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Encyclopedia > Chile
República de Chile (Spanish)
Republic of Chile
Flag Coat of arms
MottoPor la razón o la fuerza
"By right or might" (Spanish)[1]
AnthemHimno Nacional de Chile (Spanish)
Capital
(and largest city)
Santiago1
33°26′S, 70°40′W
Official languages Spanish
Demonym Chilean
Government Democratic republic
 -  President Michelle Bachelet
Independence from Spain 
 -  First National
Government Junta

September 18, 1810 
 -  Declared February 12, 1818 
 -  Recognized April 25, 1844 
Area
 -  Total 756,950 km² (38th)
292,183 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 1.07²
Population
 -  June 2007 estimate 16,598,074 (60th)
 -  2002 census 15,116,435 
 -  Density 22/km² (194th)
57/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2007 estimate
 -  Total $227.879 billion[2] (44th)
 -  Per capita $13,745[2] (58th)
GDP (nominal) 2007 estimate
 -  Total $160.784 billion[2] (41st)
 -  Per capita $9,698[2] (52nd)
Gini (2006) 54[3] (high
HDI (2005) 0.867 (high) (40th)
Currency Peso (CLP)
Time zone n/a (UTC-4)
 -  Summer (DST) n/a (UTC-3)
Internet TLD .cl
Calling code +56
1 The legislative body operates in Valparaíso.
2 Includes Easter Island and Isla Sala y Gómez; does not include 1,250,000 km² (482,628 sq mi) of territory claimed in Antarctica.

Chile, officially the Republic of Chile (Spanish: República de Chile ), is a country in South America occupying a long and narrow coastal strip wedged between the Andes mountains and the Pacific Ocean. It borders Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, Argentina to the east, and the Drake Passage at the country's southernmost tip. The Pacific forms the country's entire western border, with a coastline that stretches over 6,435 kilometres.[4] Chilean territory extends to the Pacific Ocean which includes the overseas territories of Juan Fernández Islands, the Sala y Gómez islands, the Desventuradas Islands and Easter Island located in Polynesia. Chile claims 1,250,000 km² (482,628 sq mi) of territory in Antarctica. Chile may refer to: Chile - a country in South America chili (capsicum) - a small hot-tasting pod of a variety of capsicum; also known as chile This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Chile. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The flag of Chile consists of two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red; there is a blue square the same height as the white band at the hoist-side end of the white band; the square bears a white five-pointed star in the center representing a guide... Coat of Arms of Chile The Coat of Arms of Chile dates from 1834 and was designed by the English artist Charles Wood Taylor. ... For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... The National Anthem of Chile (Spanish_Language: Himno Nacional de Chile) is also known as Canción Nacional (National Song). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... Population of Chile from 1950, projected up to 2050 (INE) Chile has a population of over 16 million people. ... Location of Santiago commune in Greater Santiago Coordinates: , Region Province Foundation February 12, 1541 Government  - Mayor Raúl Alcaíno Lihn Area 1  - City 22. ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Flag of the President of Chile The President of Chile is both the chief of state and the head of government. ... Verónica Michelle Bachelet Jeria (born September 29, 1951) is a center-left politician and the current President of Chile—the first woman to hold this position in the countrys history. ... Opening session of the First Junta. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1810 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1818 (MDCCCXVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here surface areas between 100,000 km² and 1,000,000 km². ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion, a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100 as the denominator. ... This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... This article includes two lists of countries of the world[1] sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita, the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year divided by the average population for the same year. ... Countries by nominal GDP. Source: IMF (2005) This article includes a list of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP), the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... Map of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita for the year 2006. ... Graphical representation of the Gini coefficient The Gini coefficient is a measure of inequality of income distribution or inequality of wealth distribution. ... This page talks about Human Development Index, for other HDIs see HDI (disambiguation) World map indicating Human Development Index (2007). ... This talks about the countries in the Human Development Index, for information on the Human Development Index, please Click Here World map indicating Human Development Index (2007) (Colour-blind compliant map) For red-green color vision problems. ... Chilean notes currently in circulation: 1,000; 2,000; 5,000; 10,000; 20,000 pesos The peso is the currency of Chile. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... UTC redirects here. ... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... UTC redirects here. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... .cl is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Chile. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... PLEASE IMPROVE , compare Category:Telephone numbering by country Country Code:56 ARICA 58 IQUIQUE 57 ANTOFAGASTA 55 CALAMA 55 CHUQUICAMATA 55 TOCOPILLA 55 COPIAPO 52 EL SALVADOR 52 LA SERENA 51 VALLENAR 51 VICUÑA 51 COQUIMBO 51 OVALLE 53 LOS VILOS 53 SAN ANTONIO 35 ALGARROBO 35 EL QUISCO... Politics of Chile takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Chile is both head of state and head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... For other places with the same name, see Valparaiso (disambiguation). ... Rapa Nui redirects here. ... Map of Sala-y-Gómez Isla Sala y Gómez is a small uninhabited island in the Pacific Ocean belonging to Chile. ... Image File history File links RepChile. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Coast (disambiguation). ... This article is about the mountain system in South America. ... Drake Passage between South America and Antarctica. ... The town of San Juan Bautista in Cumberland Bay, Robinson Crusoe Island The Juan Fernández Islands is a sparsely inhabited island group reliant on tourism in the South Pacific Ocean, situated about 667 km off the coast of Chile, and is composed of several volcanic islands: Robinson Crusoe, ( ) (also... Isla Sala y Gómez (Rapa Nui: Motu Motiro Hiva) is a small uninhabited island lying in the eastern Pacific at 26°27′ S 105°28′ W. It is part of Chiles Easter Island province. ... Map Of Desventuradas Islands (Chile) Map Of Chile The Desventuradas Islands (Spanish: ) are relatively small oceanic islands located approximately 850 km off the coast of Chile; they are part of the Valparaíso commune (municipality). ... Rapa Nui redirects here. ... Carving from the ridgepole of a Māori house, ca 1840 Polynesia (from Greek: πολύς many, νῆσος island) is a large grouping of over 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean. ... Antártica is one of two communes (comunas) of the Antártica Chilena Province in the Magallanes y Antártica Chilena Region, and forms the Chilean Antarctic Territory. ...


Chile's unusual, ribbon-like shape —4,300 km long and on average 175 km wide— has given it a hugely varied climate, ranging from the world's driest desert - the Atacama - in the north, through a Mediterranean climate in the centre, to a snow-prone Alpine climate in the south, with glaciers, fjords and lakes.[5] The northern Chilean desert contains great mineral wealth, principally copper. The relatively small central area dominates the country in terms of population and agricultural resources. This area also is the cultural and political center from which Chile expanded in the late 19th century, when it incorporated its northern and southern regions. Southern Chile is rich in forests and grazing lands and features a string of volcanoes and lakes. The southern coast is a labyrinth of fjords, inlets, canals, twisting peninsulas, and islands. The Andes Mountains are located on the eastern border.[6] Atacama The Atacama Desert of Chile is a virtually rainless plateau made up of salt basins (salares), sand, and lava flows, extending from the Andes mountains to the Pacific Ocean. ...  Areas with Mediterranean climate A Mediterranean climate is a climate that resembles the climate of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin. ... This article is about the geological formation. ... Lysefjorden in Norway A fjord (pronounced FEE-ord or fyord, SAMPA: [fi:3:d] or [faI3:d]; sometimes written fiord) is a glacially overdeepened valley, usually narrow and steep-sided, extending below sea level and filled with salt water. ... For other uses, see Lake (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... This article is about a community of trees. ... Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... Lulworth Cove in Dorset, England (Great Britain) A fjord (Lysefjorden) in Norway An inlet is a body of water, usually seawater, which has characteristics of one or more of the following: a bay a cove an estuary a firth a fjord a geo a sea loch a sea lough a... For other uses, see Canal (disambiguation). ... A peninsula in Croatia A peninsula is a piece of land that is bordered on three or more sides by water. ... This article is about the mountain system in South America. ...


Prior to the coming of the Spanish in the 16th century, northern Chile was under Inca rule while Araucanian Indians (also known as Mapuches) inhabited central and southern Chile. Although Chile declared its independence in 1810, decisive victory over the Spanish was not achieved until 1818. In the War of the Pacific (1879-83), Chile defeated Peru and Bolivia and won its present northern regions. It was not until the 1880s that the Araucanian Indians were completely subjugated.[7] The country, which had been relatively free of the coups and arbitrary governments that blighted the South American continent, endured a 17 year military dictatorship (1973-1990), one of the bloodiest in 20th-century Latin America that left more than 3,000 people dead and missing.[5] (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... For other meanings of Inca, see Inca (disambiguation). ... The Mapuche are the pre-Hispanic inhabitants of Central and Southern Chile and Argentina. ... Mapuche test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator Mapuche (Mapudungun; Che, People + Mapu, of the Land) are the Indigenous inhabitants of Central and Southern Chile and Southern Argentina. ... For the conflict between Japan and the Allied powers in Asia and the Pacific Ocean from 1937 to 1945, which included World War II campaigns, see Pacific War. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...


Currently, Chile is one of South America's most stable and prosperous nations.[5] Within the greater Latin American context it leads in terms of competitiveness[8][9][10][11], quality of life[12], political stability[13], globalization[14], economic freedom[15][16][17], low corruption perception[18], low levels of unemployment[19] and poverty[20]. It also ranks high regionally in freedom of the press,[21][22] human development[23] and democratic development[24]. Its status as the region's richest country in terms of gross domestic product per capita (at market prices[25] and purchasing power parity[26]) is countered by its high level of inequality, as measured by the Gini index.[27] Competitiveness is a comparative concept of the ability and performance of a firm, sub-sector or country to sell and supply goods and/or services in a given market. ... This article is about the economic and philosophical concept. ... Puxi side of Shanghai, China. ... CIA figures for world unemployment rates, 2006 Unemployment is the state in which a person is without work, available to work, and is currently seeking work. ... A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows what he found. ... Freedom of the Press (or Press Freedom) is the guarantee by a government of free public press for its citizens and their associations, extended to members of news gathering organizations, and their published reporting. ... Human development may refer to: Human development (biology) Human development (psychology) see Developmental psychology Occasionally, it may refer to both, but because each of these is already an immense area, few if any contemporary academic discussions attempt to tackle both with any completeness. ... Here is a list of countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product (PPP) per capita, the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year, divided by population as of 1 July for the same year. ... Market price is an economic concept with commonplace familiarity; it is the price that a good or service is offered at, or will fetch, in the marketplace; it is of interest mainly in the study of microeconomics. ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... This article is about inequalities in mathematics. ... The Gini coefficient is a measure of inequality developed by the Italian statistician Corrado Gini and published in his 1912 paper Variabilità e mutabilità. It is usually used to measure income inequality, but can be used to measure any form of uneven distribution. ...

Contents

Etymology

There are various theories about the origin of the word Chile. According to one theory the Incas of Peru, who had failed to conquer the Araucanians, called the valley of the Aconcagua "Chili" by corruption of the name of a tribal chief ("cacique") called Tili, who ruled the area at the time of the Incan conquest.[28] Another theory points to the similarity of the valley of the Aconcagua with that of the Casma Valley in Peru, where there was a town and valley named Chili.[28] Other theories say Chile may derive its name from the indigenous Mapuche word chilli, which may mean "where the land ends,"[29] "the deepest point of the Earth,"[30], or "sea gulls";[31] or from the Quechua chin, "cold", or the Aymara tchili, meaning "snow."[32][33] Another meaning attributed to chilli is the onomatopoeic cheele-cheele—the Mapuche imitation of a bird call.[29] The Spanish conquistadors heard about this name from the Incas and the few survivors of Diego de Almagro's first Spanish expedition south from Peru in 1535-36 called themselves the "men of Chilli."[29] Inca redirects here. ... Mapuche (Mapudungun; Che, People + Mapu, of the Land) are the original Amerindian inhabitants of Central and Southern Chile and Southern Argentina. ... For other uses, see Aconcagua (disambiguation). ... The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view. ... The Casma Valley is a coastal valley situated about 400 km north of Lima, Peru, and lying between the towns of Chimbote and Huarmey. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Quechuan languages. ... Aymara is an Aymaran language spoken by the Aymara of the Andes. ... Conquistador (Spanish: kōn-kÄ“-stŏ-dōr) (meaning Conqueror in the Spanish language) is the term used to refer to the soldiers, explorers, and adventurers who brought much of the Americas and Asia Pacific under Spanish colonial rule between the 15th and 17th centuries, starting with the 1492 settlement... Diego de Almagro Diego de Almagro (b. ...


History

Main article: History of Chile
The Mapuche were the original inhabitants of central and southern Chile.

About 10,000 years ago, migrating Native Americans settled in fertile valleys and along the coast of what is now Chile. The Incas briefly extended their empire into what is now northern Chile, but the area's barrenness prevented extensive settlement. Map of Chile This is the history of Chile. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (700x990, 146 KB) Araucaniennes, femme et filles du Cacique Penoleo. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (700x990, 146 KB) Araucaniennes, femme et filles du Cacique Penoleo. ... Mapuche test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator Mapuche (Mapudungun; Che, People + Mapu, of the Land) are the Indigenous inhabitants of Central and Southern Chile and Southern Argentina. ... For other uses, see Native Americans (disambiguation). ... For other meanings of Inca, see Inca (disambiguation). ...


