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Encyclopedia > Child abandonment

Child abandonment is the practice of abandoning offspring outside of legal adoption. Causes include many social, cultural, and political factors as well as mental illness. Look up abandonment in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Adoption (disambiguation). ... A mental illness or mental disorder refers to one of many mental health conditions characterized by distress, impaired cognitive functioning, atypical behavior, emotional dysregulation, and/or maladaptive behavior. ...


The abandoned child is called a foundling or throwaway (as opposed to a runaway or an orphan). A runaway is a minor who has left the home of his or her parent or legal guardian without permission or has been thrown out by his or her parent. ... Orphans, by Thomas Kennington An orphan (from the Greek ορφανός) is a person (typically a child), who has lost both parents, often through death. ...

Contents

Child abandonment in real life

Poverty is often a root cause of child abandonment. Persons in cultures with poor social welfare systems who are not financially capable of taking care of a child are more likely to abandon him/her. Political conditions, such as difficulty in adoption proceedings, may also contribute to child abandonment, as can the lack of institutions, such as orphanages, to take in children whom their parents can not support. Image File history File links Foundling_Hospital. ... Image File history File links Foundling_Hospital. ... The Foundling Hospital, London, was founded in 1739 by the philanthropic sea captain Thomas Coram. ... A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows what he found. ... // The first orphanages, called orphanotrophia, were founded in the 1st century amid various alternative means of orphan support. ...


Societies with strong social structures and liberal adoption laws tend to have lower rates of child abandonment.


Historically, many cultures practice abandonment of infants, called "exposure." Although such children would survive if taken up by others, exposure is often considered a form of infanticide -- as described by Tertullian in his Apology: "it is certainly the more cruel way to kill. . . by exposure to cold and hunger and dogs". This form of child abandonment is much more widely spread throughout societies, being used even by the rich to dispose of unwanted children, particularly girls. Many of these children were indeed taken up, for slavery and prostitution. In sociology and biology, infanticide is the practice of intentionally causing the death of an infant of a given species, by members of the same species - often by the mother. ... Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, anglicised as Tertullian, (ca. ... Slave redirects here. ... Whore redirects here. ...


Early laws governing child abandonment often prescribed that the person who had taken up the child, either to adopt or to raise as a slave, was entitled to the child. This both discourages the practice of exposure and encourages strangers to take up exposed children.[1]


Today, abandonment of a child is considered to be a serious crime in many jurisdictions of the United States because it can be considered malum in se and due to welfare concerns. For example, in the U.S. state of Georgia, it is a misdemeanor to willfully and voluntarily abandon a child, and a felony to abandon one's child and leave the state. In 1981, Georgia's escalation of abandonment from a misdemeanor to a felony — based solely upon the defendant's flight from the state — was upheld as constitutional by the U.S. Supreme Court.[2] Malum in se (plural mala in se) is a Latin phrase meaning wrong in itself. ... Welfare is financial assistance paid by taxpayers to groups of people who are unable to support themselves, and determined to be able to function more effectively with financial assistance. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of the... A misdemeanor, or misdemeanour, in many common law legal systems, is a lesser criminal act. ... For the record label, see Felony Records The term felony is a term used in common law systems for very serious crimes, whereas misdemeanors are considered to be less serious offenses. ... The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C. The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C., (large image) The Supreme Court of the United States, located in Washington, D.C., is the highest court (see supreme court) in the United States; that is, it has ultimate judicial authority within the United States...


Child abandonment in literature

Pietro da Cortona. Romulus and Remus given shelter by Faustulus.

