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Encyclopedia > Chief Justice

The Chief Justice in many countries is the name for the presiding member of a Supreme Court in Commonwealth- or other countries with an Anglosaxon type of justice, such as the Supreme Court of the United States, the Supreme Court of Canada, the Supreme Court of New Zealand, the Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation (Mexico), or provincial or state supreme courts. In England and Wales and Northern Ireland, the equivalent position is the Lord Chief Justice and in Scotland the equivalent is the Lord President of the Court of Session. The supreme court in some countries, provinces, and states, is the highest court in that jurisdiction and functions as a court of last resort whose rulings cannot be appealed. ... The Supreme Court of the United States is the supreme court in the United States. ... The Supreme Court Building in Ottawa The Supreme Court of Canada (French: Cour suprême du Canada) is highest court of Canada and is the final court of appeal for all litigants in the Canadian justice system. ... The Supreme Court of New Zealand is the highest court of appeal in New Zealand, having formally come into existence at the beginning of 2004, and sitting for the first time on 1 July 2004. ... The Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation (SCJN) is the highest Federal court in the United Mexican States. ... The supreme court in some countries, provinces, and states, is the highest court in that jurisdiction and functions as a court of last resort whose rulings cannot be appealed. ... Dieu et mon droit (Royal motto) (French for God and my right)3 Northern Irelands location within the UK Official languages English, Irish, Ulster Scots Capital and largest city Belfast First Minister Office suspended Area  - Total Ranked 4th 13,843 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 4th 1,685... The Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales is the second-highest judge of the Courts of England and Wales, after the Lord Chancellor, and the presiding judge of Criminal Division of the Court of Appeal, and of the Queens Bench Division of the High Court. ... Royal motto: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) Scotlands location within the UK Languages English, Gaelic, Scots Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow First Minister Jack McConnell Area - Total - % water Ranked 2nd UK 78,782 km² 1. ... The Lord Justice General of Scotland is head of the High Court of Justiciary, Lord President of the Court of Session and head of the judiciary in Scotland. ...


The Chief Justice can be appointed to the post in a variety of different ways, but in many nations the position is commonly given to the senior-most justice in the court, while in the United States it is often the president's most important political nomination, subject to approval by the United States Senate; the title of this top American jurist, often incorrectly said to be "Chief Justice of the Supreme Court", is actually Chief Justice of the United States, by statute. Seal of the Senate The United States Senate is one of the two chambers of the Congress of the United States, the other being the House of Representatives. ... The Chief Justice of the United States is the head of the judicial branch of the government of the United States, and presides over the Supreme Court of the United States. ...


In some states the Chief Justice has another title, e.g. president of the Supreme Court. President is a title held by many leaders of organizations, companies, universities, and countries. ...

Contents


Competence

The Chief Justice is often responsible for serving as chair during private supreme court deliberations, and often is first to voice his opinion. However, most Supreme Courts are non-hierarchical, meaning the Chief Justice does not necessarily have any direct power of control over the actions of the other judges. His personal ruling is equal in weight to the rulings of any associate judges on the court.


In several countries the Chief Justice is second-in-line to the office of President or Governor General, should the current occupant die or resign, or third in line, as behind a Vice-President or Lieutenant-Governor-general.


Apart from their intrinsic role in litigation, they may have additional competences, such as swearing in high officials (almost the republican equivalent of a monarch's coronation mass).

  • An extraordinary historical was that of the Tripartite German-UK-US Protectorate of (West) Samoa, administered by the joint consuls of the three protecting powers, where he had the power to decide "any question ... respecting the rightful appointment and election of native Kings or any other Chief claiming authority over the islands, or respecting the validity of the power which the King or any Chief may claim in the exercise of his office." The chief justice was named by agreement of the three powers, or, failing their agreement, by the king of Sweden- the incumbents were: 2 January 1891 - 3 November 1893 Conrad Cedercrantz (Sweden, b. 1854 - d. 1932), 3 November 1893 - 1897 Henry Clay Ide (U.S., b. 1844 - d. 1921), 1897 - July 1899 William Lea Chambers (U.S., b. 1852 - d. 1933; 22 June 1898 - 31 December 1898 President of the Supervisory Committee), July 1899 - 1 March 1900 Luther Wood Osborn (acting) (former U.S. Consul, b. 1843 - d. 1901).

The term native as an adjective or noun has the following meanings. ...

List of Chief Justice positions

The Chief Justice of Australia is the senior justice of the High Court of Australia and the highest-ranking judicial officer in the Commonwealth of Australia. ... The Supreme Court of Canada consists of the Chief Justice of Canada and eight puisne Justices appointed by the Governor in Council (Governor General of Canada) from among superior court judges or from among barristers of at least ten years standing at the Bar of a province or territory. ... The Chief Justice is Fijis highest judicial officer. ... Executive President Vice-President Prime Minister Deputy Prime Minister The Union Ministries Legislative Parliament Rajya Sabha Chairman of the Rajya Sabha Lok Sabha Speaker of the House Judicial Supreme Court Chief Justice of the Supreme Court High Courts District Courts Constitution Fundamental Rights and Directive principles Regions States and territories... Chief Justice John L. Murray is the current Chief Justice of Ireland. ... The Chief Justice of New Zealand is the senior judge of the High Court of New Zealand, and presides over the Supreme Court of New Zealand. ... The Chief Justice of the Philippines is the head of the Judicial Branch of the government of the Philippines, and presides over the Supreme Court of the Philippines. ... The Chief Justice of South Africa is the top judge in South Africa, who exercises final authority over the functioning and management of all the courts. ... The Chief Justice of the United States is the head of the judicial branch of the government of the United States, and presides over the Supreme Court of the United States. ... The Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales is the second-highest judge of the Courts of England and Wales, after the Lord Chancellor, and the presiding judge of Criminal Division of the Court of Appeal, and of the Queens Bench Division of the High Court. ... The Four Courts The headquarters of the Irish judicial system since 1804. ... Lord Chief Justice of Northern Ireland (1922)- Rt Hon Sir Robert Carswell 1997- Rt Hon Lord Hutton 1988-1997 Major Rt Hon Lord Lowry 1971-1988 Rt Hon Lord McDermott 1951-1971 Rt Hon Sir James Andrews 1937-1951 Rt Hon Sir William Moore, Bt 1925-1937 Rt Hon Sir... The Lord Justice General of Scotland is head of the High Court of Justiciary, Lord President of the Court of Session and head of the judiciary in Scotland. ...

See also

Associate Justice or Puisne (pronounced puny) Justice is the title for a member of a judicial panel who is not the Chief Justice. ... ...

Sources and References

(sadly incomplete)

  • WorldStatesmen- here Samoa

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