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Encyclopedia > Child support
Family law
Entering into marriage
Prenuptial agreement  · Marriage
Common-law marriage
Same-sex marriage
Legal states similar to marriage
Cohabitation  · Civil union
Domestic partnership
Registered partnership
Putative marriage
Dissolution of marriage
Annulment  · Divorce  · Alimony
Issues affecting children
Paternity  · Legitimacy  · Adoption
Legal guardian  · Ward
Emancipation of minors
Parental responsibility
Contact (including Visitation)
Residence in English law
Custody  · Child support
Areas of possible legal concern
Spousal abuse  · Child abuse
Child abduction
Adultery  · Bigamy  · Incest
Conflict of Laws Issues
Marriage  · Nullity  · Divorce

In many countries, child support or child maintenance is the ongoing obligation for a periodic payment made by a non-custodial parent to a custodial parent, caregiver or guardian, for the care and support of children of a relationship or marriage that has been terminated. In family law, child support is often arranged as part of a divorce, marital separation, dissolution, annulment, determination of parentage or dissolution of a civil union and may supplement alimony (spousal support) arrangements. Image File history File links Scale_of_justice. ... Family Law was a television drama starring Kathleen Quinlan as a divorced lawyer who attempted to start her own law firm after her lawyer husband took all their old clients. ... A prenuptial agreement or antenuptial agreement, commonly abbreviated to prenup or prenupt, is a contract entered into by two people prior to marriage or civil union. ... Marriage is an interpersonal relationship with governmental, social, or religious recognition, usually intimate and sexual, and often created as a contract, or through civil process. ... Common-law marriage (or common law marriage), sometimes called informal marriage or marriage by habit and repute is, historically, a form of interpersonal status in which a man and a woman are legally married. ... International recognition Civil unions and domestic partnerships Recognized in some regions Unregistered co-habitation Recognition debated Civil unions legal, same-sex marriage debated See also Same-sex marriage Civil union Registered partnership Domestic partnership Timeline of same-sex marriage Listings by country This box:      Same-sex marriage is a term... This article is about a living arrangement. ... As unregistered cohabitation Recognised in some regions Recognised prior to legalisation of same-sex marriage Netherlands (nationwide) (1998) Spain (12 of 17 communities) (1998) South Africa (nationwide) (1999) Belgium (nationwide) (2000) Canada (QC, NS and MB) (2001) Recognition debated See also Same-sex marriage Registered partnership Domestic partnership Common-law... International recognition Civil unions and Domestic partnerships Recognized in some regions Unregistered co-habitation Recognition debated See also Same-sex marriage Civil union Registered partnership Domestic partnership Timeline of same-sex marriage Listings by country This box:      A domestic partnership is a legal or personal relationship between individuals who live... LGBT rights Around the world By country History · Groups · Activists Declaration of Montreal Same-sex relationships Marriage · Adoption Opposition · Discrimination Violence This box:      As unregistered cohabitation Recognised in some regions Recognised prior to legalisation of same-sex marriage Netherlands (nationwide) (1998) Spain (12 of 17 communities) (1998) South Africa (nationwide... A putative marriage is an apparently valid marriage, entered into in good faith on part of at least one of the partners, but is invalid because of an impediment, such as a currently valid marriage on part of one of them. ... Annulment is a legal procedure for declaring a marriage null and void. ... Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the ending of a marriage before the death of either spouse. ... Alimony, maintenance or spousal support is an obligation established by law in many countries that is based on the premise that both spouses have an absolute obligation to support each other during the marriage (or civil union) unless they are legally separated. ... In law, Paternity is the legal acknowledgment of the parental relationship between a father and his child usually based on biological factors, but sometimes based on social factors. ... Freiheitsrechte Recht auf Leben, Freiheit, Eigentum, Sicherheit der Person Allgemeine, nur durch Gesetz beschränkbare Handlungsfreiheit Freiheit von willkürlichen Eingriffen in die Privatsphäre (Wohnung, Briefgeheimnis etc. ... For other uses, see Adoption (disambiguation). ... A legal guardian is a person who has the legal authority (and the corresponding duty) to care for the personal and property interests of another person, called a ward. ... In law, a ward is someone placed under the protection of a legal guardian. ... Emancipation of minors is a legal mechanism by which a person below the age of