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Encyclopedia > Chile pepper

The chile pepper, chili pepper, or chilli pepper, or simply chile, is the fruit of the plant Capsicum from the nightshade family, Solanaceae. The name comes from Nahuatl via the Spanish word chile. Species C. annuum (incl. ... Genera Acnistus Atropa (deadly nightshade) Brugmansia (angels trumpet) Calibrachoa Capsicum (chile peppers) Cestrum Chamaesaracha Combera Crenidium Cuatresia Cyphanthera Cyphomandra Datura (jimsonweed) Hyoscyamus (henbane) Iochroma Lycium (boxthorn) Lycopersicon (tomato) Mandragora (mandrake) Nicandra Nicotiana (tobacco) Petunia Physalis (tomatillo) Solandra Solanum (potato, eggplant) Streptosolen For more genera see Solanaceae in The Families... Nahuatl (pronounced in two syllables, NA-watl ) is a term applied to some members of the Aztecan or Nahuan sub-branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family, indigenous to central Mexico. ...

Chile peppers
Chile peppers

Chile peppers and their various cultivars originate in the Americas; they are now grown around the world because they are widely used as spices or vegetables in cuisine, and even as medicine. Image File history File links Chilis. ... This Osteospermum Pink Whirls is a successful cultivar. ... World map showing the Americas The Americas commonly refers to the lands of the Western hemisphere, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... Shop with spices in Morocco A spice is a dried seed, fruit, root, bark or vegetative substance used in nutritionally insignificant quantities as a food additive for the purpose of flavouring. ... Vegetables in a market Venn diagram representing the relationship between (botanical) fruits and vegetables. ... A cuisine (from French cuisine, meaning cooking; culinary art; kitchen; itself from Latin coquina, meaning the same; itself from the Latin verb coquere, meaning to cook) is a specific set of cooking traditions and practices, often associated with a place of origin. ... Medicine is the branch of health science and the sector of public life concerned with maintaining human health or restoring it through the treatment of disease and injury. ...

Contents


History

Chile peppers have been a part of the human diet in the Americas since about 7500 BC. They were domesticated there between 5200 and 3400 BC, one of the first cultivated crops in the Americas. Chile peppers are thought to have been domesticated at least five times by prehistoric peoples in different parts of South and Middle America and North America, from Peru in the south to Mexico in the north and parts of Colorado and New Mexico (Ancient Pueblo Peoples). Cliff Palace, Mesa Verde National Park Ancient Pueblo People or Ancestral Puebloans are preferred terms for the cultural group of people often known as Anasazi, the ancestors of the modern Pueblo peoples. ...


Christopher Columbus was one of the first Europeans to encounter them (in the Caribbean), and called them "peppers" because of their similarity in taste (though not in appearance) with the Old World peppers of the Piper genus. Columbus was keen to prove that he had in fact opened a new direct nautical route to Asia, contrary to reality and the expert consensus of the time, and it has been speculated that he was therefore inclined to denote these new substances "pepper" in order to associate them with the known Asian spice[citation needed]. Christopher Columbus (ca. ... Central America and the Caribbean (detailed pdf map) The Caribbean, (Spanish: Caribe; French: Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles; Dutch: Cariben or Caraïben, or more commonly Antillen) or the West Indies, is a group of islands and countries which are in or border the Caribbean Sea which lies on... Binomial name Piper nigrum L. Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. ... Species See text. ...


Diego Álvarez Chanca, a physician on Columbus' second voyage to the West Indies in 1493, brought the first chile peppers to Spain, and first wrote about their medicinal effects in 1494.


From Mexico, at the time the Spanish colony that controlled commerce with Asia, chile peppers spread rapidly into the Philippines and then to India, China, and Japan with the aid of European sailors. The new spice was quickly incorporated into the local cuisines. Europe is conventionally considered one of the seven continents of Earth which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiographic one, leading to various perspectives about Europes borders. ...


(Note: An alternate sequence for chile pepper's spread has the Portuguese picking up the pepper from Spain, and thence to India, as described by Lizzie Collingham in her book Curry [ISBN13: 9780195172416, Oxford University Press, February 2006]. The evidence provided is that the chile pepper figures heavily in the cuisine of the Goan region of India, which was the site of a Portuguese colony (e.g. Vindaloo, an Indian evolution of a Portuguese dish). Collingham also describes the journey of Chile peppers from India, through Central Asia and Turkey, to Hungary, where it became the national spice in the form of paprika.) Vindaloo is a popular Indian food dish. ... Binomial name Capsicum annuum L. Paprika, Capsicum annuum, is a sweet-to-mildly hot cultivar of the chile pepper of the family Solanaceae. ...


