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Encyclopedia > Childfree

Childfree is a term used to describe people who neither have, nor desire children. An alternative description is "childless by choice". For other uses, see Child (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Etymology and usage

A person who has no desire or plans to have children is called childfree. The term stands in implied contrast to "childless." Since the suffix "-less" indicates some kind of lack, the term childfree has been adopted to differentiate those who choose not to have children from those who desire children but do not have them.[1][2] Childfree persons assert that their lives are no less complete than the lives of parents.[3] Childless is a term that refers to a person or couple that does not have any children. ...


The term "childfree" was used in a July 3, 1972 Time article on the creation of the National Organization for Non-Parents [2]. It was revived in the 1990s when Leslie Lafayette formed a later childfree group, the Childfree Network.[4] “TIME” redirects here. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ...


The term is sometimes capitalized in regular usage, e.g., "He describes himself as Childfree", and is often abbreviated as "CF".


The term "Childfree" can cause offense in some circles, with the "-free" suffix held to imply that children are inherently bad or unwelcome.


History

The National Organization for Non-Parents (N.O.N.) was begun in Palo Alto, CA by Ellen Peck and Shirley Radl in 1972. N.O.N was formed to advance the notion that men and women could choose not to have children – to be childfree. Changing its name to The National Alliance for Optional Parenthood, it continued into the early 1980s both as a support group for those making the decision to be childfree and an advocacy group fighting pronatalism (attitudes/advertising/etc. promoting or glorifying parenthood). According to its bylaws, the purpose of the National Alliance for Optional Parenthood was to educate the public on non-parenthood as a valid lifestyle option, support those who choose not to have children, promote awareness of the overpopulation problem, and assist other groups that advanced the goals of the organization.


N.O.N.'s offices were located in Reisterstown, MD; then Baltimore, MD; and, ultimately, in Washington, D.C.


The organization's most widely-distributed publication was "Am I Parent Material?" This publication is still in print and distributed by ETR Associates in Scotts Valley, CA.


NON designated August 1 as Non-Parents' Day. Some of the early works on non-parenthood/being childfree include:

  • "The Baby Trap" 1971 by Ellen Peck and William Granzig
  • "Mother's Day is Over" 1973 by Shirley Radl
  • "Pronatalism: The Myth of Mom and Apple Pie" 1974 by Ellen Peck and Judith Senderowitz
  • "A Baby Maybe" 1975 by Elizabeth Whelan
  • "Childless by Choice" 1975 by Jean Veevers
  • "The Parent Test" 1978 by Ellen Peck and William Granzig

Motivation

Just as a range of motivations exist for choosing to have children, a number of factors are cited for the choice to remain childfree:


Lack of desire for children

  • Lack of a compelling reason to have children[5]
  • General dislike of the behavior of children[5]
  • Seeing the effects of children on family/friends[5]
  • Lack of maternal/paternal instincts[6]
  • Unwillingness to conform to the obligations of socially defined gender roles
  • Contentment with enjoyment of pets[5]
  • Belief that childhood is too traumatic
  • A general dislike or hatred of children

A bagpiper in military uniform. ...

Personal environment and advancement

  • Not wanting to sacrifice privacy/personal space for children[5]
  • Not wanting to sacrifice time for children [6]
  • Not wanting to commit to increased financial responsibility or burden[5]
  • Belief that parenthood, an irrevocable state, will be disliked
  • Belief that maintaining a certain level of emotional intimacy and physical intimacy with partner will not be possible with the presence of children[5]
  • Perceived or actual incapacity to be a responsible and patient parent
  • Maintaining freedom of personal choice
    • Prefer to maintain ability to change career or city of residence at short notice (spontaneous mobility)
    • Belief that childbearing would reduce career advancement

This subject is covered in some depth at Intimacy. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Mobility is the ability and willingness to move or change; this can depend on motor skills; mobility aids may be needed such as a walking stick, walker, mobile standing frame, power operated vehicle/scooter, wheelchair or white cane for visual impairment. ...