Foundlings, who may be orphans, can combine many advantages to a plot: mysterious antecedents, leading to plots to discover them; high birth and lowly upbringing. Foundlings have appeared in literature in some of the oldest known tales.[3] The most common reasons for abandoning children in literature are oracles that the child will cause harm; the mother's desire to conceal her illegitimate child, often after rape by a god; or spite on the part of people other than the parents, such as sisters and mothers-in-law in such fairy tales as The Dancing Water, the Singing Apple, and the Speaking Bird. Poverty usually features as a cause only with the case of older children, who can survive on their own. Indeed, most such characters are of royal or noble birth; their abandonment means they grow up in ignorance of their true social status.[4] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1020x966, 142 KB)Pietro da Cortona. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1020x966, 142 KB)Pietro da Cortona. ... Pietro da Cortona, byname of Pietro Berettini (November 1, 1596- May 16, 1669) was a prolific artist and architect of High Baroque. ... Orphans, by Thomas Kennington An orphan (from the Greek ορφανός) is a person (typically a child), who has lost both parents, often through death. ... A self-fulfilling prophecy is a prediction that directly or indirectly causes itself to become true. ... A fairy tale is a story, either told to children or as if told to children, concerning the adventures of mythical characters such as fairies, goblins, elves, trolls, giants, and others. ... The Dancing Water, the Singing Apple, and the Speaking Bird is an Italian fairy tale collected by Thomas Frederick Crane in Italian Popular Tales and included by Joseph Jacobs in European Folk and Fairy Tales. ...


In many tales, such as Snow White, the child is actually abandoned by a servant who had been given orders to put the child to death. Snow White in her coffin, Theodor Hosemann, 1852. ...


Abandoned children often are abandoned with birth tokens, which act as plot devices to ensure that the child can be identified. In Shakespeare's The Winter's Tale, a recognition scene in the final act reveals by these that Perdita is a king's daughter rather than a shepherdess, and so suitable for her prince lover.[5] Similarly, when the heroine of Le Fresne reveals the brocade and the ring she was abandoned with, her mother and sister recognize her; this makes her a suitable bride for the man whose mistress she had been.[6] A plot device is a person or an object introduced to a story to affect or advance the plot. ... Florizel and Perdita by Charles Robert Leslie. ... Le Fresne is one of the Lais of Marie de France. ...

The children of Queen Blondine and of her sister, Princess Brunette, picked up by a Corsair after seven days at sea; illustration by Walter Crane to the fairy tale Princess Belle-Etoile

From Oedipus onward, Greek and Roman tales are filled with exposed children who escaped death to be reunited with their families -- usually, as in Longus's Daphnis and Chloe, more happily than in Oedipus's case. Grown children, having been taken up by strangers, were usually recognized by tokens that had been left with the exposed baby: in Euripides's Ion, Creüsa is about to kill Ion, believing him to be her husband's illegitimate child, when a priestess reveals the birth-tokens that show that Ion is her own, abandoned infant. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1035x1200, 196 KB) Princess Belle-Etoile 2 - illustration by Walter Crane - Project Gutenberg eText 18344 The children of Queen Blondine and sister Brunette picked up by a Corsair after seven days at sea, from the fairy tale Princess Belle-Etoile. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1035x1200, 196 KB) Princess Belle-Etoile 2 - illustration by Walter Crane - Project Gutenberg eText 18344 The children of Queen Blondine and sister Brunette picked up by a Corsair after seven days at sea, from the fairy tale Princess Belle-Etoile. ... Walter Crane (August 15, 1845 - March 14, 1915) was a significant English artist. ... Princess Belle-Etoile is a French literary fairy tale written by Madame dAulnoy. ... Oedipus with the Sphinx, from an Attic red-figure cylix from the Vatican Museum, ca. ... Daphnis and Chloe by Jean-Pierre Cortot Longus (Greek: Λόγγος) was a Greek novelist and romancer, and author of Daphnis and Chloe. ... A statue of Euripides. ... Ion is an ancient Greek play by Euripides, thought to be wrtten between 414 and 412 BC. It follows the orphan Ion in the discovery of his origins. ... In Greek mythology, four people had the name Creusa. ... According to Greek mythology, Ion was the illegitimate child of Creüsa, daughter of Erechtheus and wife of Xuthus. ...