majority (adulthood) gains certain rights, generally identical to those of adults. ... In the states of the European Union and elsewhere, parental responsibility refers to the rights and privilieges which underpin the relationship between a child and either its parents or those adults who have a significant role in its life. ... In Family Law, contact (or in the United States, visitation) is one of the general terms which denotes the level of contact a parent or other significant person in a childs life can have with that child. ... In Family Law, residence is an Order of the Family court under s8 Children Act 1989 following the breakdown of a marriage and determining where the child(ren) are to live and with whom. ... Child custody and guardianship are legal terms which are sometimes used to describe the legal and practical relationship between a parent and his or her child, such as the right of the parent to make decisions for the child, and the parents duty to care for the child. ... Spousal abuse refers to a wide spectrum of abuse. ... Child abuse is the physical, sexual, or emotional maltreatment or neglect of children by parents, guardians, or others. ... Child abduction is the abduction or kidnapping of a child (or baby) by an older person. ... This article is about the act of adultery. ... Polygamy, literally many marriages in ancient Greek, is a marital practice in which a person has more than one spouse simultaneously (as opposed to monogamy where each person has a maximum of one spouse at any one time). ... Incest is sexual activity between two persons related by close kinship. ... Private International Law, International Private Law, or Conflict of Laws is that branch of law regulating all lawsuits involving a foreign law element where a difference in result will occur depending on which laws are applied as the lex causae. ... In Conflict of Laws, the issue of marriage has assumed increasing public policy significance in a world of increasing multi-ethnic, multi-cultural community existence. ... In Conflict of Laws, the issue of nullity (known as annulment in the United States) in Family Law inspires a wide response among the laws of different states as to the circumstances in which a marriage will be valid, invalid or null. ... In modern society, the role of marriage and its termination through divorce have become political issues. ... Marriage is an interpersonal relationship with governmental, social, or religious recognition, usually intimate and sexual, and often created as a contract, or through civil process. ... Family Law was a television drama starring Kathleen Quinlan as a divorced lawyer who attempted to start her own law firm after her lawyer husband took all their old clients. ... Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the ending of a marriage before the death of either spouse. ... Legal separation is a possible step towards divorce under United States law. ... Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the ending of a marriage, which can be contrasted with an annulment which is a declaration that a marriage is void, though the effects of marriage may be recognized in such unions, such as spousal support, child custody and distribution of property. ... Annulment is a legal procedure for declaring a marriage null and void. ... As unregistered cohabitation Recognised in some regions Recognised prior to legalisation of same-sex marriage Netherlands (nationwide) (1998) Spain (12 of 17 communities) (1998) South Africa (nationwide) (1999) Belgium (nationwide) (2000) Canada (QC, NS and MB) (2001) Recognition debated See also Same-sex marriage Registered partnership Domestic partnership Common-law... Alimony, maintenance or spousal support is an obligation established by law in many countries that is based on the premise that both spouses have an absolute obligation to support each other during the marriage (or civil union) unless they are legally separated. ...

Contents

Legal theory

Child support is based on the policy that parents are obligated to pay for the support of their children, even when the children are not living with both biological parents. Though courts typically permit visitation rights to non-custodial parents, in such separations one parent is often awarded custody and the role of primary caregiver. In such cases, the other parent still remains obligated to pay a proportion of the costs involved in raising the child. Child support may also be ordered to be paid by one parent to another when both parents are custodial parents and they share the child raising responsibilities. In rare cases, a parent with sole custody of his or her children may be ordered to pay child support to the noncustodial parent to support the children while they are in the care of that parent. Child custody and guardianship are legal terms which are sometimes used to describe the legal and practical relationship between a parent and his or her child, such as the right of the parent to make decisions for the child, and the parents duty to care for the child. ...