Physical and health concerns

  • Belief that it is wrong to bring a child into the world if the child is unwanted
  • Concern for safety of parent or child
    • The risk that an existing medical condition, such as diabetes, depression or the development of ectopic pregnancy could result in a dangerous or difficult pregnancy, or difficulty in raising the child
    • Concern that the child would inherit a hereditary disease
    • Low availability of high quality and affordable childcare
    • Fear and revulsion towards the physical condition of pregnancy, the childbirth experience, and recovery (for example the erosion of physical desirability).

This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ... On the Threshold of Eternity. ... A genetic disorder, or genetic disease is a disease caused, at least in part, by the genes of the person with the disease. ... Childcare (also written child care[1] and babycare) is the act of caring for and supervising minor children. ...

Belief that it is a generous act not to bring more people into the world

  • Belief that one can make a greater contribution to humanity through one's work than through having children
  • The world is full of suffering, and one cannot ensure that any given person will have a good life
  • Belief that people tend to have children for the wrong reasons
  • Concern regarding environmental factors and/or overpopulation[5]
  • Opinion that a devotion to one's career negates good parenting, or that their particular career would prevent them from being a good parent
  • Belief that it is inherently immoral to bring people into the world
    • No consent can be asked or given
    • The world is full of suffering, and one cannot ensure that any given person will have a good life
    • Everyone leaves life through death, therefore by giving birth, one guarantees that death will take place

For the psychology topic, see Environmental psychology. ... Map of countries by population density (See List of countries by population density. ...

Philosophical

  • View of childbearing and resultant parenting role as a heteronormative social construct which subjugates by restricting lifestyle options and possibilities for personal advancement.

Heteronormativity is a term used in the discussion of gender and society, mostly, but not exclusively within the field of critical theory. ...

Statistics and research

  • A 2003 U.S. Census study found that a record number of women in the United States did not have children; 44% of women in the age group 15-44 fit that category.
  • The number of these women who are without children is unknown, but the National Center of Health Statistics confirms that the percentage of American women of childbearing age who define themselves as childfree (or voluntarily childless) rose sharply in the 1990s - from 2.4 percent in 1982 to 4.3 percent in 1990 to 6.6 percent in 1995.
  • Overall, researchers have observed childfree couples to be more educated, more likely to be employed in professional and management occupations, more likely for both spouses to earn relatively high incomes, to live in urban areas, to be less religious, to subscribe to less traditional gender roles, and to be less conventional.[7]
  • David Foot of the University of Toronto concluded that the female's education is the most important determinant of the likelihood of her reproducing. The higher the education, the less likely for her to bear children.[8]

This article is about people called professionals. ... For other uses, see Management (disambiguation). ... Cities with at least a million inhabitants in 2006 An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... Religious is a term with both a technical definition and folk use. ... A bagpiper in military uniform. ... David Foot is an Canadian economist and demographer. ... The University of Toronto (U of T) is a public research university in the city of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... Fertility is the natural capability of giving life. ...

Controversy

Controversy surrounding the childfree state segments into criticism based on socio-political or religious reasons.


The "selfishness" issue

Some opponents of childfree individuals consider them "selfish" for neither having, nor wanting, children. The idea behind this is that, since raising children is a very important activity (childfree author Virginia Postrel calls it "the most important work most people will ever do"), not having children means living a hedonistic, consumption-based lifestyle that makes no contribution to the world, only to the self. [3] Selfishness is a primary or sole concern with ones own welfare. ... Virginia Postrel is a political and cultural writer of broadly libertarian, or classical liberal, views. ...


The assumption behind this idea is that the best way to make a meaningful contribution to the world is to have children. For some people this may be true, but others prefer to direct their energy and talents elsewhere, in many cases toward improving the world that today's children will inherit.[9]


Childfree individuals sometimes respond to these accusations of selfishness by claiming that the act of having children can itself be just as or even more selfish especially when poor parenting creates many long term problems for both the children themselves and society at large. The decision to become a parent is often based on characteristically "selfish" and egotistical motives as well.[10]


There is also the question as to whether having children really is such a positive contribution to the world in an age when there are so many concerns about overpopulation, pollution and resource depletion. Some critics, however, argue that such analyses of breeding may understate the expected benefits of reproduction to society - e.g. a greater labor force, which may also provide greater opportunity to solve social problems as well - and overstate the costs. [4] Map of countries by population density (See List of countries by population density. ... It has been suggested that Pollutant be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Peak oil (disambiguation). ...