This may reflect the widespread practice of child abandonment in their cultures. On the other hand, the motif is continued through literature where the practice is not widespread. William Shakespeare used the abandonment and discovery of Perdita in The Winter's Tale, and Edmund Spenser reveals in the last Canto of Book 6 of The Faerie Queen that the character Pastorella, raised by shepherds, is in fact of noble birth. Henry Fielding, in one of the first novels, recounted The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling. Ruth Benedict, in studying the Zuni, found that the practice of child abandonment was unknown, but featured heavily in their folktales.[7] Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Florizel and Perdita by Charles Robert Leslie. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Una and the Lion by Briton Rivière The Faerie Queene is a poem by Edmund Spenser, first published in 1590 (the first half) with the more or less complete version being published in 1596. ... Henry Fielding (April 22, 1707 – October 8, 1754) was an English novelist and dramatist known for his rich earthy humor and satirical prowess and as the author of the novel Tom Jones. ... The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling (often known simply as Tom Jones) is a comic novel by Henry Fielding. ...


The strangers who take up the child are often shepherds or other herdsmen. This befell not only Oedipus, but also Cyrus the Great, Amphion and Zethus, and several of the characters listed above. Romulus and Remus were suckled by a wolf in the wilderness, but afterward, again found by a shepherd. This ties this motif in with the genre of the pastoral. This can imply or outright state that the child benefits by this pure upbringing by unspoiled people, as opposed to the corruption that surrounded his birth family. The name Cyrus (or Kourosh in Persian) may refer to: [[Cyrus I of Anshan]], King of Persia around 650 BC [[Cyrus II of Persia | Cyrus the Great]], King of Persia 559 BC - 529 BC — See also Cyrus in the Judeo-Christian tradition Cyrus the Younger, brother to the Persian king... Amphion (native of two lands) and Zethus, in ancient Greek mythology, were the twin sons of Zeus by Antiope. ... This page describes the ancient heroes who founded the city of Rome. ... Titians The Pastoral Concert Pastoral refers to the lifestyle of shepherds and pastoralists, moving livestock around larger areas of land according to seasons and availability of water and feed. ...

The finding of Moses, by Giovanni Battista Tiepolo

Often, the child is aided by animals before being found; Artemis sent a bear to nurse the abandoned Atalanta, and Paris was also nursed by a bear before being found.[8] In some cases, the child is depicted as being raised by animals; however, in actuality, feral children are incapable of speech.[9] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x912, 200 KB) Description: Title: de: Auffindung des Moses Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 197 × 340 cm Country of origin: de: Italien Current location (city): de: Edinburgh Current location (gallery): de: National Gallery of Scotland Other notes: Source: The... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x912, 200 KB) Description: Title: de: Auffindung des Moses Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 197 × 340 cm Country of origin: de: Italien Current location (city): de: Edinburgh Current location (gallery): de: National Gallery of Scotland Other notes: Source: The... Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, also known as Gianbattista or Giambattista Tiepolo (March 5, 1696 - March 27, 1770) was an Venetian painter and printmaker, considered among the last Grand Manner fresco painters from the Venetian republic. ... The Diana of Versailles, a Roman copy of a sculpture by Leochares (Louvre Museum) In Greek mythology, Artemis (Greek: (nominative) , (genitive) ) was the daughter of Zeus and Leto and the twin sister of Apollo. ... For other meanings, see Atalanta (disambiguation). ... Statue of Paris in the British Museum This article is about the prince of Troy. ... Cover from Shasta of the Wolves by Olaf Baker (1921 British edition) Feral children (that is, human children raised by non-human animals) in mythology and fiction are often depicted as having superior strength, intelligence and morals to normal humans, the implication being that because of their upbringing they represent...


Moses is unusual in that he is taken up by a princess, who is of superior birth to his mother, but like the other foundlings listed above, he reaches adulthood and returns to his birth family. This is the usual pattern in such stories. Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ...


The opposite pattern, of a child remaining with its adoptive parents, is less common but occurs. In the Indian epic Mahabharata, Karna is never reconciled with his mother, and dies in battle with her legitimate son. In the Grimm fairy tale Foundling-Bird, Foundling Bird never learns of, let alone reunites with, his parents. George Eliot depicted the abandonment of the character Eppie in Silas Marner; despite learning her true father at the end of the book, she refuses to leave Silas Marner who raised her. For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... Karna (Sanskrit: कर्ण written Karṇa in IAST transliteration) is one of the central figures in Hindu epic Mahabharata. ... Foundling-Bird is a German fairy tale collected by the Brothers Grimm, number 51. ... Mary Ann Evans (22 November 1819 – 22 December 1880), better known by her pen name George Eliot, was an English novelist. ... Silas Marner : The Weaver of Raveloe is a novel by George Eliot (the pen name of Mary Ann Evans) which was first published in 1861. ...

