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Encyclopedia > Chikungunya
Chikungunya
Classification & external resources
ICD-10 A92.0
ICD-9 065.4, 066.3
DiseasesDB 32213
MeSH D018354
Chikungunya virus
Virus classification
Group: Group IV ((+)ssRNA)
Family: Togaviridae
Genus: Alphavirus
Species: Chikungunya virus

Chikungunya is a relatively rare form of viral fever caused by an alphavirus that is spread by mosquito bites from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, though recent research by the Pasteur Institute in Paris claims the virus has suffered a mutation that enables it to be transmitted by Aedes albopictus (Tiger mosquito). This was the cause of the plague in the Indian Ocean and a threat to the Mediterranean coast at present, requiring urgent meetings of health officials in the region. The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... // A00-A79 - Bacterial infections, and other intestinal infectious diseases, and STDs (A00-A09) Intestinal infectious diseases (A00) Cholera (A01) Typhoid and paratyphoid fevers (A010) Typhoid fever (A02) Other Salmonella infections (A03) Shigellosis (A04) Other bacterial intestinal infections (A040) Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infection (A045) Campylobacter enteritis (A046) Enteritis due to Yersinia... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The Disease Bold textDatabase is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... Virus classification involves naming and placing viruses into a taxonomic system. ... An RNA virus is a virus that either uses RNA as its genetic material, or whose genetic material passes through an RNA intermediate during replication. ... Genera Alphavirus Rubivirus The Togaviridae are a family of viruses, including the following genera: Genus Alphavirus; type species: Sindbis virus, Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Western equine encephalitis virus, Ross River virus, Onyongnyong virus Genus Rubivirus; type species: Rubella virus The genome of the Togaviridae viruses is a linear... In biology and immunology, an alphavirus (pronounced alph-AV-ir-rus) belongs to the group IV Togaviridae family of viruses, according to the system of classification based on viral genome composition introduced by David Baltimore in 1971. ... Groups I: dsDNA viruses II: ssDNA viruses III: dsRNA viruses IV: (+)ssRNA viruses V: (-)ssRNA viruses VI: ssRNA-RT viruses VII: dsDNA-RT viruses A virus (from the Latin noun virus, meaning toxin or poison) is a microscopic particle (ranging in size from 20 - 300 nm) that can infect the... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... In biology and immunology, an alphavirus (pronounced alph-AV-ir-rus) belongs to the group IV Togaviridae family of viruses, according to the system of classification based on viral genome composition introduced by David Baltimore in 1971. ... Diversity 41 genera Genera See text. ... joyce This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... This article is about the insect; for the WWII aircraft see De Havilland Mosquito. ... The Pasteur Institute (French: Institut Pasteur) is a French non-profit private foundation dedicated to the study of biology, microorganisms, diseases and vaccines. ... Binomial name Aedes albopictus Skuse, 1895 Aedes albopictus (Family Culicidae), the Asian tiger mosquito or forest day mosquito, is characterized by its black and white striped legs and small, black and white body. ... Look up plague in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Contents

Etymology

The name is derived from the Makonde word meaning "that which bends up" in reference to the stooped posture developed as a result of the arthritic symptoms of the disease. The disease was first described by Marion Robinson[1] and W.H.R. Lumsden[2] in 1955, following an outbreak on the Makonde Plateau, along the border between Tanganyika and Mozambique, in 1952. Chikungunya is closely related to O'nyong'nyong virus[3]. The Makonde are an ethnic group in southeast Tanzania and northern Mozambique. ... While not moving, a human can be in one of the following main positions. ... Arthritis (from Greek arthro-, joint + -itis, inflammation; plural: arthritides) is a group of conditions where there is damage caused to the joints of the body. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... Flag of Tanganyika Tanganyika was an East African republic within the Commonwealth of Nations, named after Lake Tanganyika, which formed its western border. ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Onyongnyong virus was first isolated by the Uganda Virus Research Institute in Entebbe, Uganda. ...