These costs are still legally obligatory, even when the paying parent has been legally limited or prevented by the other parent from participating in or making decisions involving the upbringing of the child or children. It is also important to note the custodial parent is expected to pay a percentage of the costs incurred raising a child, even if a non-custodial parent has been ordered to make child support payments. In Massachusetts, for example [1], it is the responsibility of the custodial parent alone to pay the first $100 in all uninsured medical costs for each child, per year. Only then will the courts consider authorizing child-support money from a non-custodial parent to be used for said costs.


In most jurisdictions there is no need for the parents to be married, and only paternity and/or maternity (filiation) need to be demonstrated for a child support obligation to be found by a competent court. Child support may also operate through the principle of estoppel where a de facto parent that is in loco parentis for a sufficient time to establish a permanent parental relationship with the child or children. In many states the principle of estoppel can be used to require a person to pay child support even if the assumption of a parental relationship was the result of a fraudulent misrepresentation of paternity by the mother. (See Paternity fraud). Paternity is the social and legal acknowledgment of the parental relationship between a father and his child. ... For other uses, see Mother (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Estoppel (English law). ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... The term in loco parentis, Latin for in the place of a parent, refers to the legal responsibility of a person or organization to take on some of the functions and responsibilities of a parent. ... Main articles: Paternity (law) and Paternity testing Paternity fraud, the term, came into common use in the late 1990s describing the act of falsely naming a man to be the biological father of a child when the mother knows (or suspects) that he is not the biological father, particularly for...


Different jurisdictions

In very few jurisdictions the privilege of visitation (or access) is tied to child support. If the custodial parent refuses to allow the non-custodial parent visitation with the child, the non-custodial parent can petition the court to temporarily stop support payments. In most jurisdictions the two rights and obligations are completely separate and individually enforceable as some jurisdictions view the withholding of support as punishing the child, not the parent, and in such cases the court may order additional visitation to the non-custodial parent. Visitation is a limited form of custody.


Child support laws vary around the world. Some jurisdictions sort the arrangements out directly between the parents. Others involve the state collecting child support payments as though it were a tax. In the United States some non-custodial parents claim there is no accountability on the part of the custodial parent regarding how child support payments are spent and accuse the custodial parent of spending support money on non-child related expenses. Depending on the jurisdiction, a custodial parent might legally be required to account for how child support money is spent. In the United States, 10 states (Colorado, Delaware, Florida, Indiana, Louisiana, Missouri, Nebraska, Oklahoma, Oregon, and Washington) allow courts to demand an accounting from custodial parent on how child support dollars are spent. Additionally, Alabama courts have authorized such accounting under certain specific circumstances. Despite this, some non-custodial parents in such situations still view their only recourse lies in petitioning the court for a change of custody. For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Delaware. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami metropolitan area Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ... Official language(s) English Capital Indianapolis Largest city Indianapolis Area  Ranked 38th  - Total 36,418 sq mi (94,321 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 270 miles (435 km)  - % water 1. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) English Capital Jefferson City Largest city Kansas City Largest metro area St Louis[1] Area  Ranked 21st  - Total 69,709 sq mi (180,693 km²)  - Width 240 miles (385 km)  - Length 300 miles (480 km)  - % water 1. ... Official language(s) English Capital Lincoln Largest city Omaha Largest metro area Omaha Area  Ranked 16th  - Total 77,421 sq mi (200,520 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) None Capital Oklahoma City Largest city Oklahoma City Largest metro area Oklahoma City metro area Area  Ranked 20th  - Total 69,898 sq mi (181,196 km²)  - Width 230 miles (370 km)  - Length 298 miles (480 km)  - % water 1. ... Official language(s) (none)[1] Capital Salem Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 9th  - Total 98,466 sq mi (255,026 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 2. ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...


