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Encyclopedia > Chiffchaff
iChiffchaff
Western Common Chiffchaff,Phylloscopus collybita collybita
Western Common Chiffchaff,
Phylloscopus collybita collybita
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Sylviidae
Genus: Phylloscopus
Species: P. collybita
Binomial name
Phylloscopus collybita
(Vieillot, 1817)

The Common Chiffchaff or simply Chiffchaff, Phylloscopus collybita, is a common and widespread leaf warbler which breeds throughout northern and temperate Europe and Asia. It is probably the best-known of all Old World warblers. Image File history File links Phylloscopus_collybita. ... The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species continuing to survive either in the present day or the future. ... Image File history File links Status_iucn3. ... Least Concern (LC) is an IUCN category assigned to species or lower taxa which do not qualify for any other category. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... Phyla Subregnum Parazoa Porifera Subregnum Eumetazoa Placozoa Orthonectida Rhombozoa Radiata (unranked) Ctenophora Cnidaria Bilateria (unranked) Acoelomorpha Myxozoa Superphylum Deuterostomia Chordata Hemichordata Echinodermata Chaetognatha Xenoturbellida Superphylum Ecdysozoa Kinorhyncha Loricifera Priapulida Nematoda Nematomorpha Onychophora Tardigrada Arthropoda Superphylum Platyzoa Platyhelminthes Gastrotricha Rotifera Acanthocephala Gnathostomulida Micrognathozoa Cycliophora Superphylum Lophotrochozoa Sipuncula Nemertea Phoronida Ectoprocta Bryozoa... {{{subdivision_ranks}}} See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... Aves redirects here. ... Families Many, see text A passerine is a bird of the giant order Passeriformes. ... Genus Many: see text The Old World Warblers, family Sylviidae, are a group of more than 280 small insectivorous passerine bird species. ... Species many, see list Leaf warblers are very small insectivorous birds belonging to the genus Phylloscopus of the Old World warbler family Sylviidae. ... In biology, binomial nomenclature is the formal method of naming species. ... Louis Jean Pierre Vieillot (May 10, 1748 - 1831) was a French ornithologist. ... 1817 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Species See text Leaf warblers are very small insectivorous birds belonging to the genus Phylloscopus of the Old World warbler family Sylviidae. ... World map showing Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of the Earth. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... Genus Many: see text The Old World Warblers, family Sylviidae, are a group of more than 280 small insectivorous passerine bird species. ...


This warbler is less strongly migratory and hardier than most leaf warblers; northern breeders winter in southern and western Europe (north to Britain), southern Asia and north Africa. Along with the Sand Martin, it is the first passerine to return in the spring, and one of the last to leave in late autumn. Genus Many: see text The Old World Warblers, family Sylviidae, are a group of more than 280 small insectivorous passerine bird species. ... Flock of Barnacle Geese during autumn migration Many species of birds undertake seasonal journeys of various lengths, a phenomenon known as Bird migration. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa. ... Binomial name Riparia riparia (Linnaeus, 1758) The Sand Martin (Riparia riparia) is a migratory passerine bird in the swallow family. ... Families Many, see text A passerine is a bird of the giant order Passeriformes. ...


The Chiffchaff is a bird of open woodlands with some taller trees and ground cover for nesting. Its habitat is quite specific, and even its near relatives do not share it. The Willow Warbler prefers younger trees, and the Wood Warbler less undergrowth. Aves redirects here. ... Binomial name Phylloscopus trochilus (Linnaeus, 1758) The Willow Warbler, Phylloscopus trochilus , is a very common and widespread leaf warbler which breeds throughout northern and temperate Europe and Asia. ... This article refers to the Eurasian leaf warbler. ...


The Chiffchaff's nest is built in low shrub, and the four to seven eggs are incubated by the female for 13-14 days to hatching, with another 14-15 days until the chicks fledge. The male is inquisitive and fearless, attacking dangerous predators like the Stoat if they approach the nest. Binomial name Mustela erminea Linnaeus, 1758 The stoat (Mustela erminea), also known as the short-tailed weasel or the wild otter, is a small mammal of the family Mustelidae. ...


Like most Old World warblers, this small species is insectivorous, moving restlessly though foliage or briefly hovering.


This is a typical leaf warbler in appearance, 10-12 cm long, greenish brown above and off-white below. It is very similar to the Willow Warbler, Phylloscopus trochilus, but non-singing birds can be distinguished from that species by their dark legs, fine dark bill, dumpy shape and short primary projection. They also dip their tail much more often.


This warbler gets its name from its simple song, a repetitive cheerful "chiff-chaff". This song is one of the first avian signs that spring has returned.


