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Encyclopedia > Children's literature
Jane Frank: illustration from Thomas Yoseloff's The Further Adventures of Till Eulenspiegel (1957). Fanciful illustrations are a prominent feature of children's books, especially those for younger children.
Jane Frank: illustration from Thomas Yoseloff's The Further Adventures of Till Eulenspiegel (1957). Fanciful illustrations are a prominent feature of children's books, especially those for younger children.

Children's literature is a literary genre whose primary audience is children, although many books within the genre are also enjoyed by adults. Look up Childrens Literature in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Jane_Frank_Eulenspiegel_Illustration. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Jane_Frank_Eulenspiegel_Illustration. ... The artist Jane Frank (or Jane Schenthal Frank) was born Jane Babette Schenthal on July 25,1918, in Baltimore, Maryland. ... Illustration by Jessie Willcox Smith. ...

Contents

Basic characteristics

There are some debate as to what constitutes children's literature. In general, the term comprises both those books which are selected and read by children themselves, as well as those vetted as 'appropriate for children' by authorities, e.g. teachers, reviewers, scholars, parents, publishers, librarians, bookstores, and award committees.


Some would have it that children's literature is literature written specially for children; however, many books that were originally intended for adults are now commonly thought of as works for children, such as Mark Twain's The Prince and the Pauper and the Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. The opposite has also been known to occur, where works of fiction originally written or marketed for children are given recognition as adult books; Philip Pullman's The Amber Spyglass, and Mark Haddon's The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-time, for example, both won Whitbread Awards, which are typically awarded to novels for adults. The Nobel prize for literature has also been given to authors who made great contributions to children's literature, such as Selma Lagerlöf and Isaac Bashevis Singer. Often no consensus is reached whether a given work is best categorized as adult or children's literature, and many books are multiply marketed in adult, children's, and young adult editions. Old book bindings at the Merton College library. ... Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910),[1] better known by the pen name Mark Twain, was an American humorist, satirist, lecturer and writer. ... The Prince and the Pauper was first published in 1881 in Canada before its 1882 publication in the united states. ... Mark Twain Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1885) by Mark Twain is commonly accounted as one of the first Great American Novels. ... For other uses, see Fiction (disambiguation). ... Philip Pullman CBE (born October 19, 1946) is an English writer. ... The Amber Spyglass is the third and final novel in the His Dark Materials series, written by British novelist Philip Pullman, and published in 2000. ... Mark Haddon Mark Haddon is a novelist and poet, best known for The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-time. ... The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-time is a novel by Mark Haddon that won the 2003 Whitbread Book of the Year and the 2004 Commonwealth Writers Prize for Best First Book. ... The Whitbread Book Awards are among the United Kingdoms most prestigious literary awards. ... The Nobel Prizes (Swedish: ), as designated in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, are awarded for physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, literature, and peace. ... Selma Lagerlöf, painted by Carl Larsson, 1908 Selma Lagerlöf receives the Nobel Prize in Literature The Swedish 20-krona bill, with Selma Lagerlöf   (November 20, 1858 – March 16, 1940) was a Swedish author and the first woman writer to win the Nobel Prize in Literature. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Young adult (YA) literature is literature written for, published for, or marketed to adolescents. ...


There are a number of problems inherent in children’s literature: For example


Much of what is commonly regarded as "classic" children's literature speaks on multiple levels, and as such is able to be enjoyed by both adults and children. For example, many people will reread Alice's Adventures in Wonderland or The Wind in the Willows as adults and appreciate aspects of each that they failed to notice when they read the books as children. Many critics regard such multiplicity as having drawbacks, however; an adult may see the darker themes of a book and deem it unsuitable for children, despite the fact that such themes will likely be lost on younger readers. “Alice in Wonderland” redirects here. ... Ratty and Mole, as interpreted by E. H. Shepard The Wind in the Willows is a classic of childrens literature written in 1908 by Kenneth Grahame. ...


One example of this is Mark Twain's Huckleberry Finn, throughout which the word "nigger" is used liberally. Many people feel that the word's racist and discriminatory connotations make it unacceptable to use anywhere, and particularly in a book aimed at children. Others, however, claim that to call the book racist because of this usage is to miss its point; Huckleberry Finn was after all one of the first American books in which a black character is portrayed as someone to be emulated, in this case serving as the voice of reason for a cast-off urchin and a middle class white boy. Peter Hollindale, the educationalist and literary critic, applauded the book for being one of the greatest anti-racist texts of all time" [1] and T S Eliot called it a "masterpiece" [2]. Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910),[1] better known by the pen name Mark Twain, was an American humorist, satirist, lecturer and writer. ... Mark Twain Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1885) by Mark Twain is commonly accounted as one of the first Great American Novels. ... // Nigger is a racial slur used to refer to dark-skinned people, especially those of African ancestry. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Thomas Stearns Eliot (September 26, 1888 - January 4, 1965), was a major Modernist Anglo-American poet, dramatist, and literary critic. ...


Parents wishing to protect their children from the unhappier aspects of life often find the traditional fairy tales, nursery rhymes and other voyages of discovery problematical, because often the first thing a story does is remove the adult influence, leaving the central character to learn to cope on his or her own: prominent examples of this include Snow White, Hansel and Gretel, Bambi and A Series of Unfortunate Events. Many regard this as necessary to the story; after all, in most cases the whole point of the story is the characters' transition into adulthood. A fairy tale is a story, either told to children or as if told to children, concerning the adventures of mythical characters such as fairies, goblins, elves, trolls, giants, and others. ... A nursery rhyme is a traditional song or poem taught to young children, originally in the nursery. ... This article is about the Snow White character. ... Artwork by Arthur Rackham, 1909. ... Bambi is a 1942 animated feature produced by Walt Disney and originally released to theatres by RKO Radio Pictures on August 13, 1942. ... This article is about the book series. ...


