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Encyclopedia > Chieri
Chieri
Coat of Arms of Chieri
Country Italy
Region Piedmont
Province Turin
Altitude 305 m
Area 54 km²
Population
 - City
 - Density

34,312 (as of December 31, 2004)
595/km²
Time zone CET, UTC+1
Coordinates 45°01′N 07°49′E
Frazioni Pessione, Madonna della Scala
Telephone Prefix 0774
Postal Code 0028
Gentilic Sublacensi
Patron:
 - Saint
  -Day

Santa Maria delle Grazie
September 12
Mayor Agostino Gay
Website www.comune.chieri.to.it

Chieri is a town in the Province of Turin, Piedmont (Italy), located about 13 miles SE by rail and 8 miles by road from the town of Turin. Image File history File links Chieri-Stemma. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... The Regions of Italy were granted a degree of regional autonomy in the 1948 constitution, which states that the constitutions role is: to recognize, protect and promote local autonomy, to ensure that services at the State level are as decentralized as possible, and to adapt the principles and laws... Piedmont (Italian: Piemonte) is a region of northwestern Italy. ... In Italy, the province (in Italian: provincia) is an administrative division of an intermediate level, between municipality (comune) and region (Regione). ... Turin (It. ... Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. ... A square metre (US spelling: square meter) is by definition the area enclosed by a square with sides each 1 metre long. ... Density (symbol: ρ - Greek: rho) is a measure of mass per unit of volume. ... December 31 is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A time zone is a region of the Earth that has adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time. ... Central European Time (CET) is one of the names of UTC+1 time zone, 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... It has been suggested that leap second be merged into this article or section. ... A frazione, in Italy, is the name given in administrative law to a type of territorial subdivision of a comune; for other subdivisions, see municipio, circoscrizione, quartiere: these are the lowest subdivisions of the country. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... September 12 is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years). ... Turin (It. ... Piedmont (Italian: Piemonte) is a region of northwestern Italy. ...

Contents


History

Roman

The city of Chieri was founded around the 1st or 2nd Century AD as the Roman settlement of Carreum Potentia, which was sited nearby a prominent hill which later became known as San Giorgio and which grew to be the geographical focus of the city centre.


Roman Historian Pliny the Elder made reference to "Carreum quod Potentia cognominatur" in his work Naturalis Historia (Latin: "Natural Histories"), within his list of fortified settlements which then abounded in the section of Cisalpine Gaul located between the River Po and the Ligurian Apennines.
The portrait he painted therein was of the city as a prosperous Roman walled city, surrounded by cultivated farmlands and scattered agricultural settlements. Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19c portrait. ... Naturalis Historia Pliny the Elders Natural History is an encyclopedia written by Pliny the Elder. ... Cisalpine Gaul (Latin: Gallia Cisalpina, meaning Gaul this side of the Alps) was a province of the Roman Republic, in Emilia and Lombardy of modern-day northern Italy. ... Po redirects here, for alternate uses see Po (disambiguation). ... This is about the terrestrial mountain range. ...


The city underwent conversion to Christianity sometime in the 5th century, as recorded on a funeral slab dated from 488 AD. Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as recounted in the New Testament. ... // Overview Events Romulus Augustus, Last Western Roman Emperor 410: Rome sacked by Visigoths 452: Pope Leo I allegedly meets personally with Attila the Hun and convinces him not to sack Rome 439: Vandals conquer Carthage At some point after 440, the Anglo-Saxons settle in Britain. ... Events Theodoric the Great becomes king of the Ostrogoths. ...


Medieval

No further historical records exist regarding Chieri until the 10th century, when it came under feudal subjection to the Bishop of Turin. During the first half of the 11th century the city had an encircling defensive wall erected around it ( principally around the San Giorgio hill, which still constituted the city nucleus ), and also underwent a strengthening of the fortifications and tower atop the hill itself ( then known as the "Castrum Sancti Georgi" ). As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... A bishop is an ordained member of the Christian clergy who, in certain Christian churches, holds a position of authority. ... Turin (Italian: ; Piedmontese: Türín) is a major industrial city in north-western Italy, capital of the Piedmont region, located mainly on the west bank of the Po River. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ...


