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Encyclopedia > Child prostitution

The Optional protocol on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography to the Convention on the Rights of the Child states that the prostitution of children or child prostitution is the practice whereby a child is used by others for sexual activities in return for remuneration or any other form of consideration (Article 2(b)). The remuneration or other consideration could be provided to the child concerned or to another person. The Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography is relevant to the articles on child labour and especially the worst forms of child labour. ... The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child is an international convention setting out the civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights of children. ...


Most generally, the prostitution of children means that a party other than the child benefits from a commercial transaction in which the child is made available for sexual purposes - either an exploiter intermediary (pimp) who controls or oversees the child’s activities for profit, or an abuser who negotiates an exchange directly with a child in order to receive sexual gratification. The provision of children for sexual purposes may also be a medium of exchange between adults. A pimp is an informal term for a man who runs a brothel or otherwise oversees prostitution. ...


The Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention (Convention No 182) of the International Labour Organization (ILO) provides that the use, procuring or offering of a child for prostitution is one of the worst forms of child labour. This convention, adopted in 1999, provides that countries that had ratified it must eliminate the practice urgently. It enjoys the fastest pace of ratifications in the ILO's history since 1919. The Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour, known in short as the Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, was adopted by the International Labour Organisation (ILO) in 1999 as ILO Convention No 182. ... International Labour organization is involved with justice. ... Convention has at least two separate and very distinct meanings. ...


The prostitution of children is seen as forming part of the commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC), and is sometimes connected to the trafficking of children for sexual purposes. Child sex tourism also falls within the category of the prostitution of children. Prostitution is the sale of sexual services, such as oral sex or sexual intercourse, for money. ... The Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention (Convention No 182) of the International Labour Organization (ILO) defines the commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) as a worst form of child labour. ... Trafficking is a term to define the recruiting, harboring, obtaining, transportation of a person by use of force, fraud, or coercion for the purpose of subjecting them to involuntary acts, such as acts related to commercial sexual exploitation (including prostitution) or involuntary labor. ... Sex tourism is tourism, partially or fully for the purpose of having sex, often with prostitutes. ...

Contents


Terminology

Child prostitution is sometimes used to describe the wider concept commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC). However, child prostitution excludes other identifiable manifestations of CSEC, such as commercial sexual exploitation through child marriage, domestic child labour and the trafficking of children for sexual purposes. The Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention (Convention No 182) of the International Labour Organization (ILO) defines the commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) as a worst form of child labour. ... Child marriage is a practice in which the parents of a small child (even infants) arrange a future marriage with another childs parents. ... Trafficking is a term to define the recruiting, harboring, obtaining, transportation of a person by use of force, fraud, or coercion for the purpose of subjecting them to involuntary acts, such as acts related to commercial sexual exploitation (including prostitution) or involuntary labor. ...


It was the limitations of the term child prostitution that led to the development in the mid-1990s of the term commercial sexual exploitation of children as a more encompassing description of specific forms of sexual violence against children related to trade. Nevertheless, ‘child prostitution’ remains in common usage and is indeed embedded in international instruments.


The terms child prostitution and child prostitute carry problematic connotations. This is because these terms, on their own, fail to make it clear that children cannot be expected to make an informed choice to prostitute themselves. The act of prostituting a child is in fact carried out by another party, as had been made clear in the definition provided by the Special Rapporteur of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography. These terms do not adequately express a child’s experience of force, exploitation, and physical and psychological harm inflicted through their engagement in prostitution. Prostitution is the sale of sexual services (typically manual stimulation, oral sex, sexual intercourse, or anal sex) for cash or other kind of return, generally indiscriminately with many persons. ... On 20 November 1989, the United Nations General Assembly in New York adopted the Convention on the Rights of the Child. ...


A child engaged in prostitution has usually been forced by other people or by circumstances into commercial sex. It is usually adults who create child prostitution through their demand for children as sexual objects, their misuse of power and their desire for profit.


In addition, worldwide public understanding of prostitution and prostitute has been shifting as a result of the introduction of terms such as sex worker, intended to raise the perceived status of women in prostitution. However, when it comes to children, to refer to sex work is wholly misleading; again, it downplays the criminal exploitation committed against a child forced into prostitution and suggests that a child ‘worker’ has somehow chosen to follow a ‘profession’.


In light of these concerns, international mainstream writing is increasingly avoiding the term child prostitute.


Gender

While most children used in this way are girls, some boys are also prostituted. However, for the purposes of grammatical simplicity, all further references in this article shall be in the feminine with the understanding that the masculine is also sometimes true unless otherwise specified.


Causes and context

Children are often pushed by social structures and individual agents into situations in which adults take advantage of their vulnerability and sexually exploit and abuse them. An all too common example of structure and agency combining to force a child into commercial sex is where the prostitution of a child follows on from prior sexual abuse, most likely in the home.


The prostitution of children is usually conducted in particular environments, such as from brothels, or bars and clubs, or homes, or particular streets and areas. Sometimes it is not organised, but often it is, either on a small scale through individual exploiter-pimps or on a larger scale through extensive criminal networks.


Children also engage in prostitution, however, when they exchange sex outside these environments and in return not only for basic needs such as accommodation, food, clothing, drugs or safety, but also for favours such as higher grades at school or extra pocket money for desired consumer goods otherwise out of their reach. Many drugs are provided in tablet form. ...


Some children are prostituted in conditions that appear otherwise perfectly normal. Enjo kosai, a practice reported in Japan, is sometimes considered an example of this. However, this latter practice is almost always voluntary rather than coerced. The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ...


Living and working conditions for children that are prostituted are generally appalling. Most of them live and work in unsanitary conditions, are poorly paid (if paid at all), unable to access proper medical care, and are kept constantly nearby through threat of force.