Many authors specialize in books for children. Other authors are more known for their writing for adults, but have also written books for children, such as Alexey Tolstoy's The Adventures of Burratino, and Carl Sandburg's "Rootabaga Stories". In some cases, books intended for adults, such as Swift's Gulliver's Travels have been edited (or bowdlerized) somewhat, to make them more appropriate for children. This is a list of important childrens literature authors and their most famous works. ... Aleksei Nikolaevich Tolstoi (Russian: Алексей Николаевич Толстой) (January 10, 1883 (December 29, 1882 (O.S.)) - February 23, 1945), nicknamed the Comrade Count, was a Soviet Russian writer who wrote in many genres but specialized in science fiction and historical novels. ... For the passenger train service, see Carl Sandburg (Amtrak). ... Jonathan Swift Jonathan Swift (November 30, 1667 – October 19, 1745) was an Irish cleric, satirist, essayist, political pamphleteer (first for Whigs then for Tories), and poet, famous for works like Gullivers Travels, A Modest Proposal, A Journal to Stella, The Drapiers Letters, The Battle of the Books, and... First Edition of Gullivers Travels Gullivers Travels (1726, amended 1735), officially Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World, in Four Parts. ... Thomas Bowdler (July 11, 1754 – February 24, 1825), an English physician, who published The Family Shakespeare, is best known as the source of the eponym bowdlerize (or bowdlerise[1]), the process of expurgation, censorship by removal, of material thought to be unacceptable to the intended audience, especially children or religious...


Another type of children's literature is work written by children, such as The Young Visiters by Daisy Ashford (aged 9) or the juvenilia of Jane Austen, written to amuse her brothers and sisters. Daisy Ashford (1881-1972) was an English writer who is most famous for writing The Young Visiters, a novella that parodies upper class society of late 19th century England, when she was just nine years old. ... Juvenilia is an EP released by Liz Phair. ... 1873 engraving of Jane Austen, based on a portrait drawn by her sister Cassandra. ...


An attempt to identify the characteristics shared by works called 'children's literature' leads to some good general guidelines that are generally accepted by experts in the field. No one rule is perfect, however, and for every identifying feature there are many exceptions, as well as many adult books that share the characteristic. (For further discussion, see Hunt 1991: 42-64, Lesnik-Oberstein 1996, Huck 2001: 4-5.)


Publishers have attempted to further break down children's literature into subdivisions appropriate for different ages. In the United States, current practice within the field of children's books publishing is to break children's literature into pre-readers, early readers, chapter books, and young adults. This is roughly equivalent to the age groups 0-5, 5-7, 7-11 (sometimes broken down further into 7-9 and pre-teens), and books for teenagers. However, the criteria for these divisions are just as vague and problematic as the criteria for defining children's books as a whole. One obvious distinction is that books for younger children tend to contain illustrations, but picture books which feature art as an integral part of the overall work also cross all genres and age levels (as can be seen with the Caldecott Honor Book Tibet: Through the Red Box, by Peter Sis, which has an adult implied reader). As a general rule the implied reader of a children's or young adult book is 1-3 years younger than the protagonist. (counter example: Orson Scott Card's Ender's Game, not necessarily written for children, but co-opted by a child and young adult audience) Young adult (YA) literature is literature written for, published for, or marketed to adolescents. ... Picture Book was a BBC TV series that first appeared in 1955. ... The Caldecott Medal was designed by Rene Paul Chambellan in 1937. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... Enders Game (1985) is the best-known novel by Orson Scott Card. ...


Authors and artists

Children's books are often illustrated, sometimes lavishly, in a way that is rarely used for adult literature. As a rule of thumb, the younger the intended reader (or commonly pre-literate children), the more attention is paid to the artwork. Many authors work with a preferred artist who illustrates their words; others create books together, achieving "a marriage of words and pictures."


Many authors and illustrators belong to the Society of Children's Book Writers and Illustrators (SCBWI). The Society of Children’s Book Writers and Illustrators (SCBWI) [1]is an international organization based in Los Angeles, California that was founded by Stephen Mooser in 1971 to represent writers for children. ...


Popular contributions to children's literature

In chronological order -

Lewis Carroll (1832–1898), real name Charles Lutwidge Dodgson: English clergyman and children's author, world-famous for Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking-Glass. He also wrote other books, such as the long poem The Hunting of the Snark. Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (Lewis Carroll) Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (IPA: ) (January 27, 1832 – January 14, 1898), better known by the pen name Lewis Carroll, was an English author, mathematician, logician, Anglican clergyman and photographer. ... The Church of England logo since 1998 The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... see also Holy Orders The following terms have traditional meanings for the Anglican Church, and possibly beyond: A churchman is in principle a member of a church congregation, in practice someone in holy orders. ... “Alice in Wonderland” redirects here. ... Through the Looking-Glass, and What Alice Found There (1871) is a work of childrens literature by Lewis Carroll (Charles Lutwidge Dodgson), generally categorized as literary nonsense. ... The Bellman supporting the Banker by a finger entwined in his hair The Hunting of the Snark (An Agony in 8 Fits) is a nonsense poem written by Lewis Carroll (Charles Lutwidge Dodgson) in 1874, when he was 42 years old. ...