In 1520, while attempting to circumnavigate the earth, the Portuguese Ferdinand Magellan, discovered the southern passage now named after him, the Strait of Magellan. The next Europeans to reach Chile were Diego de Almagro and his band of Spanish conquistadors, who came from Peru in 1535 seeking gold. The Spanish encountered hundreds of thousands of Native Americans from various cultures in the area that modern Chile now occupies. These cultures supported themselves principally through slash-and-burn agriculture and hunting. The conquest of Chile began in earnest in 1540 and was carried out by Pedro de Valdivia, one of Francisco Pizarro's lieutenants, who founded the city of Santiago on February 12, 1541. Although the Spanish did not find the extensive gold and silver they sought, they recognized the agricultural potential of Chile's central valley, and Chile became part of the Viceroyalty of Peru. For the Presidential railcar named Ferdinand Magellan, see Ferdinand Magellan Railcar. ... A map of the Strait of Magellan The Strait of Magellan is a navigable sea route immediately south of mainland Chile, South America and north of Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego. ... Diego de Almagro Diego de Almagro (b. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... For other uses, see Native Americans (disambiguation). ... This article is about the hunting of prey by human society. ... Pedro de Valdivia Pedro de Valdivia (c. ... Francisco Pizarro Francisco Pizarro González should not be confused with another Francisco Pizarro who joined Hernán Cortés to conquer the Aztecs. ... Location of Santiago commune in Greater Santiago Coordinates: , Region Province Foundation February 12, 1541 Government  - Mayor Raúl Alcaíno Lihn Area 1  - City 22. ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events The first official translation of the entire Bible in Swedish February 12 - Pedro de Valdivia founds Santiago de Chile. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... Created in 1542, the Viceroyalty of Peru (in Spanish, Virreinato del Perú) contained most of Spanish-ruled South America until the creation of the separate viceroyalties of New Granada (now Colombia, Ecuador, Panamá and Venezuela, the last-named previously in the Viceroyalty of New Spain) in 1717 and Río...

Conquest of the land that is today called Chile took place only gradually, and the Europeans suffered repeated setbacks at the hands of the local population. A massive Mapuche insurrection that began in 1553 resulted in Valdivia's death and the destruction of many of the colony's principal settlements. Subsequent major insurrections took place in 1598 and in 1655. Each time the Mapuche and other native groups revolted, the southern border of the colony was driven northward. The abolition of slavery in 1683 defused tensions on the frontier between the colony and the Mapuche land to the south, and permitted increased trade between colonists and the Mapuche. Download high resolution version (615x790, 158 KB)Subject: Pedro de Valdivia Source: [1] The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Download high resolution version (615x790, 158 KB)Subject: Pedro de Valdivia Source: [1] The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Pedro de Valdivia Pedro de Valdivia (c. ... Mapuche test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator Mapuche (Mapudungun; Che, People + Mapu, of the Land) are the Indigenous inhabitants of Central and Southern Chile and Southern Argentina. ... Slave redirects here. ...


The drive for independence from Spain was precipitated by usurpation of the Spanish throne by Napoleon's brother Joseph in 1808. A national junta in the name of Ferdinand—heir to the deposed king—was formed on September 18, 1810. The junta proclaimed Chile an autonomous republic within the Spanish monarchy. A movement for total independence soon won a wide following. Spanish attempts to re-impose arbitrary rule during what was called the "Reconquista" led to a prolonged struggle. Coat of Arms of the King of Spain King of Spain redirects here. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... Joseph Bonaparte Coat of arms of Joseph Bonaparte as King of Spain (1808-1813). ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1810 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... A military dictatorship is a form of government wherein the political power resides with the military; it is similar but not identical to a stratocracy, a state ruled directly by the military. ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... For other senses of this word, see Reconquista (disambiguation). ...

Intermittent warfare continued until 1817, when an army led by Bernardo O'Higgins, Chile's most renowned patriot, and José de San Martín, hero of the Argentine War of Independence, crossed the Andes into Chile and defeated the royalists. On February 12, 1818, Chile was proclaimed an independent republic under O'Higgins' leadership. The political revolt brought little social change, however, and 19th century Chilean society preserved the essence of the stratified colonial social structure, which was greatly influenced by family politics and the Roman Catholic Church. A strong presidency eventually emerged, but wealthy landowners remained extremely powerful. Subject: Bernardo OHiggins Source: IGM (Military Geographic Institute, Chilean State) http://www. ... Subject: Bernardo OHiggins Source: IGM (Military Geographic Institute, Chilean State) http://www. ... Bernardo OHiggins Riquelme (August 20, 1778 – October 24, 1842), South American independence leader, was one of the commanders – together with José de San Martín – of the military forces that freed Chile from Spanish rule in the Chilean War of Independence. ... Bernardo OHiggins Riquelme (August 20, 1778 – October 24, 1842), South American independence leader, was one of the commanders – together with José de San Martín – of the military forces that freed Chile from Spanish rule in the Chilean War of Independence. ... José Francisco de San Martín Matorras, also known as José de San Martín (25 February 1778 – 17 August 1850), was an Argentine general and the prime leader of the southern part of South Americas successful struggle for independence from Spain. ... The Argentine War of Independence was fought from 1814 to 1816 by Argentine forces under José de San Martín against realista forces loyal to the Spanish crown. ... This article is about the mountain system in South America. ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1818 (MDCCCXVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Catholic Church redirects here. ...

Toward the end of the nineteenth century, the government in Santiago consolidated its position in the south by ruthlessly suppressing the Mapuche during the Occupation of Araucanía. In 1881, it signed a treaty with Argentina confirming Chilean sovereignty over the Strait of Magellan. As a result of the War of the Pacific with Peru and Bolivia (1879–83), Chile expanded its territory northward by almost one-third, eliminating Bolivia's access to the Pacific, and acquired valuable nitrate deposits, the exploitation of which led to an era of national affluence. The Chilean Civil War in 1891 brought about a redistribution of power between the President and Congress, and Chile established a parliamentary style democracy. However, the Civil War had also been a contest between those who favored the development of local industries and powerful Chilean banking interests, particularly the House of Edwards who had strong ties to foreign investors. Hence the Chilean economy partially degenerated into a system protecting the interests of a ruling oligarchy. By the 1920s, the emerging middle and working classes were powerful enough to elect a reformist president, Arturo Alessandri Palma, whose program was frustrated by a conservative congress. Alessandri Palma's reformist tendencies were partly tempered later by an admiration for some elements of Mussolini's Italian Corporate State. In the 1920s, Marxist groups with strong popular support arose. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For the conflict between Japan and the Allied powers in Asia and the Pacific Ocean from 1937 to 1945, which included World War II campaigns, see Pacific War. ... The Battle of Iquique took place on May 21, 1879 during the War of the Pacific between Chile and the joint forces of Bolivia and Peru. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Mapuche test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator Mapuche (Mapudungun; Che, People + Mapu, of the Land) are the Indigenous inhabitants of Central and Southern Chile and Southern Argentina. ... Map showing the old and the new frontier established by 1870 The Occupation of the Araucania (1861–83) were a series of military campaigns, agreements and penetration by the Chilean Army and settlers that lead to the incorporation of the Araucanía to the Chilean national territory. ... A map of the Strait of Magellan The Strait of Magellan is a navigable sea route immediately south of mainland Chile, South America and north of Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego. ... For the conflict between Japan and the Allied powers in Asia and the Pacific Ocean from 1937 to 1945, which included World War II campaigns, see Pacific War. ... The Chilean Civil War of 1891 was an armed conflict between forces supporting Congress and forces supporting the sitting President, José Manuel Balmaceda. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Oligarchy (Greek , Oligarkhía) is a form of government where political power effectively rests with a small elite segment of society (whether distinguished by wealth, family or military powers). ... The term working class is used to denote a social class. ... Arturo Alessandri Palma (1868 - 1950) was a Chilean political figure and reformer. ... Benito Mussolini created a fascist state through the use of propaganda, total control of the media and disassembly of the working democratic government. ... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ...

Diego Portales (1793-1837), Founder of the Chilean State and creator of the Constitution of 1833.

A military coup led by General Luis Altamirano in 1924 set off a period of great political instability that lasted until 1932. The longest lasting of the ten governments between those years was that of General Carlos Ibáñez del Campo, who briefly held power in 1925 and then again between 1927 and 1931 in what was a de facto dictatorship, although not really comparable in harshness or corruption to the type of military dictatorship that has often bedeviled the rest of Latin America, and certainly not comparable to the violent and repressive regime of Augusto Pinochet decades later. By relinquishing power to a democratically elected successor, Ibáñez del Campo retained the respect of a large enough segment of the population to remain a viable politician for more than thirty years, in spite of the vague and shifting nature of his ideology. When constitutional rule was restored in 1932, a strong middle-class party, the Radicals, emerged. It became the key force in coalition governments for the next 20 years. During the period of Radical Party dominance (1932–52), the state increased its role in the economy. In 1952, voters returned Ibáñez del Campo, now reincarnated as a sort of Chilean Perón, to office for another six years. Jorge Alessandri succeeded Ibáñez del Campo in 1958, bringing Chilean conservatism back into power democratically for another term. Diego Portales from the memoriachilena. ... Diego Portales from the memoriachilena. ... Diego Portales Diego José Pedro Víctor Portales Palazuelos eats rotted prunes (June 16, 1793 - June 6, 1837) was a Chilean minister, statesman and entrepreneur. ... General Luis Altamirano Talavera (1867 – 1938) was a Chilean political figure, and president of Chile between 1924 and 1925. ... General Carlos Ibáñez del Campo (November 3, 1877–April 28, 1960) was a Chilean Army officer and political figure. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte[1] (November 25, 1915 – December 10, 2006) was President of Chile from 1974 to 1990, and was the President of the military junta from 1973 to 1981. ... A number of political organizations have called themselves the Radical Party, or have Radical as part of their name. ... Juan Domingo Perón (October 8, 1895 – July 1, 1974) was an Argentine general and politician, elected three times as President of Argentina and serving from 1946 to 1955 and from 1973 to 1974. ... Jorge Alessandri Rodríguez (May 19, 1896–August 31, 1986) was President of Chile from 1958 to 1964. ...


The 1964 presidential election of Christian Democrat Eduardo Frei Montalva by an absolute majority initiated a period of major reform. Under the slogan "Revolution in Liberty", the Frei administration embarked on far-reaching social and economic programs, particularly in education, housing, and agrarian reform, including rural unionization of agricultural workers. By 1967, however, Frei encountered increasing opposition from leftists, who charged that his reforms were inadequate, and from conservatives, who found them excessive. At the end of his term, Frei had accomplished many noteworthy objectives, but he had not fully achieved his party's ambitious goals. The Christian Democrat Party of Chile (Partido Demócrata Cristiano de Chile) is a political party in Chile and governs as part of the Coalition of Parties for Democracy coalition. ... Eduardo Nicanor Frei Montalva (1911–1982) was a Chilean political figure and president of Chile from 1964 to 1970. ... Absolute majority is a supermajoritarian voting requirement which is stricter than a simple majority. ... Agrarian reform can refer either, narrowly, to government-initiated or government-backed redistribution of agricultural land (see land reform) or can refer more broadly to an overall redirection of the agrarian system of the country, which often includes land reform measures. ...


In 1970, Senator Salvador Allende Gossens, a Marxist physician and member of Chile's Socialist Party, who headed the "Popular Unity" (UP or "Unidad Popular") coalition of the Socialist, Communist, Radical, and Social-Democratic Parties, along with dissident Christian Democrats, the Popular Unitary Action Movement (MAPU), and the Independent Popular Action, won a plurality of votes in a three-way contest. Despite pressure from the government of the United States, the Chilean Congress, keeping with tradition, conducted a runoff vote between the leading candidates, Allende and former president Jorge Alessandri and chose Allende by a vote of 153 to 35. Frei refused to form an alliance with Alessandri to oppose Allende, on the grounds that the Christian Democrats were a workers party and could not make common cause with the oligarchs. Salvador Isabelino Allende Gossens[1] (July 26, 1908 – September 11, 1973) was President of Chile from November 1970 until his death during the coup détat of September 11, 1973. ... The Socialist Party of Chile (Spanish: Partido Socialista de Chile or PS) is a political party in Chile, and part of the ruling Coalition of Parties for Democracy coalition. ... Peoples Unity, or Popular Unity (Spanish: Unidad Popular or UP) was the coalition of Chilean political parties that coalesced behind the successful candidacy of Salvador Allende for the 1970 Chilean presidential election. ... For the use of the term in political theory, see Pluralism (political theory). ... Congress building The National Congress (Spanish: Congreso Nacional) is the legislative branch of the government of the Republic of Chile. ... Jorge Alessandri Rodríguez (May 19, 1896–August 31, 1986) was President of Chile from 1958 to 1964. ...


Allende's program included advancement of workers' interests; a thoroughgoing implementation of agrarian reform; the reorganization of the national economy into socialized, mixed, and private sectors; a foreign policy of "international solidarity" and national independence; and a new institutional order (the "people's state" or "poder popular"), including the institution of a unicameral congress. The Popular Unity platform also called for nationalization of foreign (U.S.) ownership of Chile's major copper mines. For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ...

La Moneda Presidential Palace being bombed during the coup (1973).