Courts have held that it is acceptable for child support payments to be used to indirectly benefit the custodial parent. For example, child support monies may be used to heat the child's residence, even if this means that other people also benefit from living in a heated home.


Determining Child Support

There are two approaches to calculating legal child support award amounts. One, based on the costs of supporting a child, the other related to the capacity of parents to contribute to the support. In the United States, the federal government requires all states to have guideline calculations that can be verified and certified. These are usually computer programs based upon certain financial information including, earnings, visitation, taxes, insurance costs, and several other factors. Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ...


In most states existing child support orders are reviewed once every three years to see if modifications or adjustments in payment amounts are necessary. Child support modifications can also be requested at any time by either the custodial or the non-custodial parent. If a non-custodial parent loses his or her job or experiences financial hardship, he or she can request to have the amount of the child support payments reduced. Conversely, if the non-custodial parent's salary or income increases, or if the child's personal expenses increase, the custodial parent can request modifications to increase the child support payments. Modifications are performed and executed depending on the lifestyle of either parent.


Obtaining Child Support

Child support is paid by the noncustodial parent to ensure that their children have what they need to live a comfortable life. Child support laws and enforcement differ from state to state, but in all regions and jurisdictions, non-custodial parents must pay according to the court's child support order or face legal consequences. Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ...


Some parents also have informal or voluntary agreements or arrangements that do not involve the courts, where financial child support or other noncash support is provided by non-custodial parents to assist in supporting their child(ren).


In divorce cases, child support payments may be determined as part of the divorce settlement, along with other issues, such as alimony, custody and visitation. In other cases, there are several steps that must be undertaken to receive court-ordered child support. Some custodial parents may hire lawyers to oversee their child support cases for them; others may file their own applications in their local courthouses.


The custodial parent, or his or her attorney, must file an application to have the child support case heard by the court. The applications vary from state to state, but generally collect identifying information about both the custodial and non-custodial parents, including their names, social security numbers and dates of birth. Court fees vary from state to state, but can cost up to $25 USD. If the custodial parent is receiving any type of assistance from the state or federal government, the application fees may be waived.


Before the case can proceed, the non-custodial parent must be physically located. If the non-custodial parent's social security number is known, he or she may be located through employment, banking or tax records. Other non-custodial parents are found through information provided by family or friends. Private investigators and "people finder" databases can also be used to locate non-custodial parents.


Once the non-custodial parent is located, he or she will be visited by a local sheriff, police officer or process server and served with a court summons. The summons informs the non-custodial parent that she or he is being sued for child support. Once served, the non-custodial parent must attend a mandatory court hearing to determine if he or she is responsible for child support payments.


If a non-custodial parent denies fathering the child, or if he is not listed on the child's birth certificate, the court will order a paternity test to establish paternity before proceeding with the child support hearing. Once the identity of the father is confirmed through DNA testing, the child's birth certificate may be amended to include the father's name. The father may also acknowledge paternity by signing a statutory declaration of acknowledgment form. A paternity test is conducted to prove that a man is or is not the biological father of another individual. ...


After the responsibility for child support is established and questions of paternity have been answered to the court's satisfaction, the court will order the non-custodial parent to make timely child support payments.


In addition to monetary payments, non-custodial parents may be ordered to add their children to their health insurance plans. In some states both parents are responsible for providing medical insurance for the child/children. If both parents possess health coverage, the child may be added to the more beneficial plan, or use one to supplement the other. If a non-custodial parent is ordered to pay health benefits for the child/children, it will automatically be garnished for their wages. Non-custodial parents in the armed forces may also be requested to apply for dependents' cards for military benefits and health coverage for their children.


Many American universities also consider non-custodial parents to be partially responsible for paying college costs, and will consider their income in their financial aid determinations. In certain states, non-custodial parents may be ordered by the court to assist with these expenses. [2]


The age at which child support payments end differs by court order and by state. In some jurisdictions, payments may cease when the child turns 18 or graduates from high school, whichever happens last. In other states, or under other court orders, non-custodial parents may be responsible for payments until the age of 19 or 21. If a child seeks legal emancipation support may also be terminated. If the non-custodial parent owes back child support, he or she must continue to make payments until the debt is satisfied, regardless of the age of the child. For other uses, see Emancipation (disambiguation). ...