Species and cultivars

Cayenne chile peppers
Cayenne chile peppers

The most common species of chile peppers are: This photo was taken by Mark Richards, it is licensed under the GFDL. Mark Richards 16:56, 2 Oct 2004 (UTC) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This photo was taken by Mark Richards, it is licensed under the GFDL. Mark Richards 16:56, 2 Oct 2004 (UTC) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

  • Capsicum annuum, which includes many common varieties such as bell peppers, paprika, jalapeños, and the chiltepin
  • Capsicum frutescens, which includes the cayenne and tabasco peppers
  • Capsicum chinense, which includes the hottest peppers such as habaneros and Scotch bonnets
  • Capsicum pubescens, which includes the South American rocoto peppers
  • Capsicum baccatum, which includes the South American aji peppers
Assorted paprika fruits from Mexico
Assorted paprika fruits from Mexico

Though there are only a few commonly used species, there are many cultivars and methods of preparing chile peppers that have different common names for culinary use. Green and red bell peppers, for example, are the same cultivar of C. annuum, the green ones being immature. In the same species are the jalapeño, the poblano, ancho (which is a dried poblano), New Mexico, Anaheim, Serrano, and other cultivars. Jamaicans, Scotch bonnets, and habaneros are common varieties of C. chinense. The species C. frutescens appears as chiles de arbol, aji, pequin, tabasco, cayenne, cherry peppers, malagueta and others. Binomial name Capsicum annuum L. Bell pepper is cultivar of the species Capsicum annuum, as are the jalapeño and pimento. ... Binomial name Capsicum annuum L. Paprika, Capsicum annuum, is a sweet-to-mildly hot cultivar of the chile pepper of the family Solanaceae. ... Binomial name Capsicum annuum The jalapeño is a small to medium-sized chile pepper that is prized for the hot, burning sensation that it produces in the mouth when eaten. ... Chiltepin is a wild chile pepper that grows in Mexico and the southwestern United States. ... A large red cayenne Cayenne pepper is a very hot red powder used to flavor dishes; its name comes from the city of Cayenne in French Guiana. ... Trinomial name Capsicum frutescens var. ... A habanero chile A habanero plant with chiles The habanero chile (Capsicum chinense Jacquin) (Spanish, from Havana) is the most intensely spicy chile pepper of the Capsicum genus. ... Scotch bonnet peppers in a Caribbean market The Scotch bonnet (Capsicum chinense) is a variety of Chile Pepper, similar to, and of the same species as, the habanero. ... Rocoto peppers The rocoto (Capsicum pubescens) is a medium sized round pepper common in Peru and Bolivia. ... Download high resolution version (1024x1252, 157 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1024x1252, 157 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Binomial name Capsicum annuum L. Paprika, Capsicum annuum, is a sweet-to-mildly hot cultivar of the chile pepper of the family Solanaceae. ... This Osteospermum Pink Whirls is a successful cultivar. ... Binomial name Capsicum annuum L. Bell pepper is cultivar of the species Capsicum annuum, as are the jalapeño and pimento. ... Binomial name Capsicum annuum The jalapeño is a small to medium-sized chile pepper that is prized for the hot, burning sensation that it produces in the mouth when eaten. ... The Poblano is a mild chile pepper, just slightly more spicy than a bell pepper . ... Serrano, nicknamed the Duke of the Tower, was a Spanish general who played a leading role in the conspiracy to overthrow the First Spanish Republic and restore the monarchy under the House of Bourbon in Spain. ... Scotch bonnet peppers in a Caribbean market The Scotch bonnet (Capsicum chinense) is a variety of Chile Pepper, similar to, and of the same species as, the habanero. ... A habanero chile A habanero plant with chiles The habanero chile (Capsicum chinense Jacquin) (Spanish, from Havana) is the most intensely spicy chile pepper of the Capsicum genus. ... Tabasco is a state in Mexico. ... A large red cayenne Cayenne pepper is a very hot red powder used to flavor dishes; its name comes from the city of Cayenne in French Guiana. ...