Systematics

Previously, the Chiffchaff contained additional subspecies from the Canary Islands, the Iberian Peninsula, and the Caucasus. These have been elevated to full species rank more recently (Clement & Helbig 1998, Sangster et al. 2001): In zoology, as in other branches of biology, subspecies is the rank immediately subordinate to a species. ... Canaries redirects here. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe. ... The Ethnolinguistic patchwork of the modern Caucasus - CIA map Russia Georgia Azerbaijan (Azer. ...

Found in Portugal and Spain, west of a line stretching roughly from the western Pyrenees (Salomon 1989) via the Sistema Ibérico to the Mediterranean; the Iberian and Common Chiffchaffs co-occur in a narrow band along this line (Balmori et al 2002). Apart from the northernmost section, the precise course of the contact zone is not well-documented. A long-distance migrant, this species winters in western Africa. It was initially believed to be named P. brehmii, but the type specimen of that taxon is not an individual of the Iberian Chiffchaff[citation needed].
It differs in vocalizations (Salomon 1989, Salomon & Hemim 1992, Helbig et al. 1996), external morphology (Salomon et al. 1997), and mtDNA sequences (Helbig et al. 1996, 2001). There is little hybridization in the contact zone (Salomon 1989, Salomon & Hemim 1992) and hybrids apparently show much decreased fitness (Helbig et al. 2001); hybrid females appear to be sterile according to Haldane's Rule (Helbig et al. 1993). Regarding the latter aspect, it is interesting to note that the Iberian Chiffchaff apparently is the oldest lineage of chiffchaffs and quite distinct from the Common Chiffchaff (Helbig et al. 1996).
Formerly occurring on the major Canary Islands, this species is resident all-year round and does not migrate. Two subspecies are known, the western Phylloscopus canariensis canariensis of El Hierro, La Palma, La Gomera, Tenerife, and Gran Canaria and the eastern Phylloscopus canariensis exsul of Lanzarote and possibly Fuerteventura. The latter, which might have been a distinct species (Sangster et al. 2001), became extinct in 1986 at latest, probably much earlier.
The species is differentiated by morphological, bioacoustical and genetical characteristics (Helbig et al. 1996), and of course does not co-occur with any other chiffchaffs.
It is found in the Caucasus (P. s. lorenzii) and Himalaya (P. s. sindianus) mountain ranges. P. s. lorentzii and the Caucasus Common Chiffchaff P. c. caucasicus co-occur in a small area in the Western Caucasus, but interbreed hardly ever if at all (Martens 1982). This species is an altitudinal migrant, remaining in the same general area all year but moving to lower altitudes in winter.
It differs in vocalizations (Martens & Hänel 1981, Martens 1982), external morphology (Cramp 1992), and mtDNA sequences (Helbig et al. 1996). The Mountain chiffchaff's subspecies appear to be distinct vocally (Martens 1982), and also show some difference in mtDNA sequences (Helbig et al. 1996); they are maintained at subspecies rank pending further research (Sangster et al. 2001).