Babes in the Wood, illustrated by Randolph Caldecott: the children die in each other's arms, and the robins take up leaves to bury them
Babes in the Wood, illustrated by Randolph Caldecott: the children die in each other's arms, and the robins take up leaves to bury them

When older children are abandoned in fairy tales, while poverty may be cited as a cause, as in Hop o' My Thumb, the most common effect is when poverty is combined with a stepmother's malice, as in Hansel and Gretel (or sometimes, a mother's malice). The stepmother's wishes may be the sole cause, as in Father Frost. In these stories, the children seldom find adoptive parents, but malicious monsters, such as ogres and witches[10]; outwitting them, they find treasure enough to solve their poverty. The stepmother may die coincidentally, or be driven out by the father when he hears, so that the reunited family can live happily in her absence. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 513 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (617 × 721 pixel, file size: 220 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Babes in the Wood illustrated by Randolph Caldecott 8. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 513 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (617 × 721 pixel, file size: 220 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Babes in the Wood illustrated by Randolph Caldecott 8. ... Randolph Caldecott (1846-1886) was a British artist, born in Chester and was the eponym of the Caldecott Medal. ... Hop o My Thumb is an ancient folk tale first retold by Charles Perrault. ... “Stepmom” redirects here. ... Artwork by Arthur Rackham, 1909. ... Father Frost is a Russian fairy tale collected by Alexander Afanasyev. ...


In a grimmer variation, the tale Babes in the Wood features a wicked uncle in the role of the wicked stepmother, who gives order for the children to be killed. However, although the servants scruple to obey him, and the children are abandoned in the woods, the tale ends tragically: the children die, and their bodies are covered with leaves by robins. Babes in the Wood is a traditional childrens tale, as well as a popular pantomime subject. ...


When the cause of the abandonment is a prophecy, the abandonment is usually instrumental in causing the prophecy to be fulfilled. Besides Oedipus, Greek legends also included Telephus, who was prophesied to kill his uncle; his ignorance of his parentage, stemming from his abandonment, caused his uncle to jeer at him and him to kill the uncle in anger. A Greek mythological figure, Telephus referred to two different people. ...


Foundlings still appear in modern literature. Superman may be seen as a continuation of the foundling tradition, the lone survivor of an advanced civilization who is found and raised by Kansas farmers in a pastoral setting, and later discovers his alien origins and uses his powers for good.[11] Elora Danan, in the film Willow, and Lir, in the novel The Last Unicorn, both continue the tradition of foundlings abandoned because of prophecies, and who fulfill the prophecies because of their abandonment. In the last book of The Chronicles of Prydain, Dallben reveals to the hero Taran that he is a foundling; in a story set in the same world, "The Foundling", Dallben himself proves to be also a foundling. In the television series Futurama, Turanga Leela is abandoned by her mutant parents at an orphanage in the hopes of a better life. Superman, nicknamed The Man of Steel, is a fictional character and superhero who first appeared in Action Comics #1 in 1938 and eventually became one of the most popular comic book heroes of all time. ... Elora Danan is a fictional character from the 1988 fantasy Willow, played by infant twins Kate and Ruth Greenfield. ... Willow is a 1988 fantasy film directed by Ron Howard, based on a story by George Lucas. ... For the 1982 feature film, see The Last Unicorn (film). ... The Chronicles of Prydain is a five-volume series of childrens fantasy novels by Lloyd Alexander. ... Dallben is an important character in Lloyd Alexanders The Chronicles of Prydain. ... Taran and his companion Gurgi as pictured on the cover of Taran Wanderer. ... This article is about the television series. ... Turanga Leela (referred to as simply Leela) is the primary female character in the animated television series Futurama. ...