Many childfree people are active in community volunteerism, are teachers, librarians, and authors of children's books. Service groups, community theaters, and even youth centers, benefit from the many hours of work given by childfree people.[9] Some childfree relatives assist in providing tuition assistance to nieces and nephews seeking higher education or specialized training in an area of interest or talent (music, swimming, acting, or horseback riding lessons, for example).[9] Childfree advocates point to these activities as evidence that the childfree can contribute to society in ways other than providing offspring.


Overpopulation

Some of the childfree believe that overpopulation is a serious problem and question the fairness of what they feel amount to subsidies for having children, such as the Earned Income Tax Credit (US), free K-12 education paid for by all taxpayers, family medical leave, and other such programs.[11] Others, however, do not believe overpopulation to be a problem in itself; regarding such problems as overcrowding, global warming, and straining food supplies to be problems of public policy and/or technology.[12] Map of countries by population density (See List of countries by population density. ... The United States federal Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) is a refundable tax credit that reduces or eliminates the taxes that low-income working people pay (such as payroll taxes) and also frequently operates as a wage subsidy for low-income workers. ...


According to Brian Whitaker, writing in the The Guardian on 6 November 2004, "If fertility levels remained unchanged at today's levels, the current world population of 6.4 billion would rise to 44 billion in 2100, 244 billion in 2150 and 1.34 trillion in 2300".[13] Brian Whitaker is the Middle East editor for the British newspaper The Guardian since May 2000. ... The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Government and taxes

Some childfree people regard any governmental or employer-based incentives offered only to parents - such as a per-child income tax credit, preferential absence planning, employment legislation, or special facilities - as intrinsically discriminatory, arguing for their removal or for their reduction to form a corresponding system of matching incentives for other categories of social relationship. Childfree advocates argue that other forms of caregiving are not considered equal - that "only babies count." Caring for sick, disabled, or elderly dependents entails significant financial and emotional costs but is not currently subsidized in the same manner. This commitment has traditionally and increasingly fallen largely on women, contributing to the feminization of poverty in the U.S.[14] Basic human cares, includes foods, drinking, sleeping, health, cleaning, sex. ... Elderly care or simply eldercare is the fulfillment of the special needs and requirements that are unique to senior citizens. ... The feminization of poverty is a phenomenon that has been observed in the United States since 1970 as female headed households accounted for a growing proportion of those below the poverty line. ...


The focus on personal acceptance is mirrored in much of the literature surrounding choosing not to reproduce. Many early books were grounded in feminist theory and largely sought to dispel the idea that womanhood and motherhood were necessarily the same thing. Books and articles such as Burkett's The Baby Boon argued that childfree people face not only social discrimination but political discrimination as well.[11] Feminists redirects here. ...


Medical considerations

There has been a large improvement in contraceptives over the years. Some choosing to be childfree sometimes prefer sterilization, however many have difficulty finding physicians willing to perform sterilizations, especially when they are in their 20s.[15] Some feel patronized about their reproductive choices with the additional suggestion that they will change their mind later in life and should leave this option open. This advice is motivated partly by the doctor's risk of lawsuits from patients who do change their mind.[citation needed] However studies have shown that geriatric patients have more regrets about not being married, over not being a parent.[citation needed] Sterilization is a surgical technique leaving a male or female unable to procreate. ... For other uses, see Doctor. ... It has been suggested that civil trial be merged into this article or section. ...


Religion

There has been a debate within religious groups about whether a childfree lifestyle is something to be condemned. Some religious conservatives have stated that it is a rebellion against God's will. In numerous works, including an Apostolic letter written in 1988,[16] Pope John Paul II has set forth the Catholic emphasis on the role of children in family life. However, the Catholic Church also stresses the value of chastity, particularly in vocations such as monasticism, and so approves of nominally childfree ways of life under certain circumstances. Ths article deals with conservatism as a political philosophy. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... Coat of Arms of Pope John Paul II. The Letter M is for Mary, the mother of Jesus, to whom he held strong devotion Pope John Paul II (Latin: , Italian: Giovanni Paolo II, Polish: Jan PaweÅ‚ II) born   []; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) reigned as the 264th Pope of... Allegory of chastity by Hans Memling. ... Monasticism (from Greek: monachos — a solitary person) is the religious practice in which one renounces worldly pursuits in order to fully devote ones life to spiritual work. ...