Beatrix Potter (1866–1943): British author of The Tale of Peter Rabbit who used her love of nature and the English Lake District countryside to give life to her anthropomorphic animals in her series of 23 little Tales. Helen Beatrix Potter (28 July 1866 – 22 December 1943) was an English author and illustrator, botanist, and conservationist, best known for her childrens books, which featured animal characters such as Peter Rabbit. ... The Tale of Peter Rabbit is the first of many childrens tales written and illustrated by Beatrix Potter and which is perhaps her best-known work. ...


Arthur Ransome (1884–1967): a British author whose Swallows and Amazons series of children's books tell of adventures in the Lake District, the Norfolk Broads and at sea, sailing, fishing and camping. The books still fuel a tourist industry in the English Lake District. Swallows and Amazons was followed by Swallowdale, Peter Duck, Winter Holiday, Coot Club, Pigeon Post, We Didn't Mean To Go To Sea, Secret Water, The Big Six, Missee Lee, The Picts And The Martyrs, and Great Northern?. Cover of Arthur Ransomes autobiography Arthur Mitchell Ransome (January 18, 1884 – June 3, 1967), was a British author and journalist, best known for writing the Swallows and Amazons series of childrens books, which tell of school-holiday adventures of children, mostly in the Lake District and the Norfolk... The panorama across Eskdale from Ill Crag. ... The Norfolk Broads are the northern part of The Broads National Park. ... For either of the songs named Sailing, see Sailing (song). ... Fishing is the activity of hunting for fish by hooking, trapping, or gathering. ... Car camping is camping in a tent, but nearby the car for easier access and for supply storage. ... Swallows and Amazons is the first book in the Swallows and Amazons series by Arthur Ransome and was published in 1930. ... Swallowdale is the second book in the Swallows and Amazons series by Arthur Ransome. ... Peter Duck is a metafictional book in the Swallows and Amazons series by Arthur Ransome. ... Winter Holiday is the fourth novel of Arthur Ransomes Swallows and Amazons series of childrens books. ... Coot Club is the fifth book of Arthur Ransomes Swallows and Amazons series of childrens books, published in 1934. ... Pigeons with messages attached. ... Typical cover art depicting a montage of Arthur Ransomes own illustrations from the book We Didnt Mean To Go To Sea is the seventh book in Arthur Ransomes Swallows and Amazons series of childrens books. ... Secret Water is the eighth book in Arthur Ransomes Swallows and Amazons series of childrens books. ... For other usages of the term Big Six, see Big Six. ... Missee Lee is the tenth book of Arthur Ransomes Swallows and Amazons series of childrens books, published in 1941. ... The Picts and the Martyrs is the eleventh book in Arthur Ransomes Swallows and Amazons series of childrens books. ... Great Northern? is the twelfth and final completed book of Arthur Ransomes Swallows and Amazons series of childrens books. ...


Enid Blyton (1897–1968): British author of such children's books as The Famous Five, The Secret Seven and The Magic Faraway Tree. She is claimed to be the best-selling author in the history of children's literature. Her books have been translated into ninety different languages and have sold over 400 million copies. Enid Mary Blyton (August 11, 1897–November 28, 1968) was a popular English childrens writer. ... The Famous Five can refer to: A group of Canadian women; see The Valiant Five. ... The Secret Seven are a group of child detectives created by Enid Blyton, one of several such detective series written by Blyton. ... The Faraway Tree series is a popular series of childrens books written by Enid Blyton. ...


C.S. Lewis (1898–1963): 95 million copies of his Chronicles of Narnia series have been published worldwide since The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe debuted in 1950. Clive Staples Lewis (November 29, 1898 – November 22, 1963), commonly referred to as C. S. Lewis, was an author and scholar. ... The Chronicles of Narnia is a series of seven fantasy novels for children written by C. S. Lewis. ... This article is about the novel. ...


E.B. White (1899–1985): American author whose three children's stories, Charlotte's Web, Stuart Little, and The Trumpet of the Swan, have been considered some of the most influential of the twentieth century. Elwyn Brooks White (July 11, 1899–October 1, 1985) was an American essayist, author, and noted prose stylist. ... This article is about the book. ... This article is about the book. ... The Trumpet of the Swan is a childrens novel by E.B. White published in 1970. ...


Antoine de Saint Exupéry (1900–1944): a French writer and aviator whose books include The Little Prince. He disappeared during the Second World War while flying over German lines. Antoine de Saint Exupéry[1] (pronounced ) (June 29, 1900 – presumably July 31, 1944) was a French writer and aviator. ... A writer is anyone who creates a written work, although the word more usually designates those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ... For other uses, see Aviator (disambiguation). ... The Little Prince (French: Le petit prince), published in 1943, is French aviator Antoine de Saint-Exupérys most famous novel, which he wrote in the United States while renting The Bevin House in Asharoken, New York, on Long Island. ... “Missing persons” redirects here. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ...


Dr. Seuss (1904–1991): American author who revolutionised beginning reading primers with The Cat in the Hat, featuring rhymed nonsense stories. Seuss also wrote Green Eggs and Ham, How the Grinch Stole Christmas and One Fish Two Fish Red Fish Blue Fish. Theodor Seuss Geisel (March 2, 1904 – September 24, 1991) was an American writer and cartoonist best known for his classic childrens books under the pen name Dr. Seuss, including The Cat in the Hat, Green Eggs and Ham, How the Grinch Stole Christmas and One Fish Two Fish Red... The Cat In The Hat is a childrens book by Dr. Seuss. ... Books cover Green Eggs and Ham is a best-selling and critically acclaimed book by Dr. Seuss, first published in 1960. ... How the Grinch Stole Christmas! is one of the best-known childrens books by Dr. Seuss. ... One Fish Two Fish Red Fish Blue Fish is a 1960 childrens book by Dr. Seuss. ...