The greyer eastern Common Chiffchaff subspecies Siberian Chiffchaff, Phylloscopus (collybita) tristis, from Siberia is sometimes considered to be a full species and has a very distinct call, song, and plumage, being closer to P. s. sindianus in these respects (Martens 1982, Helbig et al. 1996); P. (c.) tristis and P. c. collybita do not recognize each other's songs (Schubert 1982, Martens & Meincke 1989). The Common Chiffchaff subspecies P. c. abietinus, which occurs in Scandinavia and northern Russia, is intermediate in appearance, but has the same calls and song as the nominate subspecies. Pending resolution of the status of P. (c.) fulvescens which is found where the ranges of abietinus and tristis connect and may (Marova & Leonovich 1993) or may not (Martens & Meincke 1989) be a hybrid between these, tristis is maintained in P. collybita (Sangster et al. 2001). Binomial name Phylloscopus collybita (Vieillot, 1817) The Chiffchaff, Phylloscopus collybita, is a common and widespread leaf warbler which breeds throughout the northern and temperate Europe and Asia. ... Central Pyrenees. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Flock of Barnacle Geese during autumn migration Many species of birds undertake seasonal journeys of various lengths, a phenomenon known as Bird migration. ... Type specimens When a new species is discovered, more important than creating a new and unique name for the species is developing a reasonably detailed description. ... A taxon (plural taxa), or taxonomic unit, is a grouping of organisms (named or unnamed). ... Comparative anatomy is the study of similarities and differences in organisms. ... Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is DNA which is not located in the nucleus of the cell but in the mitochondria. ... part of a DNA sequence A DNA sequence (sometimes genetic sequence) is a succession of letters representing the primary structure of a real or hypothetical DNA molecule or strand, The possible letters are A, C, G, and T, representing the four nucleotide subunits of a DNA strand (adenine, cytosine, guanine... // In biology, hybrid has two meanings. ... Fitness (often denoted in population genetics models) is a central concept in evolutionary theory. ... Infertility is the inability to naturally conceive a child or to carry a pregnancy to full term. ... Haldanes rule relating to hybrids of species and to extended to speciation in evolutionary theory is easily stated: It was originally formulated in 1922 by the British evolutionary biologist J. B. S. Haldane; since it appears to be usually but not universally true, it is described as a rule... Binomial name Phylloscopus canariensis (Hartwig, 1886) The Canary Islands Chiffchaff (Phylloscopus canariensis) is endemic to the Canary Islands, Spain. ... Hierro redirects here. ... Satellite image of La Palma, with the Caldera de Taburiente visible (north is to the lower right). ... La Gomera is the second smallest island of the Canary Islands in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Africa. ... Flag of Tenerife Tenerife, a Spanish island, is the largest of the seven Canary Islands in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Africa. ... Gran Canaria, rarely Grand Canary (archaic), is the third largest island of the Canary Islands, an archipelago located in the Atlantic Ocean 210 km from the northwest coast of Africa and belonging to Spain. ... Trinomial name Phylloscopus canariensis exsul (Hartert, 1907) Synonyms Phylloscopus collybita exsul The Eastern Canary Islands Chiffchaff or Lanzarote Island Chiffchaff (Phylloscopus canariensis exsul) was a subspecies of the Canary Islands Chiffchaff endemic to the island of Lanzarote - and possibly also Fuerteventura - in the Canary Islands, Spain. ... Lanzarote, a Spanish island, is the easternmost of the Canary Islands, in the Atlantic Ocean ca. ... Fuerteventura, a Spanish island, is one of the Canary Islands, in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Africa. ... In biology and ecology, extinction is the ceasing of existence of a species or group of species. ... 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Binomial name Phylloscopus collybita (Vieillot, 1817) The Chiffchaff, Phylloscopus collybita, is a common and widespread leaf warbler which breeds throughout the northern and temperate Europe and Asia. ... The Ethnolinguistic patchwork of the modern Caucasus - CIA map Russia Georgia Azerbaijan (Azer. ... Perspective view of the Himalaya and Mount Everest as seen from space looking south-south-east from over the Tibetan Plateau. ... Comparative anatomy is the study of similarities and differences in organisms. ... Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is DNA which is not located in the nucleus of the cell but in the mitochondria. ... part of a DNA sequence A DNA sequence (sometimes genetic sequence) is a succession of letters representing the primary structure of a real or hypothetical DNA molecule or strand, The possible letters are A, C, G, and T, representing the four nucleotide subunits of a DNA strand (adenine, cytosine, guanine... Siberian Federal District (darker red) and the broadest definition of Siberia (red) Udachnaya pipe Siberia (Russian: , Sibir; Tatar: ) is a vast region of Russia constituting almost all of Northern Asia. ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ...