The Southern Baptist author R. Albert Mohler, Jr. says, "Couples are not given the option of chosen childlessness in the Biblical revelation. To the contrary, we are commanded to receive children with joy as God's gifts, and to raise them in the nurture and admonition of the Lord."[17], a position consistent with some Protestant denominations' condemnation of homosexuality, gay couples, and gay marriage.[18] In response, there are new churches being formed with the childfree movement. For example, a group called The Cyber-Church of Jesus Christ Childfree is a group of Christians who feel the call to have no descendants by fleshly means, just as Jesus had none.[19] The Southern Baptist Convention (SBC) is a United States cooperative ministry agency serving missionary Baptist churches around the world. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... GAY can mean: Gay, a term referring to homosexual men or women The IATA code for Gaya Airport Category: ... Same-sex marriage (also called gay marriage, and—less frequently—homosexual marriage) refers to marriage between partners of the same gender (for other forms of same-sex unions that are different from marriages, see the articles linked in that section). ...


Other mainline evangelical Christians have more balanced views, as published in Today's Christian Woman in an article by Raymond Van Leeuwen entitled "Is it All Right for a Married Couple to Choose to Remain Childless?" He shows that Gen. 1:28 "Be fruitful and multiply," what people generally think of as the Biblical mandate to procreate, is really not a command formula but a blessing formula: "You shall be fruitful..." He writes that while there are many factors to consider as far as people's motives for remaining childless, there are many valid reasons, including dedicating one's time to demanding but good causes, why Christians may choose to remain childless for a short time or a lifetime.[20]


Political activism

These issues led to many childfree people setting up support networks, either to vent about others or draw strength from the knowledge that they are not alone; groups such as No Kidding! seek to provide social interaction and friendship free from social pressure to have children.[21] This article contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ...


This discontent is not widespread among childfree people, and as such does not translate into a unified political vision. Just as people with children come from all shades of the political spectrum and temper their beliefs accordingly, so too do the childfree. For example, while some childfree people think of government handouts to parents as "lifestyle subsidies," others accept the need to help out parents but think that their lifestyle should be equally compensated. Still others accept the need to help out parents and also do not ask for any "subsidies" of their own, expecting nothing else from the non-childfree majority except to be respected rather than disparaged.


There are suggestions of an emergence of political cohesion, for example the Australian Childfree Party (ACFP) being proposed in Australia as a childfree political party, promoting the childfree lifestyle as opposed to the family lifestyle. Increasing politicization and media interest has led to the emergence of a second wave of childfree organizations that are openly political in their raisons d'etre, with a number of abortive attempts to mobilize a political pressure group in the U.S. The first organization to emerge was British, known as Kidding Aside. Despite becoming increasingly more numerous, vocal and organized, the childfree movement has had little political impact. Indeed, it is entirely possible that childfree advocates are simply making a lifestyle choice and do not have political intentions. It is also entirely possible that childfree advocates do have political intentions, but their voices are often silenced by child-centric cultures. This article contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ...


Other media

The Simpsons episode Marge vs. Singles, Seniors, Childless Couples and Teens, and Gays presented a scenario where people without children, including Childfree adults, squared off against the families of Springfield with children. Simpsons redirects here. ... Marge vs. ... For other uses, see Springfield. ...


Childfree slang

There is a growing corpus of slang terminology used by some childfree people, some of it borrowed from other groups or pop culture. The terms are often derogatory in nature, generally focusing on names for bad parents ("breeder"), lifestyle choices ("baby rabies" as a reference to the strong desire to have a child) and even terms for the children themselves ("sprog", "Bratley" and "crotch-dropping" are amongst negative terms to describe children).[citation needed] Breeder is a slang term used by homosexuals to describe heterosexuals; this term may be used in a joking or derogatory manner. ...


Positive terms are focused on well-behaved children and parents who demonstrate a willingness and ability to properly care for their children. Most of the positive terms for children ("angel," "darling," etc.) are common to most, and the obvious one aimed at parents is the "PNB" (Parent Not Breeder) label.


