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Encyclopedia > Chickenpox
Chickenpox
Classification and external resources
Child with varicella [chicken pox] disease
ICD-10 B01.
ICD-9 052
DiseasesDB 29118
MedlinePlus 001592
eMedicine ped/2385  derm/74, emerg/367
MeSH C02.256.466.175

Chickenpox is a highly contagious illness caused by primary infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV). It generally begins with conjunctival and catarrhal symptoms and then characteristic spots appearing in two or three waves, mainly on the body and head rather than the hands and becoming itchy raw pockmarks, small open sores which heal mostly without scarring. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (904x947, 74 KB) Summary Child with varicella disease (chickenpox). ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... // A00-A79 - Bacterial infections, and other intestinal infectious diseases, and STDs (A00-A09) Intestinal infectious diseases (A00) Cholera (A01) Typhoid and paratyphoid fevers (A010) Typhoid fever (A02) Other Salmonella infections (A03) Shigellosis (A04) Other bacterial intestinal infections (A040) Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infection (A045) Campylobacter enteritis (A046) Enteritis due to Yersinia... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The Disease Bold textDatabase is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... MedlinePlus (medlineplus. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... Species Human herpesvirus 3 (HHV-3) The Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is one of the eight herpes viruses known to affect humans (and other vertebrates). ... The conjunctiva is a membrane that covers the sclera (white part of the eye) and lines the inside of the eyelids. ... Catarrh is a discharge or mucus blockage caused by the swelling of the mucous membranes. ...


Chickenpox has a 10-22 day incubation period and is spread easily through aerosolized droplets from the nasopharynx of ill individuals or through direct contact with secretions from the rash. Following primary infection there is usually lifelong protective immunity from further episodes of chickenpox. The nasopharynx (nasal part of the pharynx) lies behind the nose and above the level of the soft palate: it differs from the oral and laryngeal parts of the pharynx in that its cavity always remains patent (open). ...


Chickenpox is rarely fatal, although it is generally more severe in adults than in children. Pregnant women and those with a suppressed immune system are at highest risk of serious complications. The most common late complication of chicken pox is shingles, caused by reactivation of the varicella zoster virus decades after the initial episode of chickenpox. Herpes zoster, colloquially known as shingles, is the reactivation of varicella zoster virus, leading to a crop of painful blisters over the area of a dermatome. ...

Contents

Signs and symptoms

Chickenpox is a highly contagious disease that spreads from person to person by direct contact or through the air from an infected person's coughing or sneezing. Touching the fluid from a chickenpox blister can also spread the disease. A person with chickenpox is contagious from one to five days before the rash appears until all blisters have formed scabs. This may take 5-10 days.[1] It takes from 10-20 days after contact with an infected person for someone to develop chickenpox.[2] For the packaging type, see Blister pack. ...


The chicken pox lesions (blisters) start as a two to four millimeter red papule which develops an irregular outline (a rose petal). A thin-walled, clear vesicle (dew drop) develops on top of the area of redness. This "dew drop on a rose petal" lesion is very characteristic for chickenpox. After about eight to 12 hours the fluid in the vesicle gets cloudy and the vesicle breaks leaving a crust. The fluid is highly contagious, but once the lesion crusts over, it is not considered contagious. The crust usually falls off after seven days sometimes leaving a crater-like scar. Although one lesion goes through this complete cycle in about seven days, another hallmark of chickenpox is the fact that new lesions crop up every day for several days. Therefore it may be a week before new lesions stop appearing and existing lesions crust over. Children are not to be sent back to school until all lesions have crusted over.[3] A papule is a small, solid and usually conical elevation of the skin. ...


Zoster, also known as shingles, is a reactivation of chickenpox and may also be a source of the virus for susceptible children and adults. It is not necessary to have physical contact with the infected person for the disease to spread. Those infected can spread chickenpox before they know they have the disease - even before any rash develops. People with chickenpox, in fact, can infect others from about two days before the rash develops until all the sores have crusted over, usually four or five days after the rash starts. Shingles redirects here, for other uses of the term, see Shingle. ...