Heat

See Capsaicin for more details

The substances that gives chile peppers their heat is capsaicin (8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) and several related chemicals, collectively called capsaicinoids. Capsaicin is the primary ingredient in pepper spray. The "heat" of chile peppers is measured in Scoville units. Bell peppers rank at zero Scoville units, jalapeños at 3,000–6,000 Scoville units, and habaneros at 300,000 Scoville units. The record for the highest number of Scoville units in a chile pepper is assigned by the Guinness Book of Records to the Red Savina Habanero, measuring 577,000 units. However, a recent report was made of a pepper from India called the Naga Jolokia measuring at 855,000 Scoville units. Both the Red Savina and the Naga Jolokia claims are disputed as to their validity, and lack independent verification[1]. . As of April 2006 a report has been made of the Dorset Naga, a variety of the Naga Jolokia pepper cultivated exclusively by the Peppers by Post company in Dorset, England. They claim a lab used by the American Spice Trade Association measured their pepper at 923,000 SHU [2]. For reference, pure capsaicin rates at 15,000,000 Scoville units. The chemical compound capsaicin (8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) is the active component of chile peppers (Capsicum). ... The chemical compound capsaicin (8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) is the active component of chile peppers (Capsicum). ... Pepper spray (also known as OC spray (from Oleoresin Capsicum), OC gas, or capsicum spray) is a lachrymatory agent (a chemical compound that irritates the eyes to cause tears, pain, and even temporary blindness) that is used in riot control, crowd control and personal self-defense, including defense against dogs. ... The Scoville scale is a measure of the hotness of a chile pepper. ... Binomial name Capsicum annuum L. Bell pepper is cultivar of the species Capsicum annuum, as are the jalapeño and pimento. ... Suresh Joachim, minutes away from breaking the ironing world record at 55 hours and 5 minutes, at Shoppers World, Brampton. ... Trinomial name Capsicum chinense Red Savina The Red Savina pepper is a cultivar of the habanero chile (Capsicum chinense Jacquin), which has been selectively bred to produce hotter, heavier, and larger peppers. ... The Naga Jolokia pepper (Capsicum frutescens, same species but different variety as what Tabasco sauce uses) is a chile pepper found naturally in the army garrison town of Tezpur, in the north-eastern state of Assam, India. ...


Cuisine

The fruit is eaten cooked or raw for its fiery hot flavor which is concentrated along the top of the pod. The stem end of the pod has glands which produce the capsaicin, which then flows down through the pod. Removing the seeds(citation needed) and inner membranes is thus effective at reducing the heat of a pod.


Well-known dishes with a strong chile flavor are Mexican salsas, Tex-Mex chili con carne, and Indian vindaloos and other curries. Chile powder is a spice made of the dried ground chiles, usually of the Mexican chile ancho variety, but with small amounts of cayenne added for heat, while chili powder is composed of dried ground chile peppers, cumin, garlic and oregano. Bottled hot sauces such as Tabasco sauce are made from chiles such as the cayenne (not, oddly, from tabasco peppers), which may also be fermented. In Spanish, salsa can refer to any type of sauce, but in English it usually refers to the spicy, often tomato-based sauces typical of Mexican cuisine, particularly sauces or dips. ... Tex-Mex is a highly spiced and vibrant style of cooking that developed as an evolution of Northern Mexican cuisine in Texas. ... A bowl of chili with beans and tortilla chips Not quite a soup, Chili (or in Texas, known formally as Chili con carne) is a spicy stew-like dish, the essential ingredients of which are beef, pork, venison, or other mature meat, and chile peppers. ... Vindaloo is a popular Indian food dish. ... Chile Powder for sale in Bolivia Chile powder is the ground, dried fruit of one or more varieties of chile pepper, most commonly red pepper or cayenne pepper, both of the species Capsicum Annuum. ... Shop with spices in Morocco A spice is a dried seed, fruit, root, bark or vegetative substance used in nutritionally insignificant quantities as a food additive for the purpose of flavouring. ... Chili powder (also called chili mix) is a spice mix consisting of various ratios of dried ground chile peppers, cumin, garlic and oregano. ... The classic Tabasco red pepper sauce Tabasco® is the trademarked brand name for a hot pepper sauce that is a well-known table condiment. ...


Chipotles are dried, smoked chiles used to flavor stews and sauces. While the term refers to any smoked chile, most commercial chipotles are made from red jalapeños. Chipotles are smoke-dried chile peppers, usually moritas, used for cooking Mexican- and Mexican-inspired cuisine. ...


Korean, Indian, Indonesian, Szechuan and Thai cuisines are particularly associated with the chile pepper, although the plant was unknown in Asia until Europeans introduced it there. Sichuan Cuisine or Szechuan Cuisine (川菜, pinyin: chuān cài), originating in the Sichuan province of western China, has an international reputation for being spicy and flavorful. ...


Sambal is dipping sauce made from chile peppers with any other ingredients such as garlic, onion, shallots, salt, vinegar and sugar. It is very popular in Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore. Sambal is an Indonesian, Malaysian and Singaporean condiment made from a variety of peppers, although chile peppers are the most common. ...