An economic depression that began in 1967 peaked in 1970, exacerbated by capital flight, plummeting private investment, and withdrawal of bank deposits by those opposed to Allende's socialist program. Production fell and unemployment rose. Allende adopted measures including price freezes, wage increases, and tax reforms, which had the effect of increasing consumer spending and redistributing income downward. Joint public-private public works projects helped reduce unemployment. Much of the banking sector was nationalized. Many enterprises within the copper, coal, iron, nitrate, and steel industries were expropriated, nationalized, or subjected to state intervention. Industrial output increased sharply and unemployment fell during the Allende administration's first year. Image File history File linksMetadata MonedaBombing. ... Image File history File linksMetadata MonedaBombing. ... Front view of La Moneda The Palacio de La Moneda (Spanish The Mint Palace), is the present seat of the President of the Republic of Chile. ... In economics, a depression is a term commonly used for a sustained downturn in the economy. ... Seen in Asian markets in the 1990s capital flight is when assets and/or money rapidly flow out of a country. ... CIA figures for world unemployment rates, 2006 Unemployment is the state in which a person is without work, available to work, and is currently seeking work. ... Look up Public works in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Bank (disambiguation). ... Nationalization, also spelled nationalisation, is the act by which a nation takes possession of assets without requiring the owners consent, with or without payment of compensation. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal (pronounced ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... Trinitrate redirects here. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... Expropriation is the act of removing from control the owner of an item of property. ...


Other reforms undertaken during the early Allende period included redistribution of millions of hectares of land to landless agricultural workers as part of the agrarian reform program, giving the armed forces an overdue pay increase, and providing free milk to children. The Indian Peoples Development Corporation and the Mapuche Vocational Institute were founded to address the needs of Chile's indigenous population. A glass of cows milk. ...


The nationalization of U.S. and other foreign-owned companies led to increased tensions with the United States. The Nixon administration brought international financial pressure to bear in order to restrict economic credit to Chile. Simultaneously, the CIA funded opposition media, politicians, and organizations, helping to accelerate a campaign of domestic destabilization. By 1972, the economic progress of Allende's first year had been reversed and the economy was in crisis. Political polarization increased, and large mobilizations of both pro- and anti-government groups became frequent, often leading to clashes. Nixon redirects here. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ...


By early 1973, inflation was out of control. The crippled economy was further battered by prolonged and sometimes simultaneous strikes by physicians, teachers, students, truck owners, copper workers, and the small business class. A US-backed[34] military coup overthrew Allende on September 11, 1973. As the armed forces bombarded the presidential palace (Palacio de La Moneda), Allende reportedly committed suicide.[35][36][37] A military government, led by General Augusto Pinochet Ugarte, took over control of the country. The first years of the regime were marked by serious human rights violations. On October 1973, at least 72 people were murdered by the Caravan of Death[38]. At least a thousand people were executed during the first six months of Pinochet in office, and at least two thousand more were killed during the next sixteen years, as reported by the Rettig Report. Some 30,000 were forced to flee the country, and tens of thousands of people were detained and tortured, as investigated by the 2004 Valech Commission. A new Constitution was approved by a highly irregular and undemocratic plebiscite characterized by the absence of registration lists, on September 11, 1980, and General Pinochet became President of the Republic for an 8-year term. Prisoners outside the La Moneda Palace after their surrender during the coup (1973). ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Front view of La Moneda The Palacio de La Moneda (Spanish The Mint Palace), is the present seat of the President of the Republic of Chile. ... General Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte1 (born November 25, 1915) was head of the military government that ruled Chile from 1973 to 1990. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Human rights abuse. ... Generals Sergio Arellano Stark and Augusto Pinochet a few hours before the departure of the Caravan of Death (September 1973) The Caravan of Death was a Chilean Army squad that, following the Chilean coup of 1973, flew by helicopter from south to north of Chile between September 30 and October... The Rettig Report, officially The National Commission for Truth and Reconciliation Report, is a report encompassing human rights abuses resulting in death or disappearance committed in Chile during the years of military rule under Augusto Pinochet, which began on September 11, 1973 and ended on March 11, 1990. ... Categories: Stub ... A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ...

The Concertación presidents

Patricio Aylwin

Eduardo Frei

Ricardo Lagos

Michelle Bachelet

In the late 1980s, the regime gradually permitted greater freedom of assembly, speech, and association, to include trade union and limited political activity. The right-wing military government pursued free market economic policies. During Pinochet's nearly 17 years in power, Chile moved away from state involvement, toward a largely free market economy that saw an increase in domestic and foreign private investment, although the copper industry and other important mineral resources were not returned to foreign ownership. In a plebiscite on October 5, 1988, General Pinochet was denied a second 8-year term as president (56% against 44%). Chileans elected a new president and the majority of members of a two-chamber congress on December 14, 1989. Christian Democrat Patricio Aylwin, the candidate of a coalition of 17 political parties called the Concertación, received an absolute majority of votes (55%).[39]. President Aylwin served from 1990 to 1994, in what was considered a transition period. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1704 × 2272 pixels, file size: 1. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 457 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1125 × 1476 pixels, file size: 289 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle, President of Chile, during a visit of US secretary of defense William Cohen to Santiago on May 25, 1998. ... Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle (born June 24, 1942) was President of Chile from 1994 to 2000. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 460 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (720 × 939 pixel, file size: 147 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This image is taken from the Presidency of Argentina web site, in accordance with the copyright licensing internally logged as OTRS ticket#2007042610015988. ... Ricardo Froilán Lagos Escobar (born March 2, 1938) is a lawyer, economist and social democrat politician, who served as president of Chile from 2000 to 2006 . ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (493x693, 84 KB) Sumario Viña del Mar (Chile) - Presidente Lula posa para a foto oficial ao lado dos demais chefes de Estado e de Governo durante posse de Michelle Bachelet, nova presidente do Chile. ... Verónica Michelle Bachelet Jeria (born September 29, 1951) is a center-left politician and the current President of Chile—the first woman to hold this position in the countrys history. ... This article is about the general concept. ... A free market is an idealized market, where all economic decisions and actions by individuals regarding transfer of money, goods, and services are voluntary, and are therefore devoid of coercion and theft (some definitions of coercion are inclusive of theft). Colloquially and loosely, a free market economy is an economy... A free market is an idealized market, where all economic decisions and actions by individuals regarding transfer of money, goods, and services are voluntary, and are therefore devoid of coercion and theft (some definitions of coercion are inclusive of theft). Colloquially and loosely, a free market economy is an economy... For other uses, see 5th October (Serbia). ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... The Coalition of Parties for Democracy (Spanish: Concertación de Partidos por la Democracia), more often known as the Concertación, is an alliance of center-left political parties in Chile, founded in 1988. ...


In December 1993, Christian Democrat Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle, the son of previous president Eduardo Frei Montalva, led the Concertación coalition to victory with an absolute majority of votes (58%).[40] Frei Ruiz-Tagle was succeeded in 2000 by Socialist Ricardo Lagos, who won the presidency in an unprecedented runoff election against Joaquín Lavín of the rightist Alliance for Chile.[41] In January 2006 Chileans elected their first woman president, Michelle Bachelet Jeria, of the Socialist Party.[42] She was sworn in on March 11, 2006, extending the Concertación coalition governance for another four years.[43] Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle (born June 24, 1942) was President of Chile from 1994 to 2000. ... Eduardo Nicanor Frei Montalva (1911–1982) was a Chilean political figure and president of Chile from 1964 to 1970. ... Ricardo Froilán Lagos Escobar (born March 2, 1938) is a lawyer, economist and social democrat politician, who served as president of Chile from 2000 to 2006 . ... Runoff voting is a voting system used in single-seat elections. ... Joaquín Lavín in a telecasted debate of Canal 13 and CNN en Español Joaquín José Lavín Infante (b. ... The Alliance for Chile (Spanish Alianza por Chile), also known as La Alianza (The Alliance), is a coalition of right wing Chilean political parties. ... Verónica Michelle Bachelet Jeria (born September 29, 1951) is a center-left politician and the current President of Chile—the first woman to hold this position in the countrys history. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Politics

Main article: Politics of Chile

Chile's Constitution was approved in a highly irregular national plebiscite in September 1980, under the military government of Augusto Pinochet. It entered into force in March 1981. After Pinochet's defeat in the 1988 plebiscite, the Constitution was amended to ease provisions for future amendments to the Constitution. In September 2005, President Ricardo Lagos signed into law several constitutional amendments passed by Congress. These include eliminating the positions of appointed senators and senators for life, granting the President authority to remove the commanders-in-chief of the armed forces, and reducing the presidential term from six to four years.[44] Politics of Chile takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Chile is both head of state and head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Front view of La Moneda The Palacio de La Moneda (Spanish The Mint Palace), is the present seat of the President of the Republic of Chile. ... Location of Santiago commune in Greater Santiago Coordinates: , Region Province Foundation February 12, 1541 Government  - Mayor Raúl Alcaíno Lihn Area 1  - City 22. ... A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... A military junta is government by a committee of military leaders. ... Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte[1] (November 25, 1915 – December 10, 2006) was President of Chile from 1974 to 1990, and was the President of the military junta from 1973 to 1981. ... Ricardo Froilán Lagos Escobar (born March 2, 1938) is a lawyer, economist and social democrat politician, who served as president of Chile from 2000 to 2006 . ... A senator for life is a member of the senate elected or appointed for lifetime. ...


Chileans voted in the first round of presidential elections on December 11, 2005. None of the four presidential candidates won more than 50% of the vote. As a result, the top two vote-getters—center-left Concertación coalition’s Michelle Bachelet and center-right Alianza coalition’s Sebastián Piñera—competed in a run-off election on January 15, 2006, which Michelle Bachelet won. She was sworn in on March 11, 2006. This was Chile’s fourth presidential election since the end of the Pinochet era. All four have been judged free and fair. The President is constitutionally barred from serving consecutive terms. is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Verónica Michelle Bachelet Jeria (born September 29, 1951) is a center-left politician and the current President of Chile—the first woman to hold this position in the countrys history. ... Sebastián Piñera during a televised presidential debate (2005) Miguel Juan Sebastián Piñera Echenique (born December 1, 1949) is a Chilean businessman and politician. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Chile's bicameral Congress has a 38-seat Senate and a 120-member Chamber of Deputies. Senators serve for 8 years with staggered terms, while Deputies are elected every 4 years. The current Senate has a 20-18 split in favor of pro-government Senators. The last congressional elections were held in December 11, 2005, concurrently with the presidential election. The current lower house—the Chamber of Deputies—contains 63 members of the governing center-left coalition and 57 from the center-right opposition. The Congress is located in the port city of Valparaíso, about 140 kilometers (84 mi.) west of the capital, Santiago. Congress building The National Congress (Spanish: Congreso Nacional) is the legislative branch of the government of the Republic of Chile. ... Chile Congress building The Senate of the Republic of Chile is the upper house of Chiles bicameral Congress, as established in the current constitution. ... Congress building The Chamber of Deputies of the Republic of Chile (Spanish: Cámara de Diputados) is the lower house of Chiles bicameral Congress. ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other places with the same name, see Valparaiso (disambiguation). ... Location of Santiago commune in Greater Santiago Coordinates: , Region Province Foundation February 12, 1541 Government  - Mayor Raúl Alcaíno Lihn Area 1  - City 22. ...


Chile's congressional elections are governed by a binomial system that rewards large representations. Therefore, there are only two Senate and two Deputy seats apportioned to each electoral district, parties are forced to form wide coalitions and, historically, the two largest coalitions (Concertación and Alianza) split most of the seats in a district. Only if the leading coalition ticket out-polls the second-place coalition by a margin of more than 2-to-1 does the winning coalition gain both seats. In the 2001 congressional elections, the conservative Independent Democratic Union surpassed the Christian Democrats for the first time to become the largest party in the lower house. In 2005, both leading parties, the Christian Democrats and the UDI lost representation in favor of their respective allies Socialist Party (which became the biggest party in the Concertación block) and National Renewal in the right-wing alliance. The Communist Party again failed to gain any seats in the election. (See Chilean parliamentary election, 2005.) The Independent Democratic Union (Unión Demócrata Independiente, UDI) is Chiles most conservative political party. ... Politics of Chile Political parties in Chile Elections in Chile: President: 1925 - 1927 - 1931 - 1932 - 1938 - 1941 - 1946 - 1952 - 1958 - 1964 - 1970 - 1989 - 1993 - 1999 - 2005 The Christian Democratic Party of Chile (Partido Demócrata Cristiano de Chile) is a political party in Chile and governs as part of the... A member of the Caspian (or eastern) branch of the Caucasian languages. ... The Socialist Party of Chile (Spanish: Partido Socialista de Chile or PS) is a political party in Chile, and part of the ruling Coalition of Parties for Democracy coalition. ... National Renewal (RN) (Spanish: Renovación Nacional), is a center-right liberal conservative political party belonging to the Chilean right-wing political coalition Alliance for Chile in conjunction with the Independent Democratic Union (UDI). ... The Communist Party of Chile YOU MOTHERFUCKING COMMUNISTS GO TO HELL! (Spanish: Partido Comunista de Chile) is a Chilean political party that advocates communism. ... The 2005 Chilean parliamentary election took place on December 11, 2005, in conjunction with the presidential election. ...


Chile's judiciary is independent and includes a court of appeal, a system of military courts, a constitutional tribunal, and the Supreme Court. In June 2005, Chile completed a nation-wide overhaul of its criminal justice system.[45] The reform has replaced inquisitorial proceedings with an adversarial system more similar to that of the United States. Supreme Court building in Santiago The Supreme Court of Chile is the highest court of appeal in Chile. ...