Linguistic confusion

According to Lumsden's initial 1955 report about the epidemiology of the disease, the term chikungunya is derived from the Makonde root verb kungunyala, meaning to dry up or become contorted. In concurrent research, Robinson glossed the Makonde term more specifically as "that which bends up." Subsequent authors apparently overlooked the references to the Makonde language and assumed that the term derived from Swahili, the lingua franca of the region. The erroneous attribution of the term as a Swahili word has been repeated in numerous print sources; Google lists over 15,000 results in a search for "chikungunya swahili". Many other erroneous spellings and forms of the term are in common use including "Chicken guinea", "Chicken gunaya," and "Chickengunya". Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... Epidemiology is the study of factors affecting the health and illness of populations, and serves as the foundation and logic of interventions made in the interest of public health and preventive medicine. ... The Makonde are an ethnic group in southeast Tanzania and northern Mozambique. ... A Gloss–word, phrase, (or syllable), is the dictionary entry for that word. ... The Makonde are an ethnic group in southeast Tanzania and northern Mozambique. ... The Makonde are an ethnic group in southeast Tanzania and northern Mozambique. ... Swahili (also called Kiswahili; see Kiswahili for a discussion of the nomenclature) is an agglutinative Bantu language widely spoken in East Africa. ... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ... Not to be confused with googol. ...


Impact

Chikungunya is generally not fatal. However, in 2005-2006, 200 deaths were associated with chikungunya on Réunion island and a widespread outbreak in India, primarily in Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Kerala, and Andhra Pradesh. After flood and heavy rains in Rajasthan, India in August 2006, thousands of cases were detected in Rajsamand, Bhilwara, Udaipur, and Chittorgarh districts and also in adjoining regions of Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh, and in the neighbouring country of Sri Lanka. In the southern Indian state of Kerala, 125 deaths were attributed to Chikungunya with the majority of the casualties reported in the district of Alapuzha, primarily in Cherthala. In December 2006, an outbreak of 3,500 confirmed cases occurred in Maldives, and over 60,000 cases in Sri Lanka, with over 80 deaths. [1]. In October 2006 more than a dozen cases of Chikungunya were reported in Pakistan. A recent outbreak of the disease during June 2007 in Pathanamthitta, Kottayam and Alappuzha districts of South Kerala, India claimed more than 50 lives. It is confirmed officially that there are 7000 confirmed Chikungunya patients in these areas. Unofficial reports suggest that more than one hundred thousand are suffering from symptoms of chikungunya.[citation needed] Roamers are there telling that radio active waste from Tamil Nadu was deposited at the outskirts of this region which made the mosquitos to mutate and spread the disease like any thing..till now all the infected people are suffering from sever body pain and swelling The European Network for Diagnostics of "Imported" Viral Diseases [2] claims new phylogenetic variants of virus which are fatal have been identified on Réunion. [3] Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... , Karnātakā   (Kannada: ಕನಾ೯ಟಕ) (IPA: ) is one of the four southern states of India. ... , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ... , Andhra Pradesh (Telugu: , Urdu: ) or AP, the Rice Bowl of India, is a state in southern India. ... , Rājasthān (DevanāgarÄ«: राजस्थान, IPA: )   is the largest state of the Republic of India in terms of area. ... Rajsamand is a town of Rajasthan state of western India. ... , Bhilwara is a town in Mewar region of Rajasthan, India, 600 km from Delhi. ... The Lake Palace in Udaipur Udaipur (उदयपुर) is a city in Rajasthan, India. ... Chittorgarh fort Chittorgarh (also Chittor, Chittaur, or Chittaurgarh) is an ancient city in Rajasthan state of western India. ... , Gujarat (Gujarati: , IPA:  ) is a state in the Republic of India. ... , Madhya Pradesh (abbreviated as MP)   (HindÄ«: मध्य प्रदेश, English: , IPA: ), often called the Heart of India, is a state in central India. ... Alappuzha, also known as Alleppey, is a town in Alappuzha District of Kerala state of southern India. ... Cherthala (formerly known as Shertallai) is a city and a municipality in Alappuzha district in the state of Kerala, India. ... For the district with the same name, see Pathanamthitta district Pathanamthitta is a city and a municipality in Pathanamthitta district in the Indian state of Kerala. ... For the district with the same name, see Kottayam District. ... Church Paddy fields For the district with the same name, see Alappuzha District. ...