Infection in Pregnancy and Neonates

Varicella infection in pregnant women can lead to viral transmission via the placenta and infection of the foetus. If infection occurs during the first 28 weeks of gestation, this can lead to foetal varicella syndrome (also known as congenital varicella syndrome). Effects on the foetus can range in severity from underdeveloped toes and fingers to severe anal and bladder malformation. Possible problems include:

Infection late in gestation or immediately post-partum is referred to as neonatal varicella. Maternal infection is associated with premature delivery. The risk of the baby developing the disease is greatest following exposure to infection in the period 7 days prior to delivery and up to 7 days post-partum. The neonate may also be exposed to the virus via infectious siblings or other contacts, but this is of less concern if the mother is immune. Newborns who develop symptoms are at a high risk of pneumonia and other serious complications of the disease. [4] Encephalitis is an acute inflammation of the brain, commonly caused by a viral infection. ... Hydrocephalus (water-head, term derived from Greek) is an abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles of the brain, usually due to blockage of CSF outflow in the ventricles or in the subarachoid space at the base of the brain. ... Aplasia is defective development resulting in the absence of all or part of an organ or tissue. ... Microphthalmia means small eyes. ... Cataract is also used to mean a waterfall or where the flow of a river changes dramatically. ... In medicine, Chorioretinitis is an inflammation of the choroid and retina of the eye. ... Optic atrophy is a pathological term and somewhat misleading. ... The Spinal cord nested in the vertebral column. ... Tendon reflex (or T-reflex) is an involuntary muscle contraction after its tendon is hit. ... Horners syndrome is a clinical syndrome caused by damage to the sympathetic nervous system. ... Hypoplasia is an incomplete or arrested development of an organ or a part [1]. It is descriptive of many medical conditions such as: Underdeveloped breasts during puberty. ... Look up Sphincter in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about scar tissue. ... Hypopigmentation is the loss of skin color. ...


Pathophysiology

Chickenpox is usually acquired by the inhalation of airborne respiratory droplets from an infected host. The highly contagious nature of VZV explains the epidemics of chickenpox that spread through schools as one child who is infected quickly spreads the virus to many classmates. High viral titers are found in the characteristic vesicles of chickenpox; thus, viral transmission may also occur through direct contact with these vesicles, although the risk is lower.


After initial inhalation of contaminated respiratory droplets, the virus infects the conjunctivae or the mucosae of the upper respiratory tract. Viral proliferation occurs in regional lymph nodes of the upper respiratory tract 2-4 days after initial infection and is followed by primary viremia on postinfection days 4-6. A second round of viral replication occurs in the body's internal organs, most notably the liver and the spleen, followed by a secondary viremia 14-16 days postinfection. This secondary viremia is characterized by diffuse viral invasion of capillary endothelial cells and the epidermis. VZV infection of cells of the malpighian layer produces both intercellular and intracellular edema, resulting in the characteristic vesicle. Image of a human eye clearly showing the blood vessels of the conjuntiva. ... The mucous membranes (or mucosa) are linings of ectodermic origin, covered in epithelium, that line various body cavities and internal organs. ... The Upper respiratory tract refers to the the following parts of the respiratory system: nose and nasal passages paranasal sinuses throat or pharynx Upper respiratory tract infections are among the most common infections in the world. ... Lymph nodes are components of the lymphatic system. ... The liver is the largest internal organ in the human body, and is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ... The spleen is an organ located in the abdomen, where it functions in the destruction of old red blood cells and holding a reservoir of blood. ... Viremia is a condition where viruses enter the bloodstream. ... Blood flows from the heart to arteries, which narrow into arterioles, and then narrow further still into capillaries. ... The endothelium is the layer of thin, flat cells that lines the interior surface of blood vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall. ... Cross-section of all skin layers Optical coherence tomography tomogram of fingertip, depicting stratum corneum (~500µm thick) with stratum disjunctum on top and stratum lucidum (connection to stratum spinosum) in the middle. ... The malpighian layer is a layer in the skin. ... This page is about the condition called edema. ...