See also

For other uses, see Birth control (disambiguation). ... Sterilization is a surgical technique leaving a male or female unable to procreate. ... VHEMT logo Voluntary Human Extinction Movement, or VHEMT (pronounced vehement[1]), is a movement that calls for the voluntary extinction of the human race. ...

Antonymous

Quiverfull is a movement among conservative evangelical Protestant Christian couples chiefly in the United States, but with some adherents in Canada,[1] and with claims of adherent also in Australia, New Zealand, England, and elsewhere. ...

References

  1. ^ Belkin, Lisa. "Your Kids Are Their Problem", New York Times magazine, July 23, 2000. Retrieved on 2006-10-30. 
  2. ^ Indeed, even infertile couples use the term to differetiate those who are still pursuing parenthood from those who have decided to accept a life without children. See generally "Living Childfree", Resolve. Retrieved on 2006-10-27. 
  3. ^ Westcott, Kathryn. "The rise of the 'childfree'", BBC News, BBC, 2006-03-31. Retrieved on 2006-10-27. 
  4. ^ Cain, Madelyn. "The Childless Revolution", Purseus Publishing, 2001.  page 20.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h Ciaccio, Vincent. "Childfree Motivators and Social/Political Views". Retrieved on 2006-10-27.  select "Masters Thesis" or see summary at[1]
  6. ^ a b "The Childless by Choice Project". 
  7. ^ Park, Kristin (August 2005). "Choosing Childlessness: Weber's Typology of Action and Motives of the Voluntarily Childless". Sociological Inquiry 75 (3): 372. Blackwell Synergy. DOI:10.1111/j.1475-682X.2005.00127.x. Retrieved on 12 december 2006. 
  8. ^ "Childless By Choice - childless couples an emerging demographic - Statistical Data Included", American Demogrpahics, November 1 2001. Retrieved on 12 december 2006. 
  9. ^ a b c English, Jane. "Childlessness Transformed: Stories of Alternative Parenting url=http://www.eheart.com/BOOKS/childless/index.html", Earth Heart, December 1986. 
  10. ^ Leone, Catherine. "Fairness, Freedom and Responsibility: The Dilemma of Fertility Choice in America", Washington State University, December 1989. 
  11. ^ a b Burkett, Eleanor. "The Baby Boon", Simon & Schuster, 2002-04. 
  12. ^ "Overpopulation Myths", Daily Policy Digest, International Issues, National Center for Policy Analysis, October 5 1995. 
  13. ^ Whitaker, Brian. "Population boom set to stabilise at 9bn by 2300", The Guardian, Guardian Media Group, 2004-11-06. Retrieved on 2006-07-27. 
  14. ^ Levine, Carol. "Panel Presentation: Long Term Care and Caregiving". {{{booktitle}}}. 
  15. ^ Are you kidding? Tubal ligation procedures denied to young women who don’t want children American Sexuality Magazine.
  16. ^ Pope John Paul II (15 August 1988). "Apostolic letter Mulieris Dignitatem". Libreria Editrice Vaticana.
  17. ^ Mohler, R. Albert (2004). Can Christians Use Birth Control?. Retrieved on 2006-10-01.
  18. ^ Cline, Austin (November 26 2004). Unholy Rebellion of the Childless. Atheism.About.com. The New York Times Company. Retrieved on 12 December, 2006.
  19. ^ Eiler, Scott. The Cyber-Church of Jesus Christ Childfree. Retrieved on 12 December, 2006.
  20. ^ Van Leeuwen, Raymond C.. "Is It All Right for a Married Couple to Choose to Remain Childless?", Today's Christian Woman, Christianity Today International, September/October 2003, pp. Vol. 25, No. 5, Page 24. 
  21. ^ No Kidding! A social club for childfree singles and couples. Retrieved on 12 December, 2006.