Administrative division

Chile is divided into 15 regions, each of which is headed by an intendant appointed by the President. Every region is further divided into provinces, with a provincial governor also appointed by the President. Finally each province is divided into communes[46] which are administered by municipalities, each with its own mayor and councilmen elected by their inhabitants for four years. Download high resolution version (172x800, 16 KB)Done by User:Cantus File links The following pages link to this file: Regions of Chile Categories: GFDL images ... Chile is divided into fifteen regions (in Spanish, regiones; singular región), each of which is headed by an superintendent (intendente), appointed by the president. ... Chile is divided into thirteen regions, each of which is headed by an intendant (intendente). ... ... Look up Region in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... New France was governed by three rulers: the governor, the bishop and the intendant, all appointed by the King, and sent from France. ... A province is a territorial unit, almost always a country subdivision. ... ... A municipality is an administrative entity composed of a clearly defined territory and its population and commonly referring to a city, town, or village, or a small grouping of them. ...


Each region is designated by a name and a Roman numeral, assigned from north to south. The only exception is the region housing the nation's capital, which is designated RM, that stands for Región Metropolitana (Metropolitan Region). The system of Roman numerals is a numeral system originating in ancient Rome, and was adapted from Etruscan numerals. ...


Two new regions were created in 2006: Arica-Parinacota in the north, and Los Ríos in the south. Both became operative in October 2007.
Arica-Parinacota is a proposed region of Chile. ... The Chilean President, Ricardo Lagos signing the bill proposing the Los Ríos Region in Valdivia (October 19, 2005) Los Ríos Region (Spanish: Región de los Ríos) is the 14th region of Chile, created by subdividing the Los Lagos Region in southern Chile. ...


Geography

Main article: Geography of Chile
Parinacota Volcano in northern Chile.
Elqui Valley in north-central Chile.
Conguillío National Park in south-central Chile.
Grey Glacier in southern Chile.

A long and narrow coastal Southern Cone country on the west side of the Andes Mountains, Chile stretches over 4,630 kilometers (2,880 mi) north to south, but only 430 kilometers (265 mi) at its widest point east to west. This encompasses a remarkable variety of landscapes. Map of Chile Shaded relief map of Chile Topography This SeaWiFS image shows phytoplankton blooms running the length of the coast of Chile. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixels, file size: 1. ... Parinacota is a massive stratovolcano on the border of Chile and Bolivia. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... River born in the west Andes, flowing into the Pacific Ocean, crossing the chilean city of La Serena, a wine producing valley and Pisco producing area. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2304 × 1728 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2304 × 1728 pixel, file size: 1. ... Conguillío National Park is located in the Andes, in the provinces of Cautín and Malleco, in the Araucanía Region of Chile. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Glaciar_Grey,_Torres_del_Paine. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Glaciar_Grey,_Torres_del_Paine. ... Image:Glaciar-Grey. ... Map that frames the area named Southern Cone The term Southern Cone (Spanish: Cono Sur, Portuguese: Cone Sul) refers to a geographic region composed of the southernmost areas of South America, below the Tropic of Capricorn. ... This article is about the mountain system in South America. ... A kilometer (Commonwealth spelling: kilometre), symbol: km is a unit of length in the metric system equal to 1,000 metres (from the Greek words χίλια (khilia) = thousand and μέτρο (metro) = count/measure). ... “Miles” redirects here. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


At 756,950 km² (292,260 sq mi), Chile is the world's 38th-largest country. It is comparable in size to Zambia, and is about twice the size of Japan. Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ...


The northern Atacama Desert contains great mineral wealth, primarily copper and nitrates. The relatively small Central Valley, which includes Santiago, dominates the country in terms of population and agricultural resources. This area also is the historical center from which Chile expanded in the late nineteenth century, when it integrated the northern and southern regions. Southern Chile is rich in forests, grazing lands, and features a string of volcanoes and lakes. The southern coast is a labyrinth of fjords, inlets, canals, twisting peninsulas, and islands. The Andes Mountains are located on the eastern border. Chile is the longest (N-S) country in the world (over 4,200 km (2,610 mi)), and also claims 1,250,000 km² (482,628 sq mi) of Antarctica as part of its territory. However, this latter claim is suspended under the terms of the Antarctic Treaty, of which Chile is signatory. Atacama Desert The Atacama Desert is a virtually rainless plateau in South America, extending 966 km (600 mi) between the Andes mountains and the Pacific Ocean. ... Trinitrate redirects here. ... Location of Santiago commune in Greater Santiago Coordinates: , Region Province Foundation February 12, 1541 Government  - Mayor Raúl Alcaíno Lihn Area 1  - City 22. ... Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Lake (disambiguation). ... Fjord in Sunnmøre, Norway Geirangerfjord, Norway A fjord (or fiord) is a long, narrow estuary with steep sides, made when a glacial valley is filled by rising sea water levels. ... Lulworth Cove in Dorset, England (Great Britain) A fjord (Lysefjorden) in Norway An inlet is a body of water, usually seawater, which has characteristics of one or more of the following: a bay a cove an estuary a firth a fjord a geo a sea loch a sea lough a... For other uses, see Canal (disambiguation). ... A peninsula in Croatia A peninsula is a piece of land that is bordered on three or more sides by water. ... For the Antarctic Treaty from the Gundam anime, see Antarctic Treaty (Gundam) The Antarctic Treaty and related agreements, collectively called the Antarctic Treaty System or ATS, regulate the international relations with respect to Antarctica, Earths only uninhabited continent. ...


Chile controls Easter Island and Sala y Gómez Island, the easternmost islands of Polynesia, which it incorporated to its territory in 1888, and Robinson Crusoe Island, more than 600 km (373 mi) from the mainland, in the Juan Fernández archipelago. Easter Island is nowadays a province of Chile. Also controlled but only temporally inhabited (by some local fishermen) are the small islands of Sala y Gómez, San Ambrosio and San Felix, these islands are notable because they extend Chile's claim to territorial waters out from its coast into the Pacific. Rapa Nui redirects here. ... Isla Sala y Gómez (Rapa Nui: Motu Motiro Hiva) is a small uninhabited island lying in the eastern Pacific at 26°27′ S 105°28′ W. It is part of Chiles Easter Island province. ... Carving from the ridgepole of a Māori house, ca 1840 Polynesia (from Greek: πολύς many, νῆσος island) is a large grouping of over 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean. ... Town San Juan Bautista, Robinson Crusoe, Cumberland Bay A fisherman with 2 Lobsters Robinson Crusoe Island, located in the Juan Fernández archipelago, which is situated in the middle of the South Pacific Ocean, 674 kilometres from the South American continent. ... Juan Fernández (c. ...


Climate

Main article: Climate of Chile

The climate of Chile comprises a wide range of weather conditions across a large geographic scale, extending across 38 degrees in latitude, making generalisations difficult. According to the Köppen system, Chile within its borders hosts at least seven major climatic subtypes, ranging from desert in the north, to alpine tundra and glaciers in the east and south east, humid subtropical in Easter Island, Oceanic in the south and mediterranean climate in central Chile. There are four seasons in most of the country: summer (December to February), autum (March to May), winter season (June to August), and spring (September to November). The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. ... This article is about arid terrain. ... In physical geography, tundra is an area where tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons. ... This article is about the geological formation. ... Humid subtropical climates are characterized by hot, humid summers and cool to mild winters. ... Rapa Nui redirects here. ... World map showing the oceanic climate zones. ...  Areas with Mediterranean climate A Mediterranean climate is a climate that resembles the climate of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin. ...


Time zones

Because of the distance between the mainland and Easter Island, Chile uses 4 different UTC offsets: Rapa Nui redirects here. ... ...

−12 | −11 | −10 | −9:30 | −9 | −8 | −7 | −6 | −5 | −4 | −3:30 | −3 | −2:30 | −2 | −1 | −0:25 | UTC (0) | +0:20 | +0:30 | +1 | +2 | +3 | +3:30 | +4 | +4:30 | +4:51 | +5 | +5:30 | +5:40 | +5:45 | +6 | +6:30 | +7 | +7:20 | +7... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... −12 | −11 | −10 | −9:30 | −9 | −8 | −7 | −6 | −5 | −4 | −3:30 | −3 | −2:30 | −2 | −1 | −0:25 | UTC (0) | +0:20 | +0:30 | +1 | +2 | +3 | +3:30 | +4 | +4:30 | +4:51 | +5 | +5:30 | +5:40 | +5:45 | +6 | +6:30 | +7 | +7:20 | +7... Rapa Nui redirects here. ... −12 | −11 | −10 | −9:30 | −9 | −8 | −7 | −6 | −5 | −4 | −3:30 | −3 | −2:30 | −2 | −1 | −0:25 | UTC (0) | +0:20 | +0:30 | +1 | +2 | +3 | +3:30 | +4 | +4:30 | +4:51 | +5 | +5:30 | +5:40 | +5:45 | +6 | +6:30 | +7 | +7:20 | +7... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... -12 | -11 | -10 | -9:30 | -9 | -8 | -7 | -6 | -5 | -4 | -3:30 | -3 | -2:30 | -2 | -1 | -0:25 | UTC (0) | +0:20 | +0:30 | +1 | +2 | +3 | +3:30 | +4 | +4:30 | +4:51 | +5 | +5:30 | +5:40 | +5:45 | +6 | +6:30 | +7 | +7:20 | +7...

Economy

Main article: Economy of Chile
Chilean notes currently in circulation.

After a decade of impressive growth rates, Chile began to experience a moderate economic downturn in 1999, brought on by unfavorable global economic conditions related to the Asian financial crisis, which began in 1997. The economy remained sluggish until 2003, when it began to show clear signs of recovery, achieving 4.0% real GDP growth. The Chilean economy finished 2004 with growth of 6.0%. Real GDP growth reached 5.7% in 2005 before falling back to 4.0% growth in 2006. Higher energy prices as well as lagging consumer demand were drags on the economy in 2006. Higher Chilean Government spending and favorable external conditions (including record copper prices for much of 2006) were not enough to offset these drags. For the first time in many years, Chilean economic growth in 2006 was among the weakest in Latin America. GDP expanded 5.1% in 2007.[6] Chile has a dynamic market-oriented economy characterized by a high level of foreign trade. ... Download high resolution version (400x952, 146 KB)From: http://aes. ... Download high resolution version (400x952, 146 KB)From: http://aes. ... The Asian financial crisis was a financial crisis that started in July 1997 in Thailand and affected currencies, stock markets, and other asset prices in several Asian countries, many considered East Asian Tigers. ...


Chile has pursued generally sound economic policies for nearly three decades. The 1973-90 military government sold many state-owned companies, and the three democratic governments since 1990 have continued privatization, though at a slower pace. The government's role in the economy is mostly limited to regulation, although the state continues to operate copper giant CODELCO and a few other enterprises (there is one state-run bank). Chile is strongly committed to free trade and has welcomed large amounts of foreign investment. Chile has signed free trade agreements (FTAs) with a whole network of countries, including an FTA with the United States, which was signed in 2003 and implemented in January 2004. Over the last several years, Chile has signed FTAs with the European Union, South Korea, New Zealand, Singapore, Brunei, China, and Japan. It reached a partial trade agreement with India in 2005 and began negotiations for a full-fledged FTA with India in 2006. Chile conducted trade negotiations in 2007 with Australia, Malaysia, and Thailand, as well as with China to expand an existing agreement beyond just trade in goods. Chile hopes to conclude FTA negotiations with Australia and the expanded agreement with China in 2008. Negotiations with Malaysia and Thailand are scheduled to continue throughout 2008. The members of the P4 (Chile, Singapore, New Zealand, and Brunei) also plan to conclude a chapter on finance and investment in 2008.[6] The economic international organization the OECD agreed to invite Chile to be among four countries to open discussions in becoming an official member.[47] The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an international organization of those developed countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ...


High domestic savings and investment rates helped propel Chile's economy to average growth rates of 8% during the 1990s. The privatized national pension system (AFP) has encouraged domestic investment and contributed to an estimated total domestic savings rate of approximately 21% of GDP. However, the AFP is not without its critics, who cite low participation rates (only 55% of the working population is covered), with groups such as the self-employed outside the system. There has also been criticism of the inefficiency and high costs due to a lack of competition among pension funds. Critics cite loopholes in the use of pension savings through lump sum withdraws for the purchase of a second home or payment of university fees as fundamental weaknesses of the AFP. The Bachelet administration plans substantial reform, but not an overhaul, of the AFP during the next several years.[6]

Chile GDP growth since 1961.