Exposure to VZV in a healthy child initiates the production of host immunoglobulin G (IgG), immunoglobulin M (IgM), and immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies; IgG antibodies persist for life and confer immunity. Cell-mediated immune responses are also important in limiting the scope and the duration of primary varicella infection. After primary infection, VZV is hypothesized to spread from mucosal and epidermal lesions to local sensory nerves. VZV then remains latent in the dorsal ganglion cells of the sensory nerves. Reactivation of VZV results in the clinically distinct syndrome of herpes zoster (shingles). Molecular surface of an IgG molecule Immunoglobulin G(IgG) is a monomeric immunoglobulin, built of two heavy chains γ and two light chains. ... IgM (Immunglobulin M) antibody molecule consisting of 5 base units. ... ... Each antibody binds to a specific antigen; an interaction similar to a lock and key. ... Cell-mediated immunity is an immune response that does not involve antibodies but rather involves the activation of macrophages and NK-cells, the production of antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, and the release of various cytokines in response to an antigen. ... The mucous membranes (or mucosa) are linings of ectodermic origin, covered in epithelium, that line various body cavities and internal organs. ... Cross-section of all skin layers Optical coherence tomography tomogram of fingertip, depicting stratum corneum (~500µm thick) with stratum disjunctum on top and stratum lucidum (connection to stratum spinosum) in the middle. ... The mechanism of the reflex arc Sensory neurons (or neurones) are nerve cells within the nervous system responsible for converting external stimuli from the organisms environment into internal electrical impulses. ... This is a dorsal root ganglion (DRG) from a chicken embryo (around stage of day 7) after incubation overnight in NGF growth medium stained with anti-neurofilament antibody. ...


Diagnosis


The diagnosis of varicella is primarily clinical. In a non-immunized individual with typical prodromal symptoms associated with the appropriate appearing rash occurring in "crops", no further investigation would normally be undertaken. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... In medicine, a prodrome is an early symptom indicating the development of a disease, or indicating that a disease attack is imminent. ...


If further investigation is undertaken, confirmation of the diagnosis can be sought through either examination of the fluid within the vesicles, or by testing blood for evidence of an acute immunologic response. Vesicle fluid can be examined with a Tsanck smear, or better with examination for direct fluorescent antibody. The fluid can also be "cultured", whereby attempts are made to grow the virus from a fluid sample. Blood tests can be used to identify a response to acute infection (IgM) or previous infection and subsequent immunity (IgE).[5] Direct fluorescent antibody technique is a laboratory tool. ...


Prenatal diagnosis of foetal varicella infection can be performed using ultrasound, though a delay of 5 weeks following primary maternal infection is advised. A PCR (DNA) test of the mother's amniotic fluid can also be performed, though the risk of spontaneous abortion due to the amniocentesis procedure is higher than the risk of the baby developing foetal varicella syndrome.[4] For other uses, see Ultrasound (disambiguation). ... “PCR” redirects here. ... The amniotic sac is a tough but thin transparent pair of membranes which holds a developing embryo (and later fetus) until shortly before birth. ... Miscarriage is the lay term for the natural or accidental termination of a pregnancy at a stage where the embryo or the fetus is incapable of surviving. ... Amniocentesis (also referred to as amniotic fluid test or AFT), is a medical procedure used in prenatal diagnosis of genetic risk factors, in which a small amount of amniotic fluid, which contains fetal tissues, is extracted from the amnion or amniotic sac surrounding a developing fetus, and the fetal DNA...


Prevention

Main article: Varicella vaccine

A varicella vaccine has been available since 1995 to inoculate against the disease. Some countries require the varicella vaccination or an exemption before entering elementary school. Protection is not lifelong and further vaccination is necessary five years after the initial immunization.[6] The varicella vaccine protects against the disease commonly known as chickenpox. ... The varicella vaccine protects against the disease commonly known as chickenpox. ...


In the United Kingdom, varicella antibodies are measured in women with no history of the disease as part of routine of prenatal care. By 2005 all National Health Service personnel had determined their immunity and been immunized if they were non-immune and have direct patient contact. Population-based immunization against varicella is not otherwise practiced in the UK. It is feared that there would be a greater number of cases of shingles in adults, until the vaccination was given to the entire population—because adults who have had chickenpox as a child are less likely to have shingles in later life if they have been exposed occasionally to the chickenpox virus (for example by their children). This is because the exposure acts as a booster vaccine.[7][8] NHS redirects here. ...