It is often reported that large numbers of so-called sex tourists use children involved in prostitution. However it is likely that the majority of their 'clients' are locals. There is evidence that the trafficking of children is increasing globally, in particular in countries where sex tourism takes place, such as Thailand and Costa Rica. Sex tourism is tourism, partially or fully for the purpose of having sex, often with prostitutes. ... Trafficking is a term to define the recruiting, harboring, obtaining, transportation of a person by use of force, fraud, or coercion for the purpose of subjecting them to involuntary acts, such as acts related to commercial sexual exploitation (including prostitution) or involuntary labor. ...


Impact on child victims

The symptoms experienced by child prostitutes are similar to those reported by other sexually abused children, such as depression, self destructive tendencies, inability to enter mainstream of society and ostracism. Child victims of prostitution may experience a lifetime of recurrent illnesses, such as venereal diseases, fertility problems, pregnancy complications, malnutrition and tuberculosis. Children involved in the sex trade face new and potentially fatal dangers in light of the spread of HIV/AIDS.


Prohibition

While the legality of adult prostitution varies between different parts of the world, the prostitution of children is generally considered to be illegal everywhere, even if only on paper. Prostitution is the sale of sexual services, such as oral sex or sexual intercourse, for money. ...


Some literature considers the prostitution of children (or 'child prostitutes') as referring to children who are prepubescent and children who are in the early stages of puberty. It refers to older children (usually 13 to 17 years of age) as 'teenage prostitutes'. However, the key standard is set by the ILO's Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, discussed above, which defines a child as a person under the age of 18 years old. Therefore the prostitution of children applies to the prostitution of all person under 18. The Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour, known in short as the Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, was adopted by the International Labour Organisation (ILO) in 1999 as ILO Convention No 182. ...


The laws of some countries do, however, distinguish between teenage prostitutes and the prostitution of younger children. For example, the Thai government defines a teenage prostitute as being between 15 and 18 years old, while the Japanese government defines one as being between 13 and 18. The basis for making this distinction may be that older children are considered legally able to consent to sex, while sex with younger children is automatically rendered unlawful as statutory rape. However, the definitions of teenage prostitution in some countries do not correlate to the relevant age of consent laws. The term statutory rape is sometimes used when national and/or regional governments, citing an interest in protecting minors, consider people under a certain age to be unable to give consent, and therefore consider sexual contact with them to be rape. ... In criminal law, the age of consent is the age at which a person is considered to be capable of legally giving informed consent to sexual acts with another person. ...


Extent

It is very difficult to determine the extent of prostitution of children due to the illegal and hidden nature thereof. Whilst there has been some moral panic and exaggeration of the scale, there is extensive evidence that it is a widespread globally. A moral panic is a mass movement based on the false or at least exaggerated perception that some individual or group, frequently a minority group or a subculture, is dangerously deviant and poses a menace to society. ...


In the Ukraine, a survey conducted by the non-governmental organization (NGO) “La Strada-Ukraine” in 2001-2003, based on a sample of 106 women being 'trafficked' out of the Ukraine found that 3% were under 18, and the US State Department reported in 2004 that incidents of minors being trafficked was increasing. In Thailand, NGOs have estimated that up to a third of prostitutes are children under 18. [1] WHOOOOO GIVES A CRAP! ... Trafficking in the context of trafficking of human beings is a term to define the recruiting, harbouring, obtaining and transportation of a person by use of force, fraud, or coercion for the purpose of subjecting them to involuntary acts, such as acts related to commercial sexual exploitation (including prostitution) or... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ...


ECPAT New Zealand [2] and Stop Demand Foundation have cited in a report “The Nature and Extent of the Sex Industry in New Zealand,” a police survey of the New Zealand sex industry that 210 children under the age of 18 years were identified as selling sex, with three-quarters being concentrated in one Police District. [3] ECPAT is a network of organisations and individuals working together to eliminate the commercial sexual exploitation of children. ...


The 1996 report of the United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography estimates that about one million children in Asia alone are victims of the sex trade. According to the International Labour Organization, the problem is especially alarming in Korea, Thailand, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Vietnam, Cambodia and Nepal. [4]


In Africa and South Asia, many countries are faced with a rising child prostitution problem and the linkage with tourism is evident. Child prostitution and the trafficking of children for sexual exploitation is also increasing in Europe, North America, Japan and Australia.


See also

Sexology is the systematic study of human sexuality. ... Child labour or labor is the phenomenon of children in employment. ... The term child pornography (sometimes referred to as kiddie porn) generally refers to pornography featuring a child; however, the precise definition of pornography and child varies by region and country. ... Child and youth sexuality refers to sexual behavior and activity among children. ... The Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention (Convention No 182) of the International Labour Organization (ILO) defines the commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) as a worst form of child labour. ... ECPAT is a network of organisations and individuals working together to eliminate the commercial sexual exploitation of children. ... International instruments containing substantive provisions on all WFCL Instruments defining worst forms of child labour (WFCL) and containing substantive provisions on all WFCL: International Labour Organisation Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention: Definitions, and main provisions, binding states that have ratified the convention Worst Forms of Child Labour Recommendation: Recommendation... Sex tourism is tourism, partially or fully for the purpose of having sex, often with prostitutes. ... Trafficking is a term to define the recruiting, harboring, obtaining, transportation of a person by use of force, fraud, or coercion for the purpose of subjecting them to involuntary acts, such as acts related to commercial sexual exploitation (including prostitution) or involuntary labor. ... The term worst forms of child labour (WFCL) is defined in the Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention of the International Labour Organisation. ...

Sources


  Results from FactBites:
 
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