Popularity

Scotch bonnet chile peppers in a Caribbean market
Scotch bonnet chile peppers in a Caribbean market

Chile peppers are popular in food. They are rich in vitamin C and are believed to have many beneficial effects on health. The pain caused by capsaicin stimulates the brain to produce endorphins, natural opioids which act as analgesics and produce a sense of well-being. Psychologist Paul Rozin suggests that eating chiles is an example of a "constrained risk" like riding a roller coaster, in which extreme sensations like pain and fear can be enjoyed because individuals know that these sensations are not actually harmful. Hot peppers in Brixton market. ... Hot peppers in Brixton market. ... Chemical structure of vitamin C. Vitamin C is a water-soluble nutrient essential for life, used by the human body for many purposes. ... Endorphins are endogenous opioid biochemical compounds. ... An opioid is any agent that binds to opioid receptors found principally in the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract. ... An analgesic (colloquially known as painkiller) is any member of the diverse group of drugs used to relieve pain and to achieve analgesia. ... Paul Rozin is a psychology professor at the University of Pennsylvania. ... A typical roller coaster The roller coaster is a popular amusement ride developed for amusement parks and modern theme parks. ...

Chile peppers drying in Kathmandu, Nepal
Chile peppers drying in Kathmandu, Nepal

Birds do not have the same sensitivity to capsaicin as mammals, as capsaicin acts on a specific nerve receptor in mammals, and avian nervous systems are rather different. Chile peppers are in fact a favorite food of many birds living in the chile peppers' natural range. The flesh of the peppers provides the birds with a nutritious meal rich in vitamin C. In return, the seeds of the peppers are distributed by the birds, as they drop the seeds while eating the pods or the seeds pass through the digestive tract unharmed. This relationship is theorized to have promoted the evolution of the protective capsaicin. Download high resolution version (1184x773, 136 KB)I, John Hill, took this photo myself in 1993 File links The following pages link to this file: Chile (capsicum) Categories: GFDL images ... Download high resolution version (1184x773, 136 KB)I, John Hill, took this photo myself in 1993 File links The following pages link to this file: Chile (capsicum) Categories: GFDL images ... Orders Many - see section below. ... Orders Subclass Multituberculata (extinct) Plagiaulacida Cimolodonta Subclass Palaeoryctoides (extinct) Subclass Triconodonta (extinct) Subclass Eutheria (includes extinct ancestors)/Placentalia (excludes extinct ancestors) Afrosoricida Artiodactyla Carnivora Cetacea Chiroptera Cimolesta (extinct) Creodonta (extinct) Condylarthra (extinct) Dermoptera Desmostylia (extinct) Embrithopoda (extinct) Hyracoidea Insectivora Lagomorpha Litopterna (extinct) Macroscelidea Mesonychia (extinct) Notoungulata (extinct) Perissodactyla Pholidota Plesiadapiformes... Chemical structure of vitamin C. Vitamin C is a water-soluble nutrient essential for life, used by the human body for many purposes. ... A ripe red jalapeno cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... For the Physics term GUT, please refer to Grand unification theory The gastrointestinal or digestive tract, also referred to as the GI tract or the alimentary canal or the gut, is the system of organs within multicellular animals which takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and... A speculative phylogenetic tree of all living things, based on rRNA gene data, showing the separation of the three domains, bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes. ...


Spelling and usage

The three primary spellings used are chile, chili, and chilli, all of which are recognized by dictionaries.

  • Chile is the American (uncommon elsewhere) spelling which refers specifically to this plant and its fruit. This orthography is universal in the Spanish-speaking world, although in some parts the plant and its fruit are better known as ají.
  • Chili is also quite popular, but its use is discouraged by some, as this word is more commonly used to refer to a popular Southwestern dish (chili is the official state dish of Texas [1]), as well as to the mixture of cumin and other spices (chili powder) used to flavor it. Chile powder, on the other hand, is powdered dried chile peppers.
  • Chilli, is the correct spelling according to the Oxford English Dictionary however, it also lists chile and chili as variant spellings.
Chili peppers can also be used decoratively
Chili peppers can also be used decoratively