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 5th October (Serbia). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Coat of Arms of Pope John Paul II. The Letter M is for Mary, the mother of Jesus, to whom he held strong devotion Pope John Paul II (Latin: , Italian: Giovanni Paolo II, Polish: Jan PaweÅ‚ II) born   []; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) reigned as the 264th Pope of... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • The Baby Boon (ISBN 0-7432-4264-5) is a book by Elinor Burkett, published in 2000, which outlines a case against many privileges granted to parents (as opposed to non-parents) at various levels of society.
  • Childfree and Sterilized (ISBN 0-304-33747-1) is a book by Annily Campbell, published in 1999, which describes the experiences of adult childfree women seeking sterilization in the UK.
  • Maybe One (ISBN 1-86230-004-6) is a book by Bill McKibben, published in 1999, which describes the environmental impact of having children. While the book advocates one-child families, there is an obvious unspoken case for having no children.
  • Reconceiving Motherhood: Separating Motherhood from Female Identity (ISBN 0-89862-123-2) is a book published in 1993 by Mardy S. Ireland PhD, a clinical psychologist, which explains why there is so much societal pressure to raise children and proposes new ways of theorizing female identity, beyond that of mother and how it can be viewed as an opportunity.
  • The Childless Revolution (ISBN 0-7382-0674-1) is a book by Madelyn Cain, published in 2002, which describes the experiences of childless and childfree women, and their similarities and differences.
  • Why Don't You Have Kids? (ISBN 0-8217-4853-X) is a book by Leslie Lafayette, published in 1995, an early treatise on the subject of modern-day childfreedom by the woman who founded one of its first groups, the Childfree Network.
  • Without Child: Challenging the stigma of childlessness (ISBN 0-415-92493-6) is a book by Laurie Lisle, published in 1996, which probes some of the myths and the stereotypes that surround non-mothers.
  • Childfree and Loving It! (ISBN 1-904132-63-4) is a book by Nicki DeFago, published in 2005, which deals humorously with the comments childfree people get and challenges the stigma attached to the choice to remain CF. First such book written from a UK viewpoint.
  • Childfree After Infertility: Moving from Childlessness to a Joyous Life (ISBN 0-595-27438-2) is a book by Heather Wardell, published in 2003, which espouses the embracing of the childfree philosophy by couples who are medically infertile.
  • The Chosen Lives of Childfree Men (ISBN 0-89789-598-3) is a book by Patricia Lunneborg, published in 1999. Based on interviews with 30 American and British men, challenges the stereotype that men without children are immature, selfish, and irresponsible. Finds nine main types, including workaholics, lifelong learners, early retirees, stress reducers, and men avoiding the mistakes of their parents. Argues that men should be active participants in childbearing decisions.
  • Kindervrij Verklaard (ISBN 0-646-45361-0) is a book by Marije Feddema and Larissa van Berchum, published in 2005. This first-ever book on childfreedom that was published in Dutch, discusses the definition of the term childfreedom, pioneers and history, the taboo and prejudices, advantages and disadvantages, motivations, lifestyle and views on the future, and contraception and sterilization methods.
  • Childfree Zone (ISBN 0-646-39494-0) is a book by Susan J. and David Moore, published in 2000. An Australian book that contains the experiences and opinions of over 80 child-free people aged between 22 and 60. It is not an academic study or statistical analysis, but a practical, readable and often amusing discussion of the decision to remain child-free.
  • Families of Two: Interviews with Happily Married Couples without children by choice (ISBN 0-738-82262-0) is a book by Laura Carroll, published in 2005. it consists of interviews of over 100-childfree couples that demonstrate and assist in explaining the decreased desire to bring children into the world.

For other uses, see Society (disambiguation). ...

External links

  • Child-Free - Resources for the Childfree Community
  • Childfree.net
  • Conceiving a Child is a Sin - Childfree from India - a Hindu view

  Results from FactBites:
 
Childfree - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2594 words)
The number of these women who are childfree is unknown, but the National Center of Health Statistics confirms that the percentage of American women of childbearing age who define themselves as voluntarily childless (or childfree) rose sharply in the 1990s: from 2.4 percent in 1982 to 4.3 percent in 1990 to 6.6 percent in 1995.
A statistical survey of the childfree found that common reasons for the choice to be childfree included not wanting to sacrifice privacy/personal space and time for children; having no compelling reason to have children; actively not wanting children around; being perfectly content with pets; and seeing the effects of children on family/friends.
Childfree individuals sometimes respond to these accusations of selfishness by claiming that the act of having children can itself be just as or even more selfish especially when bad or lazy parenting creates many long term problems for both the children themselves and wider society.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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