References

  • BirdLife International (2004). Phylloscopus collybita. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. Retrieved on 12 May 2006. Database entry includes justification for why this species is of least concern
  • Balmori, Alfonso; Cuesta, Miguel Ángel & Caballero, José María (2002): Distribución de los mosquiteros ibérico (Phylloscopus brehmii) y europeo (Phylloscopus collybita) en los bosques de ribera de Castilla y León (España). [Article in Spanish with English abstract]. Ardeola 49(1): 19-27. PDF fulltext
  • Clement, P. & Helbig, Andreas J. (1998): Taxonomy and identification of chiffchaffs in the Western Palearctic. Brit. Birds 91: 361–376.
  • Cramp, S. (ed.) (1992): The Birds of the Western Palearctic, Vol. 6. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • Helbig, Andreas J.; Salomon, Marc; Wink, Michael & Bried, Joël (1993): Absence de flux genique mitochondrial entre le Pouillots "veloces" medio-européen et ibérique (Aves: Phylloscopus collybita, P. (c.) brehmii); implications taxonomiques. Résultats tirés de la PCR et du séquencage d'ADN. C. R. Acad. Sci. III 316: 205-210. PDF fulltext
  • Helbig, Andreas J.; Martens, Jochen; Seibold, I.; Henning, F.; Schottler, B. & Wink, Michael (1996): Phylogeny and species limits in the Palearctic Chiffchaff Phylloscopus collybita complex: mitochondrial genetic differentiation and bioacoustic evidence. Ibis 138(4): 650–666.
  • Helbig, Andreas J.; Salomon, Marc; Bensch, S. & Seibold, I. (2001): Male-biased gene flow across an avian hybrid zone: evidence from mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 14: 277–287. DOI:10.1046/j.1420-9101.2001.00273.x PDF fulltext
  • Marova, I. M. & Leonovich, V. V. (1993) [Hybridization between Siberian (Phylloscopus collybita tristis) and East European (Ph. collybita abietinus) Chiffchaffs in the area of sympatry.] Sbornik Trudov Zoologicheskogo Muzeya, Moskovskogo Gosudarstvennogo Universiteta 30: 147–163. [Article in Russian]
  • Martens, Jochen (1982): Ringförmige Arealüberschneidung und Artbildung beim Zilpzalp, Phylloscopus collybita. Das lorenzii-Problem. Zeitschrift für Zoologische Systematik und Evolutionsforschung 20: 82–100. [Article in German]
  • Martens, Jochen & Hänel, Sabine (1981): Gesangformen und Verwandtschaft der asiatischen Zilpzalpe Phylloscopus collybita abietinus und Ph. c. sindianus. Journal für Ornithologie 122(4): 403–427. [Article in German with English abstract] DOI:10.1007/BF01652928 (HTML abstract)
  • Martens, Jochen & Meincke, C. (1989): Der sibirische Zilpzalp (Phylloscopus collybita tristis): Gesang und Reaktion einer mitteleuropäischen Population im Freilandversuch. Journal für Ornithologie 130(4): 455–473. [Article in German with English abstract] DOI:10.1007/BF01918465 (HTML abstract)
  • Salomon, Marc (1989): Song as a possible reproductive isolating mechanism between two parapatric forms. The case of the chiffchaffs Phylloscopus c. collybita and P. c. brehmii in the western Pyrenees. Behaviour 111(1-4): 270–290. HTML abstract
  • Salomon, Marc & Hemim, Y. (1992): Song variation in the Chiffchaffs (Phylloscopus collybita) of the western Pyrenees – the contact zone between collybita and brehmii forms. Ethology 92(4): 265–282. HTML abstract
  • Salomon, Marc; Bried, J.; Helbig, Andreas J. & Riofrio, J. (1997) Morphometric differentiation between male Common Chiffchaffs, Phylloscopus [c.] collybita Vieillot, 1817, and Iberian Chiffchaffs, P. [ c.] brehmii Homeyer, 1871, in a secondary contact zone (Aves: Sylviidae). Zoologischer Anzeiger 236: 25–36.
  • Sangster, George; Knox, Alan G.; Helbig, Andreas J. & Parkin, David T. (2002): Taxonomic recommendations for European birds. Ibis 144(1): 153–159. DOI:10.1046/j.0019-1019.2001.00026.x PDF fulltext
  • Schubert, M. (1982): Zur Lautgebung mehrerer zentralasiatischer Laubsänger-Arten (Phylloscopus; Aves, Sylviidae). Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum Berlin 58: 109–128. [Article in German]

The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species. ... The World Conservation Union or International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... This article is about British Birds magazine. ... Comptes rendus de lAcadémie des Sciences, or simply Comptes rendus, is a French scientific journal which has been published since 1835. ... Ibis (ISSN print 0019-1019; online 1474-919X), subtitled the International Journal of Avian Science, is the peer-reviewed scientific journal of the British Ornithologists Union. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Ibis (ISSN print 0019-1019; online 1474-919X), subtitled the International Journal of Avian Science, is the peer-reviewed scientific journal of the British Ornithologists Union. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

External links

  • BBC Science and Nature: BBC Chiffchaff site
  • BBC Science and Nature: Common Chiffchaff song (Real Audio streaming)
  • Internet Bird Collection: Common Chiffchaff videos
  • RSPB: Chiffchaff, Phylloscopus collybita

  Results from FactBites:
 
British Garden Birds - Chiffchaff (452 words)
Chiffchaffs are summer visitors to Britain, and are among the first migrant songbirds to arrive in the spring.
The population of Chiffchaffs fell in the 1960s and 1970s owing to harsh conditions in and around the Sahara, Africa.
Chiffchaffs are not frequent visitors to the garden, but we usually get at least one visiting either in the spring when they are returning from Africa or in the autumn as they head south.
BTO - Breeding Birds of the Wider Countryside: Chiffchaff (206 words)
BTO - Breeding Birds of the Wider Countryside: Chiffchaff
Chiffchaff abundance crashed in the late 1960s/early 1970s in common with that of other trans-Saharan warblers (Siriwardena et al.
After remaining stable for a decade, the population recovered strongly, and has continued to increase.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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