The name of this plant bears no relation to Chile, the country, which is named after the Quechua chin ("cold"), tchili ("snow"), or chilli ("where the land ends"). Chile is one of the Spanish-speaking countries where chiles are known as ají (meaning "hot" -for peppers, in Turkish). A bowl of chili with beans and tortilla chips Not quite a soup, Chili (or in Texas, known formally as Chili con carne) is a spicy stew-like dish, the essential ingredients of which are beef, pork, venison, or other mature meat, and chile peppers. ... Chili powder (also called chili mix) is a spice mix consisting of various ratios of dried ground chile peppers, cumin, garlic and oregano. ... Chile Powder for sale in Bolivia Chile powder is the ground, dried fruit of one or more varieties of chile pepper, most commonly red pepper or cayenne pepper, both of the species Capsicum Annuum. ... The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1944x2592, 2568 KB)Decorative chili peppers for sale at Seattle, Washingtons Pike Place Market. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1944x2592, 2568 KB)Decorative chili peppers for sale at Seattle, Washingtons Pike Place Market. ... Quechua (Standard Quechua, Runasimi Language of People) is an Native American language of South America. ...


There is some disagreement about whether it is proper to use the word "pepper" when discussing chile peppers because "pepper" refers to the genus Piper, not Capsicum. Despite this dispute, English dictionaries support a sense of pepper referring to Capsicum, such as the Oxford English Dictionary (sense 2b of pepper) and Merriam-Webster [2]. Furthermore, the word "pepper" is commonly used in the botanical and culinary fields in the names of different types of chile peppers. Species See text. ... The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP). ... Merriam-Webster, originally known as the G. & C. Merriam Company of Springfield, Massachusetts, is a United States company that publishes reference books, especially dictionaries that are descendants of Noah Websters An American Dictionary of the English Language (1828). ...


Nutritional value

Red chiles are very rich in vitamin C, and rich in provitamin A. Yellow and especially green chiles (which are essentially unripe fruit) contain a considerably lower amount of both substances. In addition, peppers are a good source of most B vitamins, and vitamin B6 in particular. They are very high in potassium and high in magnesium and iron. Their high vitamin C content can also substantially increase the uptake of non-heme iron from other ingredients in a meal, such as beans and grains. Chemical structure of vitamin C. Vitamin C is a water-soluble nutrient essential for life, used by the human body for many purposes. ... Carotene is an orange photosynthetic pigment that is important for photosynthesis. ... Vitamin B is a complex of several vitamins. ... Pyridoxine The three major forms of vitamin B6 are pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and pyridoxamine, which, in the liver, are converted to pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP) - a cofactor in many reactions of amino acid metabolism. ... General Name, Symbol, Number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 39. ... General Name, Symbol, Number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 24. ... General Name, Symbol, Number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Atomic mass 55. ... Green beans Bean is a common name for large plant seeds of several genera of Fabaceae (formerly Leguminosae) used for food or feed. ... The word grain has several meanings, most being descriptive of a small piece or particle. ...

Condiments, Herbs, Seasonings and Spices
anise · barbecue sauce · basil · bay leaf · bell pepper · blue cheese dressing · butter · buttermilk · cardamom · cayenne pepper · celery · chile pepper · chile powder · chili powder · chives · cinnamon · cocktail sauce · clove · coriander · cucumber · cumin · curry powder · dill · fennel · fenugreek · French dressing · garlic · garlic powder · gherkin · ginger · ground pepper · guacamole · honey · horseradish · Italian dressing · Jalapeño · ketchup · lemon · lettuce · liquorice · margarine · marjoram · mayonnaise · mint · mole sauce · mustard · mustard seed · nutmeg · olives · olive oil · onion · onion powder · oregano · paprika · parsley · peppermint · pickles · raita · ranch dressing · red pepper · relish · remoulade · rosemary · Russian dressing · saccharin · saffron · salad dressing · sage · salsa · salt · sarsaparilla · sassafras · sauerkraut · savory · sour cream · soy sauce · spearmint · steak sauce · stevia · sugar · Tabasco sauce · tamarind · tarragon · tartar sauce · thousand island dressing · thyme · tomato · tomato paste · tomato sauce · turmeric · vanilla · vinegar · white mustard · Worcestershire sauce