In recent years the mystery of calculating child support was removed by software companies creating software to calculate the amount the parent will pay or receive in a child support case. This has often been a mystery and many were forced to pay lawyers only to find out their support payments were not about to change.[3]


United States

Child support enforcement in the United States at the Federal level is the responsibility of the Administration for Children and Families in the Department of Health and Human Services, there is an over-arching framework of federal legislation (title IV-D of the Social Security Act) and regulation within which the states must operate if they wish to receive federal funding. States may also receive additional financial "incentive" payments for establishing paternity, or establishing or modifying child support orders. Although the federal child support program in the United States traces its origins to a congressional concern for recouping from absent parents some of the cash assistance paid to custodial parents, total U.S. child support collections in 2005 totaled $23 billion, most of which was paid to families not on public assistance. The law governing child support in the United States varies state-by-state and tribe-by-tribe; kutta individual state and federally recognized American Indian tribe is responsible for developing its own guidelines for determining child support. ... The government of the United States, established by the United States Constitution, is a federal republic of 50 states, a few territories and some protectorates. ... The Administration for Children and Families (ACF) is a division of the United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). ... The United States Department of Health and Human Services, often abbreviated HHS, is a Cabinet department of the United States government with the goal of protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services. ...


Each state is responsible for developing a child support enforcement program that complies with federal requirements, including a guidelines method of calculating child support. Most states have their own "Child Support Guidelines Worksheet" used by local courts and state Child Support Enforcement Offices to determine a "standard calculation" of child support. Courts may deviate from this standard calculation in particular cases.


The Uniform Interstate Family Support Act addresses the interaction of varying State legislation and regulations to ensure that only one state has the power to impose or modify child support at any one time, providing: The Uniform Interstate Family Support Act (UIFSA) is a Uniform Act that has been adopted by every U.S. State, in order to address the widespread problem of non-payment of child support obligations. ...

  • Reciprocal recognition of orders between states
  • Enforcement of child support across state lines
  • Conflict of laws and orders awarded by different states.

Particular issues of conflict are further discussed in the Child support in the United States article regarding conflict of laws for the states of California, Connecticut, the District of Columbia and Maryland. The law governing child support in the United States varies state-by-state and tribe-by-tribe; kutta individual state and federally recognized American Indian tribe is responsible for developing its own guidelines for determining child support. ...


Major Federal Child Support Enforcement Laws


1975 - Social Security Act, Title IV, Section D
1984 - Child Support Amendments
1988 - Family Support Act
1992 - Child Support Recovery Act
1993 - Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act
1994 - Full Faith and Credit Act
1996 - Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunities Reconciliation Act
1998 - Dead Beat Parents Punishment Act
2000 - Non-custodial Parent Federal Employee Health Insurace Requirement for Children


Australia

In Australia the Child Support Agency Australia calculates child support based on the income of each parent, a base amount is excluded, and the amount of time the child(ren) spends with each parent. Parents can seek a review where income, assets or other factors lead to the formula not giving a result reflecting the particulars of a case. The Child Support Agency Australia is a Government of Australia agency established in 1988 that administers the child support arrangements where parents do not reside together in Australia It replaced the ad hoc child maintenance system, dealt with by the courts. ...


New Zealand

In New Zealand, the Child Support division of Inland Revenue manages the application for, collection and redistribution of child support. Liable parents are assessed using a formula assessment scheme that determines payment liability based on the liable person's income and family circumstances. Departures from the formula are permitted under special circumstances, such as hardship, financial assets, special needs or through parental agreements. Payments are compulsory, with a minimum payment required, irrespective of ability to pay, though prisoners and long term hospital patients can apply for exemptions. Application for child support can be made by any person responsible for caring for a child but is only required if a parent receives welfare payments for themselves and their children. Children qualify for child support while they are aged under 19 years and are dependent on a caregiver. The Inland Revenue Department or simply Inland Revenue (Maori: Te Tari Taake) is the New Zealand government department responsible for the collection of taxes, payment of family assistance tax credits (See Working for Families), payment of Paid Parental Leave, collection and payment of child support and the collection of student...


