Siddiqi M, Preussmann R (1988). "Occurrence of volatile N-nitrosamines in dried chillies". Cancer Lett. 38 (3): 271–3. PMID 3349447. 
  40. ^ Milke P, Diaz A, Valdovinos MA, Moran S (2006). "Gastroesophageal reflux in healthy subjects induced by two different species of chili (Capsicum annum)". Digestive diseases (Basel, Switzerland) 24 (1-2): 184–8. doi:10.1159/000090323. PMID 16699276. 
  41. ^ Agarwal MK, Bhatia SJ, Desai SA, Bhure U, Melgiri S (2002). "Effect of red chillies on small bowel and colonic transit and rectal sensitivity in men with irritable bowel syndrome". Indian journal of gastroenterology : official journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology 21 (5): 179–82. PMID 12416746. 
  42. ^ Rajaratnam SS, Boyle N, Owen WJ (2001). "'Always chew your chillies': a report of small bowel obstruction with perforation". Int. J. Clin. Pract. 55 (2): 146. PMID 11321857. 
  43. ^ Gupta PJ (2007). "Red Hot Chili Consumption Is Harmful in Patients Operated for Anal Fissure - A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Study" 24 (5): 354–357. doi:10.1159/000107716. PMID 17785979. 

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... The Vancouver Sun is a daily newspaper first published in the Canadian province of British Columbia on February 12, 1912. ... The Daily Herald was a London newspaper. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

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Chili Pepper Production Practices and Sample Costs (3652 words)
This report is based on a 75 acre row crop farm of which 20 acres are producing chili pepper and 36 acres are planted to bell peppers, squash, pickling cucumbers and eggplant that are "double cropped" in spring and fall.
Chili pepper may be spray washed or simply placed in a large water tank for cleaning.
Chili pepper should be stored at 45¼ to 55¼F (7¼ to 13¼C) and at a relative humidity of 90 to 95%.
WHFoods: Chili pepper, dried (2714 words)
Like cayenne pepper, red chili peppers are available throughout the year to add zest to flavorful dishes around the world and health to those brave enough to risk their fiery heat.
Red chili peppers, such as cayenne, have been shown to reduce blood cholesterol, triglyceride levels, and platelet aggregation, while increasing the body's ability to dissolve fibrin, a substance integral to the formation of blood clots.
Chili peppers have a bad--and mistaken--reputation for contributing to stomach ulcers.
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