Treatment


There is no evidence to support the effectiveness of topical application of calamine lotion, a topical barrier preparation containing zinc oxide in spite of its wide usage and excellent safety profile.[9] It is important to maintain good hygiene and daily cleaning of skin with warm water to avoid secondary bacterial infection. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Calamine lotion is a zinc-based antipruritic typically used to treat sunburn, eczema, rashes and insect bites and stings. ...


If exposure to varicella in certain 'at risk' populations is confirmed (immunosuppressed individuals, pregnant seronegative women, neonates), anti-varicella zoster immunoglobulin may be given prior to onset of disease symptoms.


Infection in otherwise healthy adults tends to be more severe and active; treatment with antiviral drugs (e.g. acyclovir) is generally advised. Patients of any age with depressed immune systems or extensive eczema are at risk of more severe disease and should also be treated with antiviral medication. In the U.S., 55 percent of chickenpox deaths are in the over-20 age group, even though they are a tiny fraction of the cases. An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... Aciclovir (INN) or aciclovir (USAN), marketed as Zovirax®, is one of the main antiviral drugs. ...


Prognosis

Chickenpox infection is milder in young children, and symptomatic treatment, with a sodium bicarbonate baths or antihistamine medication may ease itching.[10] Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is widely used to reduce fever. Aspirin, or products containing aspirin, must not be given to children with chickenpox (or any fever-causing illness suspected of being of viral origin), as this risks causing the serious and potentially fatal Reye's Syndrome. [11] Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Flash point Non-flammable. ... An H1 antihistamine is a histamine antagonist which serves to reduce or eliminate effects mediated by histamine, an endogenous chemical mediator released during allergic reactions, through action at the H1 receptor. ... Paracetamol (INN) (IPA: ) or acetaminophen (USAN) is a widely-used analgesic and antipyretic. ... This article is about the drug. ... Reyes syndrome is a potentially fatal disease that causes numerous detrimental effects to many organs, especially the brain and liver. ...


In adults, the disease can be more severe, though the incidence is much less common. Infection in adults is associated with greater morbidity and mortality due to pneumonia, hepatitis and encephalitis. In particular, up to 10% of pregnant women with chickenpox develop pneumonia, the severity of which increases with onset later in gestation. In England and Wales, 75% of deaths due to chickenpox are in adults. [4] Inflammation of the brain, or encephalitis, can occur in immunocompromised individuals, although the risk is higher with herpes zoster.[12]Necrotizing fasciitis[13] is also a rare complication. This article is about human pneumonia. ... Hepatitis (plural hepatitides) implies injury to liver characterised by presence of inflammatory cells in the liver tissue. ... Encephalitis is an acute inflammation of the brain, commonly caused by a viral infection. ... Encephalitis is an acute inflammation of the brain, commonly caused by a viral infection. ... Shingles redirects here, for other uses of the term, see Shingle. ... Necrotizing fasciitis or fasciitis necroticans, commonly known as flesh-eating bacteria, is a rare infection of the deeper layers of skin and subcutaneous tissues, easily spreading across the fascial plane within the subcutaneous tissue. ...


Secondary bacterial infection of skin lesions, manifesting as impetigo, cellulitis, and erysipelas, is the most common complication in healthy children. Disseminated primary varicella infection, usually seen in the immunocompromised or adult populations, may have high morbidity. Ninety percent of cases of varicella pneumonia occur in the adult population. Rarer complications of disseminated chickenpox also include myocarditis, hepatitis, and glomerulonephritis. [1]


Hemorrhagic complications are more common in the immunocompromised or immunosuppressed populations, although healthy children and adults have been affected. Five major clinical syndromes have been described: febrile purpura, malignant chickenpox with purpura, postinfectious purpura, purpura fulminans, and anaphylactoid purpura. These syndromes have variable courses, with febrile purpura being the most benign of the syndromes and having an uncomplicated outcome. In contrast, malignant chickenpox with purpura is a grave clinical condition that has a mortality rate of greater than 70%. The etiology of these hemorrhagic chickenpox syndromes is not known. [2]