Unemployment stubbornly hovered in the 9%-10% range after the start of the economic slowdown in 1999, above the 7% average for the 1990s. Unemployment finally dipped to 7.8% for 2006, and has kept falling in 2007, averaging 6.8% monthly (up to August).[48] A number of international observers have blamed Chile’s high unemployment rate on complicated and restrictive labor laws, though recent data seem to partly disprove this theory.[citation needed] Wages have risen faster than inflation as a result of higher productivity, boosting national living standards. The percentage of Chileans with household incomes below the poverty line—defined as twice the cost of satisfying a person's minimal nutritional needs—fell from 45.1% in 1987 to 13.7% in 2006, according to government polls.[49] Critics in Chile, however, argue true poverty figures are considerably higher than those officially published, due to the government's use of an outdated 1987 household budget poll, updated every 10 years. According to these critics, using the 1997 household budget data, the poverty rate rises to 29%.[50] Using the relative yardstick favoured in many European countries, 27% of Chileans would be poor, according to Juan Carlos Feres of the ECLAC.[51] Despite enjoying a comparatively higher GDP and more robust economy compared to most other countries of Latin America, Chile also suffers from one of the most uneven distributions of wealth in the world, ahead only of Brazil in the Latin American region and lagging behind even of most developing sub-Saharan African nations. Chile's top 10 richest percentile possesses 47 percent of the country's wealth.[52] In relation to income distribution, some 6.2% of the country populates the upper economic income bracket, 15% the middle bracket, 21% the lower middle, 38% the lower bracket, and 20% the extreme poor. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1330x926, 98 KB) Note: 2006 and 2007 data are projections and not final data. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1330x926, 98 KB) Note: 2006 and 2007 data are projections and not final data. ... The standard of living refers to the quality and quantity of goods and services available to people and the way these services and goods are distributed within a population. ... Map of countries showing percentage of population who have an income below the national poverty line The poverty line is the level of income below which one cannot afford to purchase all the resources one requires to live. ... The United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (UNECLAC or ECLAC) was established in 1948 (then as the UN Economic Commission for Latin America) to encourage economic cooperation among its member states. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Differences in national income equality around the world as measured by the national Gini coefficient. ... A political map showing national divisions in relation to the ecological break (Sub-Saharan Africa in green) A geographical map of Africa, showing the ecological break that defines the sub-Saharan area Sub-Saharan Africa is the term used to describe the area of the African continent which lies south...

Chile's independent Central Bank pursues an inflation target of between 2% and 4%. Inflation has not exceeded 5% since 1998. Chile registered an inflation rate of 3.2% in 2006. The Chilean peso’s rapid appreciation against the U.S. dollar in recent years has helped dampen inflation. Most wage settlements and loans are indexed, reducing inflation's volatility. Under the compulsory private pension system, most formal sector employees pay 10% of their salaries into privately managed funds.[6] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1200x633, 188 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): List of airlines ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1200x633, 188 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): List of airlines ... For the road in England, see A340 road. ... LAN Airlines Sociedad Anónima NYSE: LFL (formerly LanChile) is an airline based in Santiago, Chile. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Total foreign direct investment (FDI) was only $3.4 billion in 2006, up 52% from a poor performance in 2005. However, 80% of FDI continues to go to only four sectors: electricity, gas, water and mining. Much of the jump in FDI in 2006 was also the result of acquisitions and mergers and has done little to create new employment in Chile. The Chilean Government has formed a Council on Innovation and Competition, which is tasked with identifying new sectors and industries to promote. It is hoped that this, combined with some tax reforms to encourage domestic and foreign investment in research and development, will bring in additional FDI and to new parts of the economy. As of 2006, Chile invested only 0.6% of its annual GDP in research and development (R&D). Even then, two-thirds of that was government spending. The fact that domestic and foreign companies spend almost nothing on R&D does not bode well for the Government of Chile’s efforts to develop innovative, knowledge-based sectors. Beyond its general economic and political stability, the government also has encouraged the use of Chile as an "investment platform" for multinational corporations planning to operate in the region, but this will have limited value given the developing business climate in Chile itself. Chile's approach to foreign direct investment is codified in the country's Foreign Investment Law, which gives foreign investors the same treatment as Chileans. Registration is simple and transparent, and foreign investors are guaranteed access to the official foreign exchange market to repatriate their profits and capital.[6] This article is about economics. ... The phrase research and development (also R and D or, more often, R&D), according to the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development, refers to creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use...


Foreign trade

Chile is responsible for over a third of world's copper production.

2006 was a record year for Chilean trade. Total trade registered a 31% increase over 2005. During 2006, exports of goods and services totaled U.S. $58 billion, an increase of 41%. This figure was somewhat distorted by the skyrocketing price of copper. In 2006, copper exports reached a historical high of U.S. $33.3 billion. Imports totaled U.S. $35 billion, an increase of 17% compared to the previous year. Chile thus recorded a positive trade balance of U.S. $23 billion in 2006.[6] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2126x1382, 3463 KB) Description = Coppermine Chuquicamata, Chile Source = selbst fotografiert Date = created March 1984 Author = Reinhard Jahn, Mannheim nanosmile Wikipedia account please use this discussion page File links The following pages link to this file: Chuquicamata Metadata This file contains additional... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2126x1382, 3463 KB) Description = Coppermine Chuquicamata, Chile Source = selbst fotografiert Date = created March 1984 Author = Reinhard Jahn, Mannheim nanosmile Wikipedia account please use this discussion page File links The following pages link to this file: Chuquicamata Metadata This file contains additional... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ...


The main destinations for Chilean exports were the Americas (U.S. $39 billion), Asia (U.S. $27.8 billion) and Europe (U.S. $22.2 billion). Seen as shares of Chile’s export markets, 42% of exports went to the Americas, 30% to Asia and 24% to Europe. Within Chile’s diversified network of trade relationships, its most important partner remained the United States. Total trade with the U.S. was U.S. $14.8 billion in 2006. Since the U.S.-Chile Free Trade Agreement went into effect on January 1, 2004, U.S.-Chilean trade has increased by 154%. Internal Government of Chile figures show that even when factoring out inflation and the recent high price of copper, bilateral trade between the U.S. and Chile has grown over 60% since then.[6]


Total trade with Europe also grew in 2006, expanding by 42%. The Netherlands and Italy were Chile’s main European trading partners. Total trade with Asia also grew significantly at nearly 31%. Trade with Korea and Japan grew significantly, but China remained Chile’s most important trading partner in Asia. Chile’s total trade with China reached U.S. $8.8 billion in 2006, representing nearly 66% of the value of its trade relationship with Asia.[6]

Chile is the world's fifth largest exporter of wine.[53]

The growth of exports in 2006 was due mainly to a strong increase in sales to the United States, the Netherlands, and Japan. These three markets alone accounted for an additional U.S. $5.5 billion worth of Chilean exports. Chilean exports to the United States totaled U.S. $9.3 billion, representing a 37.7% increase compared to 2005 (U.S. $6.7 billion). Exports to the European Union were U.S. $15.4 billion, a 63.7% increased compared to 2005 (U.S. $9.4 billion). Exports to Asia increased from U.S. $15.2 billion in 2005 to U.S. $19.7 billion in 2006, a 29.9% increase.[6] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 398 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1661 × 2500 pixel, file size: 784 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 398 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1661 × 2500 pixel, file size: 784 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ...


During 2006, Chile imported U.S. $26 billion from the Americas, representing 54% of total imports, followed by Asia at 22%, and Europe at 16%. Mercosur members were the main suppliers of imports to Chile at U.S. $9.1 billion, followed by the United States with U.S. $5.5 billion and the European Union with U.S. $5.2 billion. From Asia, China was the most important exporter to Chile, with goods valued at U.S. $3.6 billion. Year-on-year growth in imports was especially strong from a number of countries—Ecuador (123.9%), Thailand (72.1%), Korea (52.6%), and China (36.9%).[6]


Chile’s overall trade profile has traditionally been dependent upon copper exports. The state-owned firm CODELCO is the world's largest copper-producing company, with recorded copper reserves of 200 years. Chile has made an effort to expand nontraditional exports. The most important non-mineral exports are forestry and wood products, fresh fruit and processed food, fishmeal and seafood, and wine.[6] Chile has a long history of wine making, going back to the conquistadores who brought grape vines with them in the mid 16th Century and planted vineyards. ...


Successive Chilean governments have actively pursued trade-liberalizing agreements. During the 1990s, Chile signed free trade agreements (FTA) with Canada, Mexico, and Central America. Chile also concluded preferential trade agreements with Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador. An association agreement with Mercosur—Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay—went into effect in October 1996. Continuing its export-oriented development strategy, Chile completed landmark free trade agreements in 2002 with the European Union and South Korea. Chile, as a member of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) organization, is seeking to boost commercial ties to Asian markets. To that end, it has signed trade agreements in recent years with New Zealand, Singapore, Brunei, India, China, and most recently Japan. In 2007, Chile held trade negotiations with Australia, Thailand, Malaysia, and China. In 2008, Chile hopes to conclude an FTA with Australia, and finalize an expanded agreement (covering trade in services and investment) with China. The P4 (Chile, Singapore, New Zealand, and Brunei) also plan to expand ties through adding a finance and investment chapter to the existing P4 agreement. Chile’s trade talks with Malaysia and Thailand are also scheduled to continue in 2008.[6] Free trade is an economic concept referring to the selling of products between countries without tariffs or other trade barriers. ...

San Antonio port in Chile.

After two years of negotiations, the United States and Chile signed an agreement in June 2003 that will lead to completely duty-free bilateral trade within 12 years. The U.S.-Chile FTA entered into force January 1, 2004 following approval by the U.S. and Chilean congresses. The bilateral FTA has inaugurated greatly expanded U.S.-Chilean trade ties, with total bilateral trade jumping by 154% during the FTA’s first three years.[6] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 312 pixelsFull resolution (1196 × 466 pixels, file size: 219 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 312 pixelsFull resolution (1196 × 466 pixels, file size: 219 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... San Antonio is a commune and city in central Chile administered by the Municipality of San Antonio. ...


Chile unilaterally lowered its across-the-board import tariff for all countries with which it does not have a trade agreement to 6% in 2003. Higher effective tariffs are charged only on imports of wheat, wheat flour, and sugar as a result of a system of import price bands. The price bands were ruled inconsistent with Chile's World Trade Organization (WTO) obligations in 2002, and the government has introduced legislation to modify them. Under the terms of the U.S.-Chile FTA, the price bands will be completely phased out for U.S. imports of wheat, wheat flour, and sugar within 12 years.[6] WTO redirects here. ...


Chile is a strong proponent of pressing ahead on negotiations for a Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) and is active in the WTO’s Doha round of negotiations, principally through its membership in the G-20 and Cairns Group.[6] This article or section needs to be updated. ... The Group of 20, or G-20, developing countries focused on tearing down industrialized countries barriers to agricultural trade. ... The Cairns Group is an interest group of 18 agricultural exporting countries, composed of Argentina, Australia , Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Indonesia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Pakistan, Paraguay, the Philippines, South Africa, Thailand, and Uruguay. ...


Finance

Skyline of Santiago's Financial District.

Chile's financial sector has grown quickly in recent years, with a banking reform law approved in 1997 that broadened the scope of permissible foreign activity for Chilean banks. The Chilean Government implemented a further liberalization of capital markets in 2001, and there is further pending legislation proposing further liberalization. Over the last ten years, Chileans have enjoyed the introduction of new financial tools such as home equity loans, currency futures and options, factoring, leasing, and debit cards. The introduction of these new products has also been accompanied by an increased use of traditional instruments such as loans and credit cards. Chile's private pension system, with assets worth roughly $70 billion at the end of 2006, has been an important source of investment capital for the capital market. Chile maintains one of the best credit ratings (S&P A+) in Latin America. There are three main ways for Chilean firms to raise funds abroad: bank loans, issuance of bonds, and the selling of stocks on U.S. markets through American Depository Receipts (ADRs). Nearly all of the funds raised through these means go to finance domestic Chilean investment. The government is required by law to run a fiscal surplus of at least 1% of GDP. In 2006, the Government of Chile ran a surplus of $11.3 billion, equal to almost 8% of GDP. The Government of Chile continues to pay down its foreign debt, with public debt only 3.9% of GDP at the end of 2006.[6] Image File history File links Vitacura_at_night. ... Image File history File links Vitacura_at_night. ... Location of Santiago commune in Greater Santiago Coordinates: , Region Province Foundation February 12, 1541 Government  - Mayor Raúl Alcaíno Lihn Area 1  - City 22. ...


Defense

Main article: Military of Chile
Chilean frigate Almirante Blanco Encalada (FF-15) at Pearl Harbor, 2006.

Chile's Armed Forces are subject to civilian control exercised by the President through the Minister of Defense. The President has the authority to remove the commanders-in-chief of the armed forces.[6] Chiles armed forces are subject to civilian control exercised by the president through the Minister of Defense. ... This article is about the harbor in Hawaii. ...


Army

The commander in chief of the Chilean Army is General Oscar Izurieta Ferrer. The Chilean Army is 45,000 strong and is organized with an Army headquarters in Santiago, seven divisions throughout its territory, an Air Brigade in Rancagua, and a Special Forces Command in Colina. The Chilean Army is one of the most professional and technologically advanced armies in Latin America.[6]


Navy

Admiral Rodolfo Codina directs the 23,000-person Navy, including 2,500 Marines. Of the fleet of 29 surface vessels, only eight are operational major combatants (frigates). Those ships are based in Valparaiso. The Navy operates its own aircraft for transport and patrol; there are no Navy fighter or bomber aircraft. The Navy also operates four submarines based in Talcahuano.[6]


Air Force (FACH)

Gen. Ricardo Ortega Perrier heads a force of 12,500. Air assets are distributed among five air brigades headquartered in Iquique, Antofagasta, Santiago, Puerto Montt, and Punta Arenas. The Air Force also operates an airbase on King George Island, Antarctica. The FACH took delivery of the final 2 of 10 F-16s, all purchased from the U.S., in March 2007. Chile also took delivery in 2007 of a number of reconditioned Block 15 F-16s from the Netherlands, bringing to 18 the total of F-16s purchased from the Dutch.[6]


Carabineros

After the military coup in September 1973, the Chilean national police (Carabineros) were incorporated into the Defense Ministry. With the return of democratic government, the police were placed under the operational control of the Interior Ministry but remained under the nominal control of the Defense Ministry. Gen. Jose Bernales is the head of the national police force of 30,000 men and women who are responsible for law enforcement, traffic management, narcotics suppression, border control, and counter-terrorism throughout Chile.[6]


Foreign relations

Former President Ricardo Lagos with United States President George W. Bush.