Hergé (1907–1983): was Georges Prosper Remi, a Belgian children's author and illustrator who created the picture-book series The Adventures of Tintin. The best-known titles include King Ottokar's Sceptre, The Secret of the Unicorn, Prisoners of the Sun, and The Calculus Affair. Georges Prosper Remi (May 22, 1907 – March 3, 1983), better known by the pen name Hergé, was a Belgian comics writer and artist. ... The Adventures of Tintin (French: ) is a series of Belgian comic books created by Belgian artist Hergé, the pen name of Georges Remi (1907–1983). ... King Ottokars Sceptre (Le Sceptre dOttokar) is one of The Adventures of Tintin, a series of classic comic-strip albums, written and illustrated by Belgian writer and illustrator Hergé, featuring the young reporter Tintin. ... The Secret of the Unicorn (originally Le Secret de la Licorne) is one of a series of classic comic-strip albums, written and illustrated by Belgian writer and illustrator Hergé, featuring young reporter Tintin as a hero. ... Prisoners of the Sun. ... The Calculus Affair (LAffaire Tournesol) is the eighteenth of The Adventures of Tintin, a series of classic comic-strip albums, written and illustrated by Belgian writer and illustrator Hergé, featuring young reporter Tintin as a hero. ...


Astrid Lindgren (1907–2002): Swedish children's book author, whose many titles, including the Pippi Longstocking books, were translated into 85 languages and published in more than 100 countries. Astrid Anna Emilia Lindgren ( , née Ericsson, November 14, 1907 – January 28, 2002) was a Swedish childrens book author, whose many titles were translated into 85 languages and published in more than 100 countries. ... Pippi Longstocking (Swedish Pippi LÃ¥ngstrump) is a fictional character in a series of childrens books created by author Astrid Lindgren. ...


Roald Dahl (1916–1990): British author (of Norwegian origins) of The BFG, Matilda, Charlie and the Chocolate Factory and Fantastic Mr. Fox. His books have won notable awards such as the Children's Book Award for Matilda and The BFG. His books have sold over 90 million copies to date, including 1 million books sold annually in the UK. [3] Roald Dahl (IPA: ) (13 September 1916 – 23 November 1990) was a Welsh novelist, short story author and screenwriter of Norwegian parentage, famous as a writer for both children and adults. ... Image:BfgCover. ... For other uses, see Matilda. ... For other uses, see Charlie and the Chocolate Factory (disambiguation). ... Fantastic Mr Fox book cover by Quentin Blake Fantastic Mr. ...


Beverly Cleary (born 1916): American author, has over thirty books published in fourteen languages. Her best known characters include Henry Huggins, Ribsy, Beatrice (Beezus) and her sister Ramona Quimby, and Ralph S. Mouse. Beverly Cleary (born April 12, 1916) is the author of over 30 books for young adults and children. ... Henry Huggins is a character appearing in a series of juvenile fiction novels by Beverly Cleary. ... Ribsy is a childrens book by Beverly Cleary. ... Beatrice Beezus Quimby is a character from the Henry Huggins and Ramona series of books by Beverly Cleary. ... Ramona is the central character in a popular series of childrens books by Beverly Cleary. ... book cover Ralph S. Mouse is a character appearing in three juvenile fiction novels by Beverly Cleary. ...


Jane Yolen (born 1939): A respected and well-known American author, Jane Yolen is one of the most prolific children's writers today. Her books are frequently translated and have won many awards. Jane Yolens Wizards Hall Jane Yolen (born February 11, 1939 in New York City) is an American author and editor of almost 300 books. ...


Jacqueline Wilson (born 1945): author of the much-loved Tracy Beaker series, Jacqueline Wilson is one of the best-known children's authors in the UK. In 2004 she replaced Catherine Cookson as the most borrowed author in Britain's libraries, a position she retained the following year. Her books have won a range of prestigious awards and nearly 20 million copies have been sold. Jacqueline Jackie Wilson OBE (born 17 December 1945) is a British author of childrens books. ... The Story of Tracy Beaker is a novel about a child in care by Jacqueline Wilson. ... Dame Catherine Ann Cookson DBE (27 June 1906 – 11 June 1998) was an English author. ...


Rene Villanueva (born 1954): award-winning Filipino writer, who has written books and plays for children. He is the only Philippine nominee to the Hans Christian Andersen Award. Rene O. Villanueva is more known in the literary world for his plays, which more often than not won first prizes in literature. ... The Hans Christian Andersen Award, sometimes known as the Little Nobel Prize, is an international award given bianually by the International Board on Books for Young People (IBBY) in recognition of a lasting contribution to childrens literature. There are two categories of award winners: authors, and illustrators. ...


J.K. Rowling (born 1965): British author, J.K. Rowling is probably the best-known children's author today and also the most successful. Being the author of the extremely successful Harry Potter series, her books have been sold in more than 300 million copies worldwide and are translated into more than 63 languages. She is also the first billionaire-author. Joanne Rowling OBE (born July 31, 1965 in Chipping Sodbury, South Gloucestershire), commonly known as J.K. Rowling (pronunciation: roll-ing; her former students used to joke with her name calling her the Rolling Stone), is a British fiction writer. ... This article is about the Harry Potter series of novels. ...