Outside the walls, on the plains surrounding the city, a church was erected dedicated to Santa Maria (Virgin Mary): this site was likely that of an earlier and more primitive Church dating from the Fourth century, which had itself replaced an earlier Roman Temple to the goddess Minerva which originally occupied the same site.
This period also experienced the construction of numerous quadrilateral towers, inside the perimeter of the walls, by the powerful families of the city, hence it became known as "Cittá delle Cento Torri" ("city of one hundred towers"): a handful of these Towers still survive to this day. The term Virgin Mary has several different meanings: Mary, the mother of Jesus, the historical and multi-denominational concept of Mary Blessed Virgin Mary, the Roman Catholic theological and doctrinal concept of Mary Marian apparitions shrines to the Virgin Mary Virgin Mary in Islam, the Islamic theological and doctrinal concept... (3rd century - 4th century - 5th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... Minerva and the Muses, by Hans Rottenhammer (1603). ...


During the 12th century the City allied itself with the more powerful city of Asti in fighting against the marquis Guglielmo V of Monferrato, himself allied by blood to Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor (Frederick Barbarossa or "the red-beard"): in revenge for this rebel alliance, Barbarossa besieged the city and in January 1155 conquered it, decimating its towers and fortifications, as well as massacring a significant portion of the population.
Popular legend has it that its present-day name was given by Barbarossa who, upon departing the city after ransacking it, looked back upon its ruins and asked "Ma tu, chi eri?" (Italian for "And you, who were you?") - although this story is most likely apocryphal. (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... Asti is a city and comune in the Piemonte or Piedmont region, in north-western Italy, about 80 kilometres west of Turin in the plain of the Tanaro river. ... Frederick Barbarossa in a 13th century Chronicle. ... Events Frederick I Barbarossa crowned Holy Roman Emperor. ...


Over the remainder of the 12th C., the city gradually gained independence from the rule and authority of the Bishop of Turin, and this resulted in the emergence of the free Republic of Chieri, which grew to have its own autonomous judicial and administrative institutions, similar to the numerous other Free Republic cities which existed in Italy during this period.


In the course of the 13th century, the Republic of Chieri experienced a period of substantial prosperity, and at that time was comparable in splendor and importance to the great medieval cities of Genoa, Asti and Pisa.
In 1238 the Republic was granted the status of "camera speciale" (Italian: "special chamber") by Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, which meant that the only authority the Republic would be subject to was that of the (very remote) Emperor. (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Location within Italy Genoa (Italian Genova, Genoese (dialect of Ligurian) Zena, French Gênes, German Genua, Spanish Génova, Galician Xénova) is a city and a seaport in northern Italy, the capital of the Province of Genoa and of the region of Liguria. ... Pisa is a city in Tuscany, central Italy, on the right bank of the mouth of the river Arno on the Tyrrhenian Sea. ... Events In the Iberian peninsula, James I of Aragon captures the city of Valencia September 28 from the Moors; the Moors retreat to Granada. ... Frederick II (December 26, 1194 – December 13, 1250), Holy Roman Emperor of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was pretender to the title of King of the Romans from 1212, unopposed holder of that monarchy from 1215, and Holy Roman Emperor from 1220 until his death in 1250. ...


Following growing violent internecine struggles between city factions to the end of that century, the Republic of Chieri, despite asserting its dominion over adjacent lands and castles and constructing a secondary ring of city walls, decreased in power and autonomy to the point that in 1339 the city made itself subject to King Roberto of Angiò: in doing so, it granted half of its lands and territories as feudal possession to Prince Iacopo of the house of Savoy-Acaia.
The city eventually passed in its entirety to the House of Savoy, when the line of Acaia died out. Events Emperor Go-Murakami ascends to the throne of Japan Kashmir is conquered by the muslims Births July 23 - King Louis I of Naples (d. ... The House of Savoy was a dynasty of nobles who traditionally had their domain in Savoy, a region between Piedmont, Italy, France and French-speaking Switzerland. ...