Symptoms

The Aedes aegypti mosquito

The symptoms of Chikungunya include fever which can reach 39°C, (102.2°F) a petechial or maculopapular rash usually involving the limbs and trunk, and arthralgia or arthritis affecting multiple joints which can be debilitating. The symptoms could also include headache, conjunctival injection, and slight photophobia. In the present epidemic in the states of Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu, India, high fever and crippling joint pain are the prevalent complaint. The fever typically lasts for two days and abruptly comes down. However, other symptoms, namely joint pain, intense headache, insomnia and an extreme degree of prostration last for a variable period, usually for about 5 to 7 days. But, patients have complained joint pains for much longer time periods depending on age of the patient. With younger patients recovering within 5 to 15 days and middle aged recovering in 1 to 2.5 months and more for old people. It has been observed that the severity of the disease as well as its duration is less in younger patients and pregnant women. No untoward effects of pregnancy is noticed following the infection. Download high resolution version (2391x1895, 752 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2391x1895, 752 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... A petechia (puh-TEE-kee-uh, plural petechiae puh-TEE-kee-eye) is a small red or purple spot on the body, caused by a minor hemorrhage (broken capillary blood vessels). ... A rash that is maculopapular. ... A rash is a change in skin which affects its color, appearance or texture. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A headache (cephalalgia in medical terminology) is a condition of pain in the head; sometimes neck or upper back pain may also be interpreted as a headache. ... Photophobia (also light sensitivity) or fear of light, is a symptom of excessive sensitivity to light and the aversion to sunlight or well-lit places. ... This article is about the sleeping disorder. ...


Dermatological manifestations observed in a recent outbreak of Chikungunya fever in Southern India (Dr. Arun Inamadar, Dr. Aparna Palit, Dr.V.V. Sampagavi, Dr. Raghunath S, Dr. N.S. Deshmukh), Western India (Surat) (Western India reported by Dr. Buddhadev) and Eastern India (Puri) (Dr. Milon Mitra et al) includes the following: Dermatology (from Greek derma, skin) is a branch of medicine dealing with the skin and its appendages (hair, nails, sweat glands etc). ...

  • Maculopapular rash
  • Nasal blotchy erythema
  • Freckle-like pigmentation over centro-facial area
  • Flagellate pigmentation on face and extremities
  • Lichenoid eruption and hyperpigmentation in photodistributed areas
  • Multiple aphthous-like ulcers over scrotum, crural areas and axilla.
  • Lympoedema in acral distribution (bilateral/unilateral)
  • Multiple ecchymotic spots (Children)
  • Vesiculobullous lesions (infants)
  • Subungual hemorrhage
  • Photo Urticaria
  • Acral Urticaria
  • Cephalgia
  • Lumbago
  • Vomiting
  • Epistaxis and haemetemesis

Histopathologically, pigmentary changes, maculopapular rash, lichenoid rash, aphthous-like ulcers show lymphocytic infiltration around dermal blood vessels (Inamadar et al). Pedal oedema (swelling of legs) is observed in many patients, the cause of which remains obscure as it is not related to any cardiovascular, renal or hepatic abnormalities. A rash that is maculopapular. ... Erythema is an abnormal redness of the skin caused by capillary congestion. ... Freckled twins: Predisposition to freckles is genetic and is related to the presence of the MC1R gene variant. ... Flagellata from Ernst Haeckels Artforms of Nature, 1904 Parasitic excavate (Giardia lamblia) Green alga (Chlamydomonas) Flagellates are cells with one or more whip-like organelles called flagella. ... Endoscopic images of a duodenal ulcer. ... In some male mammals, the scrotum is a protuberance of skin and muscle containing the testicles. ... The armpit (or axilla) is the area on the human body directly under the area where the arm connects to the shoulder. ... Skin lesions caused by Chickenpox A lesion is any abnormal tissue found on or in an organism, usually damaged by disease or trauma. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Treatment

There is no specific treatment for Chikungunya. Vaccine trials were carried out in 2000, but funding for the project was discontinued and there is no vaccine currently available. A serological test for Chikungunya is available from the University of Malaya in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to establish immunity to a disease. ... Serology is the scientific study of blood serum. ... The University of Malaya (or Universiti Malaya in Malay; commonly abbreviated as UM) is the oldest university in Malaysia, and is situated on a 750 acre (3. ... Nickname: Motto: Maju dan makmur (Malay: Progress and Prosper) Location in Malaysia Coordinates: , Country Malaysia State Federal Territory Establishment 1857 Granted city status 1974 Government  - Mayor (Datuk Bandar) Datuk Abdul Hakim Borhan From 14 December 2006 Area  - City 243. ...