Arbys sauce Bold textExamples of condiments include: Arbys sauce Belacan Brown sauce Chili oil Chutneys Cocktail sauce Fish sauce Fry sauce Horseradish sauce Hot sauces based on chili, including Tabasco sauce Ketchup Lettuce Mixed pickle MSG Mustard Pepper Raita Red pepper flakes Relish Remoulade Salsa Salt Sauerkraut (sometimes... A herb (pronounced hurb in Commonwealth English and urb in American English) is a plant grown for culinary, medicinal, or in some cases even spiritual value. ... Seasoning is the process of adding flavours, or enhancing natural flavour of any type of food. ... Shop with spices in Morocco A spice is a dried seed, fruit, root, bark or vegetative substance used in nutritionally insignificant quantities as a food additive for the purpose of flavouring. ... Binomial name Pimpinella anisum L. Anise or Aniseed, less commonly anís (stressed on the second syllable) (Pimpinella anisum) is a flowering plant in the family Apiaceae, native to the eastern Mediterranean region and southwest Asia. ... Barbecue sauce is a type of sauce which is frequently poured onto meat while being grilled or barbecued and/or used as a dipping condiment afterwards. ... Binomial name Ocimum basilicum L. Basil (Ocimum basilicum) of the Family Lamiaceae is also known as Albahaca, St. ... bay leaves Bay leaf (plural bay leaves) are the aromatic leaves of several species of the Laurel family (Lauraceae). ... Binomial name Capsicum annuum L. Bell pepper is cultivar of the species Capsicum annuum, as are the jalapeño and pimento. ... Blue Cheese Dressing is a popular salad dressing in the United States. ... Butter is commonly sold in sticks (pictured) or small blocks, and often served using a butterknife. ... Buttermilk is the liquid left over after producing butter from full-cream milk by the churning process. ... Genera Aframomum Amomum Elettaria The name cardamom (sometimes written cardamon) is used for species within three genera of the Ginger family (Zingiberaceae), namely Elettaria, Amomum and Aframomum. ... A large red cayenne Cayenne pepper is a very hot red powder used to flavor dishes; its name comes from the city of Cayenne in French Guiana. ... Binomial name Apium graveolens L. Celery (Apium graveolens dulce) is a herbaceous biennial plant in the family Apiaceae, native to the coasts of western and northern Europe, most commonly in ditches and saltmarshes. ... Chile Powder for sale in Bolivia Chile powder is the ground, dried fruit of one or more varieties of chile pepper, most commonly red pepper or cayenne pepper, both of the species Capsicum Annuum. ... Chili powder (also called chili mix) is a spice mix consisting of various ratios of dried ground chile peppers, cumin, garlic and oregano. ... Binomial name Allium schoenoprasum Regel & Tiling Chives (Allium schoenoprasum) are a species of flowering plant in the onion family Alliaceae, native to Europe and Asia. ... Binomial name Cinnamomum verum J.Presl Cassia (Indonesian cinnamon) is also commonly called (and sometimes sold as) cinnamon. ... Cocktail sauce in its simplest form is ketchup mixed with prepared horseradish. ... Binomial name Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merrill & Perry Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum, syn. ... Binomial name Coriandrum sativum L. Coriander (Coriandrum sativum), also commonly called cilantro, is an annual herb in the family Apiaceae. ... Binomial name Cucumis sativus L. The cucumber is the edible fruit of the cucumber plant Cucumis sativus, which belongs to the gourd family Cucurbitaceae, as do melons and squash. ... Binomial name Cuminum cyminum L. Cumin (Cuminum cyminum) is a flowering plant in the family Apiaceae, native to the eastern Mediterranean region east to India. ... Curry powder is a mixture of spices of widely varying composition developed by the British during their colonial rule of India as a means of approximating the taste of Indian cuisine at home. ... Binomial name Anethum graveolens L. Dried Dill-umbel Dill (Anethum graveolens) is a short-lived annual herb, native to southwest and central Asia. ... Binomial name Foeniculum vulgare Mill. ... Binomial name Trigonella foenum-graecum L. Fenugreek, also called methi, is a crop plant grown as a potherb and for the spice made from its seeds. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Binomial name Allium sativum L. Garlic (Allium sativum) is a perennial plant in the family Alliaceae and genus Allium, closely related to the onion, shallot, and leek. ... Garlic powder is a spice, or powder, made from pounding garlic. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Binomial name Zingiber officinale Roscoe Ginger root is used extensively as a spice in many if not most cuisines of the world. ... Binomial name Piper nigrum L. Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. ... Guacamole Guacamole is an avocado-based relish or dip originating from the time of the Aztecs. ... Honey honey comb A capped frame of honeycomb Honey is a sweet and viscous fluid produced by honeybees and other insects from the nectar of flowers. ... Binomial name Armoracia rusticana P.G. Gaertn. ... Italian dressing in United States cooking is a vinaigrette-type salad dressing consisting of an emulsion of water, oil, vinegar or lemon juice, salt, pepper, minced onions and bell peppers, and a variety of herbs and spices including garlic, oregano, fennel, and dill. ... Binomial name Capsicum annuum The jalapeño is a small to medium-sized chile pepper that is prized for the hot, burning sensation that it produces in the mouth when eaten. ... Organic Ketchup, a 21st century condiment Ketchup (or catsup) is a popular condiment, usually made with ripened tomatoes. ... Binomial name Citrus × limon (L.) Burm. ... Binomial name Lactuca sativa L. Lettuce is a temperate annual or biennial plant most often grown as a leaf vegetable. ... Binomial name Glycyrrhiza glabra L. Liquorice (Br. ... Margarine, as a generic term, can indicate any of a wide range of butter-substitutes. ... Binomial name Origanum majorana L. Marjoram (Origanum majorana, Lamiaceae) is a cold-sensitive perennial herb or undershrub with sweet pine and citrus flavors. ... Mayonnaise is a thick, creamy sauce, usually of a white or light yellow color. ... Species See text The true mints (genus Mentha) are perennial herbs in the Family Lamiaceae. ... Mole (IPA: /ˈmo. ... Mustard being spread on bread. ... Mustard seeds are small, about 1mm in diameter. ... Species About 100 species, including: Myristica argentea Myristica fragrans Myristica malabarica The nutmegs Myristica are a genus of evergreen trees indigenous to tropical southeast Asia and Australasia. ... Binomial name Olea europaea L. 19th century illustration The Olive (Olea europaea) is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, native to coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean region, from Syria and the maritime parts of Asia Minor and northern Iran at the south end of the