Renaissance

The 15th century brought Chieri a period of economic prosperity and a flourishing of the Arts with, among other endeavours, the rebuilding of the Church of Santa Maria into its present form as the Duomo (ie cathedral).
During this time the hill-top church of San Giorgio was also rebuilt into its current incarnation, and several works of Flemish art were brought into the area by rich city merchants. (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Duomo is a generic Italian term for a cathedral church. ...


The 16th century covered a period of succeeding plagues, epidemics, and wars, and (from 1551 to 1562) also brought French domination. During this period some of its citizens became followers of the Protestant Reformation started by Martin Luther, but this was quashed by strong opposition from Duke Emanuele Filiberto: it was in order to honour him, along with Charles Emmanuel I of Savoy, that the city towards the end of this century contructed a Triumphal Arch, still present on the main street (currently Via Vittorio Emanuele II). (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Events Russia, Reforming Synod of the metropolite Macaire, Orthodoxy: introduction of a calendar of the saints and an ecclesiastical law code ( Stoglav ) Major outbreak of the sweating sickness in England. ... Events Earliest English slave-trading expedition under John Hawkins. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which emerged in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Catholic Church in Western Europe. ... Luther at age 46 (Lucas Cranach the Elder, 1529) The Luther seal Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk, [1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer, whose teachings inspired the Reformation and deeply influenced the doctrines and culture of the Lutheran and Protestant traditions. ... ... Charles Emmanuel I (b. ... King Victor Emmanuel II of Italy Victor Emmanuel II (Italian: Vittorio Emanuele II; March 14, 1820—January 9, 1878) was the King of Piedmont, Savoy and Sardinia from 1849–1861, and King of Italy from 1861 until his death in 1878. ...


The year 1630 saw a terrible outbreak of the Bubonic Plague [see Article on the Italian Plague of 1629-1631], which is still commemorated in the ceremony of the Madonna Delle Grazie, occurring every year on September 12.
Despite this, the remainder of the 17th century also covered a fluorishing of artistic achievement, with the building of several churches and chapels in the Baroque style of architecture, as well as numerous paintings and sculptures. Events February 22 - Native American Quadequine introduces Popcorn to English colonists. ... Yersinia pestis seen at 2000x magnification. ... The Italian Plague of 1629-1631 was a series of outbreaks of bubonic plague from 1629 through 1631 in northern Italy. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Adoration, by Peter Paul Rubens: dynamic figures spiral down around a void: draperies blow: a whirl of movement lit in a shaft of light, rendered in a free bravura handling of paint. ...


Modern Era

In 1785 Chieri became a Principality under the control of the duke of Aosta.
The latter 18th century again brought French domination, this time under the conquests of Napoleon Bonaparte; but this period also witnessed the establishment of a major Textile mill, which consolidated and built upon the city's base as a medieval centre for Textile trade and manufacture. 1785 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Aosta Aosta (French: Aoste) is the principal city of the Valle dAosta in the Italian Alps, north of Turin. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Bonaparte as general Napoleon Bonaparte ( 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution and was the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from November 11, 1799 to May 18, 1804, then as Emperor of the French (Empereur des Français...