Epidemiology

Primary varicella is an endemic disease. Cases of varicella are seen throughout the year but, like other viruses spread by the respiratory route eg. measles and rubella, they are seen more commonly in the winter and early spring. This is unlike that for enteroviruses and lends some support to the view that varicella is spread mainly by the respiratory route. Herpes zoster, in contrast, occurs sporadically and evenly throughout the year. Varicella is one of the classic diseases of childhood, with the highest prevalence occurring in the 4 - 10 years old age group. Like rubella, infection is uncommon in preschool children. Varicella is highly communicable, with an attack rate of 90% in close contacts. Most people become infected before adulthood but 10% of young adults remain susceptible. However, this pattern of infection is not universal, eg. in rural India, varicella is predominantly a disease of adults, the mean age of infection being 23.4 years. It was suggested that this could be due to interference by other respiratory viruses that the children are exposed to at an early age.[14]


Historically, varicella has been a disease predominantly affecting preschool and school-aged children. Although mostly noted in preschool and primary levels, the said disease has also been noticed among adults, with the pocks being darker and the scars more prominent than their younger counterparts.[14]


History

One history of medicine book credits Giovanni Filippo (15101580) of Palermo with the first description of varicella (chickenpox). Subsequently in the 1600s, an English physician named Richard Morton described what he thought a mild form of smallpox as "chicken pox." Later, in 1767, a physician named William Heberden, also from England, was the first physician to clearly demonstrate that chickenpox was different from smallpox. However, it is believed the name chickenpox was commonly used in earlier centuries before doctors identified the disease. Giovanni Filippo (1510-1580) is believed to be first to describe Varicella, commonly known as chicken pox. ... Year 1510 (MDX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Events March 1 - Michel de Montaigne signs the preface to his most significant work, Essays. ... Location of the city of Palermo (red dot) within Italy. ... Many inventions and institutions are created, including Hans Lippershey with the telescope (1608, used by Galileo the next year), the newspaper Avisa Relation oder Zeitung in Augsburg, and Cornelius Drebbel with the thermostat (1609). ... “UK” redirects here. ... Richard Morton (1637-1698) was an English physician who was the first to state that tubercles were always present in the tuberculosis disease of the lungs. ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a contagious disease unique to humans. ... Year 1767 (MDCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... William Heberden (1710 – May 17, 1801), English physician, was born in London. ...


There are many explanations offered for the origin of the name chickenpox:

  • Samuel Johnson suggested that the disease was "less dangerous", thus a "chicken" version of the pox;
  • the specks that appear looked as though the skin was pecked by chickens;
  • the disease was named after chick peas, from a supposed similarity in size of the seed to the lesions;
  • the term reflects a corruption of the Old English word giccin, which meant itching.

As "pox" also means curse, in medieval times some believed it was a plague brought on to curse children by the use of black magic. For other persons named Samuel Johnson, see Samuel Johnson (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Cicer arietinum L. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ...


From ancient times, neem has been used by Indians to alleviate the external symptoms of itching and to minimise scarring. Neem baths (neem leaves and a dash of turmeric powder in water) are commonly given for the duration. Neem branches are hung at the entrance of households to announce that illness to visitors. Neem branches are kept handy by the affected person to gently brush the skin, to soothe the itching sensation. Neem (Azadirachta indica, syn. ... Binomial name Linnaeus Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family, Zingiberaceae which is native to tropical South Asia. ...


During the medieval era, oatmeal was discovered to soothe the sores, and oatmeal baths are today still commonly given to relieve itching. In the United States and Canada, oatmeal means any crushed oats, rolled oats, or cut oats used in recipes such as oatmeal cookies. ...