Eoin Colfer (born 1965): Irish author renowned worldwide for the New York Times Best Selling series Artemis Fowl. Also famous for the books The Wish List, The Supernaturalist and the Legend of...series. Eoin Colfer (pronounced Owen, IPA: )(born May 14, 1965) is an Irish author. ... The New York Times Best Seller List is a weekly chart in The New York Times newspaper that keeps track of the best-selling books of the week. ... Artemis Fowl is a series of fantasy novels written by Irish author Eoin Colfer. ... The Wish List is a book written by Eoin Colfer. ... ‘The Supernaturalist’, by Eoin Colfer (author of the ‘Artemis Fowl’ series) is a children’s science-fiction novel (influenced in many ways by film noir and other predecessors of the cyberpunk science fiction movement, resulting in what could be termed a children’s cyberpunk novel). ...


Lemony Snicket(born 1970): American author whose real name is Daniel Handler author of A Series of Unfortunate Events, a popular children's series. Lemony Snicket is a pseudonym used by author Daniel Handler in his book series A Series of Unfortunate Events, as well as a character in that series. ... Daniel Handler (born February 28, 1970), is an American author, screenwriter, and accordionist. ... This article is about the book series. ...


History

Because of the difficulty in defining children's literature, it is also difficult to trace its history to a precise starting point. In 1658 Jan Ámos Komenský published the illustrated informational book Orbis Pictus; it's considered to be the first picture book published specifically for children. John Newbery's 1744 publication of A Little Pretty Pocket-Book, sold with a ball for boys or a pincushion for girls, is considered a landmark for the beginning of pleasure reading marketed specifically to children. As far as folktales are concerned the Brothers Grimm; Jakob and Wilhem of the early nineteenth century were responsible for the writing down and preserving of the oral tradition. Previous to Newbery, literature marketed for children was intended to instruct the young, though there was a rich oral tradition of storytelling for children and adults; and many tales later considered to be inappropriate for children, such as the fairy tales of Charles Perrault, may have been considered family fare. Additionally, some literature not written with children in mind was given to children by adults. Among the earliest examples found in English of this co-opted adult fiction are Thomas Malory's Morte d'Arthur and the Robin Hood tales. Portrait of Comenius by Rembrandt John Amos Comenius (Czech: ; German: ; Polish: ; latinized: Iohannes Amos Comenius) (March 28, 1592 – November 15, 1670) was a Czech teacher, scientist, educator, and writer. ... Orbis Pictus, or Orbis Sensualium Pictus (The Visible World in Pictures) is a textbook for children written by Czech educator Jan Ámos Komenský. It is something of a childrens encyclopedia and is considered to be the first picture book intended for children. ... John Newbery (baptized 9 July 1713 – 22 December 1767) was an English publisher of books who specialized in childrens literature. ... For information about the other uses of the name, see Brothers Grimm (disambiguation). ... Oral tradition or oral culture is a way of transmitting history, literature or law from one generation to the next in a civilization without a writing system. ... For the 2001 film, see Storytelling (film) Storytelling is the ancient art of conveying events in words, images, and sounds. ... A fairy tale is a story, either told to children or as if told to children, concerning the adventures of mythical characters such as fairies, goblins, elves, trolls, giants, and others. ... Charles Perrault, 1665 Charles Perrault (January 6, 1628 – May 16, 1703) was a French author who laid foundations for a new literary genre, the fairy tale, and whose best known tales include Le Petit Chaperon rouge (Little Red Riding Hood), La Belle au bois dormant (Sleeping Beauty), Le Chat bott... Sir Thomas Malory (c. ... Le Morte dArthur (The Death of Arthur)—the title is actually spelled as Le Morte Darthur in the first printing and also in some modern editions—is Sir Thomas Malorys compilation of some French and English Arthurian romances. ... For other uses, see Robin Hood (disambiguation). ...


See also Children's Literature Timeline and Children's Literature Canon. Timeline of Turning Points in Childrens Literature Fairy tale collections are one of the earliest forms of published fiction that have never lost their charm for children, though several of the classic tales are gruesome and were not originally collected for children. ... As with adult literature, the validity of defining a canon of worthy or renowned works in childrens literature is hotly debated. ...