Chloroquine is gaining ground as a possible treatment for the symptoms associated with Chikungunya and as an antiviral agent to combat the Chikungunya virus. According to the University of Malaya, "In unresolved arthritis refractory to aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, chloroquine phosphate (250 mg/day) has given promising results." [4] Research by Italian scientist, Andrea Savarino, and his colleagues in addition a French government press release in March 2006 [5] have added more credence to the claim that chloroquine may be effective in treating Chikungunya. The CDC fact sheet on Chikungunya advises against using Aspirin. Ibuprofen, Naproxen and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are recommended for arthritic pain and fever. Chloroquine is a 4-aminoquinoline drug long used in the treatment or prevention of malaria. ... The University of Malaya (or Universiti Malaya in Malay; commonly abbreviated as UM) is the oldest university in Malaysia, and is situated on a 750 acre (3. ... Arthritis (from Greek arthro-, joint + -itis, inflammation; plural: arthritides) is a group of conditions where there is damage caused to the joints of the body. ... Aspirin, or acetylsalicylic acid (IPA: ), (acetosal) is a drug in the family of salicylates, often used as an analgesic (to relieve minor aches and pains), antipyretic (to reduce fever), and as an anti-inflammatory. ... Chloroquine is a 4-aminoquinoline drug long used in the treatment or prevention of malaria. ... Chloroquine is a 4-aminoquinoline drug long used in the treatment or prevention of malaria. ...


Infected persons should limit further exposure to mosquito bites, stay indoors and under a mosquito net. Further, "supportive care with rest is indicated during the acute joint symptoms. Movement and mild exercise tend to improve stiffness and morning arthralgia, but heavy exercise may exacerbate rheumatic symptoms." [6] Arthralgia remains troublesome even after 8 months. A joint is the location at which two or more bones make contact. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Rheumatism or Rheumatic disorder is a non-specific term for medical problems affecting the heart, bones, joints, kidney, skin and lung. ...


Homoeopathy claims to have successful treatment for chikungunya. As they treat on symptomatology and not the diagnosis, they claim to have many medicines successful for prevention and cure of chikungunya.


Epidemiology

Chikungunya was first described in Tanzania, Africa in 1952. The first outbreak in India was in 1963 in Calcutta.[4] An outbreak of chikungunya was also discovered in Port Klang in Malaysia in 1999 affecting 27 people [7] [8]. 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Virus outbreaks occur when a virus bypasses infection control measures and a relatively high number of infections are observed where no cases or sporadic cases occurred in the past. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ... Port Klang (Malay: Pelabuhan Klang) is the main port of Malaysia, located in the district of Klang in the state of Selangor. ... Year 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar). ...


Preventive measures

The most effective means of prevention are those that protect against any contact with the disease-carrying mosquitos. These include using insect repellent containing NNDB, DEET or permethrin, wearing long sleeves and trousers (pants), and securing screens on windows and doors. It's also important to empty stagnant water where mosquitoes breed. [9]. NNDB, ostensibly standing for Notable Names Database, produced by Soylent Communications, is an online database of biographical details of notable people. ... Meta-N,N-diethyl toluamide, abbreviated DEET, is an insect-repellent chemical. ... Permethrin is a common synthetic chemical, widely used as an insecticide and acaricide and as an insect repellent. ...


See also

Dengue fever (IPA: ) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) are acute febrile diseases, found in the tropics, with a geographical spread similar to malaria. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Robinson Marion (1955). "An Epidemic of Virus Disease in Southern Province, Tanganyika Territory, in 1952-53; I. Clinical Features". Trans Royal Society Trop Med Hyg 49 (1): 28-32. 
  2. ^ Lumsden WHR (1955). "An Epidemic of Virus Disease in Southern Province, Tanganyika Territory, in 1952-53; II. General Description and Epidemiology". Trans Royal Society Trop Med Hyg 49 (1): 33-57. 
  3. ^ Vanlandingham DL, Hong C, Klingler K, Tsetsarkin K, McElroy KL, Powers AM, Lehane MJ, Higgs S (2005). "Differential infectivities of o'nyong-nyong and chikungunya virus isolates in Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes". Am J Trop Med Hyg 72 (5): 616-21. PubMed. 
  4. ^ Chikungunya-History. Retrieved on 2007-05-20.

1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

General information

News reports

  • Chikungunya fever epidemic in Reunion Island (FR)
  • French pledge for disease island (BBC article)
  • Articles on Chikungunya in Seychelles
  • Madagascar hit by mosquito virus (BBC article)
  • Medindia.net
  • [10]
  • [11]
  • European network for diagnosis of imported viral diseases

  Results from FactBites:
 
Chikungunya - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1707 words)
Chikungunya is a relatively rare form of viral fever caused by an alphavirus that is spread by mosquito bites from the Aedes aegypti mosquito, though recent research by the Pasteur Institute in Paris claims the virus has suffered a mutation that enables it to be transmitted by Aedes Albopictus (Tiger mosquito).
Chikungunya was first described in Tanzania, Africa in 1952.
Chikungunya spread as an epidemic in Vidarbha in july 2006 and is ever growing up to date(26 aug 2006).It is spread in such in a large extent that the medical services are being unsufficient for it.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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