Since its return to democracy in 1990, Chile has been an active participant in the international political arena. Chile completed a 2-year non-permanent position on the UN Security Council in January 2005. Jose Miguel Insulza, a Chilean national, was elected Secretary General of the Organization of American States in May 2005. Chile is currently serving on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Board of Governors, and the 2007-2008 chair of the board is Chile’s ambassador to the IAEA, Milenko E. Skoknic. The country is an active member of the UN family of agencies and participates in UN peacekeeping activities. It is currently bidding for a seat on the UN Human Rights Council. Chile hosted the Defense Ministerial of the Americas in 2002 and the APEC summit and related meetings in 2004. It also hosted the Community of Democracies ministerial in April 2005 and the Ibero-American Summit in November 2007. An associate member of Mercosur and a full member of APEC, Chile has been an important actor on international economic issues and hemispheric free trade.[6] Since its return to democracy in 1990, Chile has been an active participant in the international political arena. ... President George W. Bush and President Ricardo Lagos of Chile walk together along the colonnade at the White House Monday, July 19, 2004. ... President George W. Bush and President Ricardo Lagos of Chile walk together along the colonnade at the White House Monday, July 19, 2004. ... Ricardo Froilán Lagos Escobar (born March 2, 1938) is a lawyer, economist and social democrat politician, who served as president of Chile from 2000 to 2006 . ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ...


The Chilean Government has diplomatic relations with most countries. It settled its territorial disputes with Argentina during the 1990s. Chile and Bolivia severed diplomatic ties in 1978 over Bolivia's desire to reacquire territory it lost to Chile in 1879-83 War of the Pacific. The two countries maintain consular relations and are represented at the Consul General level.[6]


Demographics

Population of Chile from 1835, projected up to 2050 (INE).
A view of capital Santiago.
Houses on the hills of Valparaíso.
Main article: Demographics of Chile

Chile's 2002 census reported a population of 15,116,435. Its growth has been declining since the early 1990s, due to a decreasing birth rate. By 2050 the population is expected to reach approximately 20.2 million.[54] About 85% of the country's population lives in urban areas, with 40% living in Greater Santiago. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixels, file size: 164 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Edificios de Santiago Autor:silvernet2 Fecha:Marzo 2005 Vista obtenida desde el Cerro Santa Lucia File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixels, file size: 164 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Edificios de Santiago Autor:silvernet2 Fecha:Marzo 2005 Vista obtenida desde el Cerro Santa Lucia File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 677 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photographer: Anna Maj Michelson from Portland, Estados Unidos Title: Valparaiso, Chile Taken on: 2002-08-29 14:26:59 Original source: Flickr. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 677 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photographer: Anna Maj Michelson from Portland, Estados Unidos Title: Valparaiso, Chile Taken on: 2002-08-29 14:26:59 Original source: Flickr. ... For other places with the same name, see Valparaiso (disambiguation). ... Population of Chile from 1950, projected up to 2050 (INE) Chile has a population of over 16 million people. ... Satellite image of Santiago Santiago (full form Santiago de Chile) is the capital of Chile. ...


Racial structure

The bulk of the Chilean population features a considerably homogeneous mestizo quality[55], the product of miscegenation between colonial Spanish immigrants and Amerindian females[56] (including the Atacameños, Diaguitas, Picunches, Araucanians or Mapuches, Huilliches, Pehuenches, and Cuncos[57]). Chile's ethnic structure can be classified as 30% white, 5% Native American and 65% predominantly white mestizos. Whites are mostly Spanish in origin (mainly Castilians, Andalusians and Basques), and to a much lesser degree from Chile's various waves of immigrants (Italians, Germans, Israelis, Yugoslavians, Arabs, etc.). Foreigners have always been scarce in Chile, totalling 600 in the whole colonial period. At the 1960 census they numbered 105,000 (55% being Spanish, German, Italians or Argentines, in that order). Besides being small in number, they mixed quickly with the locals. The black population was always scant, reaching a high of 25,000 during the colonial period; its racial contribution is less than 1%. The current Native American population is relatively small (see below) according to the censuses; their numbers are augmented when one takes into consideration those that are physically similar, and those that are linguistically or socially thought to belong to them.[55] Frederick Douglass with his second wife Helen Pitts Douglass (sitting) who was white, a famous 19th century American example of miscegenation. ... Native Americans (also Indians, Aboriginal Peoples, American Indians, First Nations, Alaskan Natives, or Indigenous Peoples of America) are the indigenous inhabitants of The Americas prior to the European colonization, and their modern descendants. ... Remains of the Tulor settlement (800 BC) near San Pedro de Atacama Pukará de Quitor The Atacameños (also called Lickan-antay) were a Native American people who inhabited the Anden portion of the Atacama Desert. ... The Diaguita, also called Diaguita-Calchaquí, are a group of South American indigenous peoples. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Mapuche are the pre-Hispanic inhabitants of Central and Southern Chile and Argentina. ... Mapuche test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator Mapuche (Mapudungun; Che, People + Mapu, of the Land) are the Indigenous inhabitants of Central and Southern Chile and Southern Argentina. ... Huillice is an Araucanian language spoken in Chile. ... Castilian is a noun and adjective that refers to the region and former kingdom of Spain; in particular, it refers to the language of this region, and is therefore considered by many to be a synonym of Spanish, though with different nuances. ... Andalusian Referring to Andalusia A type of horse: see Andalusian horse This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This article is about the Basque people. ... Languages Italian, Sicilian, Neapolitan, Corsican, Sardinian, Emiliano-Romagnolo, Ligurian, Lombard, Piedmontese, Venetian, Ladin, Friulian Religions predominantly Roman Catholic      The Italians are a Southern European ethnic group found primarily in Italy and in a wide-ranging diaspora throughout Western Europe, the Americas and Australia. ... A stereotypical German The Germans (German: die Deutschen), or the German people, are a nation in the meaning an ethnos (in German: Volk), defined more by a sense of sharing a common German culture and having a German mother tongue, than by citizenship or by being subjects to any particular... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Argentina is a country in southern South America, situated between the Andes in the west and the southern Atlantic Ocean in the east. ...


Indigenous communities

A Mapuche lonco.
Those belonging to recognised indigenous communities (2002)
Alacaluf 2,622 0.02% Mapuche 604,349 4.00%
Atacameño 21,015 0.14% Quechua 6,175 0.04%
Aymara 48,501 0.32% Rapanui 4,647 0.03%
Colla 3,198 0.02% Yámana 1,685 0.01%

In the 1992 Chilean census, a total of 10.5% of the total population surveyed declared themselves indigenous, irrespective of whether they currently practiced or spoke a native culture and language; almost one million people (9.7% of the total) declared themselves Mapuche, 0.6% declared to be Aymara, and a 0.2% reported as Rapanui. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (534x800, 86 KB) Summary This photograph was taken by: Gabriel Ortega Berger. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (534x800, 86 KB) Summary This photograph was taken by: Gabriel Ortega Berger. ... A lonco is a tribal chief of the Mapuches. ... The Alacaluf (also called Halakwulup, Kawésqar, Kaweskar) are a South American people living in Chile in the Strait of Magellan (Brunswick Peninsula, and Wellington, Santa Inés, and Desolación islands), Chile. ... Mapuche test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator Mapuche (Mapudungun; Che, People + Mapu, of the Land) are the Indigenous inhabitants of Central and Southern Chile and Southern Argentina. ... Remains of the Tulor settlement (800 BC) near San Pedro de Atacama Pukará de Quitor The Atacameños (also called Lickan-antay) were a Native American people who inhabited the Anden portion of the Atacama Desert. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Quechuan languages. ... The Aymara are a native ethnic group in the Andes region of South America; about 2. ... The Rapanui or Rapa Nui (Big Rapa) are the native Polynesian inhabitants of Easter Island in the Pacific Ocean (the island itself is also called Rapa Nui). ... Colla may refer to: Luigi Aloysius Colla, an Italian botanist of the late 18th and early 19th centuries Colla Uais, Irish king Colla is a Celtic male name Three Collas, Celtic rulers The Colla people, a pre-Incan Aymara society Colla, Switzerland, a municipality in the canton of Ticino Colla... Yagán, also known as Yámana, Yaghan, and Háusi Kúta, is one of the indigenous languages of Tierra del Fuego, spoken by the Yagán people. ... For other uses, see Native Americans (disambiguation). ... Mapuche test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator Mapuche (Mapudungun; Che, People + Mapu, of the Land) are the Indigenous inhabitants of Central and Southern Chile and Southern Argentina. ... The Aymara are a native ethnic group in the Andes region of South America; about 2. ... The Rapanui or Rapa Nui (Big Rapa) are the native Polynesian inhabitants of Easter Island in the Pacific Ocean (the island itself is also called Rapa Nui). ...


At the 2002 census, only indigenous people that still practiced a native culture or spoke a native language were surveyed: 4.6% of the population (692,192 people) fit that description; of these, 87.3% declared themselves Mapuche.[58]


Immigration

German influence is apparent in southern Chile.

Relative to its overall population, Chile never experienced any large scale wave of immigrants.[59] The total number of immigrants to Chile, both originating from other Latin American countries and all other (mostly European) countries, never surpassed 4% of its total population.[60][59] This is not to say that immigrants were not important to the evolution of Chilean society and the Chilean nation. Basque families who migrated to Chile in the 18th century vitalized the economy and joined the old Castilian aristocracy to become the political elite that still dominates the country.[57] Some non-Spanish European immigrants arrived in Chile — mainly to the northern and southern extremities of the country — during the 19th and 20th centuries, including English, Germans, Irish, Italians, French, Croatians and other former Yugoslavians.[61][59] The prevalence of non-Hispanic European surnames among the governing body of modern Chile are a testament to their disproportionate contribution and influence on the country. Also worth mentioning are the Korean, and especially Palestinian communities, the latter being the largest colony of that people outside of the Arab world. The volume of immigrants from neighboring countries to Chile during those same periods was of a similar value.[59] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixels, file size: 630 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixels, file size: 630 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... This article is about the English as an ethnic group and nation. ... Croatian is: Croatian language adjective for that which belongs to Croatia ethnic Croat (deprecated) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ... Arab States redirects here. ...


After independence and during the republican era, English, Italian, and French merchants established themselves in the growing cities of Chile and incidentally joined the political or economic elites of the country. The official encouragement of German and Swiss colonization in the Lake District (Los Lagos Region) during the second half of the 19th century was exceptional. Small numbers of displaced eastern European Jews and Christian Syrians and Palestinians fleeing the Ottoman Empire arrived in Chile. Today they spearhead financial and small manufacturing operations.[62] Croats have also immigrated to Chile and have formed a notable ethnic identity[63]. This article is about the English as an ethnic group and nation. ... Languages Italian, Sicilian, Neapolitan, Corsican, Sardinian, Emiliano-Romagnolo, Ligurian, Lombard, Piedmontese, Venetian, Ladin, Friulian Religions predominantly Roman Catholic      The Italians are a Southern European ethnic group found primarily in Italy and in a wide-ranging diaspora throughout Western Europe, the Americas and Australia. ... A stereotypical German The Germans (German: die Deutschen), or the German people, are a nation in the meaning an ethnos (in German: Volk), defined more by a sense of sharing a common German culture and having a German mother tongue, than by citizenship or by being subjects to any particular... Swiss may be: Related to Switzerland: the Swiss Confederation Swiss people Swiss cheese Swiss corporations Switzerland-related topics Named Swiss: Swiss, Missouri Swiss, North Carolina Swiss, West Virginia Swiss, Wisconsin Swiss International Air Lines Swiss Re SWiSS is also used as a disparaging nickname for the Socialist Workers Student Society. ... Los Lagos (Spanish The lakes) is Chiles tenth administrative region from north to south. ... A European is primarily a person who was born into one of the countries within the continent of Europe. ... Languages Historical Jewish languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, others Liturgical languages: Hebrew and Aramaic Predominant spoken languages: The vernacular language of the home nation in the Diaspora, significantly including English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Arabs and other Semitic groups For the Jewish religion, see Judaism. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... The Syrian Arab Republic or Syria is a country in the Middle East, bordering (from south to north) on Lebanon, Israel, Jordan, Iraq and Turkey. ... The Palestinian flag, adopted in 1948, is a widely recognized modern symbol of the Palestinian people. ... Languages Croatian Religions Predominantly Roman Catholic Related ethnic groups Slavs South Slavs Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ...


Currently, immigration from neighboring countries to Chile is greatest, and during the last decade immigration to Chile has doubled to 184,464 people in 2002, originating primarily from Argentina, Bolivia and Peru. Emigration of Chileans has decreased during the last decade: It is estimated that 857,781 Chileans live abroad, 50.1% of those being in Argentina, 13.3% in the United States, 8.8% in Brazil, 4.9% in Sweden, and around 2% in Australia, with the rest being scattered in smaller numbers across the globe. A memorial statue in Hanko, Finland, commemorating the thousands of emigrants who left the country to start a new life in the United States Emigration is the act and the phenomenon of leaving ones native country or region to settle in another. ...


Culture

Main articles: Culture of Chile and Music of Chile
Rodeo is a national sport in rural Chile.
Contemporary Art Museum.