Series and genres

The success of a book for children often prompts the author to continue the story in a sequel, or even to launch into an entire series of books. Some works are originally conceived as series: J. K. Rowling has always stated in interviews that her original plan was to write no fewer than seven books about Harry Potter, and some authors, such as the prolific Enid Blyton and R. L. Stine, seem incapable of writing a stand-alone book. In several cases, series have outlived their authors, whether publishers openly hired new authors to continue after the death of the original creator of the series (such was the case when Reilly and Lee hired Ruth Plumly Thompson to continue The Oz series after L. Frank Baum's death), or whether the pen name of the original author was retained as a brand-nom-de-plume for the series (as with Franklin W. Dixon and the Hardy Boys series, Harry G. Allard's Miss Nelson series, Carolyn Keene and the Nancy Drew series, and V. C. Andrews and the Flowers in the Attic series). Sequels and series are of course also popular in adult writing, where they are most common in genre novels such as crime fiction, thrillers, and so on. Genres in children's literature include pony stories (e.g. the Pullein-Thompson sisters and Pat Smythe) and school stories (e.g. Rudyard Kipling's Stalky and Co. and Angela Brazil's oeuvre). More genres would include modern fantasy, contemporary realistic fiction, historical fiction, picture books, picture story books and traditional literature. However, each genre has many sub-genres as well. For example tradtional literature includes folktales, fables, myths and legends. Genres can also be classified by two organizational methods which are length and complexity as well as content. Joanne Jo Murray, née Rowling OBE (born 31 July 1965),[1] who writes under the pen name J. K. Rowling,[2] is an English writer and author of the Harry Potter fantasy series. ... Harry James Potter is a fictional character and the main protagonist of J. K. Rowlings Harry Potter series of fantasy books. ... Enid Mary Blyton (August 11, 1897–November 28, 1968) was a popular English childrens writer. ... Robert Lawrence Stine (born October 8, 1943), known as R. L. Stine and Jovial Bob Stine, is an American novelist and writer, well known for targeting younger audiences. ... The Reilly and Britton Company, or Reilly & Britton (after 1919, Reilly & Lee) was an American publishing company of the early and middle 20th century, famous as the publisher of the works of L. Frank Baum. ... Ruth Plumly Thompson (1891-1976) was an American writer of childrens stories. ... The Oz books form a book series that begins with The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, and that relates the history of the Land of Oz. ... Lyman Frank Baum (May 15, 1856 – May 6, 1919) was an American author, actor, and independent filmmaker best known as the creator, along with illustrator W. W. Denslow, of one of the most popular books ever written in American childrens literature, The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, better known today... Franklin W. Dixon is the pen name used by a variety of different authors who wrote The Hardy Boys novels for the Stratemeyer Syndicate. ... The Hardy Boys is a popular series of detective/adventure books for boys chronicling the fictional adventures of teenage brothers Frank and Joe Hardy. ... Carolyn Keene is the pseudonym of the authors of the Nancy Drew mystery series, and also The Dana Girls mystery series, both published by the Stratemeyer Syndicate. ... For the film, see Nancy Drew (2007 film). ... Cleo Virginia Andrews (6 June 1923 – 19 December 1986), better known as or is an American author. ... This article is about the novel Flowers in the Attic. ... A genre [], (French: kind or sort from Greek: γένος (genos)) is a loose set of criteria for a category of literary composition; the term is also used for any other form of art or utterance. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with mystery_fiction. ... The thriller is a genre of fiction in which tough, resourceful, but essentially ordinary heroes are pitted against villains determined to destroy them, their country, or the stability of the free world. ... The Pullein-Thompson sisters - Josephine Pullein-Thompson (1924-), Diana Pullein-Thompson (1925-) and Christine Pullein-Thompson (1925-2005) - are British writers who have written innumerable horse and pony books (mostly fictional) aimed at children, but mostly popular with girls. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The school story is a genre of fiction, basic to much of the childrens literature of the twentieth century. ... This article is about the British author. ... Angela Brazil, (pronounced brazzle), (November 30, 1868 - March 13, 1947), was the first of the British writers of modern School Girls Stories genre - written from the characters point of view. ...


Scholarship

In recent years, scholarship in children's literature has gained in respectability. There are an increasing number of literary criticism analyses in the field of children's literature criticism. Additionally, there are a number of scholarly associations in the field, including the Children's Literature Association, the International Research Society for Children's Literature, the Library Association Youth Libraries Group, the Society of Children's Book Writers and Illustrators the Irish Society for the Study of Children's Literature, and Centre for International Research in Childhood: Literature, Culture, Media (CIRCL), and National Centre for Research in Children's Literature. Literary criticism is the study, discussion, evaluation, and interpretation of literature. ... Childrens literature criticism comprises both generalist discussions of the relationship between childrens literature and literary theory as well as an literary analysis of a specific work or works of childrens literature. ...


Popular Attention

In addition to formal scholarship, other forms of cultural focus have been turned on children's literature. For example, some museums and galleries now host exhibitions on the subject. Seven Stories is a centre for children's literature, for the public, rather than for scholars. There are also podcasts on Children's literature including Just One More Book!!, Storynory, Childrensbookradio and Swimming In Literary Soup which feature book reviews and interviews with authors, illustrators, editors, publishers, librarians and teachers. Seven Stories is the only centre for childrens literature in the United Kingdom and is based in the Ouseburn Valley, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, close to the citys newly regenerated quayside. ...


Quotes about children and children's books

"Good children's literature appeals not only to the child in the adult, but to the adult in the child."-Anonymous


"Every book is a children's book if the kid can read."--Mitch Hedberg from the album Mitch All Together. Mitchell Lee Hedberg (February 24, 1968 – March 29, 2005) was an American stand-up comedian known for his surreal humour and unconventional comedic delivery. ... Mitch All Together is stand-up comedian Mitch Hedbergs second and final comedy album before his death in 2005. ...


"Fairy tales are more than true: not because they tell us that dragons exist, but because they tell us that dragons can be beaten." ~G.K. Chesterton


"The destiny of the world is determined less by the battles that are lost and won, than by the stories it loves and believes in." ~Harold Goddard, The Meaning of Shakespeare


"There is no substitute for books in the life of a child."-Mary Ellen Chase


"There have been great societies that did not use the wheel, but there have been no societies that did not tell stories." ~Ursula K. LeGuin


"The tale is often wiser than the teller." ~Susan Fletcher, Shadow Spinner


"Children are made readers on the laps of their parents."-Emilie Buchwald


"In our time, when the literature for adults is deteriorating, good books for children are the only hope, the only refuge." ~Isaac Bashevis Singer


"In every generation, children's books mirror the society from which they arise; children always get the books their parents deserve." ~Leonard S. Marcus


"The humble little school library...was a ramp to everything in the world and beyond, everything that could be dreamed and imagined, everything that could be known, everything that could be hoped."-Lee Sherman editor of Northwest Education


"Adults are only obsolete children." ~Dr. Seuss


"When it comes to telling children stories, they don’t need simple language. They need beautiful language." -Philip Pullman


"We don't need lists of rights and wrongs, tables of do's and don'ts: we need books, time, and silence. 'Thou shalt not' is soon forgotten, but 'Once upon a time' lasts forever."-Philip Pullman


"Children also hate being talked-down to but, alas, they are very used to being patronised."-Dianna Wynne-Jones