See also

  • Chickenpox party

Further reading

Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

References

  1. ^ New Zealand Dermatological Society (14 Jan 2006). Chickenpox (varicella). Retrieved on 2006-08-18.
  2. ^ General questions about the disease. Varicella Disease (Chickenpox). CDCP (December 2 2001). Retrieved on 2006-08-18.
  3. ^ Heather Brannon (December 25, 2005). Chicken Pox - Varicella Virus Infection. Retrieved on 2006-08-18.
  4. ^ a b c Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (September 2007). Chickenpox in Pregnancy. Retrieved on 2008-04-12.
  5. ^ McPherson & Pincus: Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods, 21st ed., 2007, Chapter 54.
  6. ^ Chaves SS, Gargiullo P, Zhang JX, et al. (2007). "Loss of vaccine-induced immunity to varicella over time". N Engl J Med 356 (11): 1121–9. PMID 17360990. 
  7. ^ NHS Direct: Why isn’t the chickenpox vaccine available in the UK?
  8. ^ UK Health Protection Agency (Prevention section)
  9. ^ Tebruegge M, Kuruvilla M, Margarson I (2006). "Does the use of calamine or antihistamine provide symptomatic relief from pruritus in children with varicella zoster infection?". Arch. Dis. Child. 91 (12): 1035-6. doi:10.1136/adc.2006.105114. PMID 17119083. 
  10. ^ Somekh E, Dalal I, Shohat T, Ginsberg GM, Romano O (2002). "The burden of uncomplicated cases of chickenpox in Israel". J. Infect. 45 (1): 54-7. PMID 12217733. 
  11. ^ US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Varicella Treatment Questions & Answers. CDC Guidelines. CDC. Retrieved on 2007-08-23.
  12. ^ Definition of Chickenpox. MedicineNet.com. Retrieved on 2006-08-18.
  13. ^ Is Necrotizing Fasciitis a complication of Chickenpox of Cutaneous Vasculitis?. atmedstu.com. Retrieved on 2008-01-18.
  14. ^ a b Epidemiology of Varicella Zoster Virus Infection, Epidemiology of VZV Infection, Epidemiology of Chicken Pox, Epidemiology of Shingles. Retrieved on 2008-04-22.