Northern Chile was an important center of culture in the medieval and early modern Inca empire, while the central and southern regions were areas of Mapuche cultural activities. Through the colonial period following the conquest, and during the early Republican period, the country's culture was dominated by the Spanish. Other European influences, primarily English and French, began in the 19th century and have continued to this day. Chilean culture had regional areas of development, northern Chile was an important center of culture in the medieval and early modern Inca Empire, while indigenous Mapuche and other Araucanian cultures developed in the Central and Southern regions. ... Northern Chile was an important center of culture in ancient Tahuantinsuyu (Inca empire), and was afterwards dominated by the Spanish. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Natonal champions of 2006 In Chile the Rodeo is the second sport but practiced, after soccer. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Gabriela Mistral (April 7, 1889 – January 10, 1957) was the pseudonym of Lucila de María del Perpetuo Socorro Godoy Alcayaga, a Chilean poet, educator, diplomat and feminist who was the first Latin American to win the Nobel Prize for Literature, in 1945. ... The Nobel Prize in literature is awarded annually to an author from any country who has produced the most outstanding work of an idealistic tendency. The work in this case generally refers to an authors work as a whole, not to any individual work, though individual works are sometimes... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 401 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Santiago, Chile Metadata This file contains... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 401 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Santiago, Chile Metadata This file contains... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Pablo Neruda (July 12, 1904 – September 23, 1973) was the penname and, later, legal name of the Chilean writer and communist politician Ricardo Eliecer Neftalí Reyes Basoalto. ... The Nobel Prize in literature is awarded annually to an author from any country who has produced the most outstanding work of an idealistic tendency. The work in this case generally refers to an authors work as a whole, not to any individual work, though individual works are sometimes... For the a general view of Inca civilisation, people and culture, see Incas. ... Mapuche test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator Mapuche (Mapudungun; Che, People + Mapu, of the Land) are the Indigenous inhabitants of Central and Southern Chile and Southern Argentina. ...


The national dance is the cueca. Another form of traditional Chilean song, though not a dance, is the tonada. Arising from music imported by the Spanish colonists, it is distinguished from the cueca by an intermediate melodic section and a more prominent melody. In the mid-1960s native musical forms were revitalized by the Parra family with the Nueva Canción Chilena, which was associated with political activists and reformers, and by the folk singer and researcher on folklore and Chilean ethnography, Margot Loyola. People dancing cueca in 1906 The cueca has been declared the official national dance of Chile since September 18, 1979. ... Members of the Parra family are noted contributors to Chilean culture with almost every member being a distinguished national artist. ... Nueva Canción (Spanish for new song) is a movement in Latin American music that was developed first in the Southern Cone of South America - Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay - during the 1950s and 1960s, but also popularized shortly after in Central America. ... Folk song redirects here. ... For the suburb of Melbourne, Australia, see Research, Victoria. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Ethnography ( ethnos = people and graphein = writing) is the genre of writing that presents varying degrees of qualitative and quantitative descriptions of human social phenomena, based on fieldwork. ... Margot Loyola (born 1918, Linares, Chile) is a famous musician, folk singer and researcher of the folklore of her country and, in general, of Latin America. ...


Chileans call their country país de poetas—country of poets. Gabriela Mistral was the first Chilean to win a Nobel Prize for Literature (1945). Chile's most famous poet, however, is Pablo Neruda, who also won the Nobel Prize for Literature (1971) and is world-renowned for his extensive library of works on romance, nature, and politics. His three highly individualistic homes, located in Isla Negra, Santiago and Valparaíso are popular tourist destinations.
Gabriela Mistral (April 7, 1889 – January 10, 1957) was the pseudonym of Lucila de María del Perpetuo Socorro Godoy Alcayaga, a Chilean poet, educator, diplomat and feminist who was the first Latin American to win the Nobel Prize for Literature, in 1945. ... The Nobel Prize in literature is awarded annually to an author from any country who has produced the most outstanding work of an idealistic tendency. The work in this case generally refers to an authors work as a whole, not to any individual work, though individual works are sometimes... Pablo Neruda (July 12, 1904 – September 23, 1973) was the penname and, later, legal name of the Chilean writer and communist politician Ricardo Eliecer Neftalí Reyes Basoalto. ...


Tourism

Since the mid 1990s, tourism in Chile has become one of the main sources of revenue, especially in the most extreme zones of the country.[citation needed] In 2005, tourism grew by 13.6%, generating more than 1.5 billion dollars, equivalent to 1.33% of the national GDP.[citation needed] According to the National Service of Tourism (Sernatur), 2 million people a year go to Chile, which is still significantly small compared with the number of tourists who arrive at other countries in the region, like Mexico or Brazil. Most of these visitors come from other countries in the American continent, mainly Argentina; nevertheless, in the last few years there has been significant growth in the number of visitors from Europe, mainly from Spain, Germany and France, with numbers already approaching four hundred thousand annually.[citation needed] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1704 pixels, file size: 623 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This image was copied from wikipedia:de. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1704 pixels, file size: 623 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This image was copied from wikipedia:de. ... San Pedro de Atacama is a pre-Inca town in northern Chile, and a popular tourist destination. ... Tourist redirects here. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...

The main attractions for tourists are places of natural beauty situated in the extreme zones of the country: San Pedro de Atacama, in the north, is very popular with foreign tourists who arrive to admire the Incaic architecture and the altiplano lakes of the Valley of the Moon. In Putre, also in the North, there is the Chungará Lake, as well as the Parinacota and the Pomerape volcanoes, with altitudes of 6,348 m and 6,222 m, respectively. Throughout the central Andes there are many ski resorts of international repute, like Portillo and Valle Nevado. In the south, the main tourist sites are the Chiloé island, Patagonia, the San Rafael Lagoon, with its many glaciers, and the Towers of Paine national park. The central port city of Valparaíso, with its unique architecture, is also popular. Finally, Easter Island in the Pacific Ocean is probably the main Chilean tourist destination. Download high resolution version (750x1000, 131 KB)Moai at Rano Raraku taken during January 2004 File links The following pages link to this file: Moai Rano Raraku Around the World in 80 Treasures Categories: User-created public domain images | NowCommons ... Download high resolution version (750x1000, 131 KB)Moai at Rano Raraku taken during January 2004 File links The following pages link to this file: Moai Rano Raraku Around the World in 80 Treasures Categories: User-created public domain images | NowCommons ... Rapa Nui redirects here. ... San Pedro de Atacama is a pre-Inca town in northern Chile, and a popular tourist destination. ... Valle de la Luna may mean: Valle de la Luna (Argentina) Valle de la Luna (Bolivia) Valle de la Luna (Chile) Category: ... Putre is a city in northern Chile. ... Lake Chungará is situated in northern Chile, in Tarapacá Region. ... Parinacota is a massive stratovolcano on the border of Chile and Bolivia. ... Pomerape is a stratovolcano lying on the border of Chile and Bolivia. ... This article is about the mountain system in South America. ... Portillo may refer to: Alfonso Antonio Portillo Cabrera Alfonso Portillo Blanca Portillo - Spanish actress. ... Valle Nevado, Ski resort is located 46 kilometers west of Santiago, capital of Chile. ... Chiloé Island Location of Chiloé in Chile Chiloé Island (Spanish: Isla de Chiloé), also known as Great Island of Chiloé (Isla Grande de Chiloé), is an island off the Pacific coast of South America, part of Chile. ... Patagonia, as most commonly defined (in orange). ... San Rafael Lagoon is an arc-shaped coastal lake located in the Aysén Region of Chile, within the national park that bears its name. ... The Cordillera del Paine is a small but spectacular mountain group in Chilean Patagonia. ... For other places with the same name, see Valparaiso (disambiguation). ... Rapa Nui redirects here. ...

For locals, tourism is concentrated mostly in the summer (December to March), and mainly in the coastal beach towns. Arica, Iquique, Antofagasta, La Serena and Coquimbo are the main summer centres in the north, and Pucón on the shores of Lake Villarrica is the main one in the south. Due to its proximity to Santiago, the coast of the Valparaíso Region, with its many beach resorts, receives the largest amount of tourists. Viña del Mar, Valparaíso's northern affluent neighbor, is popular due to its beaches, casino, and its annual song festival, the most important musical event in Latin America. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Torres del Paine, Chile A view of the Torres del Paine National Park The three Towers of Paine (Spanish: Torres del Paine) in southern Chile are gigantic granite monoliths shaped by the forces of glacial ice. ... Morro de Arica Arica is a port city in northern Chile, located only 18 km (11 miles) south of the border with Peru. ... Walk Baquedano Iquique (IPA /ikike/) is a city in northern Chile, capital of Tarapacá Region, on the Pacific coast, just west of the Atacama Desert. ... For the copper-mining company named after the region, see Antofagasta plc. ... La Serena (the serene one) is the second oldest city in Chile. ... Aerial view Aerial view Coquimbo is the port city and capital of the Elqui Province in the Coquimbo Region of Chile. ... Volcano and Lake Villarrica. ... Lake Villarrica, also known as Mallolafquén (its pre-Hispanic name in Mapudungun), is located about 700 kilometers south of Santiago in Chile’s Lake District in the southeast area of the Province of Cautín. ... Valparaíso is Chiles fifth administrative region from north to south. ... Coast of Viña del Mar Cerro Castillo Viña del Mar (Spanish for Vineyard of the Sea), also known locally as La Ciudad Jardín (Spanish for The Garden City), is a thriving coastal city in central Chile, in the Valparaíso Region and province. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Opening at Viña del Mar International Festival. ...


In November 2005, the government launched a campaign under the brand "Chile: All Ways Surprising," intended to promote the country internationally for both business and tourism.[64]


Languages

Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...

Spanish

Main article: Chilean Spanish

The Spanish spoken in Chile is notoriously difficult for foreigners to understand due to the dropping of final syllables and 's' sounds, the very soft pronunciation of some consonants and the high levels of slang employed, particularly in Santiago and the surrounding areas. Books have been written (such as 'How to Survive in the Chilean Jungle' by John Brennan and Alvaro Taboada) which attempt to detail and explain the difficulties and idiosyncrasies of the Spanish spoken in Chile. Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...


English language learning and teaching is popular among students and higher professions, although with varying degrees of success. Even with intensive preparation, culture shock can take a real toll on communication; many words have been absorbed into everyday speech from English, although may be unrecognizable due to Non-native pronunciations of English and misuse. ESL redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Non-native pronunciations of English result from the common linguistic phenomenon in which non-native users of any language tend to carry the intonation, phonological processes, and pronunciation rules from their mother tongue into their English speech. ...


Indigenous languages

Main article: Languages of Chile

There are several indigenous languages spoken in Chile; Mapudungun, Quechua, Rapa Nui, Huilliche, Aimará, Kawésqar and Yámana. After the Spanish invasion, Spanish took over as the lingua franca and the indigenous languages have become minority languages, with some now extinct or close to extinction. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Mapudungun test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator Mapudungun (mapu means earth and dungun means to speak) is a language isolate spoken in central Chile and west central Argentina by the Mapuche (mapu is earth and che means people) people. ... Chilean Quechua is a Quechuan language spoken in northern Chile. ... Easter Island and its location Easter Island (Polynesian: Rapa Nui (Great Rapa), Spanish: Isla de Pascua) is an island in the south Pacific Ocean belonging to Chile. ... Huillice is an Araucanian language spoken in Chile. ... Kawésqar, also known as Qawasqar, Alacaluf, and Halakwulup, is a language isolate spoken in southern Chile. ... Yagán, also known as Yámana, Yaghan, and Háusi Kúta, is one of the indigenous languages of Tierra del Fuego, spoken by the Yagán people. ... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ...


National symbols

A red copihue.

The national flower is the copihue (Lapageria rosea, Chilean bellflower), which grows in the woods of southern Chile. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (616x816, 389 KB) Sumario Copihue (Lapageria rosea) Autor: Néstor Gallegos Reyes Licencia File links The following pages link to this file: Chile Copihue ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (616x816, 389 KB) Sumario Copihue (Lapageria rosea) Autor: Néstor Gallegos Reyes Licencia File links The following pages link to this file: Chile Copihue ... Binomial name Lapageria rosea Ruiz & Pav. ...


The coat of arms depicts the two national animals: the condor (Vultur gryphus, a very large bird that lives in the mountains) and the huemul (Hippocamelus bisulcus, an endangered white tail deer). It also has the legend Por la razón o la fuerza (By right or might or By reason or by force).
A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ... Genera Vultur Gymnogyps For other uses, see Condor (disambiguation). ... Species Hippocamelus bisulcus Molina, 1782 Hippocamelus antisensis |} The Huemul is an endangered mammal of the Cervidae family. ...


The flag of Chile consists of two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red; there is a blue square the same height as the white band at the hoist-side end of the white band; the square bears a white five-pointed star in the center representing a guide to progress and honor; blue symbolizes the sky, white is for the snow-covered Andes, and red stands for the blood spilled to achieve independence. This article is about the mountain system in South America. ...


Religion

Chile is a traditionally Catholic nation, with an estimated 70% of Chileans belonging to that church. According to census data other declared denominations or groupings include: Protestant or Evangelical (15.1%), Jehovah's Witnesses (1%), The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (0.9%), Jewish (0.1%), Atheist or Agnostic (8.3%), and other (4.4%). Less than 0.1% are either Orthodox or Muslim. (For the precise numbers of declared religions among the population ages 15 and over as indicated by the results of the latest census, see: 2002 Census data.)


The LDS web site reports that it has 543,628 members in Chile.[65] The LDS figures count everyone baptized, which includes children age eight or older as well as inactive members, whereas the 2002 census figures are based upon those aged 15 and over who identify themselves as Mormon. Use of the LDS figures, which represent 3.28% of the current total population, would make the LDS church the single largest non-Catholic denomination in Chile.