"We must meet children as equals in that area of our nature where we are their equals...The child as reader is neither to be patronized nor idolized: we talk to him as man to man."-C.S. Lewis


"We need metaphors of magic and monsters in order to understand the human condition."-Stephen Donaldson


"I doubt the imagination can be suppressed. If you truly eradicated it in a child, that child would grow up to be an eggplant."-Ursula K. LeGuin


"Imagination has brought mankind through the Dark Ages to its present state of civilization. Imagination led Columbus to discover America. Imagination led Franklin to discover electricity. Imagination has given us the steam engine, the telephone, the talking-machine, and the automobile, for these things had to be dreamed of before they became realities. So I believe that dreams--daydreams, you know, with your eyes wide open and your brain machinery whizzing--are likely to lead to the betterment of the world. The imaginative child will become the imaginative man or woman most apt to invent, and therefore to foster, civilization."-L. Frank Baum


"Sometimes we think we should be able to know everything. But we can't. We have to allow ourselves to see what there is to see, and we have to imagine."-David Almond


"The worst attitude of all would be the professional attitude which regards children in the lump as a sort of raw material which we have to handle."- C.S. Lewis


"A writer is a person who cares what words mean, what they say, how they say it. Writers know words are their way towards truth and freedom, and so they use them with care, with thought, with fear, with delight. By using words well they strengthen their souls. Story-tellers and poets spend their lives learning that skill and art of using words well. And their words make the souls of their readers stronger, brighter, deeper."-Ursula K. LeGuin


"I write in a very laborious kind of a way. I write and rewrite. And rewrite. And rewrite. Well, the thing of course is if you're doing it well, when you finish your 30th rewrite, or something, it should sound like you've just written it completely, freshly once. Because sometimes what happens when you write and rewrite and rewrite, is you suck the life out of something. It's difficult. But I find that I do that because it's amazing -- the rhythm of the book, or what I call the music of the book -- how you read it. How you're carried along by the words and the subject -- is as important as the meaning. In fact, you can't have one without the other. "-Norton Juster


"It's never perfect when I write it down the first time, or the second time, or the fifth time. But it always gets better as I go over it and over it."-Jane Yolen


"I love revision. Where else can spilled milk be turned into ice cream?"-Katherine Patterson


"You must write for children the same way you write for adults, only better." - Maxim Gorky


"I believe that good questions are more important than answers, and the best children's books ask questions, and make the readers ask questions. And every new question is going to disturb someone's universe." - Madeleine L'Engle


"You have to write whichever book it is that wants to be written. And then, if it's going to be too difficult for grown-ups, you write it for children."- Madeleine L'Engle


"Above all, watch with glittering eyes the whole world around you because the greatest secrets are always hidden in the most unlikely places. Those who don't believe in magic will never find it."-Roald Dahl


"A writer who waits for ideal conditions under which to work will die without putting a word to paper." -E.B. White


"Words must be weighed, not counted."-Polish/Yiddish proverb


"Never mistake motion for action."-Ernest Hemingway


"Writing is long periods of thinking and short periods of writing."-Ernest Hemingway


"It is not enough to simply teach children to read; we have to give them something worth reading. Something that will stretch their imaginations-something that will help them make sense of their own lives and encourage them to reach out toward people whose lives are quite different from their own."-Katherine Patterson


"Happy is he who has laid up in his youth and held fast in all fortune, a genuine and passionate love of reading."-Rufus Choate


Awards

Some noted awards for children's literature are: Look up Award in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

  • Canada: the Governor General's Award for Children's Literature and Illustration (English and French). A number of the provinces' school boards and library associations also run popular "children's choice" awards where candidate books are read and championed by individual schools and classrooms. These include the Silver Birch (grades 4-6) and the Red Maple (grades 7-8) in Ontario.
  • The Philippines: The Carlos Palanca Memorial Award Medallion for Literature for Short Story for Children in English and Filipino Language (Maikling Kathang Pambata)since 1989. The Pilar Perez Medallion for Young Adult Literature (2001 and 2002). The major awards are given by the Philippine Board on Books for Young People. They include the PBBY-Salanga Writer's Prize for excellence in writing and the PBBY-Alcala Illustrator's Prize for excellence in illustration. The Ceres Alabado Award for Outstanding Contribution in Children's Literature; the Gintong Aklat Award (Golden Book Award); The Gawad Komisyon para sa Kuwentong Pambata (Comission Award for Children's Literature in Fiipino) and the National Book Award (given by the Manila Critics' Circle) for Outstanding Production in Children's Books and Young Adult Literature.
  • United States: the major awards are given by the American Library Association Association for Library Service to Children. They include the Newbery Medal for writing, Caldecott Medal for illustration, Golden Kite Award in various categories from the SCBWI, Sibert Medal for informational, Laura Ingalls Wilder Medal for impact over time, Batchelder Award for works in translation, Coretta Scott King Award for work by an African-American writer, and the Belpre Medal for work by a Latino writer.
  • United Kingdom and Commonwealth: the Carnegie Medal for writing and the Kate Greenaway Medal for illustration; the Nestlé Smarties Book Prize; and the Guardian Award.
  • Internationally: the Hans Christian Andersen Award, and the Astrid Lindgren Memorial Award