Numerous other textile factories followed in the late 19th century, with textile manufacture originating from Chieri playing a prominent role even in international Textile Fairs.
The year 1850 saw the demolition of the old medieval city gates and the privatisation of the city walls, which at that time still demarcated the limits of the entire city. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1850 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


In 1871 a railroad link was constructed to the city, partly due to contributions from the municipality and from wealthy citizens, in the form of the Chieri-Trofarello branch line: this was to serve the now very significant Textile industry of the city, with the building of the railway station also serving to initiate in the surrounding area the erection of the first city quarter built outside its walls. 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


The early 20th century brought the electrification of the Textile industries (1909), but also the rise of Fascism in Italy. World War II caused no direct bombardments to the city despite the relocation, from the nearby major industrial centre of Turin, of numerous factories and heavy industry manufacture; German occupation of the city followed the fall of Benito Mussolini in 1943, until its liberation by American forces. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Combatants Allies: Poland, British Commonwealth, France/Free France, Soviet Union, United States, China, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, and others Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8 million Civilian dead: 4 million Total dead: 12 million World War II... Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (July 29, 1883 – April 28, 1945) led Italy from 1922 to 1943. ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ...


Today

The post-war period experienced a huge increase in Chieri's population, as massive migration occurred between the 1950s and 1970s from the Veneto region and from Southern Italy (Italian: "Il Mezzogiorno"), to the major industrial centres of Northern Italy such as Milan and Turin and adjacent areas: this resulted in a population boom from approximately 14,000 immediately after the War, to 30,000 inhabitants in just under three decades. The 1950s were a decade that spanned the years 1951 through 1960. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1971 to 1980, inclusive. ... Vèneto is one of the twenty Regions of Italy. ... The Mezzogiorno or Southern Italy is the area of Italy south of Rome. ... Milan (Italian: Milano; Milanese: Milán) is the main city of northern Italy, and is located in the plains of Lombardy, the most populated and developed region in Italy. ...


The later years of the 20th C. also witnessed the decline of Textile industry in the city, as numerous Factories were forced to close from competitive pressure from the cheaper manufacturing centres of the Indian Subcontinent and the Far East. This is being counteracted by the establishment of a new industrial area outside the city, and also by a rediscovering and redeveloping of Chieri's significant cultural and historical heritage.


Today Chieri is a growing center for the provision of a varied portfolio of commercial, retail, financial, and tertiary services.


Main sights

Its Gothic cathedral, founded in 1037 and reconstructed in 1405, is the largest in Piedmont, and has a 13th century octagonal baptistery. Piedmont (Italian: Piemonte) is a region of northwestern Italy. ...


References

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

Template:Province of Turin Encyclopædia Britannica, the 11th edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
L'attività tessile a Chieri - Fondazione Tessile di Chieri | www.fondazionetessilchieri.com | official web site (398 words)
Around these main activities others had developed, strictly associated with farming: the growing of "gualdo"(a plant used in blue dyeing), silkworm breeding and the cultivation of the mulberry tree (probably introduced in Chieri by the noblewoman Sibilla, wife of Amedeo V, count of Savoy) and consequently the drawing and twisting of silk thread.
he Chieri manufacturer-merchants undertook to supply the large consumption goods, by containing the production costs., considering that fustian was a medium/low quality fabric, of a bluish colour, dyed with gualdo ("isatis tinctoria") exported through the port of Genoa all over the world.
Later, with the introduction of semi-mechanised processes, Chieri had a productive recovery, with the weaving mill set up by David Levi in 1809 in the building of the former Santa Chiara convent, and subsequently with the introduction of the Jacquard loom (about 1830).
Le macchine del tessile - Fondazione Tessile di Chieri | www.fondazionetessilchieri.com | official web site (533 words)
Spinning machines, mill and beam warpers, hand looms, sample books, measurement and other instruments, coming from private collections and from the donations of manufacturers, peculiar documents of the operation in one of the most ancient and uninterruptedly active places in Piedmont.
Several hand looms, with two or four heddles, and parts of looms are exhibited, with coeval accessories, including reed combs, fly and hand shuttles, and parts of Jacquard looms, whose use was introduced in Chieri in the first half of the XIX cent., that is quite early.
With this loom, typical in the history of the Chieri textile, weavers live together from the second half of the XVIII to the second half of the XIX cent.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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