United Kingdom

In the UK the Child Support Agency calculates the requisite contribution. The Child Support Agency (or CSA) is a UK Government Executive Agency, part of the Department for Work and Pensions, launched on April 5, 1993. ...


"Dead-beat" parents

Main article: Deadbeat dad

Non-custodial parents who avoid their child support obligations are often termed dead-beat parents. While "dead-beat" is a descriptive term used often in the media and by child support advocacy groups, it is not the legal term used to describe non-paying parents. Child support agencies typically describe clients as being in compliance, not in compliance or criminally non compliant. Compliance is judged by the paying party's performance in meeting the terms of the legal child support court order. from http://www. ... Deadbeat Dad is a pejorative term (primarily U.S.) that refers to men who have fathered a child but fail to pay child support ordered by a family law court or statutory agency such as the Child Support Agency. ...


The US Department of Health and Human Services estimates that 68% of child support cases had arrears owed in 2003 (a figure up from 53% in 1999).[citation needed] Many of these arrearage cases are due to administrative practices such as imputing income to parents where it does not exist and issuing default orders of support.[citation needed] Some non-custodial parents claim their payments are too high.[weasel words] According to one study 38% of Illinois non-custodial parents not paying child-support said they lacked the money to pay. Twenty-three percent used non-payment as a means of protesting a lack of visitation rights. Fourteen percent complained of no accountability over the spending of their child support money, while 13% said they didn't want their child(ren), and 12% denied parentage. Additionally, some non-custodial parents who have been subject to acrimonious divorces often see these payments as unfair and excessive.[weasel words]


If the non-custodial parent refuses to remit the court-ordered child support payments, the court may take one or several different actions. Non-payment of child support can result in wage or tax refund garnishment, suspension of drivers', professional and recreational licenses, inability to apply for or renew a U.S. passport, and, sometimes, federal prosecution.

U.S. court order issued by family division of county court garnishing typically the father's income

Download high resolution version (1224x1583, 389 KB)Typical Support Order File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (1224x1583, 389 KB)Typical Support Order File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

Child support and welfare

A major impetus to collection of child support in many places is recovery of welfare expenditure. A resident or custodial parent receiving public assistance, as in the US Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), is required to assign his or her right to child support to the Department of Welfare before cash assistance is received. Another common requirement of welfare benefits in some jurisdictions is that the custodial parent must pursue child support from the non-custodial parent.


Court services

Some opponents of child support claim that requiring non-custodial parents to pay child-support creates jobs to sustain the divorce industry. They point out that in the US family court judges earn $90,000 to $160,000 per year (cf. p. 1 table) and each judge requires a staff. One association claims the industry consists of "60,000 professionals includes line/managerial/executive child support staff; state and local agencies; judges; court masters; hearing officers; government and private attorneys; social workers; advocates; corporations that "partner" with government to provide child support services and private collection agencies." An industry of 60,000 professionals would comprise less than one-twentieth of a percent of the United State's 147.3 million-person workforce.


In the United States, state courts typically maintain a child support division - essentially an accounting department recording amounts owed and paid. Some maintain that because the county clerks responsible for record keeping are not certified accountants, inaccuracies concerning child support payments are common. Some people also claim that outside auditors do not monitor the accuracy of child support reports. In many counties, like Illinois’ Cook and Kane counties, the division audits themselves. However other jurisdictions adopt different methods - for example, in 2003 independent auditors reviewed and audited the Child Support Enforcement Agency of Hawaii. The state of Texas has also conducted such an independent audit. The Clark County, Nevada district attorney's office has also been independently audited (in 2003) regarding child support payment collections. And also in 2003, the state of Maryland recommended outside audits on its five metro child support enforcement operations. In the U.S., a state court has jurisdiction over disputes which occur in a state. ... The term county clerk has been commonly applied, in several English-speaking countries, to an influential employee of a county administration. ...