ALA Logo The American Library Association (ALA) is a group based in the United States that promotes libraries and library education internationally. ... The Association for Library Service to Children (ALSC) is a division of the American Library Association. ... The John Newbery Medal is a literary award given by the Association for Library Service to Children of the American Library Association (ALA) to the author of the outstanding American book for children. ... The Caldecott Medal was designed by Rene Paul Chambellan in 1937. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... SCBWI stands for The Society of Children’s Book Writers and Illustrators. ... The Laura Ingalls Wilder Medal is a prize awarded by the American Library Association to writers or illustrators of childrens books published in the U.S. who have made substantial and lasting contributions to childrens literature. ... The Coretta Scott King Award is an anual award presented by the American Library Association. ... Established in 1996, the Pura Belpré Award is a biennenial recognition presented to a Latino or Latina writer and illustrator whose work best portrays the Latino cultural experience in a work of literature for children or youth. ... The Carnegie Medal in Literature was established in the UK in 1936 in honour of Scottish philanthropist Andrew Carnegie. ... The Kate Greenaway Medal was established in the UK in 1955 in honour of the childrens illustrator, Kate Greenaway. ... The Nestlé Smarties Book Prize is an annual award given to childrens books written in the previous year by a UK citizen or resident. ... The Guardian Childrens Fiction Prize or Guardian Award is a prominent award for works of childrens literature by British or Commonwealth authors, published in the UK during the preceding year. ... The Hans Christian Andersen Award, sometimes known as the Little Nobel Prize, is an international award given bianually by the International Board on Books for Young People (IBBY) in recognition of a lasting contribution to childrens literature. There are two categories of award winners: authors, and illustrators. ... The Astrid Lindgren Memorial Award is the worlds largest childrens and youth literature award. ...

References

  • Chapleau, Sebastien (2004). New Voices in Children's Literature Criticism. Lichfield: Pied Piper Publishing. ISBN 978-0-9546384-4-3. 
  • Huck, Charlotte (2001). Children's Literature in the Elementary School, 7th ed.. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-232228-4. 
  • Hunt, Peter (1991). Criticism, Theory, and Children's Literature. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-16231-3. 
  • Hunt, Peter (1996). International Companion Encyclopedia of Children's Literature. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-08856-9. 
  • Lesnik-Oberstein, Karin (1996). "Defining Children's Literature and Childhood", in Hunt, Peter (ed.): International Companion Encyclopedia of Children's Literature. London: Routledge, pp. 17-31. ISBN 0-415-08856-9. 
  • Lesnik-Oberstein, Karin (1994). Children's Literature: Criticism and the Fictional Child. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-811998-4. 
  • Lesnik-Oberstein, Karin (2004). Children's Literature: New Approaches. Basingstoke: Palgrave. ISBN 1-4039-1738-8. 
  • Rose, Jacqueline (1993, orig. pub. 1984). The Case of Peter Pan or the Impossibility of Children's Fiction. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0-8122-1435-8. 
  1. ^ Hollindale, Peter (1998) Ideology and The Children's Book, Thimble Press: Woodchester, UK
  2. ^ T S Eliot, Huckleberry Finn: A Critical Essay (re-published in "Only connect: readings on children's literature, ed. Egoff, Stubbs and Ashley (OUP: 1969)
  3. ^ Wendy Cooling's D is for Dahl, Viking, 2004, p26

See also

Children's Literature Portal

Image File history File links Portal. ... Book talk or booktalk is an introduction of several books to children with some theme. ... The International Childrens Digital Library Foundation, or ICDL for short, is a free online library of digitized childrens books in many languages from various countries. ... Childrens literature criticism comprises both generalist discussions of the relationship between childrens literature and literary theory as well as an literary analysis of a specific work or works of childrens literature. ... As with adult literature, the validity of defining a canon of worthy or renowned works in childrens literature is hotly debated. ... Timeline of Turning Points in Childrens Literature Fairy tale collections are one of the earliest forms of published fiction that have never lost their charm for children, though several of the classic tales are gruesome and were not originally collected for children. ... Childrens poetry is the poetry for children. ... Young adult (YA) literature is literature written for, published for, or marketed to adolescents. ... This is a list of important childrens literature authors and their most famous works. ... List of authors who have written non-fiction (informational) books for children. ... This is an alphabetical list of notable illustrators. ... A list of the most important childrens books, which were published at least 90 years ago, and were written for and/or are still enjoyed by children today. ... A fairy tale is a story, either told to children or as if told to children, concerning the adventures of mythical characters such as fairies, goblins, elves, trolls, giants, and others. ... List of publishers of Childrens books Gallimard Jeunesse J. Lumsden and Son Tabart and Co. ... For other uses, see Fiction (disambiguation). ... The Little Folks Paint Book, credited as the first coloring book, was published in 1879. ... International Childrens Book Day is celebrated 2 April to call attention to childrens books. ... An editor has expressed a concern that the topic of this article may be unencyclopedic. ... A childrens film is a film for young children. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Children's Literature (1213 words)
A quick definition is "literature written for African children by African authors either in the vernacular or in a foreign language" (Meniru 1992:43).
During the colonial period African children in government and missionary schools were introduced to children's literature that was alien to their experience.
The South African Children's Literature Collection at UCT [see the same page for their historical Children's Literature Collection]: "Books published in South Africa from 1989 and exhibited annually by the Children's Book Forum of the Western Cape make up the core of this collection, apparently the only one of its kind in the country.
Children's literature - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1996 words)
Often no consensus is reached whether a given work is best categorized as adult or children's literature, and many books are multiply marketed in adult, children's, and young adult editions; a prominent example of this is the Harry Potter series, which was published in separate editions for children and adults.
Byars is perhaps one of the best-known children's authors in America and in she received the Regina Medal, for lifetime achievement, from the Catholic Library Association.
Previous to Newbery, literature marketed for children was intended to instruct the young, though there was a rich oral tradition of storytelling for children and adults; and many tales later considered to be inappropriate for children, such as the fairy tales of Charles Perrault, may have been considered family fare.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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