Notable foundlings

Jean le Rond dAlembert, pastel by Maurice Quentin de La Tour Jean le Rond dAlembert (November 16, 1717 – October 29, 1783) was a French mathematician, mechanician, physicist and philosopher. ... Kaspar Hauser Kaspar Hauser or Casparus Hauser (April 30, 1812–December 17, 1833) was a mysterious foundling in 19th century Germany with suspected ties to the royal house of Baden. ... Jacqueline Cochran (11 May 1906 – 9 August 1980) was a pioneer American aviatrix, considered to be one of the most gifted race pilots of her generation. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Foundlings

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... In sociology and biology, infanticide is the practice of intentionally causing the death of an infant of a given species, by members of the same species - often by the mother. ... Orphans, by Thomas Kennington An orphan (from the Greek ορφανός) is a person (typically a child), who has lost both parents, often through death. ... Baby hatch in Germany A baby hatch is a place where mothers can bring their babies, usually newborn, and leave them anonymously in a safe place to be found and cared for. ... Afghan street urchin smiles for the camera in downtown Kabul, Afghanistan (June 2003). ... A feral child (feral, - wild or undomesticated) is a human child who, from a very young age, has lived in isolation from human contact and has no (or little) experience of human care, loving or social behavior, and, crucially, of human language. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Notes

  1. ^ The Visigothic Code: (Forum judicum), Book IV: Concerning Natural Lineage Title IV: Concerning Foundlings
  2. ^ Jones v. Helms, 452 U.S. 412 (1981).
  3. ^ Northrop Frye, Anatomy of Criticism, p 198, ISBN 0-691-01298-9
  4. ^ Josepha Sherman, Once upon a Galaxy p 55-6 ISBN 0-87483-387-6
  5. ^ Northrop Frye, "Recognition in The Winter's Tale" p 108-9 Fables of Identity: Studies in Poetic Mythology, ISBN 0-15-629730-2
  6. ^ Francis James Child, The English and Scottish Popular Ballads, v 2, p 68, Dover Publications, New York 1965
  7. ^ Maria Tatar, The Hard Facts of the Grimms' Fairy Tales, p60, ISBN 0-691-06722-8
  8. ^ Jane Yolen, p 73, Touch Magic ISBN 0-87483-591-7
  9. ^ Jane Yolen, p 74, Touch Magic ISBN 0-87483-591-7
  10. ^ Jack Zipes, The Great Fairy Tale Tradition: From Straparola and Basile to the Brothers Grimm, p 474, ISBN 0-393-97636-X
  11. ^ Josepha Sherman, Once upon a Galaxy p 55 ISBN 0-87483-387-6

Herman Northrop Frye, CC, MA, D.Litt. ... Northrop Fryes Anatomy of Criticism: Four Essays (Princeton University Press, 1957) attempts to formulate an overall view of the scope, theory, principles, and techniques of literary criticism derived exclusively from literature. ... Josepha Sherman is an American author // Works Series Buffyverse Visitors (Buffy novel) (1999) (with Laura Anne Gilman) Deep Water (Buffy novel) (2000) (with Laura Anne Gilman) Find Your Fate Junior Transformers 9. ... Francis James Child (February 1, 1825 - September 11, 1896), was an American scholar and educationist, and collector of what came to be known as the Child Ballads. ...

References


  Results from FactBites:
 
Immigration Words & Terms - Abandonment, Agency, Application, Care, Child, Custody, Definition, Fore (1250 words)
Abandonment by both parents means that the parents have willfully forsaken all parental rights, obligations and claims to the child, as well as all control over and possession of the child, without intending to transfer, or without transferring, these rights to any specific person(s).
A child who is placed temporarily in a orphanage shall not be considered to be abandoned if the parents express an intention to retrieve the child, are contributing or attempting to contribute to the support of the child, or otherwise exhibit ongoing parental interest in the child.
When the adopted child continued to reside in the same household as the natural parent(s) during the period in which the adoptive parent petitioner seeks to establish his or her compliance with this requirement, the petitioner has the burden of establishing that he or she exercised primary parental control during that period of residence.
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AliceMckenzie
18th January 2011
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