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... {| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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Red areas show the distribution of Japanese Enecphalitis in Asia 1970-1998 Japanese encephalitis (Japanese: 日本脳炎, Nihon-nōen; previously known as Japanese B encephalitis to distinguish it from von Economos A encephalitis) is a disease caused by the mosquito-borne Japanese encephalitis virus. ... St. ... Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) is a flavivirus endemic to northern Australia and Papua New Guinea. ... Ross River virus (RRV) is an arbovirus of the genus Alphavirus. ... Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a widespread tick-borne viral disease, a zoonosis of domestic animals and wild animals, that may affect humans. ... Omsk hemorrhagic fever is a viral hemorrhagic fever caused by a Flavivirus. ... Kyasanur forest disease is a tick-borne viral hemorrhagic fever endemic to South Asia. ... Alkhurma virus is a member of the Flaviviridae virus family (class IV) so has a positive sense single stranded RNA genome and the virus will replicate in the cytoplasm of the infected host cell. ... The Powassan virus is a tick-borne encephalitis virus related to the classic TBE flavivirus. ... Zoonosis is any infectious disease that can be transmitted from animals, both wild and domestic, to humans. ... In epidemiology, a vector is an organism that does not cause disease itself but which spreads infection by conveying pathogens from one host to another. ... Menangle virus is a virus that infects pigs, humans and bats. ... Species Hendravirus Nipahvirus Henipavirus is a genus of the family Paramyxoviridae, order Mononegavirales containing two members, Hendravirus and Nipahvirus. ... Borna disease is an infectious neurological syndrome of warm-blooded animals, which causes abnormal behaviour and fatality. ... Lassa fever is an acute viral hemorrhagic fever first described in 1969 in the Nigerian town of Lassa in the Yedseram River valley. ... Species Guanarito virus Venezualan hemorrhagic fever (VHF) is a zoonotic human illness, first identified in 1989, causing fever and malaise followed by hemorrhagic manifestations and convulsions. ... Species Junín virus Argentine hemorrhagic fever, known locally as mal de los rastrojos, is a hemorrhagic fever and zoonotic infectious disease occurring in Argentina. ... Species Machupo virus Bolivian hemorrhagic fever (BHF), also known as black typhus or Machupo virus, is a hemorrhagic fever and zoonotic infectious disease occurring in Bolivia. ... Puumala virus is a species of hantavirus, and causes nephropathia epidemica. ... Andes virus (ANDV) is a hantavirus, which, in South America, is the major causative agent of Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome (HCPS or HPS). ... The Sin Nombre virus (Spanish for virus without name) (SNV) is the prototypical etiologic agent of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS). ... Species Andes virus (ANDV) Bayou virus (BAYV) Black Creek Canal virus (BCCV) Cano Delgadito virus (CADV) Choclo virus (CHOV) Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) Hantaan virus (HTNV) Isla Vista virus (ISLAV) Khabarovsk virus (KHAV) Laguna Negra virus (LANV) Muleshoe virus (MULV) New York virus (NYV) Prospect Hill virus (PHV) Puumala virus... Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) is a zoonotic virus closely related to rabies virus. ... For other uses, see Ebola (disambiguation). ... The Marburg virus is the causative agent of Marburg hemorrhagic fever. ... Mokola virus is one of four members of the lyssavirus genome found in Africa, the others being Duvenhage virus, Lagos bat virus and classical rabies virus. ... Duvenhage virus is a member of the lyssavirus genus which also contains rabies virus. ... This article is about the organ. ... The mucous membranes (or mucosae; singular: mucosa) are linings of mostly endodermal origin, covered in epithelium, and are involved in absorption and secretion. ... Skin lesions caused by Chickenpox A lesion is any abnormal tissue found on or in an organism, usually damaged by disease or trauma. ... This article is about the disease. ... Shingles redirects here, for other uses of the term, see Shingle. ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a contagious disease unique to humans. ... (Cricetomys sp. ... This page is for the disease. ... Cowpox is a disease of the skin caused by a virus (Cowpox virus) that is related to the Vaccinia virus. ... Vaccinia virus (VACV or VV) is a large, complex enveloped virus belonging to the poxvirus family of viruses. ... Molluscum contagiosum (MC) is a viral infection of the skin or occasionally of the mucous membranes. ... species Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) Human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) Exanthem subitum (meaning sudden rash), also referred to as roseola infantum (or rose rash of infants), sixth disease and (confusingly) baby measles, or three day fever, is a benign disease of children, generally under two years old, whose manifestations... Fifth disease is also referred to as erythema infectiosum (meaning infectious redness) and as slapped cheek syndrome, slap face or slapped face. ... Not to be confused with Foot-and-mouth disease. ... Not to be confused with hand, foot and mouth disease. ... Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the eighth human herpesvirus; its formal name according to the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses is HHV-8. ... For the Nintendo character, see Wart (Nintendo). ... Hepatitis (plural hepatitides) implies injury to liver characterised by presence of inflammatory cells in the liver tissue. ... Species Hepatitis A virus Hepatitis A (formerly known as infectious hepatitis) is an acute infectious disease of the liver caused by the hepatovirus hepatitis A virus. ... “HBV” redirects here. ... This page is for the disease. ... Hepatitis D is a disease caused by a small circular RNA virus (Hepatitis delta virus); this virus is replication defective and therefore cannot propagate in the absence of another virus. ... Hepatitis E is an acute viral hepatitis (liver inflammation) caused by infection with a virus called hepatitis E virus (HEV). ... Hepatitis G and GB virus C (GBV-C) are RNA viruses that were independently identified in 1995, and were subsequently found to be two isolates of the same virus. ... Among quadrupeds, the respiratory system generally includes tubes, such as the bronchi, used to carry air to the lungs, where gas exchange takes place. ... For the H5N1 subtype of Avian influenza see H5N1. ... Acute viral nasopharyngitis, or acute coryza, usually known as the common cold, is a highly contagious, viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory system, primarily caused by picornaviruses or coronaviruses. ... Flu redirects here. ... SARS redirects here. ... Viral pneumonia is an inflammation of the lung caused by a virus. ... Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are a group of four distinct serotypes of single-stranded RNA viruses belonging to the paramyxovirus family. ... Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a negative sense, single-stranded RNA virus of the family Paramyxoviridae, which includes common respiratory viruses such as those causing measles and mumps. ... Species Turkey rhinotracheitis virus Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) was isolated for the first time in 2001 in the Netherlands by using the RAP-PCR technique for identification of unknown viruses growing in cultured cells. ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... AIDS dementia complex (ADC; also known as HIV dementia, HIV encephalopathy and HIV-associated dementia) has become a common neurological disorder associated with HIV infection and AIDS. It is is a metabolic encephalopathy induced by HIV infection and fueled by immune activation of brain macrophages and microglia. ... HPV redirects here. ... Genital warts (or Condyloma, Condylomata acuminata, or venereal warts) is a highly contagious sexually transmitted infection caused by some sub-types of human papillomavirus (HPV). ... Cervical cancer is a malignant cancer of the cervix. ... Human T cell leukemia/lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is believed to be the cause of several diseases, including adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), a rare cancer of the immune systems own T-cells. ... See also Bacterial gastroenteritis and Diarrhea Gastroenteritis is a general term referring to inflammation or infection of the gastrointestinal tract, primarily the stomach and intestines. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Norovirus, an RNA virus of the Caliciviridae taxonomic family, causes approximately 90% of epidemic non-bacterial outbreaks of gastroenteritis around the world,[1][2] and is responsible for 50% of all foodborne outbreaks of gastroenteritis in the US.[3] Norovirus affects people of all ages. ... Astroviruses that infect humans have been poorly studied due to the fact that they do not grow in culture. ... Coronavirus is a genus of animal virus belonging to the family Coronaviridae. ... Genera Mastadenovirus Aviadenovirus Atadenovirus Siadenovirus Adenoviruses are viruses of the family Adenoviridae. ... Human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) is a human, single-stranded RNA retrovirus that causes T-cell leukemia and T-cell lymphoma in adults and may also be involved in certain demyelinating diseases, including tropical spastic paraparesis. ... Leukemia or leukaemia (Greek leukos λευκός, white; aima αίμα, blood) is a cancer of the blood or bone marrow and is characterized by an abnormal proliferation (production by multiplication) of blood cells, usually white blood cells (leukocytes). ... Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is a virus in the family Rhabdoviridae, order Mononegavirales. ... An oncolytic virus is a virus used to treat cancer due to their ability to specifically infect cancer cells, while leaving normal cells unharmed. ... Species see text Cytomegalovirus (CMV) (from the Greek cyto-, cell, and -mega-, large) is a viral genus of the Herpesviruses group: in humans it is commonly known as human herpesvirus 5 (HHV-5). ... Bornholm disease or pleurodynia is a disease caused by the Coxsackie virus. ... Shingles redirects here, for other uses of the term, see Shingle. ... Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a painful condition caused by the varicella zoster virus in a dermatomal distribution (the area governed by a particular sensory nerve) after an attack of herpes zoster (HZ) (commonly known as shingles), usually manifesting after the vesicles have crusted over and begun to heal. ... Species Human herpesvirus 3 (HHV-3) The Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is one of the eight herpes viruses known to affect humans (and other vertebrates). ... The varicella vaccine protects against the disease commonly known as chickenpox. ... Zostavax is a vaccine developed by Merck & Co. ... A pox party is a normal party for children organised by parents whose kids have the chicken pox. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Chickenpox (623 words)
Chickenpox (varicella) is a highly contagious disease caused by the varicella zoster virus, a member of the herpesvirus family.
Chickenpox is transmitted to others by direct person-to-person contact, by droplet or airborne spread of discharges from an infected person's nose and throat or indirectly through articles freshly soiled by discharges from the infected person's lesions.
Yes, a chickenpox vaccine was licensed in the U.S. in 1995 and is recommended for children 12 to 18 months of age and older children who have not had chickenpox.
Chickenpox (varicella zoster) : Bureau of Communicable Disease : NYC DOHMH (567 words)
Chickenpox is a highly contagious disease caused by the varicella virus, a member of the herpes virus family.
Chickenpox is transmitted to others by direct person-to-person contact, by droplet or airborne spread of discharges from an infected person's nose and throat, or indirectly through articles freshly soiled by discharges from an infected person's lesions.
However, because chickenpox tends to be mild in healthy children, most physicians do not feel that it is necessary to prescribe acyclovir.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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