Caspian... For the cartoon character, see Olive Oyl. ... Binomial name Allium cepa L. Onion in the general sense can be used for any plant in the Genus Allium but used without qualifiers usually means Allium cepa L., also called the garden onion. ... Wikibooks Cookbook has more about this subject: Onion powder Onion powder is a spice used in cooking. ... Binomial name Origanum vulgare L. Oregano (Origanum vulgare) (Catalan: orenga, Spanish: orégano, Portuguese: orégão, Italian: origano) is a spicy, Mediterranean, perennial herb, particularly common in Greek and Italian cuisines. ... Binomial name Capsicum annuum L. Paprika, Capsicum annuum, is a sweet-to-mildly hot cultivar of the chile pepper of the family Solanaceae. ... Species Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) is a bright green, biennial herb that is very common in Middle Eastern, European, and American cooking. ... Binomial name Mentha × piperita L. Peppermint (Mentha × piperita) is a (usually) sterile hybrid mint, a cross between Watermint (Mentha aquatica) and Spearmint (Mentha spicata). ... A jar of pickled cucumbers. ... Raita is an Indian condiment based on yogurt. ... Ranch dressing is an American salad dressing and vegetable dip made of milk or sour cream, mayonnaise, and minced green onion, along with other seasonings. ... Species C. annuum (incl. ... A relish is a cooked or pickled sauce, usually made with vegetables or fruits, generally used as a condiment. ... Remoulade is a popular condiment in many countries, and was invented in France. ... Binomial name Rosmarinus officinalis L. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) is a woody, perennial herb with fragrant evergreen needle-like leaves that are used in cooking, yet when burned gives off a distinct mustard smell. ... Russian dressing is a salad dressing composed of a base of mayonnaise or yogurt with ketchup, pimentos, and chives and/or other spices added. ... The chemical structure of saccharin. ... Binomial name Crocus sativus L. Saffron (IPA: ) is a spice derived from the flower of the saffron crocus (Crocus sativus), a species of crocus in the family Iridaceae. ... —Cleopatra, in Shakespeares Antony and Cleopatra, 1606 A salad is a food item generally served either prior to or after the main dish as a separate course, as a main course in itself, or as a side dish accompanying the main dish. ... Binomial name Salvia officinalis L. Common sage (Salvia officinalis) is a small evergreen subshrub, with woody stems, grayish leaves, and blue to purplish flowers native to southern Europe and the Mediterranean region. ... In Spanish, salsa can refer to any type of sauce, but in English it usually refers to the spicy, often tomato-based sauces typical of Mexican cuisine, particularly sauces or dips. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Binomial name Smilax regelii Killip & Morton Sarsaparilla (Smilax regelii and other closely related species of Smilax) is a vine that bears roots with many useful properties. ... Species Sassafras albidum Sassafras tzumu Sassafras is a genus of two species of deciduous trees in the family Lauraceae, native to eastern North America and eastern Asia. ... Sauerkraut and sausage on a plate is finely sliced white cabbage fermented by various lactic acid bacteria including Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus and Pediococcus. ... Species hortensis (summer savory) montana (winter savory) viminea (serpentine savory) Savory is an herb, of the genus Satureja, best known for flavoring beans. ... Sour cream is a dairy product rich in fats obtained by fermenting a regular cream by certain kinds of Lactobacillus bacteria. ... Soy sauce (US) or soya sauce is a fermented sauce made from soybeans (soya beans), roasted grain, water and salt. ... Binomial name Mentha spicata Crantz Spearmint (Mentha spicata, syn ), yields an aromatic and carminative oil, referred to as oil of spearmint. Many people use the name scotch spearmint for gingermint (Mentha x gracilis, syn ), a hybrid of spearmint and wild mint (Mentha arvensis). ... Steak sauce is a generic term used in the United States for meat sauces. ... Species About 150 species, including: Stevia eupatoria Stevia ovata Stevia plummerae Stevia rebaudiana Stevia salicifolia Stevia serrata Stevia (also called sweetleaf, sweet leaf or sugarleaf) is a genus of about 150 species of herbs and shrubs belonging to the Asteraceae (sunflower) family, native to subtropical and tropical South America and... Magnified view of refined sugar crystals. ... The classic Tabasco red pepper sauce Tabasco® is the trademarked brand name for a hot pepper sauce that is a well-known table condiment. ... Binomial name Tamarindus indica The Tamarind (alternative name Indian date, translation of Arabic تمر هندي tamr hindÄ«) is a tropical tree, originally from east Africa but now introduced into most of tropical Asia as well as Latin America. ... Binomial name Artemisia dracunculus L. Tarragon or dragon (Artemisia dracunculus) is a perennial herb, a member of the daisy family (Asteraceae) and a close relative of wormwood. ... Tartare sauce (Commonwealth English) or Tartar sauce (North American English) is a thick white sauce made from mayonnaise and finely chopped vegetables, usually including pickled gherkins, capers, olives and pickled onions. ... Thousand Island dressing is a variety of salad dressing most commonly made of, primarily, mayonnaise, ketchup, and a mixture of finely chopped vegetables, most often pickles, onions, bell peppers, and/or green olives; chopped hard-boiled eggs are also common. ... Species About 350 species, including: Thymus adamovicii Thymus bracteosus Thymus broussonetii Thymus caespititius Thymus camphoratus Thymus capitatus Thymus capitellatus Thymus carnosus Thymus cephalotus Thymus cherlerioides Thymus ciliatus Thymus cilicicus Thymus cimicinus Thymus comosus Thymus comptus Thymus doerfleri Thymus glabrescens Thymus herba-barona Thymus hirsutus Thymus hyemalis Thymus integer Thymus lanuginosus... Binomial name Solanum lycopersicum L. The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is a plant in the Solanaceae or nightshade family, native to Central and South America, from Mexico to Peru. ... Tomato paste is a thick paste made from ripened tomatos with skin and seeds removed. ... pasta served with tomato sauce Tomato sauce is a condiment made with tomatoes, and sometimes also Meat, onions, basil, salt, oil, garlic, vodka and various spices. ... Binomial name Curcuma longa Linnaeus Turmeric (Curcuma longa, also known as tumeric) is a spice commonly used in curries and other South Asian cooking. ... For other uses, see vanilla (disambiguation). ... Vinegar is often infused with spices or herbs—as here, with oregano. ... Binomial name Sinapis alba White mustard (Sinapis alba) is a plant of the family Cruciferae. ... 1900 advertisement Worcestershire sauce (IPA / ) also known as Worcester sauce (IPA ) is a widely used fermented liquid condiment. ...