See also

Alimony, maintenance or spousal support is an obligation established by law in many countries that is based on the premise that both spouses have an absolute obligation to support each other during the marriage (or civil union) unless they are legally separated. ... Brian Stewart (b. ... In the context of child welfare, a contact centre is a supervised venue that exists to support and promote contact between parents, grandparents, guardians and children that do not live together. ... Child abduction is the abduction or kidnapping of a child (or baby) by an older person. ... Child custody and guardianship are legal terms which are sometimes used to describe the legal and practical relationship between a parent and his or her child, such as the right of the parent to make decisions for the child, and the parents duty to care for the child. ... The Child Support Agency (or CSA) is a UK Government Executive Agency, part of the Department for Work and Pensions, launched on April 5, 1993. ... The Child Support Agency Australia is a Government of Australia agency established in 1988 that administers the child support arrangements where parents do not reside together in Australia It replaced the ad hoc child maintenance system, dealt with by the courts. ... Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the ending of a marriage before the death of either spouse. ... Family Law was a television drama starring Kathleen Quinlan as a divorced lawyer who attempted to start her own law firm after her lawyer husband took all their old clients. ... The Fathers rights movement can be seen as part of the mens movement and/or the parents movement, it emerged in the 1970s as a loose social movement providing a network of interest groups, primarily in western countries. ... Joint custody is a court order whereby custody of a child is a awarded to both parties. ... This box:      Mens Rights involves the promotion of male equality, rights, and freedoms in society. ... The examples and perspective in this article do not represent a worldwide view. ... Parental Alienation Syndrome is a putative disorder proposed by Richard Gardner as a disturbance in which children are obsessively preoccupied with depreciation and/or criticism of a parent. ... Paternity is the social and legal acknowledgment of the parental relationship between a father and his child. ... For the general principles, see Residence in English law Shared residency, or joint residency, refers to the situation where the child(ren) of parents who have divorced or separated reside(s) with each parent at different times, and each parent has equal status in law. ... Shared parenting refers to a family arrangement in child custody or divorce settlements, in which the care of the children is equal, or more than substantially shared, between the natural parents. ...

References

  • Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) 42 U.S.Code §602a(1)& (2)
  • Child Support Agency Australia, 2006 Child Support Schemes: Australia and Comparisons 2006 [4]

External links

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ...

UK

USA

Government sites

Census

Guidelines and legislation The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ...

Other sites

Australia

  • Child Support Agency (CSA) Australia - includes calculators and guides for separated parents
  • Child Support Agency Online - a secure service for CSA customers and employers to conduct child support transactions online.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Child support - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2591 words)
In many countries, child support is the ongoing obligation for a periodic payment made by a non-custodial parent to a custodial parent, caregiver or guardian, for the care and support of children of a relationship or marriage that has broken down.
Child support may also operate through the principle of estoppel where a de facto' parent that is in loco parentis for a sufficient time to establish a permanent parental relationship with the child or children.
Child support is based on the policy that parents are obligated to pay for the support of their children, even when the children are not living with both biological parents.
SingaporeMoms - Parenting Encyclopedia - Child support (1318 words)
Child support may also operate through the principle of estoppel where a de facto parent that is in loco parentis for a sufficient time to establish a permanent parental relationshp with the child or children.
Child support is based on the policy that the parents are obliged to pay for the support of their children, even when the children are not living with both biological parents and even when only one parent is given the role of caregiver for the child or children.
In the U.S., when child support arrearages are owed to an obligee (often a mother), the 1986 U.S. law commonly known as the Bradley Amendment allows the obligee, and only the obligee, to lower the arrearages, i.e.
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