See also

This is a list of topics related to Chile. ... Chilean Antarctic Geopolitics Stamp is Scott Chile #248 Chile, the land of “crazy geography” has a strong tradition of geopolitical thinking, especially naval, which has emphasized the need to strengthen Chilean sovereignty in its claimed Antarctic sector as well as a number of islands. ... Telephones - main lines in use: 3,650,000 (2001) Telephones - mobile cellular: 8,900,000(2004) Telephone system: modern system based on extensive microwave radio relay facilities domestic: extensive microwave radio relay links; domestic satellite system with 3 earth stations international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) Radio broadcast... Elections in Chile gives information on election and election results in Chile. ... This article deals with education in Chile. ... // In colonial times, the segmentation of Chile into latifundios left only small parcels for native American and mestizo villagers to cultivate. ... Since its return to democracy in 1990, Chile has been an active participant in the international political arena. ... This is a list of national holidays in Chile. ... This is a list of Chilean companies by field of operation. ... This is a list of Chileans who are famous or notable. ... // Canal 13 TVN Mega Chilevisión RED TV UCV Televisión Telecanal Note: Some channels are from other countries. ... // Railways total: 6,782 km broad gauge: 3,743 km 1. ... The United States on several occasions sought to influence the policies or government of Chile. ... The Chilean Pharmaceutical Policy was an attempt in the 1960s and 70s to introduce a rational National pharmaceuticals policy. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Chile has a long history of wine making, going back to the conquistadores who brought grape vines with them in the mid 16th Century and planted vineyards. ... Natonal champions of 2006 In Chile the Rodeo is the second sport but practiced, after soccer. ... Links Asociación de Guías y Scouts de Chile Asociación de Guías y Scouts de Chile (spanish article) Categories: Stubs ... Water supply and sanitation in Chile is characterized by high levels of access and good service quality. ...

International rankings

Publisher Index Overall ranking Lat. Am. ranking Countries surveyed Top % Date
Freedom House Freedom in the World 2007 Free Free 193 January 2007
Heritage Foundation/The Wall Street Journal 2007 Index of Economic Freedom 11 1 157 7 January 2007
Fraser Institute Economic Freedom of the World - 2007 Annual Report 11 1 141 8 September 2007
Fund for Peace Failed States Index 2007 159 (18)[66] 20 (1)[66] 177 10 July 2007
Transparency International 2007 Corruption Perceptions Index 22 1 179 12 September 2007
The Economist The Global Peace Index, 2007 16 1 121 13 May 2007
World Health Organization The world health report 2000 - Health system performance (overall) 33 2 191 17 June 2000
The Economist The World in 2007 - Democracy index, 2006 30 3 167 18 November 2006
World Bank Doing Business - Ease of Doing Business, 2008 33 2[67] 178 19 September 2007
World Economic Forum The Global Competitiveness Report 2007-2008's Global Competitiveness Index 26 1 131 20 October 2007
AccountAbility Responsible Competitiveness Index 2007 24 1 108 22 July 2007
UNDP Human Development Report - Human Development Index 2007 40 2 177 23 November 2007
Reporters without borders Worldwide Press Freedom Index 2007 39 3 169 23 October 2007
World Economic Forum The Global Information Technology Report 2006-2007's Networked Readiness Index 31 1 122 25 March 2007
International Living Quality of Life Index 2007 49 9 193 25 January 2007
World Bank Where is the Wealth of Nations? (2005) - Total wealth per capita 32 4 118 27 September 2005
The Economist The World in 2005 - Worldwide quality-of-life index, 2005 31 1 111 28 November 2004
Unesco EFA Global Monitoring Report 2008 - EFA Development Index 37 3 129 29 November 2007
Yale University/Columbia University 2005 Environmental Sustainability Index 42 9 146 29 January 2005
Freedom House Freedom of the Press 2007 66 2 195 34 May 2007
FedEx The Power of Access - 2006 Access Index 32 1 75 43 May 2006
Brown University Seventh Annual Global e-Government Study (2007) 85 8 198 43 July 2007
IMD International World Competitiveness Yearbook 2007 26 1 55 47 May 2007
Economist Intelligence Unit/Business Software Alliance IT industry competitiveness index 2007 31 1 64 48 July 2007
World Economic Forum The Global Gender Gap Index 2007 86 16 128 67 November 2007
A.T. Kearney/Foreign Policy Magazine Globalization Index 2007 43 2 72 78 Nov./Dec. 2007

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Notes and references

  1. ^ Banknotes and Coins. Chilean Central Bank. Retrieved on 2007-11-11.
  2. ^ a b c d World Economic Outlook Database, October 2007. International Monetary Fund.
  3. ^ Encuesta Casen. Mideplan.
  4. ^ CIA - The World Factbook - Chile.
  5. ^ a b c Country profile: Chile.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x Background Note: Chile. United States Department of State, Bureau of Western Hemisphere Affairs, January 2008.
  7. ^ CIA - The World Factbook -- Chile.
  8. ^ The Global Competitiveness Report.
  9. ^ THE STATE OF RESPONSIBLE COMPETITIVENESS 2007.
  10. ^ COMPETITIVENESS IN PERSPECTIVE 1997-2007.
  11. ^ The means to compete. Benchmarking IT industry competitiveness. Economist Intelligence Unit.
  12. ^ The world’s best country.
  13. ^ Global Peace Index and Sustainability.
  14. ^ 2008 KOF Index of Globalization.
  15. ^ FREEDOM IN THE WORLD 2007.
  16. ^ Index of Economic Freedom 2008.
  17. ^ Economic Freedom of the World 2007 Annual Report.
  18. ^ 2007 Corruption Perceptions Index.
  19. ^ Rank Order - Unemployment rate.
  20. ^ Field Listing - Population below poverty line.
  21. ^ WORLDWIDE PRESS FREEDOM INDEX 2007.
  22. ^ Global Press Freedom 2007.
  23. ^ Human Development Report 2007/2008.
  24. ^ Economist Intelligence Unit democracy index 2006.
  25. ^ World Economic Outlook Database, October 2007.
  26. ^ Rank Order - GDP - per capita (PPP).
  27. ^ Encuesta Casen. Mideplan (2007).
  28. ^ a b Encina, Francisco A., and Leopoldo Castedo (1961). Resumen de la Historia de Chile. 4th ed. Santiago. Zig-Zag. 
  29. ^ a b c Hudson, Rex A., ed.. Chile: A Country Study. GPO for the Library of Congress. 1995. Retrieved on 2005-02-27.
  30. ^ Pearson, Neale J. (2004). "Chile". Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia. Scholastic Library Publishing. Retrieved on 2005-03-02. 
  31. ^ "Chile". Encyclopedia Americana. (2005). Grolier Online. Retrieved on March 2005. 
  32. ^ "Chile (república)". Enciclopedia Microsoft Encarta Online. (2005). Retrieved on 2005-02-26. 
  33. ^ "CHILE". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th edition). (1911). 
  34. ^ Documents reveal Us Funding for Chile coup. CNN (December 19, 2006).
  35. ^ Soto, Óscar. El Último dia de Salvador Allende. 
  36. ^ Ahumada, Eugeno. Chile: La memoria prohibida. 
  37. ^ September 11, 1973: the definitive coup.
  38. ^ Flashback: Caravan of Death. BBC News.
  39. ^ Man in the News: Patricio Aylwin; A Moderate Leads Chile. The New York Times.
  40. ^ Chile elects new leader Late president's son wins big.
  41. ^ Moderate socialist Lagos wins Chilean presidential election. CNN (January 16, 2000).
  42. ^ Chile elects first woman president. MSNBC.com.
  43. ^ Bachelet Sworn In As Chile's President. The Washington Post.
  44. ^ Chile scraps Pinochet-era system. BBC NEWS.
  45. ^ President Lagos: We can make a greater effort to make yesterday’s and today’s trials equally just. Chilean Government.
  46. ^ Organigrama. Gobierno de Chile.
  47. ^ Economic Department - Embassy of Chile in the United States of America
  48. ^ Chilean Central Bank
  49. ^ CASEN 2006 en profundidad. Libertad y Desarrollo (2007-06-22). Retrieved on 2007-10-22.
  50. ^ Una muy necesaria corrección: Hay cuatro millones de pobres en Chile. El Mercurio (2007-10-14). Retrieved on 2007-10-22.
  51. ^ Destitute no more. The Economist (2007-08-16). Retrieved on 2007-10-22.
  52. ^ "Human Development Report 2006," United Nations Development Programme, p. 335, November 9, 2006
  53. ^ [1]
  54. ^ "Chile: Proyecciones y Estimaciones de Población. Total País 1950- 2050" Instituto National de Estadísticas (INE)
  55. ^ a b "Elementos de Salud Pública" University of Chile, section 5.2.6
  56. ^ "DYS19 and DYS199 loci in a Chilean population of mixed ancestry" University of Chile
  57. ^ a b Chile. (2007). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved July 15, 2007, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online: http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-24684
  58. ^ "Censo 2002. Síntesis de Resultados," Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas
  59. ^ a b c d Doña, Cristián; Amanda Levinson. "Chile: Moving Towards a Migration Policy," Migration Information Source. February 2004
  60. ^ Nuestro País .: Universidad de Talca :
  61. ^ "People," Embassy of Chile in Australia. June 9, 2006
  62. ^ Chile :: The people - Britannica Online Encyclopedia
  63. ^ CEEOL Social Research - Journal for General Social Issues , Issue 6 /2006
  64. ^ ProChile
  65. ^ LDS membership statistics for Chile
  66. ^ a b Reversed ranking in parentheses
  67. ^ Second after Puerto Rico, which is not an independent country

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Department of State redirects here. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The United Nations Development Programe (UNDP), the United Nations global development network, is the largest multilateral source of development assistance in the world. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Universidad de Chile may refer to: Universidad de Chile (university) Universidad de Chile (football club) This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Universidad de Chile may refer to: Universidad de Chile (university) Universidad de Chile (football club) This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... is the 160th day of the year (161st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Bibliography

  • Bureau of Western Hemisphere Affairs, United States Department of State, August 2006
  • Library of Congress country profile
  • Encyclopaedia Britannica, Chile - Country Page
  • Chile entry at The World Factbook
  • Disputes between Chile and Argentine

Department of State redirects here. ...

External links

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Wikisource has original text related to this article:
CIA World Fact Book, 2004/Chile

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ...

Official resources

  • Gobierno - Government (English version)
    • Ministerio del Interior - Interior Ministry
    • Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores - Ministry of Foreign Affairs
    • Ministerio de Hacienda - Ministry of Finance (English version)
  • Congreso Nacional - National Congress
    • Senado - Senate
    • Cámara de Diputados - Chamber of Deputies
    • Biblioteca del Congreso Nacional - Library of National Congress
  • Poder Judicial - Judiciary
  • Banco Central - Central Bank (English version)
  • Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas (INE) - National Statistics Institute

General information

  • Atacama, Chile Web Site
  • Atacama Chile
  • Open Directory Project - Chile directory category
  • Chile travel guide from Wikitravel
  • Several links compiled by LANIC
  • Council of Hemispheric Affairs An independent source of Latin American News and Opinion
  • Congressional Research Service (CRS) Reports regarding Chile
  • Invest in Chile
  • Native flora species
  • Chile travel ideas
 Geographic locale
International membership


Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Headquarters Washington, D.C. Official languages English, French, Spanish, Portuguese Membership 35 countries Leaders  -  Secretary General José Miguel Insulza (since 26 May 2005) Establishment  -  Charter first signed 30 April 1948 in effect 1 December 1951  Website http://www. ... [--168. ... For other uses, see Saint Lucia (disambiguation). ... Motto Pax et justitia(Latin) Peace and justice Anthem St Vincent Land So Beautiful Capital (and largest city) Kingstown Official languages English Demonym Vincentian Government (constitutional monarchy)  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II  -  Governor-General Sir Frederick Ballantyne  -  Prime Minister Ralph Gonsalves Independence  -  27 October 1979  Area  -  Total 389 km² (201st) 150... Motto Country Above Self Anthem O Land of Beauty! Royal anthem God Save the Queen Capital (and largest city) Basseterre Official languages English Government  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II  -  Governor-General Sir Cuthbert Sebastian  -  Prime Minister Dr. Denzil Douglas Independence  -  19 September 1983  Area  -  Total 261 km² (207th) 101 sq mi... Download high resolution version (656x651, 77 KB)Image downloaded from the Organization of American States Photo Gallery, which states: All Photos for free distribution Photographs of official events are available through OAS website and can be used, free of charge, as long as the source is acknowledged. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Chile - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6464 words)
Chile's Constitution was approved in a highly irregular national plebiscite in September 1980, under the military government of Augusto Pinochet.
Chile is a strong proponent of pressing ahead on negotiations for a Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) and active in the WTO’s Doha round of negotiations, principally through its membership in the G-20 and Cairns Group.
Chile is a relatively homogenous country and most of its population is of mestizo descent, in varying degrees; the product of the racial mixture between colonial Spanish immigrants and the native Amerindian tribes.
Chile - MSN Encarta (907 words)
Chile is bounded on the north by Peru, on the east by Bolivia and Argentina, and on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean.
The dominant physical feature of Chile is the Andes Mountains, which extend the entire length of the country, from the Bolivian plateau in the north to the islands of Tierra del Fuego in the south.
Chile lies in a zone of geologic activity and is subject to earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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