See also

Species C. annuum (incl. ... The chemical compound capsaicin (8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) is the active component of chile peppers (Capsicum). ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Red Savina and the Naga Jolokia claims.
  2. ^ de Bruxelles, Simon, "The chilli so hot you need gloves", Times, 1 April 2006.

External links

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Chile Peppers, Chili Pepper, Chile Pepper, Chilli Pepper, Chile, chili pepper, chilli pepper, Roasting Fresh Chile ... (2385 words)
Cooling the chile in a damp towel will help to loosen any skin that is still stuck on the chile pepper.
In a large pot, place chile peppers and cover with hot (not boiling) water and let soak for approximately 1 hour (don't soak more than an hour and save the juice to spice soups).
When chile peppers age they become red, either while on the plant or after they are picked.
Chile pepper - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1480 words)
The chile pepper, chili pepper, or chilli pepper, or simply chile, is the fruit of the plant Capsicum from the nightshade family, Solanaceae.
Chile peppers and their various cultivars originate in the Americas; they are now grown around the world because they are widely used as spices or vegetables in cuisine, and even as medicine.
Chile peppers are thought to have been domesticated at least five times by prehistoric peoples in different parts of South and Middle America and North America, from Peru in the south to Mexico in the north and parts of Colorado and New Mexico (Ancient Pueblo Peoples).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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